The child is uniquely retentive in his or her capacity. It is the duty of the educator to create such favorable conditions for learning, and expanding the child's capacity for abstract thinking, while still respecting the child's self-directed role in the process. The child must be treated like an integrated being, and attention must be paid to the child's developing body and sensory perceptions, as well as to the more conventional aspects of academic learning (Montessori, 1995, p. 136).
The third phase of adolescence is often a turbulent phase because of its transitional nature. It spans from ages twelve to eighteen. The adolescent demands personal independence and control over his or her education. This quest must be respected by the educator. Positive gestures towards autonomy should be supported, rather than thwarted, so the individual can successfully enter the fourth phase, that of maturity, which involves spiritual and personal self-awareness and…… [Read More]
Similarly, Maria Montessori's life provides key lessons for educators and for other individuals confronted with large systems that they can see to be clearly broken. Montessori managed to overcome the general gender discrimination typical of her time, and more than that she managed to challenge and the preconceived and largely entrenched patriarchal notions of education as an exercise in control, replacing them with her own theories based solely on the fact that they worked so indisputably well (a fact that has failed to bring many theories and projects to light). In this manner, she is a direct inspiration to educators and others working to fix a flawed system, or at least to mitigate its damage.
It is difficult to determine the extent of Montessori's impact on the overall practice of education, as she was not the only force working towards the liberalization of educational practices in the first half of…… [Read More]
Maria Montessori and the Process of Maturation
Maria Montessori has had a dramatic effect on the methods of education. She was an insightful teacher who was had the courage to challenge traditionally held views of education at the beginning of the modern era. Maria Montessori brought vitality and insight into the classroom where children were routinely thought of empty vessels to be filled with information given to them by adults. She did not agree with this point-of-view but instead believed that children were filled with a "vital force" waiting to unfold the child's personality, potential, and independence. ith this point-of-view, children were seen as captivating individuals with original ideas and the ability to participate in his or her education. This insight into the way children learn is the topic of this paper and can be illustrated by this statement:
"The child's conquest of independence begins with his first introduction to…… [Read More]
Working with both the poor and the disabled, Dr. Montessori further developed her ideas of a system under which all children can develop at their own pace and, again, to fully develop to their own potential. She instituted a study of Cosmic Education, or the "gradual discovery, throughout the whole of childhood, of the interrelatedness of all things on earth, in the past, present, and in the future" (Stephenson, 1998, p. 2). She contended that through Cosmic Education, the needs of the individual child would be met and would lead, in turn, to the needs of the greater world being met. In attempts to further these ideas, Dr. Montessori incorporated methods now considered key to the overall Montessori Method. These include: grouping children by periods of development, usually in three-year age spans; applying methods based on human tendencies, like tendencies to move, share, explore, and abstract ideas from experience; and…… [Read More]
Moreover, the Montessori method seems to be rediscovering its roots as a universal method of instruction. Montessori education has become "popular with some black professionals and are getting results in low-income public schools with the kind of children on which Montessori first tested her ideas," (Matthews 2007). Just as Maria Montessori practiced her pedagogy with the poorest children of ome, modern Montessori educators are noticing "long-term success in several local public schools that attract low-income students," (Matthews 2007). The Montessori method is used at thousands of private schools across the country, and now up to 300 public schools are classified as Montessori (Matthews 2007). Incorporating Montessori's methods with those of mainstream public education allows the ideals of social change and social justice to permeate an ailing educational system.
American Montessori Society (nd). The history of the Montessori movement. etrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.amshq.org/montessori_history.htm
Flaherty, T. (nd). Maria Montessori…… [Read More]
Another keynote of the Montessori method is the de-centering of the teacher (Smith). The teacher's role was more of an observer and monitor than an instructor. Therefore, the Montessori is a quintessentially student-centric pedagogical method. The child determines what and how to learn, and the teacher observes, monitors, and facilitates.
Having gained respect among the medical community and having spoken at more than one women's conference, Montessori's methods drew considerable international attention. Montessori published The Montessori Method in 1912. In 1913, Alexander Graham Bell from the United States founded the Montessori Educational Association based on her methods. Montessori was invited to speak at Carnegie Hall in 1915, and also lectured in San Francisco. In 1929, Maria Montessori founded the Association Montessori International in the Netherlands and in 1947 also established a school in London. During Mussolini's reign in Italy, Montessori refused to turn her schools into training centers that would…… [Read More]
Dr. Maria Montessori
"We cannot know the consequences of suppressing a child's spontaneity when he is just beginning to be active. We may even suffocate life itself. That humanity which is revealed in its entire intellectual splendor during the sweet and tender age of childhood should be respected with a kind of religious veneration. It is like the Sun which appears at dawn one flower just beginning to bloom. Education cannot be effective unless it helps a child to open up himself to life."
Dr. Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori was an Italian doctor who worked among the socially and intellectually handicapped children in ome at the start of 20th century (Kramer 1988, p.1-418). From close observation of the children in her Children's House (the name she gave to her nursery schools), she concluded that children pass through sensitive periods of development when certain skills and competencies are learned more easily.…… [Read More]
Dr. Montessori did, however, work to ensure that her method would continue on by establishing training centers designed to pass her philosophies on from generation to generation. Interestingly, in the only country that allowed her to expand her methods to older children, are the only training centers that train elementary school teachers. An online article by Prachi Nayak reports, "Currently Indian Montessori schools cater to children only till the age of six. But to train teachers at a higher level, the elementary level 6-12 AMI [Association Montessori Internationale] teacher training course is now made available at Navdisha in Chennai. To train more teachers at this level, the IMF [India Montessori Foundation] will help in starting more training centres for the AMI 6-12 years course."
India was also the place where Dr. Montessori conceived her "Education for Peace" initiative. Montessori believed that in order to achieve peace, it must be taught…… [Read More]
The Secret of Childhood
In her 1936 book, “The Secret of Childhood”, Maria Montessori details the results, conclusions, and opinions she had reached after several years of investigating children’s conduct. Maria’s view of children is holistic and considers the body, mind, and soul. The book details her findings in three major parts or categories and several subcategories divided into chapters.
The first category of the book discusses the concept of the spiritual embryo. According to Maria Montessori, it is more natural for the world to adjust itself to the needs of children than for children to adapt themselves to the world. The first subcategory looks at the fascinating reality today where child psychology is dominant in almost all disciplines of medicine and philosophy. The second subcategory expounds on the concept of spiritual embryo and notes that life begins at conception. In the third subcategory, the book explores the idea that…… [Read More]
Montessori & High Scope
In order for students understand the contemporary curriculum, it is important that they be able to connect it to themselves in a meaningful way. This is particularly true in the modern classroom that is more diverse than ever before. Connection involves drawing on prior knowledge and experience in order to relate to the text. In this way, the students become participants in the story and are apt to be engaged in the reading process. There are a number of approaches to early-childhood education that range in nature and focus. The HighScope program was developed using the work of both John Dewey and Jean Piaget, as well as the constructivist approach to classroom learning from educational philosopher Lev. Vygotsky. The basic presumption is taking the child's development at present and helping them build upon it continually, pushing the "zone of development" up through a series of steps…… [Read More]
educational theory by comparing and contrasting two authors of education theory with the Montessori method of teaching. The writer explores all three ideas and discusses their similarities. The writer used four sources to complete this paper.
Since the advent of the educational system there have been many changes throughout the years. As the world evolves and matures and technology advances the world discovers more things that it wants its students taught. In addition there are many different ways to teach and the system has gone from whole language to back to basics and back again. Several forward thinking theorists have developed education theories in which they discuss what they believe to be the most sound foundation for teaching that is available. In John Dewey's Experience and Education and Curriculum and Aims by Decker F. Walker, and Jonas F. Soltis both suggest and develop critiques on education systems that have been…… [Read More]
American education has evolved considerably since the late 19th century. One of the first philosophers to influence the character of modern American education was John Dewey. Dewey was a progressive, and believed that children should not just sit in classrooms passively memorizing material. Instead, students should learn via experience and interaction with their environments. Dewey's humanistic approach to education revolutionized the ways people thought about schooling and pedagogy. A timeline of American education begins with Dewey, because he was the person to first codify the structure and philosophy of education, and then offer the methods and means to implement those ideas. Dewey is known as a "pragmatist" because of his ability to fuse philosophy and practice, and had "the most significant contribution to the development of educational thinking in the twentieth century," (Smith, 2001).
Maria Montessori was the first female to become a doctor in Italy. Working closely with…… [Read More]
This cultural enrichment would provide nutritional information all the children could use when with their families or in their neighborhoods.
constructionist teacher will find examples of careful and systematic thinking about how children learn that can guide him or her in the classroom. Piaget and Vygotsky (Gredler, 2002) give us solid examples of what children are ready for and at what ages they are most likely to benefit from specific kinds of instruction. Piaget's theories help the constructionist teacher be aware that although children think about what they're doing, they go through cognitive developmental stages. Respecting the types of cognitive thinking a child is likely to use at a given age is another way to teach the child respectfully -- by neither teaching below their abilities or by demanding that they perform as little adults.
Maria Montessori might serve as an excellent role model for such a teacher. Montessori looked…… [Read More]
Teacher Assistance equired and Classroom Administration.
The teacher assistance to be provided would follow the guidance provided by Maria Montessori. According to Elliott, Gettinger and Kratochwill (1992), "Like Froebel, Montessori implemented an early education curriculum that was founded on a developmental theory, employed play as the instructional method, and sequentially introduced developmentally appropriate materials designed to facilitate sensory and cognitive skills" (p. 8). This technique is clearly appropriate for a preschool environment where there will likely be a highly diverse group of children at various developmental stages. In the Montessori-guided classroom, though, a careful balance must be made between helping young children too little and helping them too much. For instance, according to Wentworth (1999), "Helping children too much, or providing them with ready answers to problems, is a negative factor because it prevents the child from using its own resources for knowledge acquisition, and deprives the child of the…… [Read More]
If one applies ChapStick only on occasion (and not relentlessly) then there is no reason to suspect that you are hooked.
Constant application, on the other hand, can easily lead to dependency and ruined lips, as InsidersHealth.com states: "The lower layers of our skin produce fresh new skin cells, which then die and can dry out by the time they reach the top layer. If you put ChapStick on the dry skin it can interfere with the signaling mechanism that gets your lower cells to start producing more moisture. So while that balm might feel great when you slather it on, it will wear off and leave your skin feeling dry again."
This is the "vicious cycle" that Crossman quotes Dr. Phillips as referring to. It is also the message that Dr. Perricone speaks of, when he warns that lip balm can be bad for lips.
The solution…… [Read More]
A strongly disciplined person is one who demonstrates that he can control himself. Discipline is always goal-oriented, therefore we understand that having the capacity to be extremely disciplined denotes the existence of a strong will oriented towards a specific purpose. The Montessori Method aims to teach the child how to move (dynamism) and the scene for which he is prepared is not school, but life itself. The discipline that he is stimulated to learn is therefore one which applies to the overall social environment.
In order to make sure that the child will grow up disciplined and with respect for the others and the social environment, he must be taught the difference between good and evil. In addition, Montessori stresses that the teacher must make sure "the child does not confound good with immobility and evil with activity, as often happens in the case of the old-time discipline. And all…… [Read More]
Professional Interview Analysis
This is in an interview of a lead teacher with extensive experience in public relation, administration and educating. She oversees the formulation and implementation of standards and policies in her school. Since she works in management, per of her job is ensuring that educators working in the school are sufficiently motivated to work. This interview gives a glimpse of all it takes to run a school. It gives insights into the challenges educators might face as they seek to impart knowledge on their students. It presented a great opportunity to also learn about the necessary qualities a lead educator needs to adopt to ensure that the institution they work in is a success.
The lead teacher, Gladys -- not her real name, is a very accomplished professional. She has extensive experience in education, school systems and student issues. She holds a bachelor's degree in education and has…… [Read More]
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]
" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.
Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.
In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…… [Read More]
organization chose research. 2.Examine culture selected organization. 3.Explain determined selected organization showed signs culture identified.
Google is by no means conventional and has proven so in numerous occasions. Starting with its first tweet back in 2009, which was a cryptic binary message that translates into "I'm feeling lucky" to the employment of goats to "mow" the lawn at its headquarters in Mountain View, California, and providing daily, free gourmet meals to its employees, Google's approach has been anything but conventional. Despite having gone public over ten years ago, a direction which span concern in regards to the company's ability to maintain its identity and core values in a corporate culture, Google has managed to stay true to its founding philosophy that Page and rin started out with in 1998 when the company made its official appearance.
Google is said to be a culture of success effected by its management system.…… [Read More]
The school incorporates a lot of natural light and has all updated materials in excellent condition. The Lea school is about 30 years old and, like many Philadelphia public schools, lacks adequate facility funding. Many of the materials and building are outdated and deteriorating.
Students at Penn Alex were significantly more positive than students at Lea regarding their school and rated wall color, variety of wall color, amount of lighting, amount of art work on display, personally having art work on display, overall appearance of the school, peers opinion of overall appearance, and elements that should be changed all higher. In addition, Penn Alex students had more positive attitudes including proud to show visitors, school makes them feel good, school appearance is not distracting, adults care about how the school looks, appearance is fine the way it is, and feelings of responsibility for taking care of the school. Students at…… [Read More]
Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a Time-Sensitive Closed Therapeutic Group for Preschool Aged Children Allegedly Sexually Abused
This paper will review existing research on allegedly sexually abused preschool aged children. The traumatic psychological effects of the abuse including low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, behavior problems, cognitive functioning and physical/mental health will also be evaluated.
The author notes the paucity of available material on sexually abused children. Very little therefore is known of the effectiveness of psychotherapy to assist in the treatment of the problems of this particular group of abused children - a population of 40 selected children with a mean age of 45, with their parents (either father or mother) and/or caregivers attending sessions in another session hall at the same time the children are undergoing therapy.
This proposed study will therefore focus on how mental health services are provided to preschool children with ages ranging between 4…… [Read More]
As a profession, muckraking has gained a bad reputation ever since President Teddy Roosevelt compared certain journalists to the obsessive lad in the Pilgrim's Progress. In this 1906 speech, Roosevelt likened many journalists of his day to the man who stood in ooze, holding his garden tool and with his eyes fixed downward (Kiee 2001).
However, the "muckraking" techniques of these journalists have shined the light on many issues and practices that need to be addressed.
These exposes regarding corruption and unjust practices have led to public outcry and have spurred social change. After all, the reverse view would paint muckraking as a profession as a research and revelatory-based process that challenges the status quo. One person's muckraker is then another person's crusading journalist.
This paper looks at historic and modern examples of how muckraking has spurred important social changes in American history. The later part of the paper…… [Read More]
Vision of Student Learning
The vision of Paterson Public Schools is “to be the leader in educating New Jersey’s urban youth” (Paterson, 2017). My vision of student learning is aligned with the school’s vision in the sense that my goal is to help my students be the leaders of their communities, classrooms, schools, and workplaces when they grow up. Part of this leadership must come from character education, which Lickona (1993) and Kristjansson (2014) note is of particular importance in today’s schools. Part of what helps to inform character education is the focus on self-directed learning, which was advocated by Maria Montessori through the Montessori Method (Mangal, 2007). One of the best ways to promote self-directed learning and thereby facilitate character education and achieve the vision of the school is to use computer-assisted instruction as a teaching approach (Hsieh, 2017).
The process needed to implement and promote my vision required…… [Read More]
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…… [Read More]
Early Education Shows No enefit (HSLDA 2007)
This article argues for the viewpoint that Head-Start-type early education is not only non-productive, but can actually lead to detriments to children's development as they enter formal school. The article begins by citing the results of a recent study of 35,000 students by Durham University, which found that there was no benefit to pre-school education programs for children. The article points to a series of earlier studies, reaching back to the 1960's, which demonstrate that there are no lasting benefits: it is clear from these studies that summer pre-school programs show no short-term or long-term gains, while all-year pre-schools offer some advantages only in the first year or two of formal schooling. The article also argues that children who go to pre-schools too young suffer from being away from their parents, and may have behavioral difficulties later. One could expect that those who…… [Read More]
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]
Seguin moved to the United States in 1848 and established a number of schools in various cities for the education of mentally handicapped children. His publication, "The Treatment, Hygiene and Education of Idiots and Other Backward Children," is a landmark textbook dealing with the special needs of children with mental disabilities. Maria Montessori, an Italian pediatrician built on Seguin's work in the early 1900's and her work on the education of the mentally disabled became integrated into many schools around the world (Hallahan & Mercer, 2001).
Special education in the United States remained marginalized until the early to mid-1900's. Samuel Orton, Marion Monroe and Samuel Kirk were especially instrumental in the development of special education during this time (Hallahan & Mercer, 2001). Orton worked extensively to develop ways of teaching reading to children with reading disabilities. He developed the Orton-Gillingham method for reading education, which consistently proved to increase the…… [Read More]
Many fellow psychoanalysts, mostly men who were several years her senior, courted her, the most notable of whom was Ernest Jones, the British analyst who is best remembered for being Sigmund Freud's biographer. The budding romance between the nineteen-year-old Anna and Jones was, however, nipped in the bud by Freud's suspicions and hostility toward Jones' interest in his daughter. (Gardner and Stevens, 1992)
Her Major Contribution
Anna Freud's contribution in the fields of 20th century psychiatry and psychoanalysis is second, perhaps, only to that of her father. Her genial nature apart from the quality of her work made her popular among her colleagues despite her professional differences with psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein. (Fine 1992)
Anna Freud started her writings by translating her father's works into English and helped him to articulate his current works. She, however, had too much intellect to remain under her illustrious father's shadow all her…… [Read More]
The author of this report is asked to answer three general questions about intelligence. The first question asks for the general underpinnings and genesis of the discussions about intelligence including what was suggested by Binet as well as the general definition and formulations of the intelligence quotient, or IQ. The second question and discussion is about the challenges to the definition of intelligence as offered and suggested by Gardner, Spearman and others. Finally, there is to be an evaluation of which definitions could or should be use as the basis for intelligence testing.
Binet was indeed one of the pioneers of the intelligence and intelligence-measuring field. His contributions to the early discussions of intelligence are mentioned in the work of Cicciola et al. (2014). Cicciola talks about the genesis of the intelligence quotient instrument and the general concept of intelligence. He notes that the names involved in that…… [Read More]
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…… [Read More]
teacher teach before burning out or becoming stale?
This paper looks at the ideas of whether teachers should be made to go back into learning to gain a new license after a period of time, also looking at how their time can be best used with initiating new forms and methods into the classroom.
How long can a teacher teach before he becomes stale?
Every school system has a philosophy behind it, these are based on the views and values of those who are in position to educate, along with the society that is the main sponsor of the education. (Freire, 1998).
The philosophy begins with the view of reality and definitions of truth and goodness. There are five basic philosophies of education:
Perennialism is a very conservative and inflexible philosophy of education, based on the view that reality comes from fundamentally fixed truths-especially those relating to God. With a…… [Read More]