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Chincarini's analysis of the Amaranth collapse contains five key lessons for portfolio managers and regulators with respect to managing market risk. Of the ones applicable to firms, the first is that liquidity risk must be accounted for. Liquidity risk in Amaranth's case compounded an already-bad situation. The second recommendation is that liquidity risk measures should be developed that are common -- the way that Va is common -- so that communication of liquidity risk is consistent throughout the firm and throughout the industry.
The third is that internal risk management practices must be upheld. The best strategies for managing market risk are irrelevant if the firm is not in a position to implement them. In the case of Amaranth, the energy traders were in Calgary while the risk managers were in New York. This made it more difficult to control the firm's exposure in the natural gas futures…… [Read More]
Part of the overall calculation of uncertainty according to iskMetrics recommendations, however, should include a calculation of correlative uncertainty (Finger 2007). The rationale for including this specific uncertainty in calculations is that it helps to account for inaccuracies and inadequacies in the model, determining the level of risk associated with incorrectly defined or changing correlations used by the model in other calculations and definitions (Finger 2007). An accurate calculation of uncertainty and risk will necessarily include a calculation of the correlative uncertainties attendant upon the model and the situation to which it is applied, providing not a necessarily more accurate view of direct risk, but a useful evaluation of the risk prediction's efficacy.
iskMetrics Calculations: Exposure and Uncertainty
An accurate and well-developed combined understanding of the exposure and uncertainty of a various investment venture or portfolio contributes a nearly complete understanding and assessment of the risks presented by that investment…… [Read More]
The major difference between standard deviation and the beta is that the former measures the volatility against the asset's own mean, whereas beta measures the asset's volatility against the market. Standard deviation, therefore, allows the user to understand the asset's specific risk on its own, and can use this information to compare returns against historical average returns. This is valuable because the risk profile of an investment can be significantly different than that of the market, so the returns will be expected to be significantly different as well.
Standard deviation can also be used to measure against other means, for example against historic market returns. However, the beta coefficient is more effective as a measure against the market. Standard deviation and beta are both often used as measures on their own, without any model, because they communication the information clearly. In the capital asset pricing model, for example, the systematic…… [Read More]
. Research Design Rationale
1. Question format: In order to allow the research study to become embedded in the field of economics, the research question will use an applied question format. The purpose of the study is to develop a predictive method regarding player choices in the Prisoner's dilemma. It will explore the association of risk and cooperation or defection in the Prisoner's
2. Research design: The research will use a deductive approach where the theory will be presented and tested through the methodology. The research will use quantitative research methods, which are suited for research where the information can be reduced to a numerical format. This is the case in the proposed study as both risk tolerance and the decisions made in the Prisoner's Dilemma can be reduced to numerical data and standard statistical methods applied.
III. Data/Information from Previous research
A. Literature Review
The literature review for…… [Read More]
risk and return for an investment portfolio that includes five asset categories: stocks, bonds, mutual funds, options, and precious metals. The purpose of diversified portfolio investment is to maximize portfolio expected return for a given level of risk, or to minimize risk for a specific level of expected return. This paper reviews mathematical formulae for modeling risk and return which provide a rationale for investment strategies and portfolio management. The paper also discusses risk and return objectives and expectations, along with investment risk profiles.
Risk vs. Return Measurement
In an ideal world, the typical investor would select investments whose attributes include high returns coupled with low risk. In reality, there are few of these kinds of investments available, consequently financial managers have gone to great lengths to develop methods and strategies that allow them to come as close as possible to selecting the ideal investment. One such financial theory for…… [Read More]
isk Analysis Financial Markets Main Techniques isk Analysis
isk analysis in the financial markets
This essay mainly intends to outline and explain the objective of risk analysis in the financial market and the main techniques used in risk analysis. In a bid to answer this question the study will first of all include a summation of the types of risks that are found in the financial markets. The financial market here has been classified into three groups that are; the stock market where company stock and shares are traded, the bond market where the Australian government usually sell its' treasury bills and bonds and lastly the international financial market.
Different risk analysis technique will spelt out in the two markets and then the objectives of risk analysis will then be mentioned before the essay concludes.
Types of risk in the financial markets
In his studies Jensen (2009) noted that there…… [Read More]
As a means to gain access to several million people who live a estern lifestyle, South Africa can be a good country to enter, but as a growth story it is much less exciting. Only when the GDP per capita of black and mixed-race South Africans begins to grow rapidly will the country be a truly attractive one for most companies. Arguably, the Human Development Index is a better measure, because it can reflect the overall potential of a nation like South Africa, where the development of one segment of the population is more critical to the market's potential than GDP, which is driven by another segment of the population.
A fourth reason why average per-capita income is not always the best indicator of an emerging market's potential lies in the Gulf States. Many Gulf States have very high average GDP per capita figures, driven by oil revenues. The lifestyle…… [Read More]
There are three different models that can be used to estimate a company's cost of capital. Basically, each of these three is used to estimate the cost of equity. The cost of debt is usually calculated on the basis of the current weighted average of the yield to maturity on the company's debt. Thus, it is the cost of equity that must be calculated. The cost of equity reflects the return that the shareholders need to be paid in order for them to own the stock. This have given us three major approaches to calculating the cost of equity.
The first of these is the capital asset pricing model. The formula for this is:
The cost of equity therefore reflects three major components. The first is the risk free rate, which is inherent in all securities. The second is the market risk premium, which is added to…… [Read More]
The first economy could conceivable be at a strong low point when I need my money -- it has a higher degree of market risk. It is less likely, based on the correlation of price movements within that economy, that the economy will be down significantly. There is also less risk that it will be up significantly, but as a risk averse investor I am only considering the downside risk. Therefore, I would choose the option that has the least amount of downside risk.
The question cuts to the difference between market risk and firm-specific risk, and short-term and long-term risk. In this situation, the two economies have equivalent market risk in the long-run. They do not have equivalent levels of market risk in the short-run, however. In addition, there is a higher degree of firm-specific risk in the first economy because the firms are impacted by each other. In…… [Read More]
Assessing WalMart Cost of Equity
Cost of Equity Using CAPM
To calculate the cost of equity using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the equation requires collection of some data regarding the firm and the market. The equation tells us what data is needed, the equation is cost of equity = F + ?(M - F). F is the risk free rate, M is the return on a market portfolio, and ? is the beta.
The equation starts with the requirement to determine the risk free rate (F). The risk free rate is usually the current rate for government bonds. There is some flexibility here, as government bonds are issued over different periods, a common term used is the one year bond rates. The current rate given for 20th December 2013 is 0.13% (U.S. Department of Treasury, 2013).
The next input is the return on the market portfolio. This…… [Read More]
There are a number of financing options for small business. The two major categories are debt and equity. Debt comes in a variety of forms. Bank loans are common. Credit cards are used sometimes by startups; bond issues by larger firms. Debt is an attractive option for a number of reasons. Debt has a lower cost of capital, which is beneficial to many small businesses. As well, debt financing allows the owners of the company to maintain control, and this is usually considered to be quite important for many small businesses in particular. The downside to debt is that the company is then obligated to pay that debt back before it can reinvest profits back into the business - debt repayment is more important than reinvestment in terms of financial obligations (Parker, 2012).
Equity comes at a higher cost than debt. Equity is also means that some control is…… [Read More]
isk analysis is a process by which the different risks that an organization faces are identified and evaluated. There are many different types of risk, and they can be systematic or unsystematic in nature. There is credit risk, foreign currency exchange risk, interest rate risk, economic risk, country risk, political risk, technological risk, market risk and legal risk (Investopedia, 2016). Within each of these categories, there are specific itemized risks that will need to be evaluated. As example, health care providers face "legal risk," but there are many categories of this including malpractice risk, human resources legal risk and risk associated with legal rights.
This paper will examine the different risks that are faced by Starbucks. There are a number of risks that are apparent immediately from the aforementioned categories. Foreign exchange risk is obviously one of them. There are market risks, such as consumer tastes, or new competitors. There…… [Read More]
isks in Export Market
There is need for companies to develop a professional approach before venturing into the exporting business. The management of the company is supposed to be committed extremely as well as devoting time and money in commencing the campaigns of export. A company is supposed to be ready to face greater competition as well as more stringent rules and regulations concerning products and packaging due to the variance in rules to which or across which the company will be exporting.
In the process of exportation, there are a number of risks that the company will face. These elements of risks are encountered in every commercial transactions as well as the complexity of the environments that exporters operate in. The content of this paper will analyze risks that a company can face while entering the field of exporting as well as discussing the roles of intermediaries in the…… [Read More]
isk, eturn and Their Evaluation
isk & Performance Indicators
Since this is a small business, therefore raising equity capital through public stock issue is less likely than debt or whatever form of paper issued to angel or venture investors. Therefore while a larger, publicly traded firm would consider the return on equity version of the short form DuPont equation, a small, more closely-held concern would focus on return on assets (OA). If OA is net income over sales times sales over total assets, i.e. net income over total assets, then any action that could increase the numerator, total income, or shrink the denominator(s) should increase OA compared to past performance within the firm and the competition outside it. If competitors all use the same (best) plant, then maximizing efficiency of the same assets through process or brand innovation; input cost reductions, and also financial performance like minimizing payables days over…… [Read More]
One industry that has shifted in the past few years in terms of its structure is the smartphone operating system market. A few years ago, most of the early smartphones were based around proprietary operating systems. Palm and Blackberry dominated the market. Apple joined the industry with the introduction of the iPhone, but more recently other firms have entered the market as well, including Google (Android), indows, Symbian and other systems. The market has moved from a stable oligopoly of four firms basically between two firms into a market that is much closer to monopolistic competition. However, there is the risk that as operating systems shake out, the market could return to an oligopoly of just three operating systems (est & Mace, 2007).
In the short-run, firms in this industry will seek to gain market share through differentiation. The products are slightly differentiated from each other -- they…… [Read More]
This was because they were seeing one of their primary competitors (Travelers) merging with Citicorp (which created a juggernaut of: insurance, banking and brokerage activities). At which point, executives at AIG felt that in order to: maintain their dominance in the industry and offer new products they should become involved in similar activities. The difference was that they would grow the company by expanding into areas that were considered to be speculative to include: commodities, stocks, options and credit default swaps. The way that this was accomplished is by purchasing a host of businesses that were involved in these activities. This is significant, because it meant that a shift would take place in: how managers were accounting for risks and the kinds of activities that they were becoming involved in. With the newly acquired companies; bringing over executives that did not practice the same kind of strategies for dealing with…… [Read More]
Market Efficient espect Set Information Impossible Makes Abnormal Profits
In his work, Fama argued that given the massive use of resources by the brokerage firm to conduct studies on trends in the industry, the effects of changes in interest rates on corporate balance sheets and expectations of managers and/or political analysts of the companies should be able to systematically beat a generic portfolio with the same risk characteristics.
Since, according to Fama, professional in every situation, the analyst has a fifty percent chance of beating the market; although its specific capabilities did not exist he would beat a lot of the market. The analyst did "help" the market to be efficient if all the investors, in fact, would hold portfolios composed of stock indices, would open up significant opportunities for professional traders to take advantage of the situation. But the movement of traders to that "new market" would…… [Read More]
There are discrepancies encountered in conducting the valuation and risk of a private company. There arises these factors that if investigated can impact the process accordingly. The first research question that I suggest is investigating if the tax risk and equity market value exhibit a concave association, which is consistent with the optimal tax risk level from a valuation of equity standpoint. The second topic that can be researched upon is the changes facing the risk and value valuation service area for businesses and how they impact the practice. Finally, a study on how the Merger and Acquisitions revised standards are impacting business deals.
Chandra, U., & o, B.T. (2008). The role of revenue in firm valuation. Accounting Horizons,
22(2), 199-222. etrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208923683?accountid=35812
Darrough, M., & Ye, J. (2007). Valuation of loss firms in a knowledge-based economy. eview of Accounting Studies, 12(1), 61-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11142-006-9022-z
Bernier, G.,…… [Read More]
Risk Management 
If you believe a stock will appreciate and want to risk little to speculate that the stock will rise what are your option?
Holding a call option is fairly low risk because it would allow me to buy future stocks at a current price. An increase in stock value would limit my losses and allow me to profit by means of leveraged speculation. As a holder exercising a call option, I would be able to benefit from the same profit in underlying stock by paying only a minimal amount of money. By risking only a small percentage of my capital towards an insurance premium, I am potentially able to benefit from trends and hedge away risks within the call-option deadline.
Potential losses can be offset against either long-or-short stock portfolios by means of trading call strategies. A Fiduciary call would allow for a reduced capital outlay by…… [Read More]
isk and Insurance Management
isk is believed to be a newly coined word of assurance (for example, Ewald, 1991: 198). One of the broadly shared suppositions regarding insurance is that it spins around an instrumental concept of risk. Possibility and the amount of influence make up a technical concept of hazard/risk and hazard administration is chiefly worried about reviewing these possibilities and influences (for an overview see Gratt, 1987). For instance, external profits of financial or political occurrences lay down thresholds for the availability of associated risk guesstimates or reckonings (Huber, 2002).
So, the range of the risk groups cannot be clarified by risk judgment single-handedly; peripheral circumstances that could be political, financial or inclusive of image, arts and manners, are also required to be taken into account. Therefore, if risks are not be present, per se, but are deliberately selected, we can go a step ahead and presume them…… [Read More]
Market Potential Index
There are eight indicators on the market potential index: market size, market intensity, growth rate, consumption capacity, commercial infrastructure, receptivity, economic freedom and country risk.
The market size is the largest weight. The measures used are urban population and electricity consumption, I guess as proxies for the number of people who have at least the possibility of having money.
Market intensity is based on the gross national income per capita and private consumption as % of GDP, measures that reflect the wealth of the country and presumably telling something about purchasing power.
Growth rate is based on the growth rate in energy use and the real GDP growth rate, looking at how fast the market is growing.
The consumption capacity is measured with consumer expenditure and income share of middle class. This is similar to market intensity, but with a focus on consumers and the middle class,…… [Read More]
This can cloud your judgment, which as a trader or investor it is imperative to think with a clear head. When you are placing the hedge, it is set at a logical point that is determined without emotions. This increases the chances that you have reduced your risks by eliminating the emotionalism that accompanies the markets. (Carr, 2002)
Another reason why hedging is effective, is it allows you to protect your downside using as little working capital as possible. ecause hedging involves using options, means that the overall amounts of upfront costs are low. This means, that going into the hedge you know what your maximum down side will be (the premium). You can also reduce the amounts of risk by purchasing the options with expirations that are coming up, within the next 30 to 60 days. This is important, because the closer the option moves to the expiration date,…… [Read More]
Administrative and political distance risk is most seen from the standpoint
of legal and financial institutions, the monetary systems and political
associations and the role of foreign governments in defining the barriers
to entry for foreign businesses. Geographic distance risks have more to do
with the physical distance and varying climates. The geographic distance
set of risks also capture the lack of potential infrastructure due to
remoteness. The economic distance risk assessments include the different
information or knowledge process workflows throughout a culture and the
blind-spots this causes for many companies in creating the strategies to
move into another company. There are many risks also present in the
economic distance of given foreign nation, emanating from the differences
in consumer incomes and wide variations in costs and quality of natural,
financial, and human resources.
In assessing the risks of global expansion, it is critical to consider the
use of analytical…… [Read More]
isk management is the greatest benefit offered by a strategic, forward-thinking approach to management. In an uncertain economic environment, companies must constantly 'hedge their bets' as to what is the superior choice between mutually exclusive alternatives. Strategic management promotes the efficient use of resources by forcing companies to constantly anticipate the future, plan ahead, and make the best economic choices possible, given the company's current framework of knowledge. No company can predict everything that may happen but the consistent data-gathering that is required in a strategic management approach and trend-monitoring allows the company to be more flexible and responsive.
As well as avoiding bad decisions, effective strategic management also means knowing when to take advantage of possible opportunities and invest in good decisions. isk management entails knowing when to take calculated risks, even if this means a major allocation of organizational resources, such as for a new form of technology…… [Read More]
Risks From International Business
What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?
There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…… [Read More]
Government bonds are called risk-free because they will be paid back. he underlying assumption is that the U.S. reasury can always print more money in order to finance the payback of these bonds. hat does not by any means make the bonds truly risk-free, but they are guaranteed to return face value. here are actually a few different ways in which government bonds are risky.
A recent change to the more orthodox view of government bond risk is that U.S. government bonds were downgraded in 2011, something that had never happened previously. his has not changed the market view of U.S. government paper, but it does imply that, according to one rating agency at least, the bonds of some other governments are less risky than the bonds of the U.S. government. hat said, the risk conditions of U.S. bonds have not changed. hey are still considered risk free because…… [Read More]
Risk Sales Forecast
Budgeting, Sales Forecasts, and Ethical Consideration
Sales forecasts and the budget preparation process in general, serves as a cornerstone for effective operations management. hen this practice is performed with strict adherence to good business ethics it is one of the key components of the entire business planning process. ith reliable estimates the organization can plan appropriates. Financial planning and estimation includes forecasted sales and revenues, expenses, and required cash flow to operate the business.
The budget will then combine all of the different estimates into a comprehensive document that can be used to plan for the future and to make business decision. The first activity in the budgeting process is usually a sales forecast. Once an organization determines what their projected levels of sales will be for any period, they can then estimate the other expenses based on this forecast. Accuracy of the sales forecast therefore is…… [Read More]
The first point that has to be looked into is the health of the company, Colorado Australia. The company is passing through a bad phase and this is not the time for a product launch as generally no new introduction can make money for a period of time after launch. When the company launching the product is itself in a relatively poor condition of finances, then it is less likely to take risks that will be required for the successful development of the new product. Here the situation is likely to be of a new brand in a new market, rather than a totally fresh launch. The company is already exporting substantial quantities and it is possible even the same item is being exported for sale by another organization under a different brand name. It may be possible that expansion of sale of quantities under that arrangement may…… [Read More]
This is equity risk. Equity risk can be measured -- either with standard deviation or more typically with the beta coefficient. This risk must be addressed, because the upside movement of the stock was something that was paid for with the lower rate of interest payments.
Diversification of any equity portfolio can be done on a number of other variables. The diversified portfolio will contain exposure to a wide range of firms and industries, and preferably a high level of geographic diversification as well. Modern portfolio theory holds that as few as three companies can result in a diversified portfolio but ideally the portfolio would have at least thirty. The portfolio should include a wide range of types of instruments as well, so that the risk inherent in the convertible is offset by the performance of other instruments, companies and products in the portfolio. ith the market, the CAPM beta…… [Read More]
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…… [Read More]
isk Management Plan
A&D High Tech
Introduction to the Plan
Charter, Scope, Plan, and WBS
Scope of the isk Management Plan
102.2 isk Management Plan Components
112.4 Expected Monetary Value Analysis
isk Management Identification
123.1 Determine the isks
133.2 Evaluate and Access the isks
133.3 Qualitative and Quantitative Processes
143.4 Compare and Contrast Techniques
144.1 Major and Minor isks for the isk Matrix
144.2 isk Matrix Template
Corrective Action and Monitoring
155.1 Type of Corrective isk Management
155.2 Corrective Plan
155.3 Corrective Action for isks
Section 6 -- esults, Conclusion, and Follow-Up
Section 7 - eferences
Section 1 -- Introduction
Introduction to the Plan
This project involves a company named A&D High Tech which operates within the computer products industry and sells computer products, accessories, and services to consumers and small businesses. The…… [Read More]
isk Management in Family Owned Businesses
A family business can be simply described as "any business in which a majority of the ownership or control lies within a family, and in which two or more family members are directly involved" (Bowman-Upton, 1991). In other words, it is a multifaceted, twofold structure consisting of the family and the business meaning that the involved members are both the part of a job system and of a family system (Bowman-Upton, 1991).
Most families seek stability, intimacy, a sense of community, and belonging through the family business (Hess, 2006). On the other hand, whenever family and business are mentioned together, a majority of people think of continuous conflict, competition and contention (Crenshaw, 2005). However, "successful family businesses do not let the family destroy the business or the business destroy the family" (Hess, 2006).
The family-owned businesses are the backbone of the world financial system.…… [Read More]
Of course, this is a good thing for customers on short-term, but is negatively affects other companies on the market. This is because smaller competitors and especially those that intend to enter the market addressed by IBM find it at least difficult to provide product prices in accordance with those provided by IBM. These smaller companies do not have the ability of reducing their production or operating costs, which does not allow them to introduce competitive prices on the market. This way, they are clearly disfavored by IBM's position and market power.
In addition to this, in a field like it, it is imperative to make continuous investments into the research and development activity. This requires significant capital amounts from these companies. The investment levels that IBM reaches cannot be reached by many of these companies. This makes it difficult for these companies to keep up with IBM and its…… [Read More]
To rebuild their image, the company would try a number of different strategies, none of which would prove to be successful. This would hurt the market share of Gap to the point that many analysts now believe that it may be advantageous to spin off the company's: Old Navy, anana Republic and Gap stores. What this shows, is how a company can begin to lose its way when it is not focused on adjusting to changes in consumer tastes and trends. In the case of Ann Taylor, they need to be aware of this hazard, as it can have an adverse impact on the long-term viability of their business. (Reingold)
A second challenge that Ann Taylor can be wrestling with is a lack of focus on the part of management. In this case, managers must understand the role that their decisions will have on their organization. Where, executives must clearly…… [Read More]
3. How the quality of service changed and why?
The quality of service increased significantly as all practices areas of the hospital better aligned to the cultural norms, values and needs of each ethnic population represented by the segments served. The quality also increased because the staff also began to better understand the unique needs of the patients being served, with more emphasis on interpersonal communication than had been the case in the past. This personalization aspect of leadership works both ways; the hospital staff had a much better appreciation and understanding of the unique needs of the population they were serving, and the potential patients and customers developed familiarity and trust with the providers. The next step for the hospital is to create a means to continually evaluate the level of satisfaction they are delivering to patients. The hospital could use the SEVQUAL metrics to evaluate the level of…… [Read More]
They were just so intense, so focused, so transaction-driven, there literally wasn't time for people to put ideas out and discuss and debate them."
These constraints to effective management oversight and innovation were further exacerbated when the company went private in 2001. According to Stopper, "ARAMARK went from a leveraged buyout situation in 1984, with only some 50 people having equity in the company, to an initial public offering (IPO) in 2001 with 97% ownership by employees. It was a huge cultural shift. Many employees incurred debt in order to have ownership in the company. In his view, HR's power and influence came from performance and creating value, not from advancing or acceding to personal agendas."
To their credit, though, Hayes reports that the company finally took action to remedy this situation by creating an action project team to assess the potential threats involved in retaining the status quo and…… [Read More]
isks of Using Computer-Based Procurement
Every complex project requiring the collaborative effort of an organization involves the use of materials, goods, and services that are integrated within the overall project design. The procurement process used to obtain these vital resources is central to the successful accomplishment of project objectives, because every aspect of the management process, from sourcing supplies to shipping products to customers is contingent on procuring the most productive third-party partnerships. The vendor selection process is used to aid project managers in the effective procurement of essential items and services, with a rigorous screening methodology used to identify the most competent and qualified shipping companies, manufacturers, distributors, and equipment suppliers. Another way project managers have refined the procurement process is through the implementation of computer-based tools, with advances in technology enabling researchers to identify a project's critical path through a complex series of algorithms, software programs, and other…… [Read More]
Most developed economies, however, allow the market to set exchange rates, only influencing currency values through indirect means such as the increased or reduced sale of bonds to foreign entities and individuals, or through other means of international wealth exchange. Essentially, all manipulations of exchange rates and actions based on predictions of exchange rates are focused on the forward exchange rate, or the predicted rate of exchange between two currencies at a future point in time.
The spot exchange rate, on the other hand, is the rate of exchange at the current moment in time. It is through a comparison of the spot rate and the forward rate of exchange -- inasmuch as it can be predicted with any accuracy -- that companies and businesses make decisions that affect either the exchange rate itself (in the case of some governments, notably China in the modern period), or more often make…… [Read More]
The more knowledge of a market an entrepreneur has the better. This includes the litigious side of the market. When an entrepreneur sets up a business, even employing the proper employee dynamics, financial decisions and logistical moves, legal issues can doom the entire operation. Entrepreneurs can avoid much of this type of risk by fully understanding their business, and by having prior experience with the product or industry. It is important to understand as well that overseas markets are not the same as domestic ones, and many issues are likely to arise out of unique and different legal environments, exclusive to overseas markets and products. Entrepreneurship is a veritable minefield when it comes to risks. These risks are inherent, and without them there would not be the same kinds of satisfaction and payoff that occurs with them intact. When entrepreneurs are made fully aware of these risks and how to…… [Read More]
Secondary markets can help to bundle capital with the best managers of that capital, which can be used to generate capital in the primary markets, but in general the primary market is more efficient at allocating capital and of the two is the only one that truly generates new capital, as it funds actual production (Harris 2003).
The Hussman strategic growth fund most closely aligns with my need for long-term financial growth and security, as I am still many years away from retirement, I do not need to take any unnecessary risks in order to achieve more aggressive growth. Though such a fund might be an appropriate secondary investment, the bulk of my capital should be somewhere safer and more assured (Hussman 2009).
Haris, L. (2003). Trading and exchanges: market microstructure for practitioners. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hussman. (2009. Accessed 24 September 2009. http://www.hussmanfunds.com/…… [Read More]
ISK Management - CAPM and APT
Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.
Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…… [Read More]
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…… [Read More]
It is however important to come up with an integrated proactive management of real property in order to cover most of the risks that affect this market sector.
The requirement for the integrated property management
So as to achieve the required alignment between the strategic decisions of a business and other elements like the organization structure, enabling physical environment and work processes, it is necessary that organizations come with clear methods of managing their property. Proactive management of real estate/corporate property is one of the ways of ensuring that the property is not at risk. It however demands that very clear strategic positions are taken by senior management with clarity of the expected deliverable in measurable terms.
Fig.2 Proactive real estate management
Source: Then (1996).
The market value of commercial property has been fluctuation over time. The last three years has however seen it suffer a heavy hit…… [Read More]
Fuel prices are a major contributor to the profitability of an airline, as they tend to be more volatile than ticket prices. In response to this variability, airlines typically engaging in fuel price hedging strategies. On the operational level, many airlines rely on a focus on shorter average flight distances. This keeps the fuel cost down relative to passenger revenue. However, the most common method of dealing with fuel price volatility is to utilize a financial hedge, typically a series of either futures or forwards to lock in the price of fuel.
The first thing to realize is that the company cannot perfectly hedge the top end of the fuel price range. At some point, the price paid is going to have to be lower than the top price or the airline will lose a lot of money when the price drops again. During a major run-up, like…… [Read More]
Phishing Spea Phishing and Phaming
The following is intended to povide a vey bief oveview of examples of some the most dangeous and pevasive secuity isks in the online and netwoked wold. One of the most insidious of identity theft is known as phishing. The tem 'phishing' efes to the pactice of "fishing fo infomation." This tem was oiginally used to descibe "phishing" fo cedit cad numbes and othe sensitive infomation that can be used by the ciminal. Phishing attacks use "…spoofed emails and faudulent websites to deceive ecipients into divulging pesonal financial data, such as cedit cad numbes, account usenames and passwods, social secuity numbes etc." (All about Phishing) . Thompson ( 2006) clealy outlines the basics of a phishing attack.
A typical phishing sends out millions of faudulent e-mail messages that appea to come fom popula Web sites that most uses tust, such as eBay, Citibank, AOL, Micosoft…… [Read More]
For example, in the early 1990's the 'Intel Inside' of computers was great for computer sales. That is until the Intel brand name took a major hit for allowing a faulty chip to make its way to the market. The internet-based Word-of-Mouth made the 'Intel Inside' a marketing nightmare.
The Word-of-Mouth and Buzz marketing approach coupled with the internet are more effective than any available print or television ad currently used because consumers are too overly saturated by those mediums. This new approach of the future was recently used and studied for the popular film 'Fahrenheit 911' and the blockbuster results in revenues clearly show that this new approach is the wave of the next generation.
In conclusion, the world of marketing has changed and our more global and technologically advanced social and business environment will make marketers reevaluate their approach. Marketing executives can no longer go about in…… [Read More]
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…… [Read More]
MAKET ANALYSIS & PODUCT INNOVATION
Market Analysis and Product Innovation: Facebook Inc.
In an increasingly competitive environment, business organizations must remain innovative. They must deliver offerings that resonate with the ever changing needs of the consumer and the operating environment (Akbar & Tzokas, 2013). This often calls for product innovation, which has been marked as a crucial driver of competitive advantage in the contemporary marketplace (Song & Chen, 2014). Nonetheless, product innovation is often not a straightforward undertaking. An organization must have comprehensive understanding of the environment in which it operates, especially in terms of the threats and opportunities it presents, for its products to succeed in the marketplace (Bart, 2002). The organization must also effectively utilize its resources and capabilities to overcome those threats and take advantage of the opportunities (Holahan, Sullivan & Markham, 2014).
One organization that is an epitome of innovation in today's business environment is Facebook…… [Read More]
Specification of Thesis's Main Point:
Goldman (2009) surmises that today's economic crisis has changed many aspects of financial reporting, one of which is the calculation of the cost of capital.
Three Supporting Opinions/easons:
Utilizing much of his own personal, professional experience as well as other sources, Goldman's (2009) three supporting opinions all highlight the impact today's economic crisis has had. He quotes Marc Panucci, an SEC associate chief accountant, in his first supporting opinion. Panucci agrees with Goldman's theory that the turbulent economic environment of today requires changes to existing disclosures, in order to meet disclosure requirements. This is especially true when meeting disclosure requirements in liquidity, risks and uncertainties, and credit risks.
The Internal evenue Service is Goldman's (2009) second supporting source. Not known for their empathy, the IS has eased rules so that homeowner's facing tax liens can sell or refinance their homes. In fact, in some instances,…… [Read More]
Credit isk Management
Banks are an important part of the economy of any nation. Traditionally, the banks operate as financial intermediaries serving to satisfy the demand of people in need of various forms of financing. Through this, banks enable people to purchase home and businesses to expand. These financial institutions therefore facilitate investment and spending that are responsible for fueling the growth of the economy. In spite of their vital role in the economy, they are nevertheless prone to failure and just like other types of businesses, they also go bankrupt. Unfortunately, the failure of banks can have many and significant implications than any other type of business. As witnessed during the great depression, and in recent times following the global economic crisis and recession, the stability or lack of it in the banking system could trigger economic epidemics that would impact millions of people. With respect to this, it…… [Read More]
International Financial Markets and Institutions:
Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…… [Read More]
Taxation and double taxation risks
Australia imposes taxes on resident economic entities and the Australian-sourced income of non-residents. However, "Australia's capacity to tax non-residents may be limited where the non-resident is resident in a country with which Australia has concluded a double taxation agreement (DTA)," including the United States (Ellison 2009, p.8). DTAs allocate taxing rights to the country of residence of the taxpayer (Ellison 2009, p.8).
Market risks (four Ps)
Demand and overall economic growth has remained strong in Australia (product), although high inflation (price) is of a concern for many residents. Growth tends to be centered in urban areas (place/distribution), while rural areas are often underserved in terms of goods and services. The greater diversity of Australia's growing Asian and European allow for potential new sources of economic growth (promotion and marketing).
Australia economic analysis. (2010). Economy watch. etrieved February 22, 2010 at http://www.economywatch.com/economic-analysis/australia.html
Ellison, Minter. (2009).…… [Read More]
27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.
Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:
1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…… [Read More]
In addition, a series of joint ventures in which West German steel firms joined with East German firms and Krupp, Klockner, and Thyssen of Germany was pursuing other developmental initiatives in eastern Europe as well. Likewise, Arbed of Luxemburg was involved in steelmaking facilities in the former East Germany. According to Mangum et al., "The rising market for improved galvanizing for automobiles, appliances, canning, and other uses is producing a rash of joint ventures throughout the world. Some of these are internal to various countries and others involve international partners" (p. 74).
As a result, nearly 30% of the world's steel supply is now produced by plants belonging to companies that did not exist just 3 decades ago (Ahlberg, Pitkanen & Storsch 1999). As these authors point out, "Such upstarts have entered a global market that since 1980 has grown by less than 1% a year -- an average combining…… [Read More]
People's United Bank
The market value of People's United Financial (NASDAQ: PBCT) is $11.94 (current stock price) * 358.06 million shares outstanding = $4.275 billion. The book value of the debt is $19.802 billion. This gives People's United a total worth of $24.077 billion, weighted as 17.75% equity and 82.25% debt. The beta for the equity is 0.27. The risk free rate is 0.352% (Yahoo! Finance, 2011) and the traditional 7% market risk premium can be used. Using CAPM this gives a cost of equity of The cost of debt must also be calculated in order to determine the weighted average cost of capital of People's United. Being a retail financial institution, the vast majority of People's United's liabilities (90.5%) come in the form of deposits. Some of these pay no interest, and others pay out in savings, interest-bearing checking and money market accounts. Total interest expense for 2010 was…… [Read More]
The advantages of a qualitative analysis approach are that it overcomes the challenge of accurate calculations of figures for asset value, cost of control etc. In a way less demanding procedure on the staff. Qualitative risk management projects can normally start to display noteworthy results in a matter of weeks, on the other hand those institutions or businesses that choose to employ a quantitative approach may experience limited benefit over months, or even a number of years of effort. The disadvantage of a qualitative analysis is that the consequential data is hazy and quite a number of strict decision makers, particularly the ones who have accounting backing or finance knowledge, may be hesitant to use the relative figures during a qualitative risk assessment.
The use quantitative approaches however also have got a number of drawbacks which include the following;
Dependence upon the scope and accuracy of specific measurement scales.
The…… [Read More]
The main hazards related to LNG include:
upture due to Corrosion
upture while excavation
upture while excavation
upture during an earthquake
upture due to mechanical failure
upture at compressor
upture at inspection stations
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire
Gas leak from infrastructure
Fire involving combustible
LPG or Diesel
Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks
Welding failure welding casting failure
Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration
Failure due to external loading or impact
Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline
Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.
upture of adjacent gas pipeline
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure
Drop of pipe from pipe lifts
Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel
Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker
Uncontrolled release of LNG
Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas
Uncontrolled release of by- product…… [Read More]
Policies need be established that dictate how currency is used (Homaifar, 2003).
Trends in international banking suggests that within Europe while the euro may still be the standard currency used, often throughout the world and in international banks generally, much of currency is denominated in the form of dollars (Bertuch-Samuels & amlogan, 2007; Homaifar, 2003). The United States dollar has represented the gold standard among international financial institutions because the U.S. has relatively little exchange rate fluctuation, which lowers the potential risk within the international financial marketplace. To gain operational independence and affirm prices will remain stable, banks want to ensure the currency they use is issued in a country that is stable and holds prestige (Homaifar, 2003). This can easily be assessed by evaluating a country's financial systems, determining whether the banking systems are strong and offer policies and provisions for conducting business using foreign currency as well as…… [Read More]
Wal-Mart Accounting and Finance
Determine whose rate of return (i.e., local or parent currency returns) Wal-Mart should use when evaluating foreign direct investment opportunities and justify the position.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an international flow of capital that provides a parent company or multinational organization with control over foreign affiliates. The behavior of exchange rates influences FDI activity. Exchange rates are defined as the domestic currency price of a foreign currency. Exchange rates can influence both the total amount of foreign direct investment that takes place and the allocation of this investment spending across a range of countries (Bogoslaw, 2009).
Wal-Mart is among many multinational companies that have expanded production and distribution networks globally to take advantage of opportunities for higher local rates of return, market share, and accessibility to production inputs (Nathan, 2012). This -- along with foreign government import restrictions, opening of new markets and invitation for…… [Read More]
VIX is a measure of the market's expectations for 30-day volatility, usually of a broad index like the S&P 500. The VIX is calculated using the prices of a variety of options on the index. The implied volatility of these options is used, and the VIX is sometimes referred to as a fear gauge and a measure of overall market risk (Investopedia, 2012).
There are two versions of the VIX. The first is for the S&P 500 and the second is for the S&P 100. The former is considered to be more representative of the broad market than the latter (Bail, no date). Options are priced, of course, with a mix of risk premium and time value. For market index options, that risk is assumed to simply be market risk. Therefore, options on that will contain a time value and a market risk premium. It is the latter that is…… [Read More]