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Thus, Nora was controlled by Torvald in even her most mundane actions and behavior.
Nora was also economically indebted to Dr. Rank and Krogstad, immediately explicating why she was willing to be controlled by these men. Her fear of being discovered by Torvald that she had borrowed money from Krogstad made her submissive to Krogstad's demand that Nora influence her husband to allow Krogstad to keep his job ("Do as you please. But let me tell you this -- if I lose my position a second time, you shall lose yours with me"). Dr. Rank's lack of respect for Nora's position as wife, mother, and most importantly, woman, showed how Nora's preoccupation with money and material wealth made her look an "easy prey" or shallow in thought by men such as the doctor.
Nora's relations with the male characters in the play demonstrated how her belief in materialism and money…… [Read More]
In the car Nick sees him look sideways as though lying and thinks "And with this doubt, his whole statement fell to pieces, and I wondered if there wasn't something a little sinister about him, after all" (65, Chapter 4). Nick's middle class ideology leads him to scorn those who would strive to get ahead. It is the traditional view of the underclass toward upstarts from within. In the end, he loses "love" (Jordan). The text does not validate his character as an ideal.
The relationship of Tom and Gatsby clearly reinforces the class system. Tom articulates a power-oriented racist vision, saying "It's up to us, who are the dominant race, to watch out or these other races will have control of things" (13, Chapter 1). This Nordic racism is symbolic of a biased class consciousness out of which Tom operates. He wants to retain his class power. It creates…… [Read More]
Another fundamental element of liberal theory and ideology is the right for each individual to pursue and hold private property. According to Locke, each individual has the opportunity and the right to work to better oneself through the accumulation and improvement of their own private property, "it is allowed to be his goods who hath bestowed his labor upon it," (Locke, 21).
This is also a crucial feature in the foundations of capitalism as well. It ensures that as long as one works and labors hard enough, he or she will be entitled to a certain amount of private property to compensate for that labor, "As much land as a man tills, plants, improves, cultivates, and can use the product of, so much is his property," (Locke, 22). It is with this idea that many societies have promised their underprivileged or poor the chance to rise above their inherited ranks…… [Read More]
Marxist Perspective for Understanding Society
Although the United States and other Western nations fought a cold war against Communism for a significant part of the twentieth century, Western nations were not immune to the influence of Karl Marx, an intellectual and ideological founder of Communism. Even during the Cold War, Marxism entered disciplines in social sciences in the United States and students of sociology, history, political science, and a few other disciplines can no longer ignore Marxist perspective for understanding society today. Indeed, key components of Marxist perspective -- all of them revolving around the basic premise that societies can be defined by class struggle -- are very helpful in analyzing how a society functions. And Marxism today is not confined to the writings of Marx only but has been enriched by other scholars who helped to make Marxism a very useful and important tool for evaluating complexities of societies.…… [Read More]
Indeed, if one considers newsworthy events, violent revolution as a mode of change appears much more instinctive to human beings than communicative action.
Foucault's Theory of Power
For Habermas, Foucault's theory of power is over generalizing and universalizing. He thus dismisses the latter philosopher's theory as reductionistic and contradictory. Once again Habermas uses philosophical reason rather than mechanical evolution as a basis from which to change the corruptive power held by authorities and institutions. Foucault on the other hand sees power and reason as intertwined with each other. Thus there is no good or bad within power structures themselves, but rather in how they are implemented. Habermas however finds this problematic, and argues that there is then no ground from which to effect the necessary change in of these power structures in order to make them more beneficial for society.
In Foucault's view, there are dangers inherent in holding a…… [Read More]
This was however, not the view held by the Catholic Church in their view of the novel. The view of the Catholic Church, was that "the latter element" -- that is, human wretchedness -- had appeared "to carry the day" in a way that did injury "to certain priestly characters and even to the priesthood itself." Moreover, the novel portrayed a state of affairs so "paradoxical" and "erroneous" that it would disconcert "unenlightened persons" who formed "the majority of the readers."
Summary and Conclusion
Greene was not disconcerted by the view of the Church and simply remarked that he did not own the copyright and therefore could do nothing to change what was already written. The following quote from the work is quite poignant and after having read about the life of Greene can just as easily be assigned to come from within him as from within the mind of…… [Read More]
Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…… [Read More]
Playwright August ilson won two Pulitzers in his illustrious career. In The Pittsburgh Cycle, ilson wrote a series of plays each depicting a different decade in the lives of African-Americans living in the United States. Of these, Fences, takes place in the 1950s and features the problems not only of the African-American experience, but also the situation of societal oppression indicative of that period. At the heart of the play is protagonist Troy Maxson. His actions result in comedy and tragedy for all of the characters around him, making him the center of this universe that ilson has created, representing the tumultuous time period in which the play takes place. August ilson has stated that the character is based upon his own step-father, David Bedford providing the story with an autobiographical context. ilson uses his own perception of his step-father in order to illustrate a story about the difficulties…… [Read More]
Images in "Strike"
A Marxist engineer and architect by formal training, Sergei Eisenstein used his training to create the "montage." Though Eisenstein's work suffers some criticism for its use of bludgeons to convey blunt propaganda, his seminal work is deemed the basis for montages in the work of such eminent directors as Hitchcock, De Palma and Coppola. Arousing strong emotional impact from the juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated images, multiple effective montages are evident in Eisenstein's first film, Strike.
Sergei Eisenstein (1898 -- 1948) was one of the most famous filmmakers of the early 20th Century (Archive Media Project, LP). His formal training as an engineer and architect in St. Petersburg greatly influenced his eventual career in filmmaking. In addition, his Marxist ideology and his Russian heritage highly influenced his work. Eisenstein experimented with several cinematic devices and due to his contributions, was embraced by the ritish Film Institute as one…… [Read More]
Storni, Alfonsina. "You ant Me hite." The Norton Anthology of orld
Vol. F. Ed. Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. New York: Norton, 2002. 2124-2125
The poem titled "You ant Me hite" written by Alfonsina Storni explores the issue of women mistreatment by men. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they (men ) are not.
Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
In this book the author portrays how women are only valued for their fertility and they are allowed access to education in the patriarch society. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.
Staves, Susan. Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…… [Read More]
Because society compromises the value of the woman, it is allowed the life of domesticity and life. The speaker however remains forever beyond this because she chooses self-realization instead.
In Heaney's "Punishment," feminism can be seen from the male viewpoint, as it were. The corpse of a bog girl, an adulteress, educates the narrator regarding issues of gender and politics. The narrator, far from the conventional male reaction of disgust, instead becomes infatuated with her. It is as if he is the male representative of the feminist viewpoint; that women offer value and education rather than objects of sex or symbols of domesticity. The intimacy between the speakers involve no blame. Instead of man and woman, they are equals, in strong contrast with the society that would condemn them both for their actions and their association.
Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You."…… [Read More]
Radical multiculturalism holds that cultural groups should be the measure for considerations of justice as a group offers the individual the indispensable good of being rooted in a community. The problem is that groups always set-up unequal in-group out-group relations that are detrimental to society.
The problem is that conservatives claim it undermines cohesiveness, but cohesiveness is exactly what all social movements in the last hundred years have attempted to bring about.
In this context this means that the gains of one group are not balanced by losses of another group.
The civil sphere includes structures of feelings, symbols, psychological identifications, and sympathies determine how resources are allocated in society. The public sphere is more of how this publically stated (the two can be different).
Common identity is malleable depending on the times. The move for woman's voting rights and equal rights into the national identity is an…… [Read More]
Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…… [Read More]
45). ith the ideology of the ownership class necessarily becoming the dominant ideology throughout the world not simply through the spread of industry and capitalism but through dramatic changes in international trade and economies brought about by capitalist/industrialist changes in single countries, the bourgeoisie acquires (or acquired) dramatic power to shape global events and politics through their shaping of the thoughts that can be had and the modes by which they can be expressed -- through their control over rhetorical interpretations and expression, in other words.
Implications of Marx's Rhetorical Theory
Using a Marxist approach to rhetorical theory has a variety of benefits and drawbacks to theorists and critics working from many different perspectives. The benefits to such a perspective are clear, if somewhat ominous -- they give concrete and measurable ways in which to develop an understanding of thought itself, and of how thoughts are created and expressed (and…… [Read More]
..render up myself...Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night...And for the day confined to fast in fires, / Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature/Are burnt and purged away." (I.5). At first, Hamlet believes the ghost is from Purgatory because of the vividness of these images. Then Hamlet constructs a test for the ghost as he worries: "the devil hath power/to assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps/Out of my weakness and my melancholy, / as he is very potent with such spirits" (2.2). In short, Hamlet begins to doubt the doctrine because the ghost ostensibly from Purgatory has asked him to commit a murder, to kill a king.
Hamlet seldom displays a consistent attitude to Purgatory in the play. In his most famous soliloquy, Hamlet says that death is a place from which "no traveler returns" indicating he doubts the ghost (III.1). Hamlet wrestles…… [Read More]
Thomas Hardy's The Woodlanders was published in 1887, a few years after the death of Charles Darwin. However, the novel was set in the middle of the 19th century, in about the same year that Darwin published On the Origin of the Species. Hardy may not have selected his setting arbitrarily. The Woodlanders has often been read within the context of Darwinian influences in society and literature. However, literary critics tend to emphasize the fusion between Romantic and Darwinian depictions of nature in The Woodlanders to show how Hardy drew from Darwin to develop his characters and themes. Irvine, for example, claims Hardy was an "evolutionary pessimist," and this is certainly apparent in The Woodlanders, which provides an overtly pessimistic view of human nature but especially of patriarchy (625). In fact, Hardy's The Woodlanders shows that while Darwinian principles of evolution sometimes favor members of the species with no moral…… [Read More]
Literature is allowed to expand across class lines because it is constantly seeking out new forms of expressing the human experience. Even the most elite of the bourgeoisie are allowed to enjoy the latest experimental or ethnic literature, which serve as pure representations of the proletariat human experience, "it is common to see 'literature' defined as 'full, central, immediate human experience,' usually an associated reference to 'minute particulars,'" (illiams 45). These "minute particulars" are what make literature so interesting and entertaining, thus successful. It is with this understanding of literature as an ideology that the concept of ideology can take on duel roles, "A common culture is thus entirely compatible with a hierarchical one," (Eagleton The Idea of Culture 115). Much unlike the theories which state that a true ideology cannot live up to a duel existence, literature as an ideology proves to do just that.
It is in this…… [Read More]
That premise states a core value that the framers intended to protect. The intentionalist judge must then supply the minor premise in order to protect the constitutional freedom in circumstances the framers could not foresee. (Bork 15)
Bork's approach was recently critiqued by Daniel Ortiz and some others, one of whom noted, with reference to the Griswold decision on privacy, that Bork saw the decision as "unprincipled" "because [e]very clash between a minority claiming freedom and a majority claiming power to regulate involves a choice between the gratifications of the two groups.
hen the Constitution has not spoken [under an originalist theory of interpretation], the Court will be able to find no scale, other than its own value preferences, upon which to weigh the respective claims to pleasure. (Bork Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems).
Bork thus supports community rights over individual rights to a greater extent than has…… [Read More]
"e're leaving,' he hissed. "I'm taking you straight to the hospital." hen Susan rose shakily to her feet, uncontrollable diarrhea had stained her dress and dripped from the chair. hite with fury, Charles Hay took her by the arm and led her slowly from the hall." (Melville 134)
The work again intones an incredible journey through what a women sees a man thinking. The disconnectedness of Susan from her husband is so complete that her voice is only marginal in the work, but the message is clear in the literary expression of her secreted activities. The masculine is represented as the feminist idea of greater association with industry than home, to the peril of loving relationships. The writing demonstrates a character who is wholly disconnected from ethics in love and life, and in s sense is a demonized masculine archetype.
Among these three works are three completely differing context…… [Read More]
This basically means that the criticism to feminist political theories resembles more the substance of other I theories.
6. First off, we should discuss the differences between system level theories and state level theories. What are the benefits to studying international relations at the state level? What are the drawbacks?
In its most basic formulation, state level theories of international politics refer to those ideas which place the country at the core of political actions and decisions. Examples of this sense include the previously discussed realism and transnationalism schools of thought, which argue that the state places itself based on its particular interests. The relevant example of system level theories refers to the class system theories, and they are characterized by the fact that decisions and actions in international politics are not established based on national interests, but relative to the desires and power of specific groups -- generally those…… [Read More]
Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews
The protagonists of Henry Fielding's novels would appear to be marked by their extreme social mobility: Shamela will manage to marry her master, ooby, and the "foundling" Tom Jones is revealed as the bastard child of a serving-maid and Squire Allworthy himself, just as surely as Joseph Andrews is revealed to be the kidnapped son of Wilson, who himself was "born a gentleman" (Fielding 157). In fact Wilson's digression in ook III Chapter 3 of Joseph Andrews has frequently been taken for a self-portrait: "I am descended from a good family," Williams tells Joseph and Parson Adams, "my Education was liberal, and at a public School" (Fielding 157). Goldberg helpfully notes of this passage that such education was defined in Johnson's Dictionary as an education "becoming a gentleman," although fails to note that Fielding himself was educated at the most lordly of all the English public…… [Read More]
Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre on Existentialism and Humanism
The Essentials of Essentialism
Martin Heidegger's philosophical opus is both deep and complex and a comprehensive examination of it here would be impossible. However it is possible to provide an overview of his essential teachings - of the essential aspects of his essentialism. Doing so will allow us, in later sections, to explore his criticisms of Jean-Paul Sartre's far more famous version of existentialism as well as to examine the ways in which - despite Heidegger's criticism of Sartre - the two are in many ways the same.
Heidegger, like all modern philosophers (and possibly the ancient ones as well), incorporated the work of a number of earlier thinkers into his own formulation of existentialism and his understanding of the nature of reality of the place of humans in the world. As an existentialist, Heidegger believed in a philosophy that was…… [Read More]
They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."
Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…… [Read More]
Marxism and Feminism
Marxism is a theory of economic system while feminism is exclusively connected with relationship between men and women so how do these two could possibly unite. An interesting question- the answer to which lies in understanding the basic structure of Marxism on which feminism is loosely based. Alternatively, we can first understand what feminism is all about and see how it gets its inspiration from Marxism. Feminism is the result of women liberation movement, which began somewhere in the 18th century and gained momentum in late 19th century. During this time women realized that they were not being treated the same way as men and everything was viewed through masculine binoculars. In other worlds, it was found that males were completely dominating every area including 'thinking' and this resulted in women liberation movement, which ultimately led to feminism. Feminism today exists in various forms and is characterized…… [Read More]
Still, his union with a woman also of common birth leaves us to reflect that in all likelihood, Spenser himself would enter the court after an upbringing of modestly. This denotes the distinction of Spenser as a critique of reigning structures of authority in his time and place. This also helps to introduce our discussion to the historical context into which he deposited his first important work of poetry.
The choice of language in the poem is a curious one, at least insofar as it can be regarded as somewhat misleading of the work's time of origin. Its composition in 1579 and the poet's declared affection for and indebtedness to the works of Geoffrey Chaucer are facts submerged beneath the linguistic affectations which Spenser felt were necessary to carry the pastoral form. (Bear, 1) Indeed, the prologue which is composed by an otherwise anonymous writer signing as E.K., provides…… [Read More]
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…… [Read More]
Emma likes the type of pulp, romantic and sentimental fiction condemned by Nabokov, the 19th century version of Harlequin Romances. Emma is not an artist of prose like her creator, she is a consumer of written culture in a very literal as well as a metaphorical sense, just as she consumes all sorts of material goods in her futile quest for fulfillment, and dies by consuming poison at the end of the novel.
his is what makes Emma so fascinating as a character. She engages in the same project of interpretation and authorship as her reader, even if it is a failed project. "But what interests me most in Madame Bovary is the heroine's fondness for reading. She dies because she has attempted to make her life into a novel -- and it is the foolishness of that quest that Flaubert's clinical style mocks." (Jong, 1997) Emma essentially dies of…… [Read More]
His underlying interest was to understand the basic forms of religious life for all societies. In Elementary Forms, Durkheim argues that the totems the aborigines venerate are actually expressions of their own conceptions of society itself. This is true not only for the aborigines, he argues, but for all societies (ibid).
eligion, for Durkheim, is not "imaginary," although he does deprive it of what many believers find essential. eligion is very real; it is an expression of society itself, and indeed, there is no society that does not have religion. We perceive as individuals a force greater than ourselves, which is our social life, and give that perception a supernatural face. We then express ourselves religiously in groups, which for Durkheim makes the symbolic power greater. eligion is an expression of our collective consciousness, which is the fusion of all of our individual consciousnesses, which then creates a reality of…… [Read More]
Although within capitalism Marx understands that an individual seeks a
better situation for himself, his choices and the reasons for making his
choices are based upon the capitalist system that society has instituted.
Furthermore, Marx's view of history and the motivations of history
are much different than Hobbes and Locke. To Marx, all of history is a
class struggle. In the capitalist system laborers give their labor to the
capitalists. Locke writes about the body and labor that, "nobody has any
right to but himself. The labour of his body and the work of his hands, we
may say, are properly his" (Chap 5). This means, to Locke, that a laborer
is working with his own property, his own body, as an individual. Marx
differs in this assumption as not only does the laborer have very little
choice in the system, but also that while laboring "a crowd of people…… [Read More]
This implies that a lot about us is built via our symbol systems. Burke's asserts that a correlation exists between the nonverbal and the oral. Burke believes that non-verbal language involve signs plus labels that help one to understand things. Burke asserts that when a person speaks the words that come from him are a product of the inspiration that emanate from the animalitic and symbolic nature of man.
Burk further explores language by asserting that the name 'situation' is fundamental in conducting an explanation of the social framework relating literary text. This is possible by stating that a text of literature originates from culturally 'problematic situations'. According to Burke, treating language from the focal point of 'situation' and strategies leads to the notion that literature proposes a progression of traditional art and various communication methods, for example, oral and other forms regarding symbolic expression. Burke further refutes the existence…… [Read More]
However, liberals argue that material conditions should not be a determining factor to exercise rights, but exercising a right should be an issue of justice. Marxists contradicts with them and asserts that equal rights that liberalism establishes are valueless.
Therefore, Marxism makes liberal a consent-based world order in that material power limits individuals from exercising their rights. This is not a valid condemnation from Marxism because, even though one has a right to own anything, then, the world would remain uncontrollable.
Finally, are the alternative world orders presented by these theories realistic? Explain?'
The international world orders presented by these theories are very realistic because we are able to evaluate the international relations from a theoretical point-of-view. Similar to the New World Order, these world orders offer a conceptual structure on which an individual can evaluate the global relations.
Earth in 2113
What type of system is this?
The type…… [Read More]
"hat does that have to do with your daddy?"
"Heh, one of them even had cow dung on his left shoe. Did you know my dad enterted one of them great plantations and rubbed dung all over one of their rugs?"
"No Sarty, you ain't tell me anything like that."
"That's cause the day he died I never looked back. I decided that my momma, my aunt, my brothers, my dad, they were all part of the past and I was headed towards the future."
"eren't you scared of being on your own? You were only ten."
"ell, the owner of the plantation, De Spain, felt bad for killin my dad for startin the fire, and decided to pay for me to go stay at one of his servant's quarters. It was there I spent the next couple years learnin to read and write and became obsessed wth trains."…… [Read More]
This is an apt title because of the gender inequality that the mid-1960s can be associated with, especially the depiction of either sex in films.
Madeleine and her friends are depicted as socially unaware conformists who only live in the moment and don't care for the deeper meaning of life and so embrace popular culture. In contrast, Paul and obert are seen as the opposite: nationalists, idealists, philosophers. However, as Elsa, be it in a rather uninformed way, related from her experience in the U.S., the women over there were making it to the front lines. The freedom to have an abortion was also treated as a scandalous matter in France, which Madeleine accepted and chose as a follower of the popular culture.
A scene in the film has obert discussing with Paul how the word 'masculin' is made up of 'masque' (mask) and 'cul' (ass) and when Paul asks…… [Read More]
Such a large area of inspiration could obviously translate into a very large area of applicability and, even above this, with the inclusion of a large category of both potential educators and educatees who could find these ideas compelling and worthwhile to apply in the education process.
On the other hand, his concept of 'banking' is extremely relevant across the entire domain, from different points-of-view. First of all, such a concept implies the idea that the educational process allows the formation in its entirety of an individual, from the youngest stages of his life. Further more, it also emphasizes the importance of the educational process in this sense. Finally, it is essential and relevant because such an idea can imply that all individuals, including those from disfavored families or with different histories running in the family, can, in fact, be educated and turned into individuals useful for society.
At the…… [Read More]
Many may call this pragmatism, and by following in the path of Christ, even unknowingly, is to embrace pragmatism is one's life. Sara Miles spent her time among the poorest people on the planet, similar to Christ's instruction that performing acts of kindness to the "least of these my brothers, you did it to me." (Matt. 25:40)
So when she finally decided to enter a Episcopal church and celebrate the Holy Eucharist, it would seem a natural extension of her life experiences. Food had always been an underlying, but important part of her, and there she was sharing the body and blood of Christ. She had always been involved in social justice, albeit in a secular way, and had not embraced the Christian Liberation Theology that was popular at the same time. This could have been caused by her acquired distrust of theological dogmas. However, it seems that the sharing…… [Read More]
ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist
ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?
What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?
There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)
Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…… [Read More]
New Media Implications
The improvement of internet and other technology and its ready availability to more and more people has revolutionized the structure and population of the media around the world. People that would normally be members of the audience have become the creators of news and vice versa. The lines that separate news makers and people that normally would be making news or expected to make news have blurred significantly and in several different ways. There are many examples of countries that could be focused on for this subject but one of the best is the United States.
There are multiple ways in which the structure of news creators has changed and evolved over recent months and years. One way in which the idea regarding audience and news sources has been altered significantly is the corporate structure of the people that are providing the news. The companies…… [Read More]
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…… [Read More]
Netflix employees "tear, slap, and clack" through a day's work can be easily understood within a classic sociological framework, using either a Marxist or a Durkheim lens. Both Marx and Durkheim would have noted that the Netflix model represents quintessential division of labor. The employees perform one task with maximum efficiency. hile Durkheim would focus primarily on the social contracts and organization of the employees within the Netflix organization, Marx would critique the means by which the Netflix associates are distanced from the owners of the means of production, their labor artificially devalued and exploited, especially given the employees come from developing countries in Africa and Asia. However, the way Sheehan describes the Netflix operation shows that Durkheim's concepts of social solidarity, specialization, and interdependence are indeed requisite to human survival and are inescapable, as the sociologists affirms in his dissertation on the function of the division of labor.
hereas…… [Read More]
Great Gatsby: As Seen Through Marxist Perspective
A Marxist perspective of F. Scott Fitzgerald's famous novel, The Great Gatsby may be interested in social class representations, together with how characters acquired and retained riches and power. An overall analysis of the novel reveals that it portrays the extremely rich social class that does not work and devotes most of its day to leisure activities primarily. A few less rich minor characters also find mention, along with a smaller share of workers and servants seen at work in the course of the story. In terms of the Marxist theory, the affluent social class denotes the "haves." At the time of the American industrial revolution, capitalists -- the people with capital (i.e., wealth, equipment, or land) -- meant the upper social class. On the other hand, the "have-nots" indicated the lower social class, or workers. In Marx's opinion, a class with economic…… [Read More]
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]
dimensional man'? What is the relevance of this concept for management today?
One-Dimensional Man will dither all over between two opposing theories: which is modern industrial community is able to restrict qualitative alteration for the anticipatory future; power and propensities are there that might shatter this repression and blow up this society. The two propensities are present, concurrently and also one within the other. The initial propensity is foremost, and whatever prerequisite for a turnaround is available are being employed to avert it. It seems that a catastrophe might transform the state, but unless the acknowledgment of what is being performed and what is being checked undermines the awareness and the conduct of man, a calamity will not be enough to unleash the transformation. The study is concentrated on modern industrial society, wherein the technological equipment of manufacturing and delivery operates, not as the aggregate of just tools which can…… [Read More]
Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…… [Read More]
These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)
It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)
History…… [Read More]
As a matter of fact, by the end of 1980s, Soviet Union ran on these very principles.
Kennan criticized the possibilities that Soviets may be involved in invading the pro-Soviet countries with their mind sets and weaken them even if they do not form a higher level of apprehension for them.
Pro-ussian countries will be weakened through a designed framework to tackle the mindsets of the people following western ideologies.
Fights will be sparked in the countries where both countries have western ideologies
Soviet policies will be a negative framework destructive in nature, clearing their path with whatever that comes onto them that they don't like (ussell, 2000).
Kennan was afraid that communism will overshadow the governments of the West but that never happened. At least not to the extent that it was feared by Kennan. Britain and mostly America was afraid of the way communist were taking over and…… [Read More]
The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…… [Read More]
Progressive Republican Theodore Roosevelt resurrected many Populist planks and re-cast them in new forms as he tentatively expanded federal regulations of business corporations. . . Other Populist planks -- particularly those calling for aid to farmers and employment on public works in time of depression -- became reality during the 1930s, under the New Deal administrations of Democrat Franklin Roosevelt." (Edwards, 1)
In spite of these glimpses at relevance, the populist party and its call for populist government together demonstrated a misapprehension of America's structure and fundamental nature. Though the criticisms which it levied against the economic system were not totally unfounded, its uncompromising nature and expectation of the cure would be unrealistic. This idea that the population could be made to govern itself and to conduct its own business echoes the charming but ungrounded naivete found in Hightower's discussion. Here, we are shown a side of populism that springs…… [Read More]
There are many potential actions that could have been taken to help prevent the closing of GM and the job losses, plant closings, and economic catastrophe that is likely to occur as the once unstoppable giant collapses (Wolff, 2009).
The UAW won above subsistence level wages for GM employees, which should have theoretically had the same effect as an economic stimulus in the traditional Keynesian sense. However, rather than being rewarded with increased demand, GM workers found themselves displaced when the company decided to move production to countries where the workers did not attempt to cut into company profits by demanding fair wages. The company profited and these changes had little affect on demand. The world still demanded GM cars, regardless of where they were produced.
The impact of displaced workers should have created the affect of decreased demand according to both Keynesian and Marxian economics. However, when one takes…… [Read More]
), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…… [Read More]
Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions
The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work
Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.
Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…… [Read More]
hat Benjamin means by this summary is well exemplified in a quote by one writer, who admits that he is a part of the bourgeoisie simply because this is what he has always known, although he supports the proletariat (8).
Based on the style of the piece, which is rigid, scholarly, and filled with examples from high culture, one can quickly determine that Benjamin's audience is the intellectual. In fact, Benjamin's conclusive statement -- "For the revolutionary struggle does not take place between capitalism and the intellect, but between capitalism and the proletariat" (8) -- is an excellent summary of the author's goal for that particular audience. Benjamin's primary goal is to convince said intellectuals that they should not be embarrassed of their status as intellectuals, for such a status almost immediately marks them as treading a path between the bourgeoisie and proletariat, a place of sympathy without identification. Instead,…… [Read More]
strong practices which produce solid results. Questionnaires are often used in research to provide raw data to the researcher in order to support or deny his hypothesis. My approach in developing a high quality questionnaire revolves around the purpose of the research. The purpose should be clear cut and not ambiguous. The purpose of the questionnaire needs to answer the following questions: hat do I need to know? hy is this knowledge important? hat information will be produced as a result of this questionnaire.
It is also important in developing a questionnaire to determine what specifically is being measured. Narrowing down the appropriate audience is also important when developing a questionnaire for research. The question of who is being targeted and all the demographic information associated with that task must be considered in the development.
It is also imperative that the data is collected in a practical manner when designing…… [Read More]
Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…… [Read More]
Neoliberal ideology has contributed to the rise in development and reduction of poverty in much of the world since World War II. The main bodies responsible for neoliberalism, such as the United Nations and later the World Trade Organization have encouraged trade, economic openness and democracy. Where these things have not been accepted -- where neoliberalism has been rejected, living standards tend to be lower, and where neoliberalism has been embraced wholeheartedly the living standards are as high as have been enjoyed by any humans in history.
De Soto describes some of the development that has occurred in Peru, which is a moderately neoliberal state. He argues that individual effort can come before collective effort, a hallmark of neoliberalism and that this has resulted higher living standards for many of the country's citizens. De Soto also notes that these changes have also been at the social level. The people…… [Read More]
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]
Doctrine of the Holy Trinity
The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:
Servetus, Milton, Newton
The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Arian Heresy
Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus
Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton
Sir Isaac Newton
The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…… [Read More]
Fiscal and Monetary Issues in America
There are high tensions in the American economy today resulting from speculations whether the government will be able to hit the debt ceiling. Failure to hit the debt ceiling has serious economic effects to many sectors of the economy both in the United States and various countries of the world. Political disagreements regarding the budget delay decision-making process as the date ceiling draws closer each day. The government debt will cause disruption and failures in the U.S. market system and beyond because some rates will double while others will completely fall. The consequences of these are both the government and private sector failures and the economy will not be in a position to sustain itself. Government securities will lose market value and the cost of bonds will double because of the risk premiums. The result of this is government deficits, which will require…… [Read More]
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…… [Read More]
Thus, paramount American interests were to be presented as being really the interests of the Europeans themselves. It would be a situation wherein America was simply helping along people who were, at present, unable to adequately help themselves. The concept had much in common with the goals of many charity or self-help organizations - people grow and are transformed by learning to help themselves. They are given assistance so as to be enabled to learn the skills and life ways necessary to improve their own conditions. Naturally, everything that was in the "real" interests of Europeans would also be in the interests of the United States. The more similar the peoples of the two continents could become, the more readily Europeans could identify their own aspirations with those of the American people, the closer would be the bond between the two sides. In effect, the new post-ar Europe would be…… [Read More]