Marxist Criticism Essays (Examples)

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Marxist Reading of the Great

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18018214

In the car Nick sees him look sideways as though lying and thinks "And with this doubt, his whole statement fell to pieces, and I wondered if there wasn't something a little sinister about him, after all" (65, Chapter 4). Nick's middle class ideology leads him to scorn those who would strive to get ahead. It is the traditional view of the underclass toward upstarts from within. In the end, he loses "love" (Jordan). The text does not validate his character as an ideal.

The relationship of Tom and Gatsby clearly reinforces the class system. Tom articulates a power-oriented racist vision, saying "It's up to us, who are the dominant race, to watch out or these other races will have control of things" (13, Chapter 1). This Nordic racism is symbolic of a biased class consciousness out of which Tom operates. He wants to retain his class power. It creates…… [Read More]

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Marxist Liberalism True Liberalism Through

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64029923



Another fundamental element of liberal theory and ideology is the right for each individual to pursue and hold private property. According to Locke, each individual has the opportunity and the right to work to better oneself through the accumulation and improvement of their own private property, "it is allowed to be his goods who hath bestowed his labor upon it," (Locke, 21).

This is also a crucial feature in the foundations of capitalism as well. It ensures that as long as one works and labors hard enough, he or she will be entitled to a certain amount of private property to compensate for that labor, "As much land as a man tills, plants, improves, cultivates, and can use the product of, so much is his property," (Locke, 22). It is with this idea that many societies have promised their underprivileged or poor the chance to rise above their inherited ranks…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Locke, John. The Second Treatise on Civil Government. Prometheus Books. Amherst,

New York. 1986.

Marx, Karl, Engels, Frederick. The German Ideology. International Publishers. New York. 2004.
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Marxist Perspective for Understanding Society

Words: 1760 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86249392

Marxist Perspective for Understanding Society

Although the United States and other Western nations fought a cold war against Communism for a significant part of the twentieth century, Western nations were not immune to the influence of Karl Marx, an intellectual and ideological founder of Communism. Even during the Cold War, Marxism entered disciplines in social sciences in the United States and students of sociology, history, political science, and a few other disciplines can no longer ignore Marxist perspective for understanding society today. Indeed, key components of Marxist perspective -- all of them revolving around the basic premise that societies can be defined by class struggle -- are very helpful in analyzing how a society functions. And Marxism today is not confined to the writings of Marx only but has been enriched by other scholars who helped to make Marxism a very useful and important tool for evaluating complexities of societies.…… [Read More]

References

Andreou, C. (1998) In Defense of Marx's Account of the Nature of Capitalist Exploitation. Philosophy of Economics. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from  http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Econ/EconAndr.htm 

Bohmer, P. (1998) Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from  http://academic.evergreen.edu/b/bohmerp/marxracism.htm 

Burns, E. (2011) Virtual University: What is Marxism? Capitalism's Imperialist Stage. The Greanville Post. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from  http://www.greanvillepost.com/2011/10/29/what-is-marxism-capitalisms-imperialist-stage-pt-4/ 

Gimenez, M. (2001). Marxism, and class, gender, and race: Rethinking the trilogy. Race, Gender & Class, 8(2), 23-33. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from EBSCOhost.
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Habermas an Alternative to Marxist

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76186237

Indeed, if one considers newsworthy events, violent revolution as a mode of change appears much more instinctive to human beings than communicative action.

Foucault's Theory of Power

For Habermas, Foucault's theory of power is over generalizing and universalizing. He thus dismisses the latter philosopher's theory as reductionistic and contradictory. Once again Habermas uses philosophical reason rather than mechanical evolution as a basis from which to change the corruptive power held by authorities and institutions. Foucault on the other hand sees power and reason as intertwined with each other. Thus there is no good or bad within power structures themselves, but rather in how they are implemented. Habermas however finds this problematic, and argues that there is then no ground from which to effect the necessary change in of these power structures in order to make them more beneficial for society.

In Foucault's view, there are dangers inherent in holding a…… [Read More]

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Graham Greene the Power and

Words: 1677 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61352224

This was however, not the view held by the Catholic Church in their view of the novel. The view of the Catholic Church, was that "the latter element" -- that is, human wretchedness -- had appeared "to carry the day" in a way that did injury "to certain priestly characters and even to the priesthood itself." Moreover, the novel portrayed a state of affairs so "paradoxical" and "erroneous" that it would disconcert "unenlightened persons" who formed "the majority of the readers."

Summary and Conclusion

Greene was not disconcerted by the view of the Church and simply remarked that he did not own the copyright and therefore could do nothing to change what was already written. The following quote from the work is quite poignant and after having read about the life of Greene can just as easily be assigned to come from within him as from within the mind of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Schlosser, Stephen (nd) "Altogether Adverse" - American Magazine Issue 388. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/gettext.cfm?articleTypeID=1&text ID=2311&issueID=388

Greeneland (2005) Online available at  http://www.amywelborn.com/greene/greene.html .

Graham Greene "The Power and the Glory" Online available at http://members.tripod.com/~greeneland/power.htm

Graham Green's "The Power and the Glory"
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Critical Theory and Critical Inquiry

Words: 3387 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87262722

roots in critical theory, which stemmed from the approaches of the Frankfurt school of philosophers in the mid-20th century. The Frankfurt School was led by Theodore Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Erich fromm and other German intellectuals who had emigrated from Germany during the time of the Third eich. They held what an essentially neo-Marxist point-of-view -- that is, they based their critical analysis of society on the fact that the proletariat had failed to seize power from the elites. Adorno and Horkheimer especially focused on the "culture industry" which they claimed was responsible for the failure of the proletariat in the West to climb out of its class oppression. The "culture industry" promoted the concept that the elites wanted the proletariat to adopt -- namely, that they were comfortable and happy with the way things were. Through technological innovations like television and propaganda-producing systems like Hollywood, the working class was easily…… [Read More]

References

Caldwell, P. (2012). Marxist Criticism of Public Education Funding and Social

Reproduction. Colgate Academic Review, 2(10): 54-58.

Connelly, F.M., He, M.F., & Philion, J. (2007). The Sage handbook of curriculum and instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. NY: Continuum.
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Sociology of Popular Culture

Words: 1773 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41806858

Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 2: Popular Culture, Ideology, and Capitalism: Critique of the 'Culture Industry'"

Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 3: Reading the Popular: Culture as a System

of Signs"

Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 5: Popular Culture and Gender Identities"
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Historical Biographical Criticism

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51483779

Fences

Playwright August ilson won two Pulitzers in his illustrious career. In The Pittsburgh Cycle, ilson wrote a series of plays each depicting a different decade in the lives of African-Americans living in the United States. Of these, Fences, takes place in the 1950s and features the problems not only of the African-American experience, but also the situation of societal oppression indicative of that period. At the heart of the play is protagonist Troy Maxson. His actions result in comedy and tragedy for all of the characters around him, making him the center of this universe that ilson has created, representing the tumultuous time period in which the play takes place. August ilson has stated that the character is based upon his own step-father, David Bedford providing the story with an autobiographical context. ilson uses his own perception of his step-father in order to illustrate a story about the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bryer, Jackson R., and Mary C. Hartig. Conversations with August Wilson. Jackson: University

of Mississippi, 2006. Print.

Clark, Keith. "Reflections on Baseball, Gunshots, and War Wounds in August Wilson's Fences."

Contemporary Black Men's Fiction and Drama. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2001.
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Creation of Concepts Through the Combination of Images in Strike

Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65478860

Images in "Strike"

A Marxist engineer and architect by formal training, Sergei Eisenstein used his training to create the "montage." Though Eisenstein's work suffers some criticism for its use of bludgeons to convey blunt propaganda, his seminal work is deemed the basis for montages in the work of such eminent directors as Hitchcock, De Palma and Coppola. Arousing strong emotional impact from the juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated images, multiple effective montages are evident in Eisenstein's first film, Strike.

Sergei Eisenstein (1898 -- 1948) was one of the most famous filmmakers of the early 20th Century (Archive Media Project, LP). His formal training as an engineer and architect in St. Petersburg greatly influenced his eventual career in filmmaking. In addition, his Marxist ideology and his Russian heritage highly influenced his work. Eisenstein experimented with several cinematic devices and due to his contributions, was embraced by the ritish Film Institute as one…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anonymous. "Sergei Eisenstein." n.d. isites.harvard.edu Web site. Web. 31 October 2012.

Archive Media Project, LP. Russian Archives Online > Gallery > Eisenstein. 2008. Web. 31 October 2012.

Shaw, Dan. Sergei Eisenstein. 2012. Web. 31 October 2012.

Strike. Dir. Sergei M. Eisenstein. Perf. Grigori Aleksandrov and Maksim Shtraukh. 1925. DVD.
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Storni Alfonsina You Want Me White the

Words: 1783 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32838464

Storni, Alfonsina. "You ant Me hite." The Norton Anthology of orld

Vol. F. Ed. Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. New York: Norton, 2002. 2124-2125

The poem titled "You ant Me hite" written by Alfonsina Storni explores the issue of women mistreatment by men. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they (men ) are not.

Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998

In this book the author portrays how women are only valued for their fertility and they are allowed access to education in the patriarch society. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.

Staves, Susan. Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.

This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Oxford: Heinemann, 1996.

Atwood, Margaret.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998

Staves, Susan. Married Women's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.

Stewart, Maaja A. Domestic Realities and Imperial Fictions: Jane Austen's Novels in Eighteenth-Century Contexts. Athens: U. Of Georgia P, 1993.
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Feminism Heaney and Dickinson Feminist

Words: 380 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76683429

Because society compromises the value of the woman, it is allowed the life of domesticity and life. The speaker however remains forever beyond this because she chooses self-realization instead.

In Heaney's "Punishment," feminism can be seen from the male viewpoint, as it were. The corpse of a bog girl, an adulteress, educates the narrator regarding issues of gender and politics. The narrator, far from the conventional male reaction of disgust, instead becomes infatuated with her. It is as if he is the male representative of the feminist viewpoint; that women offer value and education rather than objects of sex or symbols of domesticity. The intimacy between the speakers involve no blame. Instead of man and woman, they are equals, in strong contrast with the society that would condemn them both for their actions and their association.

ources

Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You."…… [Read More]

Sources

Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You." 2007. http://www.poets.org/page.php/prmID/310

Tagle, Stephen. The Bog Girl Re-sexualized: An Analysis of Seamus Heaney's "Punishment." 13 April, 2005. http://www.stanford.edu/~stagle/ESSAYS/SPR%20ENG160%20E01%20Punishment.htm
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Alexander Set Radical Multiculturalism Holds That Cultural

Words: 1485 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75706550

Alexander Set

Radical multiculturalism holds that cultural groups should be the measure for considerations of justice as a group offers the individual the indispensable good of being rooted in a community. The problem is that groups always set-up unequal in-group out-group relations that are detrimental to society.

The problem is that conservatives claim it undermines cohesiveness, but cohesiveness is exactly what all social movements in the last hundred years have attempted to bring about.

In this context this means that the gains of one group are not balanced by losses of another group.

The civil sphere includes structures of feelings, symbols, psychological identifications, and sympathies determine how resources are allocated in society. The public sphere is more of how this publically stated (the two can be different).

Common identity is malleable depending on the times. The move for woman's voting rights and equal rights into the national identity is an…… [Read More]

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Extinction or Survival Implications for

Words: 3413 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96945138



Early Education Shows No enefit (HSLDA 2007)

This article argues for the viewpoint that Head-Start-type early education is not only non-productive, but can actually lead to detriments to children's development as they enter formal school. The article begins by citing the results of a recent study of 35,000 students by Durham University, which found that there was no benefit to pre-school education programs for children. The article points to a series of earlier studies, reaching back to the 1960's, which demonstrate that there are no lasting benefits: it is clear from these studies that summer pre-school programs show no short-term or long-term gains, while all-year pre-schools offer some advantages only in the first year or two of formal schooling. The article also argues that children who go to pre-schools too young suffer from being away from their parents, and may have behavioral difficulties later. One could expect that those who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bethell, T. "Against Sociobiology." First Things. 2001. http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2126 (Accessed November 20, 2007).

CER. "Education Programs Constitutional; Growth Steady." EdReform. com. July 26, 2007. http://www.edreform.com/index.cfm?fuseAction=document&documentID=2691&sectionID=122&NEWSYEAR=2007 (Accessed November 20, 2007).

Crawford, C.B. And Krebs, D.L. Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Eribaum, 1998.

Crawford, C.B. And Sheib, J. The Essence of Evolutionary Society: An Introduction. 2004.
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Marx and Locke

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47848618

Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…… [Read More]

We can see the best examples of these 19th century economic theories in the works of Henry George, a populist who wished to ensure plurality by limiting the ability of property owners to hoard natural resources, and Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist who incorporated Darwinism into his defenses of what is now termed 'classical' liberalism and famously advocated "the right to ignore the state."

Locke, John, Second Treatise on Self-Government. http://www.swan.ac.uk/poli/texts/locke/lockcont.htm

Marxist Origins of Communism, George Mason University. http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx1.htm
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Marx Rhet X Marx the

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47250659

45). ith the ideology of the ownership class necessarily becoming the dominant ideology throughout the world not simply through the spread of industry and capitalism but through dramatic changes in international trade and economies brought about by capitalist/industrialist changes in single countries, the bourgeoisie acquires (or acquired) dramatic power to shape global events and politics through their shaping of the thoughts that can be had and the modes by which they can be expressed -- through their control over rhetorical interpretations and expression, in other words.

Implications of Marx's Rhetorical Theory

Using a Marxist approach to rhetorical theory has a variety of benefits and drawbacks to theorists and critics working from many different perspectives. The benefits to such a perspective are clear, if somewhat ominous -- they give concrete and measurable ways in which to develop an understanding of thought itself, and of how thoughts are created and expressed (and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marx, Karl and Engels, Frederick. Manifesto of the Communist Party. 1848. Accessed 28 February 2013. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Manifesto.pdf

Marx, Karl. The German Ideology. 1845. Accessed 28 February 2013. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/ch01a.htm
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Hamlet A New Historicist's View

Words: 1327 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34204441

..render up myself...Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night...And for the day confined to fast in fires, / Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature/Are burnt and purged away." (I.5). At first, Hamlet believes the ghost is from Purgatory because of the vividness of these images. Then Hamlet constructs a test for the ghost as he worries: "the devil hath power/to assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps/Out of my weakness and my melancholy, / as he is very potent with such spirits" (2.2). In short, Hamlet begins to doubt the doctrine because the ghost ostensibly from Purgatory has asked him to commit a murder, to kill a king.

Hamlet seldom displays a consistent attitude to Purgatory in the play. In his most famous soliloquy, Hamlet says that death is a place from which "no traveler returns" indicating he doubts the ghost (III.1). Hamlet wrestles…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Felluga, Dino. "Module on Stephen Greenblatt: On History." Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. Date of last update: 2002. Purdue U. 12 Jul 1007. http://www.purdue.edu/guidetotheory/newhistoricism/modules/greenblatthistory.html.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Hamlet in Purgatory. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Pettegree, Andrew. "The English Reformation." BBC: History -- the English

Reformation. 1 May 1, 2001. 12 Jul 2007.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/english_reformation_01.shtml
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darwinism and evolution in woodlanders

Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68735241

Thomas Hardy's The Woodlanders was published in 1887, a few years after the death of Charles Darwin. However, the novel was set in the middle of the 19th century, in about the same year that Darwin published On the Origin of the Species. Hardy may not have selected his setting arbitrarily. The Woodlanders has often been read within the context of Darwinian influences in society and literature. However, literary critics tend to emphasize the fusion between Romantic and Darwinian depictions of nature in The Woodlanders to show how Hardy drew from Darwin to develop his characters and themes. Irvine, for example, claims Hardy was an "evolutionary pessimist," and this is certainly apparent in The Woodlanders, which provides an overtly pessimistic view of human nature but especially of patriarchy (625). In fact, Hardy's The Woodlanders shows that while Darwinian principles of evolution sometimes favor members of the species with no moral…… [Read More]

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Theorizing Ideology Literature as a

Words: 2359 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78274353

Literature is allowed to expand across class lines because it is constantly seeking out new forms of expressing the human experience. Even the most elite of the bourgeoisie are allowed to enjoy the latest experimental or ethnic literature, which serve as pure representations of the proletariat human experience, "it is common to see 'literature' defined as 'full, central, immediate human experience,' usually an associated reference to 'minute particulars,'" (illiams 45). These "minute particulars" are what make literature so interesting and entertaining, thus successful. It is with this understanding of literature as an ideology that the concept of ideology can take on duel roles, "A common culture is thus entirely compatible with a hierarchical one," (Eagleton The Idea of Culture 115). Much unlike the theories which state that a true ideology cannot live up to a duel existence, literature as an ideology proves to do just that.

It is in this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bawden, Garth. "Symbols of Power." The Moche. Wiley. 1996.

Eagleton, Terry. The Idea of Culture. Blackwell Publishing. 2000.

Eagleton, Terry. "The Rise of the English." Norton Anthology of Literature. PUT EXACT PUBLICATION INFO HERE

Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction Volume 1. Vintage Books.
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Communitarianism Liberal Society Seeks Not

Words: 1772 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11323431

That premise states a core value that the framers intended to protect. The intentionalist judge must then supply the minor premise in order to protect the constitutional freedom in circumstances the framers could not foresee. (Bork 15)

Bork's approach was recently critiqued by Daniel Ortiz and some others, one of whom noted, with reference to the Griswold decision on privacy, that Bork saw the decision as "unprincipled" "because [e]very clash between a minority claiming freedom and a majority claiming power to regulate involves a choice between the gratifications of the two groups.

hen the Constitution has not spoken [under an originalist theory of interpretation], the Court will be able to find no scale, other than its own value preferences, upon which to weigh the respective claims to pleasure. (Bork Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems).

Bork thus supports community rights over individual rights to a greater extent than has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bork, Robert H. "Original Intent." The Judges' Journal (Summer 1987), 13-17.

Bork, Robert H.

Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems, 47 IND. L.J. 1 (1971).

Giddens, Anthony. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1987.
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Gilman Melville and Houston Short

Words: 1973 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11728758

"e're leaving,' he hissed. "I'm taking you straight to the hospital." hen Susan rose shakily to her feet, uncontrollable diarrhea had stained her dress and dripped from the chair. hite with fury, Charles Hay took her by the arm and led her slowly from the hall." (Melville 134)

The work again intones an incredible journey through what a women sees a man thinking. The disconnectedness of Susan from her husband is so complete that her voice is only marginal in the work, but the message is clear in the literary expression of her secreted activities. The masculine is represented as the feminist idea of greater association with industry than home, to the peril of loving relationships. The writing demonstrates a character who is wholly disconnected from ethics in love and life, and in s sense is a demonized masculine archetype.

Conclusion:

Among these three works are three completely differing context…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cavalcanti, Ildney. "Utopias of/f Language in Contemporary Feminist Literary Dystopias." Utopian Studies 11.2 (2000): 152.

Fludernik, Monika. The Fictions of Language and the Languages of Fiction: The Linguistic Representation of Speech and Consciousness. London: Routledge, 1993.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper" (1892) available online at  http://www.pagebypagebooks.com/Charlotte_Perkins_Gilman/The_Yellow_Wallpaper/The_Yellow_Wallpaper_p1.html .

Herndl, Diane Price. Invalid Women: Figuring Feminine Illness in American Fiction and Culture, 1840-1940. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
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IR Journal Who Started the

Words: 2573 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90629234

This basically means that the criticism to feminist political theories resembles more the substance of other I theories.

6. First off, we should discuss the differences between system level theories and state level theories. What are the benefits to studying international relations at the state level? What are the drawbacks?

In its most basic formulation, state level theories of international politics refer to those ideas which place the country at the core of political actions and decisions. Examples of this sense include the previously discussed realism and transnationalism schools of thought, which argue that the state places itself based on its particular interests. The relevant example of system level theories refers to the class system theories, and they are characterized by the fact that decisions and actions in international politics are not established based on national interests, but relative to the desires and power of specific groups -- generally those…… [Read More]

References:

Camestaro, N.A., Realism and Transnationalism: Competing Visions International Security, Boston University, Retrieved from http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/international/volume25n1/documents/113-162.pdf on October 5, 2009

Hobson, J.M., the State and International Relations, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521643910

Kemos, a., the Influence of Thucydides in the Modern World, Hellenic Resources Network,  http://www.hri.org/por/thucydides.html  last accessed on October 5, 2009

Sayre, B., 2003, Peace Studies' War Against America, Canadian Center for Teaching Peace,  http://www.peace.ca/peacestudiescriticism.htm  last accessed on October 5, 2009
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Realism and the End of

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54528994

S.S.R. stands the fact that civil strife is less dangerous if it takes place on the losing side that it is on the winning side (p99).

Realists and Their Critics

Predictive failure: realism through structural realism failed to predict the fall of the U.S.S.R. And instead foresaw stability in the bipolar system. However, no theory considered the idea of the way in which the Cold War would end. Even so, theorists did not have a clear understanding of the actual capabilities of the two actors because these capabilities contain non-material aspects as well.

Correlation between "power" and "change": it is difficult to make because a clear focus must be placed on the need of the U.S.S.R. To revitalize its economy in order to maintain its power in the 1980s that may have brought about the change. Further, this correlation is based on the internal and international factors such as the…… [Read More]

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Joseph Andrews

Words: 5672 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68319186

Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews

The protagonists of Henry Fielding's novels would appear to be marked by their extreme social mobility: Shamela will manage to marry her master, ooby, and the "foundling" Tom Jones is revealed as the bastard child of a serving-maid and Squire Allworthy himself, just as surely as Joseph Andrews is revealed to be the kidnapped son of Wilson, who himself was "born a gentleman" (Fielding 157). In fact Wilson's digression in ook III Chapter 3 of Joseph Andrews has frequently been taken for a self-portrait: "I am descended from a good family," Williams tells Joseph and Parson Adams, "my Education was liberal, and at a public School" (Fielding 157). Goldberg helpfully notes of this passage that such education was defined in Johnson's Dictionary as an education "becoming a gentleman," although fails to note that Fielding himself was educated at the most lordly of all the English public…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartolomeo, Joseph. "Restoration and Eighteenth Century Satiric Fiction." In Quintero, Ruben (Editor). A Companion to Satire. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. Print.

Davidson, Jenny. Hypocrisy and the Politics of Politeness: Manners and Morals from Locke to Austen. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Dentith, Simon. Parody. New York and London: Routledge, 2000. Print.

Empson, Sir William. "Tom Jones." In Fielding, Henry and Baker, Sheridan (Editor). Tom Jones. New York: Norton, 1973. Print.
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Existentialism Philosophy

Words: 2758 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21158641

Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre on Existentialism and Humanism

The Essentials of Essentialism

Martin Heidegger's philosophical opus is both deep and complex and a comprehensive examination of it here would be impossible. However it is possible to provide an overview of his essential teachings - of the essential aspects of his essentialism. Doing so will allow us, in later sections, to explore his criticisms of Jean-Paul Sartre's far more famous version of existentialism as well as to examine the ways in which - despite Heidegger's criticism of Sartre - the two are in many ways the same.

Heidegger, like all modern philosophers (and possibly the ancient ones as well), incorporated the work of a number of earlier thinkers into his own formulation of existentialism and his understanding of the nature of reality of the place of humans in the world. As an existentialist, Heidegger believed in a philosophy that was…… [Read More]

References

Danto, A. (1975). Jean-Paul Sartre. New York: Viking Press.

Heidegger, M. (1997). Being and time. New York: SUNY.

Manser, A. (1966). Sartre: A philosophic study. London: Athlone Press.

Murdoch, I. (1953). Sartre: Romantic rationalist. New Haven: Yale University.
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Transformative Adult Education Did You

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12461868

They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."

Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…… [Read More]

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Marxism and Feminism Marxism Is a Theory

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14296750

Marxism and Feminism

Marxism is a theory of economic system while feminism is exclusively connected with relationship between men and women so how do these two could possibly unite. An interesting question- the answer to which lies in understanding the basic structure of Marxism on which feminism is loosely based. Alternatively, we can first understand what feminism is all about and see how it gets its inspiration from Marxism. Feminism is the result of women liberation movement, which began somewhere in the 18th century and gained momentum in late 19th century. During this time women realized that they were not being treated the same way as men and everything was viewed through masculine binoculars. In other worlds, it was found that males were completely dominating every area including 'thinking' and this resulted in women liberation movement, which ultimately led to feminism. Feminism today exists in various forms and is characterized…… [Read More]

References

1. Cliff, Tony 1984. Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. London: Blackwell.

2. Dunayevskaya, R. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1996

3. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union." In Lydia Sargent, ed. op. cit., 1981:1-42.

4. Terrell Carver, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Marxism and Feminism: Living with your 'Ex', PSA Annual Conference 6-8 April 2004
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Edmund Spenser the Social Critique

Words: 5349 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62051431

Still, his union with a woman also of common birth leaves us to reflect that in all likelihood, Spenser himself would enter the court after an upbringing of modestly. This denotes the distinction of Spenser as a critique of reigning structures of authority in his time and place. This also helps to introduce our discussion to the historical context into which he deposited his first important work of poetry.

Language:

The choice of language in the poem is a curious one, at least insofar as it can be regarded as somewhat misleading of the work's time of origin. Its composition in 1579 and the poet's declared affection for and indebtedness to the works of Geoffrey Chaucer are facts submerged beneath the linguistic affectations which Spenser felt were necessary to carry the pastoral form. (Bear, 1) Indeed, the prologue which is composed by an otherwise anonymous writer signing as E.K., provides…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bear, R.S. (2006). Introduction to Edmund Spenser's the Shephearde's Calendar. The University of Oregon.

Hales, J.W. (2004). The Project Gutenberg EBook of a Biography of Edmund Spenser. Project Gutenberg.

Hamilton, a.C. (1990). The Spenser Encyclopedia. University of Toronto Press.

NNDB. (2008). Edmund Spenser. Soylent Communications. Online at  http://www.nndb.com/people/405/000085150/
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Arguments for Limiting Free Speech

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21176640

limiting free speech ID: 53711

The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.

Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…… [Read More]

References

Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.

Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
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Jong Erica Fashion Victim Salon com

Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10594693

Emma likes the type of pulp, romantic and sentimental fiction condemned by Nabokov, the 19th century version of Harlequin Romances. Emma is not an artist of prose like her creator, she is a consumer of written culture in a very literal as well as a metaphorical sense, just as she consumes all sorts of material goods in her futile quest for fulfillment, and dies by consuming poison at the end of the novel.

his is what makes Emma so fascinating as a character. She engages in the same project of interpretation and authorship as her reader, even if it is a failed project. "But what interests me most in Madame Bovary is the heroine's fondness for reading. She dies because she has attempted to make her life into a novel -- and it is the foolishness of that quest that Flaubert's clinical style mocks." (Jong, 1997) Emma essentially dies of…… [Read More]

The paradox of Flaubert's project of writing to satirize reading is clear, through Jong's interpretation of his most famous work. "A novelist mocking a heroine besotted by novels? Then this must be a writer mocking himself! And indeed, Flaubert memorably said that he had drawn Madame Bovary from life -- and after himself. 'I have dissected myself to the quick,' he wrote." (Jong, 1997) This acts as an important reminder that Flaubert did not merely carefully observe and record the mundane details of the world he saw around him, but also engaged in rigorous psychological self-scrutiny to produce a sense of realism within the pages of Bovary. Emma's interior life, however focused it may be centered on shallow objects and pursuits, is what makes her stand apart from the depicted heroines of pulp novels. Flaubert's prose is not merely descriptive and realistic. It also is psychologically full of nuance and more detailed than authors of sensationalist novels, whose heroines do not have a clear, discernable motivation for why they transgress sexual norms.

Although Jong's own fiction is often described as feminist, Jong points out that Emma's sense of discontent with her life is not merely connected to the fact that her feminine role as a housewife is frustrating. Emma does not seek a more useful life, Emma seeks "ecstasy and transcendence" that is in short supply in her rural French community. Jong's stress upon the spirituality of Emma's quest is an important reminder of the fact that Emma begins her education in a convent, and actually seems to show a superficial aptitude for the life of a nun. Emma later brings her fervor for gracious living to her life as a wife, then a mistress. Emma's inner life may seem to be centered around the pursuit of empty things, like beautiful home goods, dresses, and beautiful love affairs, but she is located squarely within a society that valorizes such objects and offers them as the only secular solution to ennui. "Emma's drama is the gap between illusion and reality, the distance between desire and its fulfillment." (Jong, 1997)

Jong says: "her search for ecstasy is ours," in short, Emma is a uniquely modern heroine, for we all seek transcendence, all of us who read, and life invariably falls short. This is the final paradox of Bovary -- a novel that critiques itself and a genre likely to be very dear to the heart of a reader is so successful, and still feels modern today. Although Jong's essay does not offer an extensive, deep interpretation of the entire novel, it acts as an important reminder of critical aspects of the work that may be overlooked, like the role of religion in the novel, and the importance of reading to Emma's interior life.
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Durkheim and the Division of

Words: 2268 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83333271

His underlying interest was to understand the basic forms of religious life for all societies. In Elementary Forms, Durkheim argues that the totems the aborigines venerate are actually expressions of their own conceptions of society itself. This is true not only for the aborigines, he argues, but for all societies (ibid).

eligion, for Durkheim, is not "imaginary," although he does deprive it of what many believers find essential. eligion is very real; it is an expression of society itself, and indeed, there is no society that does not have religion. We perceive as individuals a force greater than ourselves, which is our social life, and give that perception a supernatural face. We then express ourselves religiously in groups, which for Durkheim makes the symbolic power greater. eligion is an expression of our collective consciousness, which is the fusion of all of our individual consciousnesses, which then creates a reality of…… [Read More]

References

Cotterrell, R. (1999). Emile Durkheim: Law in a Moral Domain. Sanford, CA: Stanford

Univ. Press. p243.

Emile, D. (1947). Extract from the Division of Labor. New York, NY: The Free Press.

pp1-7).
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ID 76072 Paper Type Pages

Words: 2442 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95948611


Although within capitalism Marx understands that an individual seeks a
better situation for himself, his choices and the reasons for making his
choices are based upon the capitalist system that society has instituted.
Furthermore, Marx's view of history and the motivations of history
are much different than Hobbes and Locke. To Marx, all of history is a
class struggle. In the capitalist system laborers give their labor to the
capitalists. Locke writes about the body and labor that, "nobody has any
right to but himself. The labour of his body and the work of his hands, we
may say, are properly his" (Chap 5). This means, to Locke, that a laborer
is working with his own property, his own body, as an individual. Marx
differs in this assumption as not only does the laborer have very little
choice in the system, but also that while laboring "a crowd of people…… [Read More]

Works Cited
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathon. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996.

Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge, 1988.

Marx, Karl. Selected Writings. Ed. Lawrence H. Simon. Indianapolis, IN:
Hackett Company, Inc, 1994.
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Phaedrus Provides a Description of

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71852125

This implies that a lot about us is built via our symbol systems. Burke's asserts that a correlation exists between the nonverbal and the oral. Burke believes that non-verbal language involve signs plus labels that help one to understand things. Burke asserts that when a person speaks the words that come from him are a product of the inspiration that emanate from the animalitic and symbolic nature of man.

Burk further explores language by asserting that the name 'situation' is fundamental in conducting an explanation of the social framework relating literary text. This is possible by stating that a text of literature originates from culturally 'problematic situations'. According to Burke, treating language from the focal point of 'situation' and strategies leads to the notion that literature proposes a progression of traditional art and various communication methods, for example, oral and other forms regarding symbolic expression. Burke further refutes the existence…… [Read More]

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Globalization Soft Power Ngos and

Words: 2144 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94201073

However, liberals argue that material conditions should not be a determining factor to exercise rights, but exercising a right should be an issue of justice. Marxists contradicts with them and asserts that equal rights that liberalism establishes are valueless.

Therefore, Marxism makes liberal a consent-based world order in that material power limits individuals from exercising their rights. This is not a valid condemnation from Marxism because, even though one has a right to own anything, then, the world would remain uncontrollable.

Finally, are the alternative world orders presented by these theories realistic? Explain?'

The international world orders presented by these theories are very realistic because we are able to evaluate the international relations from a theoretical point-of-view. Similar to the New World Order, these world orders offer a conceptual structure on which an individual can evaluate the global relations.

Earth in 2113

What type of system is this?

The type…… [Read More]

References

Cox, R.W. (1983).'Gramsci, Hegemony, and International Relations: An Essay in Method'.

Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 12/2, 162 -- 175.

Embong, A.R. (2001). 'Globalisation and Transnational Class Relations: Some Problems of Conceptualization'. Mittelman and Othman: 92 -- 106.

Grieco, M. (1988).Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A Realist Critique of the Newest
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Surplus Appropriated in Toto by

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68255896

"

"hat does that have to do with your daddy?"

"Heh, one of them even had cow dung on his left shoe. Did you know my dad enterted one of them great plantations and rubbed dung all over one of their rugs?"

"No Sarty, you ain't tell me anything like that."

"That's cause the day he died I never looked back. I decided that my momma, my aunt, my brothers, my dad, they were all part of the past and I was headed towards the future."

"eren't you scared of being on your own? You were only ten."

"ell, the owner of the plantation, De Spain, felt bad for killin my dad for startin the fire, and decided to pay for me to go stay at one of his servant's quarters. It was there I spent the next couple years learnin to read and write and became obsessed wth trains."…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Byres, TJ. Sharecropping and Sharecroppers. London: F. Cass, 1983. Print.

Comprone, Joseph. "Literature and the Writing Process: A Pedagogical Reading of William Faulkner's "Barn Burning." Jstor.org. College Literature, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.

Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." Lake-Sumter Community College | Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.

Priddy, Anna, and Harold Bloom. Bloom's How to Write About William Faulkner. New York: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2010. Print.
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Goddard's Masculin Feminin as a

Words: 2278 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69083301

This is an apt title because of the gender inequality that the mid-1960s can be associated with, especially the depiction of either sex in films.

Madeleine and her friends are depicted as socially unaware conformists who only live in the moment and don't care for the deeper meaning of life and so embrace popular culture. In contrast, Paul and obert are seen as the opposite: nationalists, idealists, philosophers. However, as Elsa, be it in a rather uninformed way, related from her experience in the U.S., the women over there were making it to the front lines. The freedom to have an abortion was also treated as a scandalous matter in France, which Madeleine accepted and chose as a follower of the popular culture.

A scene in the film has obert discussing with Paul how the word 'masculin' is made up of 'masque' (mask) and 'cul' (ass) and when Paul asks…… [Read More]

References

AsgerJorn quoted by Graham Birtwistle: Living Art / Jorn's Theory (1946-1949): Reflex, 1986, p36.

Bordwell, David. The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice. University of California Press, 1979.

Daix, Pierre. Les LettresFrancaises, 1966.

Francois, Truffaut. A Certain Tendency ofthe French Cinema. Classic Auteur Theory, 1954.
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Paulo Freire 1921-1997 What Makes

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12665650

Such a large area of inspiration could obviously translate into a very large area of applicability and, even above this, with the inclusion of a large category of both potential educators and educatees who could find these ideas compelling and worthwhile to apply in the education process.

On the other hand, his concept of 'banking' is extremely relevant across the entire domain, from different points-of-view. First of all, such a concept implies the idea that the educational process allows the formation in its entirety of an individual, from the youngest stages of his life. Further more, it also emphasizes the importance of the educational process in this sense. Finally, it is essential and relevant because such an idea can imply that all individuals, including those from disfavored families or with different histories running in the family, can, in fact, be educated and turned into individuals useful for society.

At the…… [Read More]

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Bread Sara Miles Take This

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83479489

Many may call this pragmatism, and by following in the path of Christ, even unknowingly, is to embrace pragmatism is one's life. Sara Miles spent her time among the poorest people on the planet, similar to Christ's instruction that performing acts of kindness to the "least of these my brothers, you did it to me." (Matt. 25:40)

So when she finally decided to enter a Episcopal church and celebrate the Holy Eucharist, it would seem a natural extension of her life experiences. Food had always been an underlying, but important part of her, and there she was sharing the body and blood of Christ. She had always been involved in social justice, albeit in a secular way, and had not embraced the Christian Liberation Theology that was popular at the same time. This could have been caused by her acquired distrust of theological dogmas. However, it seems that the sharing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Good News Bible: The Bible in Today's English Version. New York: American Bible

Society, 1976. Print.

Miles, Sara. Take This Bread: A Radical Conversion. New York: Ballantine, 2007. Print.
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Realist Liberal Critical Theorist

Words: 1627 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68801795

ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist

ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?

What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?

There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)

Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…… [Read More]

References

Froese, Katrin. "Beyond Liberalism: the moral community of Rousseau's social

Contract." Canadian Journal of Political Science 34 (2001): 579-581.

Hall, Cheryl. "Reason, passion, and politics in Rousseau." Polity 34 (2001): 69-89.

Merriman-Webster. "Realism" and "Liberalism." 30 Nov. 2004. http://www.m-w.com
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Media Audiences

Words: 3186 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41413857

New Media Implications

The improvement of internet and other technology and its ready availability to more and more people has revolutionized the structure and population of the media around the world. People that would normally be members of the audience have become the creators of news and vice versa. The lines that separate news makers and people that normally would be making news or expected to make news have blurred significantly and in several different ways. There are many examples of countries that could be focused on for this subject but one of the best is the United States.

Media Structure

There are multiple ways in which the structure of news creators has changed and evolved over recent months and years. One way in which the idea regarding audience and news sources has been altered significantly is the corporate structure of the people that are providing the news. The companies…… [Read More]

References

Babad, E. (2005). The Psychological Price of Media Bias. Journal of Experimental

Psychology. 11 (4), 245-255.

Barkow, J., O'Gorman, R. & Rendell, L. (2012). Are The New Mass Media Subverting

Cultural Transmission. Review of General Psychology. 16 (2), 121-133.
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Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions

Words: 1116 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73466531

In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.

Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…… [Read More]

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Netflix Employees Tear Slap and Clack Through

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86897493

Netflix employees "tear, slap, and clack" through a day's work can be easily understood within a classic sociological framework, using either a Marxist or a Durkheim lens. Both Marx and Durkheim would have noted that the Netflix model represents quintessential division of labor. The employees perform one task with maximum efficiency. hile Durkheim would focus primarily on the social contracts and organization of the employees within the Netflix organization, Marx would critique the means by which the Netflix associates are distanced from the owners of the means of production, their labor artificially devalued and exploited, especially given the employees come from developing countries in Africa and Asia. However, the way Sheehan describes the Netflix operation shows that Durkheim's concepts of social solidarity, specialization, and interdependence are indeed requisite to human survival and are inescapable, as the sociologists affirms in his dissertation on the function of the division of labor.

hereas…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: The Free Press, 1984.

Lecture Slides.

Marx, Karl. Das Capital. Vol. I

Sheehan, Susan. "Tear, Slap, Clack." The New Yorker. 28 Aug, 2006.
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Analyzing and Reading Critical Theories

Words: 1381 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46809687

Great Gatsby: As Seen Through Marxist Perspective

A Marxist perspective of F. Scott Fitzgerald's famous novel, The Great Gatsby may be interested in social class representations, together with how characters acquired and retained riches and power. An overall analysis of the novel reveals that it portrays the extremely rich social class that does not work and devotes most of its day to leisure activities primarily. A few less rich minor characters also find mention, along with a smaller share of workers and servants seen at work in the course of the story. In terms of the Marxist theory, the affluent social class denotes the "haves." At the time of the American industrial revolution, capitalists -- the people with capital (i.e., wealth, equipment, or land) -- meant the upper social class. On the other hand, the "have-nots" indicated the lower social class, or workers. In Marx's opinion, a class with economic…… [Read More]

Works cited

Falth, Sebastian. "Social Class and Status in Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby." Web.

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Amersham: Transatlantic Press, 2012

"Marxist Interpretations." -- The Great Gatsby Study Guide from Crossref-it.info. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.

TYSON, LOIS. "Critical Theory Today." Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
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Racial Ideology of Latinas

Words: 11967 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57637272



The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.

The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]

Reference:

Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.

San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).

San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.

Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
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Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Words: 24240 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17194104

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)

Expatriates

The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition

eferences

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1

Abbreviations

ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088

Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557

Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923

Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
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Dimensional Man' What Is the Relevance of

Words: 5336 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87239466

dimensional man'? What is the relevance of this concept for management today?

One-Dimensional Man will dither all over between two opposing theories: which is modern industrial community is able to restrict qualitative alteration for the anticipatory future; power and propensities are there that might shatter this repression and blow up this society. The two propensities are present, concurrently and also one within the other. The initial propensity is foremost, and whatever prerequisite for a turnaround is available are being employed to avert it. It seems that a catastrophe might transform the state, but unless the acknowledgment of what is being performed and what is being checked undermines the awareness and the conduct of man, a calamity will not be enough to unleash the transformation. The study is concentrated on modern industrial society, wherein the technological equipment of manufacturing and delivery operates, not as the aggregate of just tools which can…… [Read More]

References

"Chapter 1: The New Forms of Control. Marcuse, Herbert: The One Dimensional Man" Retrieved from http://www.grossmont.edu/joe.braunwarth/POSC150/Readings/Marcuse.htm Accessed on 14 December, 2004

Fuchs, Christian. "On the Topicality of Selected Aspects of Herbert Marcuse's Works"

Retrieved from  http://cartoon.iguw.tuwien.ac.at/christian/marcuse/marcuseENG.html  Accessed on 14 December, 2004

"Hebert Marcuse: One-Dimensional Man" Retrieved from http://home.cwru.edu/~ngb2/Authors/Marcuse.html Accessed on 14 December, 2004
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Karl Popper Is Arguably One of the

Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29453729

Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…… [Read More]

References:

Chaffee, J. (2012). The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas (4th ed.).

London, Greater London: Pearson.

Ormerod, R.J. (2009). The History and Ideas of Critical Rationalism: The Philosophy of Karl

Popper and Its Implications for OR. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2009(60), 441-460.
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Social History 'new History' New History

Words: 3064 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66673166

Another important theorist and historian was Eric Hobsbawm, who was well-known and respected for his work on the history of British labor movement. These and other theorists, particularly those who dealt with the history of the labor movement in the country, provided the groundwork and the historical insight that was to lead to the later more widespread acceptance of multiculturalism and social history

In Britain therefore the Marxist historians and theorists provided an important part of the foundational structure of modern multicultural history. The importance of Marxism for social history is relatively easy to discern. Marxism is essentially an analysis and a critique of the structure of the ruling capitalist elite and privileged classes and this theoretical stance emphasizes the historical reality of the ordinary individual and worker in society. This can be seen in the title of Friedrich Engels' work, the Condition of the orking Class in England (1845)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brecher J. History From Below: How to Uncover and Tell the Story of Your

Community, Association, or Union. 3 June 2007. http://www.stonesoup.coop/historybelow/historybelow.htm www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105489798

Gaskill, Malcolm. Crime and Mentalities in Early Modern England. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Questia. 3 June 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105489801.

Harrison R. History from below: approaches to the study of social history.
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History of Economics Is a

Words: 4610 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17851639

These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)

It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)

History…… [Read More]

References

Canterbery, E. Ray. A Brief History of Economics: Artful Approaches to the Dismal

Science. World Scientific. 2001.

History of Economics Society. Complexity and the history of economic thought: Selected

Papers from the... Routledge. 2000.
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Origins of Cold War

Words: 4564 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40509353



As a matter of fact, by the end of 1980s, Soviet Union ran on these very principles.

Kennan criticized the possibilities that Soviets may be involved in invading the pro-Soviet countries with their mind sets and weaken them even if they do not form a higher level of apprehension for them.

Pro-ussian countries will be weakened through a designed framework to tackle the mindsets of the people following western ideologies.

Fights will be sparked in the countries where both countries have western ideologies

Soviet policies will be a negative framework destructive in nature, clearing their path with whatever that comes onto them that they don't like (ussell, 2000).

Kennan was afraid that communism will overshadow the governments of the West but that never happened. At least not to the extent that it was feared by Kennan. Britain and mostly America was afraid of the way communist were taking over and…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, David L., Trapped by Success, New York: Columbia University Press, (1991), p. xi.

Bennett, Edward M., Franklin D. Roosevelt and the. Search for Security: American-Soviet Relations, 1933 -- 1939, Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, (1985), p. 24.

Brinkley, D., Dean Acheson: The Cold War Years, 1953 -- 71, New Haven: Yale University Press, (1994), p. 76.

Eisele, A., George Kennan Speaks Out About Iraq, History News Network, (2002), Accessed 24-11-11 from http://hnn.us/articles/997.html
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Representation and Culture Hall Stuart

Words: 2593 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40035347

The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.

Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.

Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…… [Read More]

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Populism Appealing but Unrealistic the

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84222752

Progressive Republican Theodore Roosevelt resurrected many Populist planks and re-cast them in new forms as he tentatively expanded federal regulations of business corporations. . . Other Populist planks -- particularly those calling for aid to farmers and employment on public works in time of depression -- became reality during the 1930s, under the New Deal administrations of Democrat Franklin Roosevelt." (Edwards, 1)

In spite of these glimpses at relevance, the populist party and its call for populist government together demonstrated a misapprehension of America's structure and fundamental nature. Though the criticisms which it levied against the economic system were not totally unfounded, its uncompromising nature and expectation of the cure would be unrealistic. This idea that the population could be made to govern itself and to conduct its own business echoes the charming but ungrounded naivete found in Hightower's discussion. Here, we are shown a side of populism that springs…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Edwards, R. (2000). The Populist Party. Vassar College. Online at  http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/populists.html 

Hightower, J. (?). Daddy's Philosophy. The Seagull Reader: Essays, 2nd edition.
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Keynesians and Marxians Keynesians vs

Words: 3168 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92263888

There are many potential actions that could have been taken to help prevent the closing of GM and the job losses, plant closings, and economic catastrophe that is likely to occur as the once unstoppable giant collapses (Wolff, 2009).

The UAW won above subsistence level wages for GM employees, which should have theoretically had the same effect as an economic stimulus in the traditional Keynesian sense. However, rather than being rewarded with increased demand, GM workers found themselves displaced when the company decided to move production to countries where the workers did not attempt to cut into company profits by demanding fair wages. The company profited and these changes had little affect on demand. The world still demanded GM cars, regardless of where they were produced.

The impact of displaced workers should have created the affect of decreased demand according to both Keynesian and Marxian economics. However, when one takes…… [Read More]

References

Arestis, P. & Karakitsos, E. (2008). The U.S. housing slump and the consumer. Journal of Post

Keynesian Economics. 30 (30, 335-352.

Binder, A. (2002). The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Economics Library. Retrieved June

18, 2009 from  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/KeynesianEconomics.html .
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Embedded The Relationship Between Form

Words: 6480 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 601775

), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cognitive compression effect. In (2000). M. Danesi (Ed.), Encyclopedic dictionary of semiotics, media, and communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Frontani, M.R. (2004). Embedded: Weapons of mass deception-how the media failed to cover the war on iraq. Journalism History, 30(2), 111.

Gaither, T.K. (2007). Advertising's war on terrorism: The story of the U.S. state department's shared values initiative. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(4), 843-844.

Goodman, A., & Goodman, D. (2006). Static: Government liars, media cheerleaders, and the people who fight back. New York: Hyperion.
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Politics During Holocaust

Words: 1868 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24164507

Holocaust Politics

Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions

The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work

Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.

Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
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Producer A Goal-Oriented Review in

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44666777

hat Benjamin means by this summary is well exemplified in a quote by one writer, who admits that he is a part of the bourgeoisie simply because this is what he has always known, although he supports the proletariat (8).

Based on the style of the piece, which is rigid, scholarly, and filled with examples from high culture, one can quickly determine that Benjamin's audience is the intellectual. In fact, Benjamin's conclusive statement -- "For the revolutionary struggle does not take place between capitalism and the intellect, but between capitalism and the proletariat" (8) -- is an excellent summary of the author's goal for that particular audience. Benjamin's primary goal is to convince said intellectuals that they should not be embarrassed of their status as intellectuals, for such a status almost immediately marks them as treading a path between the bourgeoisie and proletariat, a place of sympathy without identification. Instead,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benjamin, Walter. "The Author as Producer." New Left Review. 1.62 (1970): 1-9
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Strong Practices Which Produce Solid Results Questionnaires

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16416803

strong practices which produce solid results. Questionnaires are often used in research to provide raw data to the researcher in order to support or deny his hypothesis. My approach in developing a high quality questionnaire revolves around the purpose of the research. The purpose should be clear cut and not ambiguous. The purpose of the questionnaire needs to answer the following questions: hat do I need to know? hy is this knowledge important? hat information will be produced as a result of this questionnaire.

It is also important in developing a questionnaire to determine what specifically is being measured. Narrowing down the appropriate audience is also important when developing a questionnaire for research. The question of who is being targeted and all the demographic information associated with that task must be considered in the development.

It is also imperative that the data is collected in a practical manner when designing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dorio, G. (2005). A few kind words counted more than my therapy. Cortlandt Forum;4/25/2005, Vol. 18 Issue 4, p24.

Engels, F. (1869). Karl Mark. Die Zukunft, No. 185, August 11, 1869. Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/bio/marx/eng-1869.htm

Miller, R. (2012). Fed Data Center Consolidation Flawed, Says GAO. Data Center Knowledge, 23 July, 2012. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2012/07/23/fed-data-center- consolidation-effort-flawed-says-gao/

Russell Sage Foundation. Web Page. Viewed 12 Jan, 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.russellsage.org/
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Public Passions

Words: 4266 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82628012

Public Passions

Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Lean, Eugenia. Public Passions: The Trial of Shi Jianqiao and the Rise of Popular Sympathy in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
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Neoliberalist Development

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39792070

Neoliberalism

Neoliberal ideology has contributed to the rise in development and reduction of poverty in much of the world since World War II. The main bodies responsible for neoliberalism, such as the United Nations and later the World Trade Organization have encouraged trade, economic openness and democracy. Where these things have not been accepted -- where neoliberalism has been rejected, living standards tend to be lower, and where neoliberalism has been embraced wholeheartedly the living standards are as high as have been enjoyed by any humans in history.

De Soto describes some of the development that has occurred in Peru, which is a moderately neoliberal state. He argues that individual effort can come before collective effort, a hallmark of neoliberalism and that this has resulted higher living standards for many of the country's citizens. De Soto also notes that these changes have also been at the social level. The people…… [Read More]

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Education Philosophical Influences on American

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88283685

There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)

No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.

eferences

Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]

References

Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from  http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/ 

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408

Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2

Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm