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196)." This is what we see during the 1980s to throughout the 1990s cinema with films like Fatal Attraction (Lyne, motion picture film), Predator (McTiernan, John (dir), 1987, motion picture film), the Terminator film and sequels (Cameron, James (dir), 1984, 1991, and 2003, motion picture film), the Mad Max (Miller, George (dir),1979, 1981, and 1985, motion picture) series, and the Lethal eapon (Donner, Richard (dir), 1987, 1989, 1992, and 1998, motion picture film) series. There is a shift away from the female leading character in film, to the masculine characters, or what Susan Jeffords calls the "hard body" films, or the leading man who woos the women viewers, kills them with kindness, and the focus of the film is all about male masculinity and the male body (Ayers, Drew, 2008, 41).
The hard body films, and ultimately the focus of the feminine perspective is what Carl Plantinga calls hypermasculinity, and…
Ayers, Drew. "Bodies, Bullets, and Bad Guys: Elements of the Hardbody Film." Film Criticism 32.3 (2008): 41+. Questia. 12 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027623685 .
Cameron, John (dir), the Terminator (and series) 1984, 1991, and 2003, motion picture film, Hemdale Film, USA.
Donner, Richard (dir), Lethal Weapon (and series), Lethal Weapon (and series) 1979, 1981, and 1985, motion picture, Silver Pictures, USA.
He sulked in the department store courtesy chair, two shopping bags in his keep. Other men walking by glanced at Adam with admiration, respect, and a hint of envy. "He got the chair," they thought. "That's the man's chair, the chair that we sit in while our wives and girlfriends and daughters do the shopping. I wish I was sitting in that chair right now." Similarly entrusted with shopping bags, these men, like Adam, reflect the masculine principle in operation in modern society. Adam's sigh and his slouching posture point to the "pressure of making one's way in a harsh, difficult world," and to the "unrelieved seriousness" that accompanies that pressure (Brownmiller 278). In contrast, the women around them, fully in their element, rejoice at the rainbow of colors on display, from cosmetics palates to silk scarves, on the department store shelves. As Susan Brownmiller suggests in her article…
Masculinity and Vampires
In his chapter on "Modern Masculinities" Cooper Thompson defines masculinity by a number of traits, including independence, pride, resilience, self-control, physical strength, competitive, tough, aggressive, and powerful. Violence, as a method for resolving conflict, is also associated with masculinity in most extant cultures. This 'norm' of masculinity is often represented in popular films and the "Twilight" series of vampire films seems to represent an exception to the rule. The "Twilight" films are based on books written by Stephanie Meyer, which detail the social lives of contemporary vampires and werewolves living among us. Meyer takes pains to humanize the central non-human characters by expanding their personality tapestry to include emotional vulnerabilities, but does this really differentiate these characters from the purely masculine portrayals that have defined this genre of films historically? This essay examines how masculinity is defined in the movie "The Twilight Saga: New Moon."
Austere diets are also common, and after winning his final title and announcing his retirement from bodybuilding, Schwarzenegger celebrates with a meal of 'real food' for the first time in many months. The ascetic as well as aesthetic nature of the sport is also underlined in the way that Butler's subjects, Schwarzenegger in particular, also embody femininity, however unconsciously in their physical obsessions and movements. Schwarzenegger even takes ballet lessons to improve his movement and posing, in addition to pursuing a sparse and protein-heavy diet to enhance his body. Ballet, a stereotypical pursuit of gay men and women adds a catlike grace to his movements.
Schwarzenegger's emphasis on grace and beauty also raises the question: is bodybuilding art or sport? It is not about achieving a goal, a personal best or a 'time.' Rather bodybuilding, like modeling is about posing and being gazed at: it is a nonverbal, wordless art…
Chandler, Daniel. "The eye of the camera." Notes on the Gaze. April 10, 2000.
June 7, 2010.
Chandler, Daniel. "John Berger's Ways of Seeing." Notes on the Gaze.
Masculinity in Things Fall Apart
In Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, the character Okonkwo struggles with differing notions of masculinity just as his country is struggling to adapt to colonial influence. At first glance, Okonkwo appears something like a tragic hero, striving towards an ideal but failing due to his inability to overcome his insecurity about his masculinity, and ultimately dying in a symbolic fight against colonial invaders. However, to treat Okonkwo as a tragic hero, somehow embodying the struggles of his time, is to ignore the textual evidence revealing that actually, Okonkwo is unable to adapt to anywhere, including his own clan. Rather than functioning as a metaphorical demonstration of the larger historical conflict between tradition and change instigated by the colonizers, Okonkwo's story is one of a single individual wholly unaware of social world around him. By examining Okonkwo's treatment of his neighbors, it becomes clear that just…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Johannesburg, South Africa: Heinemann Publishers Limited, 1958. Print.
A sound point to be made is the fact that Dr. Jekyll could not have been purely innocent, because he chose to create a drug that would intentionally pull out his evil side. Furthermore, we may all have a darker side, but we don't all go on killing sprees. It is safe to conclude that Dr. Jekyll wanted to have a murderous personality all along, but he was too shameful to show this side of himself in society, so he instead created a manner in which he himself could commit the murders, but without showing the general public who was truly behind them. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde looked and spoke differently, even though they were derived from the same person, so people who ran into them had no idea they were actually speaking to the same person.
The downside to Dr. Jekyll's plan is the fact that he had…
Cohen, E. (2003). Hyding the Subject?: The Antinomies of Masculinity in the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Novel, 37(1/2), 181. Retrieved May 14, 2010, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=791925811&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=74379&RQT=309&VName=PQD
More precisely, Wilhelm can also be interpreted as being an invention that in fact represents the reader to whom Werther confesses. The connection is thus more personal and direct and enables the reader to be in contact with the main character.
The other relationship Werther establishes is with Albert, who is his direct adversary in the fight for Lotte's love. Although they come to develop a certain type of friendship, Werther will never consider his adversary as being his friend, precisely due to the fact that his main characteristic is that of an unfulfilled lover, therefore he cannot base his friendship on sincere attitudes, but on hidden thoughts. Even so, there is a sense of relationship because Werther admires his qualities, although he is convinced that Albert will not make Lotte happy.
Throughout the evolution of these two pieces of literature, there are certain pressures these relationships are subjected to.…
Halio, Jay L., ed. The Merchant of Venice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Wain, John. The Oxford Library of Short Novels. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
The documentary film Tough Guise provides many more striking and direct examples of the manner in which aggression in all three forms discussed by Kauffmann have become a seamless part of male identity in our society. From the association of aggression and physical prowess with sexuality and performance capabilities to the extreme pressure in minority communities to conform to specific masculine identities as a way of asserting independence, male violence against women and against other men through both direct physical violence and through general domination and intimidation is seen as a natural part of society by many. The violence against oneself that this sense of masculinity leads to is seen in examples like the school shootings that typically end in suicides, but every act of violence that leads to a deterioration of an individual's actual standing in society -- or the standing of that society itself -- is truly an…
hen Hamlet hands the kingdom over to Fortinbras at the end of the play, we see the importance of Fortinbras' character.
The masculine and the feminine are at odds in Hamlet. Gertrude represents a side of the female that is questionable at best. hile we never know what Gertrude knew regarding the King's death, we also do not know what she knew about many things. Her role in the play is significant but strange nevertheless. Hamlet believes Gertrude to be incestuous and he is outraged by her behavior. She is "pernicious" (1.5.105), disloyal, and incapable of being selfless and these are qualities that he attaches to a good mother. Hamlet thus believes his mother to be a maternal failure. It should be noted that while we might not know much about Gertrude, she is a woman that speaks her mind and appears to be practical when it comes to maintaining…
Goddard, Harold. The Meaning of Shakespeare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1960.
Michael S. Kimmel, Amy Aronson. Men and Masculinities. Berkshire: Open University Press.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. New York: Washington Square Press. 1992.
Both types of personas have their drawbacks and benefits. However, because the former is generally associated with the female gender and the latter is traditionally attributed to males, sense is considered to be more desirable than sensibility.
Ultimately, as long as both men and women continue to perpetuate gender stereotypes, equality between the sexes will remain impossible. It is important to note that equality does not mean the eradication of differences. The goal must be not to eradicate gender differences but to desist in ranking these differences in a hierarchal order. Kimmel ultimately believes that women and men have more similarities than differences and that "gender difference - the assertion of two qualitatively different natures - is the result of gender inequality, not its cause. Gender inequality produces difference, and the differences produced are then used to justify gender inequality" (xi). As Austen's novel ultimately illustrates, gender inequality leads to…
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Ed. Robert William. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Kimmel, Michael S., the Gendered Society, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000
Soldierly Perception of Masculinity in Imperial Germany 1880-1914
According to the researchers, from last two centuries shifts have been experienced in Germany's war system. New forms of masculinity arose in 1945, when Germany was totally surrendered and so did the regime of Nazi's. The regime of Nazi's was a heroic one and after World War II new forms of masculinity arose in Germans. War system is a vital determiner of masculinity; such that changes in one have an impact on the others as well.
New configuration gives significance to refusal and gives less importance to subordination and obedience. Germany remained occupied and divided from 1945 to 1990. The years which followed the War were combined with the feminization of German society and this resulted in valorization of refusal.
The masculinity was a bit shifted to nation-state as far as occupied society was concerned. The increased pressure from the market made…
Gardiner, S.L. Masculinity, War, And Refusal: Vicissitudes Of German Manhood Before And After The Cold War. Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University, 2004.
Borneman, J. 1991. After the Wall: East Meets West in the New Berlin. New York: Basic Books.
Katzenstein, P. 1987. Policy and Politics in West Germany: The Growth of a Semi-sovereign State. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Goldstein, J. 2001. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…
Adler, Philip. World Civilizations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson, 2008
De Vos, George & Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, "Value Attitudes Towards Role Behavior of Women in Two Japanese Villages," American Anthropologist, 63, (1961).
Hastings, S.A. "Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan" a Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Pub., 2007
Hendry, Joy, Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1991.
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…
Angier, N. 2000. "Women: An Intimate Geography." Anchor.
Barker, P. 1998. "Michel Foucault -- An Introduction." Edinburgh University Press.
Beccalli, B. 1994. The Modern Women's Movement in Italy, in New Left Review. Volume a, Issue 204: 86-112.
Boccia, M.L. 1991. "The Gender Representation." In Bono and Kemp, "Italian Feminism." Blackwell.
Postcolonial Masculinities in the 20th and 21st Centuries
"Can't understand/what makes a man." hile feminists have noted how masculinity is often considered a problem or as inherently fragile, the construction of masculinity has often proved to be particularly vexing in postcolonial nations. Both male and female colonial subjects have frequently been rendered as 'feminine' to justify their subjugation. The response in some regions, particularly Africa, has been the hyper- masculinization of resistance and the association of traditional gender binaries with traditional African culture. One of the central challenges of post-colonialism in an African context is to allow for feminine and masculine voices which resist such gender stereotyping.
As observed by Morrell (1998), masculinity is not a self-evident, cross-cultural construct any more so than femininity. "Masculinity is a collective gender identity and not a natural attribute. It is socially constructed and fluid. There is not one universal masculinity, but…
Epprecht, Marc. "Black Skin, 'Cowboy' Masculinity: A Genealogy of Homophobia in the African Nationalist Movement in Zimbabwe to 1983." Culture, Health & Sexuality. 7. 3 (May, 2005): 253-266.
Lee, Doreen. "Styling the Revolution: Masculinities, Youth, and Street Politics in Jakarta,
Indonesia." Journal of Urban History, 37 (2011): 933.
Morrell, Robert. "Of Boys and Men: Masculinity and Gender in Southern African Studies."
They hypothesized that magazines targeting male readers, particularly unmarried male readers would be more apt to display hegemonic male images, while the reverse would be true with magazines targeted at women or not targeted at a specifically male readership. Magazines with a target readership of a higher socioeconomic status would be even more apt to show males in hegemonic, occupational roles, as this would be status-confirming.
The researchers" findings were confirmed, specifically that popular magazines directed at male audiences affirmed hegemonic, notions of masculinity, thus male readers tend to come away from male-marketed magazines with their traditional images of identity confirmed, while female readers see a less hegemonic male images in women's magazines. This highlights how the media serves to affirm traditional identities for men, and also create communication barriers between the genders, as women receive different images in magazines aimed at a female readership.
Instead, they are conflicted by their feelings of responsibility and the mixed reactions that they receive from women in the Japanese society. Suzuki (2007) reports that many Japanese men consider Japanese women "too demanding" (p. 432). A greater number of Japanese men have sought marriage partners outside of Japan due to the disconcerting roles that are expected of them. Since Japanese women no longer feel comfortable with the assumed traditional Japanese family roles, men who desire to live by the traditional masculine traits have increasingly taken Filapina brides (Suzuki 2007). Such women are able to mesh better in a family environment with traditional Japanese husbands and fathers, who do not know how to reconcile their masculinity and the independent Japanese woman (Suzuki 2007).
Men are also finding a new role in fatherhood, often hampered by their instinct to be a "hands-off" father. In one case described by Seto, Becker &…
Roberson, J. (2003). Men and masculinities in contemporary Japan: Beyond the urban salaryman model. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
Seto, a., Becker, K.W., and Akutsu, M. (2006, Fall). Counseling Japanese men on fathering. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84, pp. 488-492.
Sugihara, Y., and Katsurada, E. (2002, Nov). Gender role development in Japanese culture: Diminishing gender role differences in a contemporary society. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, pp. 443-452.
Sugihara, Y., and Katsuradam, E. (2000). Gender-role personality traits in Japanese culture. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24, pp. 309-318.
Killings" is set in a blue-collar New England town along the Merrimack. It is a vision of a somewhat isolated community -- outside of time, not supported by a sense of law or order or justice. Murder essentially goes unpunished -- which is why the main character, Matt, takes the "law" into his own hands and murders Strout, the man who killed his son. Matt, used to taking matters into his own hands, as a man from a blue collar town, feels justified in this killing -- just as justified as Strout felt in killing Matt's son, who was sleeping with Strout's estranged wife. hile Strout's killing of Matt was based on passion (Strout's passion to repossess his wife and let no other have her), Matt's killing of Strout is based on grief and a desire for vengeance (his son is dead yet Strout is free to walk the streets…
Dubus, Andre. "Killings." Web. 12 October 2015.
'Take a look at the kids' section of your local video store," Katha Pollitt writes. "You'll find that features starring boys, and usually aimed at them, account for 9 out of 10 offerings," (299). Pollitt deplores not only the quantity of children's entertainment devoted to females and to female heroines; the author also suggests that the qualitative implications of this mostly unacknowledged bias "deforms both boys and girls," (300). Pollitt continues to note that she cannot think of "a single network cartoon or puppet show starring a female" and that the arner Brother's delightful lineup starring Bugs Bunny and crew is entirely male (299). Masculinity rules, even in preschool.
In her article "The Smurfette Principle," Pollitt describes the legions of children's educational and entertainment materials that cater to a society fascinated with masculinity. Femininity, on the other hand, is portrayed in one of two ways: as an ancillary aspect…
Brownmiller, Susan. "Femininity."
Douraki, Georgia. "Is that a Boy or a Girl?" 28 October 2004.
Pollitt, Katha. "The Smurfette Principle."
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…
Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.
Cloward, Richard a. And Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Connell, R.W. And Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859
James ond is presently one of the principal sexual concepts that the film puts across. Daniel Craig's ond is no longer seen as a very effective killing tool, as it shown as an object of admiration.
Craig's physical appearance is no longer a crime deterrent, as it is actually used with the purpose of impressing viewers. This ond is no longer yelling, as he speaks in a gentle voice and some might even be inclined to consider that he has become more sensitive. When considering ond's overall development, it appears that society is becoming more and more obsessed with the masculine body image and less preoccupied with manliness as an intellectual concept.
The masses in the 60s saw masculinity as an idea that needed to be exploited and largely believed that men had to be particularly aggressive in order to truly be appreciated by individuals around them. However, trends changed…
Caunce, Stephen, "Relocating Britishness," (Manchester University Press, 2004).
Lehman, Peter, "Masculinity: Bodies, Movies, Culture," (Routledge, 2001)
Pang, Laikwan and Wong, Day, "Masculinities and Hong Kong Cinema," (Kent State University Press, 2005)
Masculinity & Femininity
Femininities and masculinities dictate more behavioral expectations for us in society. After reading through/watching the material for this week, comment on what you view as the state of masculinity/femininity discourses. How are these discourses useful? Can masculinity/femininity be a positive thing? Or should they always be critiqued for their reinforcement of strict gendered expectations? Explain.
It is always helpful to critique any social norms, especially those as pervasive and rigid as gender norms. Critiquing gender norms helps to increase media literacy, pierce through stereotypes, and hopefully also overcome structural inequities. As Allan points out in "Hazing and Gender," "gender norms are typically cast in ways that privilege masculinity over femininity." Masculinity is normalized, made the hidden and assumed default condition of humanity. The same conditions that cause white privilege to be a potent social and psychological reality are those that cause male privilege to be a…
C.J. Pascoe. 2007. Hey Dude, You' a Fag: Masculinity Sexuality High School. Berkeley: University California Press give overview reading, demonstrate understanding main arguments, raise questions comments.
"Dude You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School" -- review and analysis
Cheri Jo Pascoe's 2007 book "Dude You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School" provides an intriguing view concerning homophobic attitudes and masculinity in high school environments. It is surely impressive to look at how two difficult terrains (high school and homophobia) are addressed in association to each-other and to how the writer concentrates on providing readers with a complex account about thinking present in most adolescent environments. The work does not only relate to generally accepted opinions about masculinity, as it provides new information and leaves readers wanting to know more by getting involved in this study themselves.
High-school students in the contemporary society are largely underestimated and…
Pascoe, C.J., "Dude, You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School," (University of California Press, 02.10.2011)
Messner indicates that for these individuals, the emphasis on sporting as an inherently masculine preoccupation may result in feelings of ostracism, lower social ranking or diminished self-worth with respect to a sense of personal masculinity. Indeed, this notion of self-worth is an essentially point of consideration in the Messner text, both as it relates to those who are excluded and included. The latter would make up the interview sample for Messner's research, with young men involved in organized sports providing descriptive qualitative data on their experiences.
Among these experiences, it is compelling also that Messner connects participation in organized sports with a boy's patriarchal relationship. It is here within that boys learn what Messner refers to as a tendency toward non-intimacy. Accordingly, Messner notes that "the fact that boys' introductions to organized sports are often made by fathers who might otherwise be absent or emotionally distant adds a powerful emotional…
Messner, M. (1990). Boyhood, Organized Sports and the Construction of Masculinities. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 18(4), 416-444.
The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.
Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.
Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do
Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60
Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals
with Vertical, Lateral, and…
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" Businessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
When Unraveling Is the Best Approach
Everything is connected. Pull one thread as gently as possible in any attempt to explain the fundamentals of any society and this is abundantly clear, for in trying to unravel any of the important concepts or practices upon which society and culture are built and one finds that everything else begins to unravel as well. While "unraveling" might initially seem to be something that one would not want to do, in fact in terms of sociological analysis it is highly advisable. Especially when one is attempting to understand one's own culture, where familiarity with structures and norms can sometimes make it difficult to see clearly, one has often to take things apart in order to understand the dynamics of how the social world works.
Not only is everything connected to everything else, but analyzing one part of a system tends to cause changes…
Consalvo, M. (2003). "The monsters next door: Media constructions of boys and masculinity." Feminist media studies 3(1): 153-168.
Connell, R.W. & Messerschmidt, J.W. (2005, December). "Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept." Gender and society 19(6): 829-859.
Dyer, R. (1992) Only entertainment. London: Routledge.
Easthope, A. (1990) What a man's gotta do: The masculine myth in popular culture. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
The 1964 film Dr. Strangelove uses the context of Cold ar brinksmanship in order to uncover a more fundamental problem with patriarchy and the maintenance of a destructive masculinity. This masculinity is under threat as a result of sexual frustration, and the characters of Ripper, Turgidson, and Kong embody three different kinds of this frustration. Ripper's sexual frustration is the most explicit, and leads to the most overtly violent reaction. Turgidson's sexual frustration is not the result of a physiological problem but rather due to pent-up energy, and thus his reaction is to cheer on the violence perpetrated by Ripper, even if he cannot engage in it himself. Finally, Kong, who is denied the kind of sexual immediacy granted Turgidson, nonetheless is able to overcome the frustration experienced by the other two men when he finally succeeds in dropping a nuclear bomb. Thus, the film suggests that the true threat…
Bingham, Dennis. "I do Want to Live!": Female Voices, Male Discourse, and Hollywood
Biopics." Cinema Journal 38.3 (1999): 3,3-26
Cardullo, Bert. "Why we Fight, Or Men, War, the Movies, and Metaphor." The Midwest
Quarterly 52.3 (2011): 239,239-255.
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
Back in history, the only roles of a Korean woman were to be a good daughter, a good wife, and a good mother. She was expected to sacrifice for her family, caring not only for her husband but also for her in-laws. Similarly in America, as the picture published in 1950's "Harmony at Home" shows, only men were authoritative. In the picture, the man is the only one sitting comfortably on the sofa while two women standing on the side seem helpless. Both are leaning on the man. The question remains: is this condition still relevant today? In "Change in the Status of Women in South Korea," Anita Li states, "the employment rate for women has risen steadily from 42.8% in 1980 to 50% in 2008. Furthermore, these women are increasingly engaging in leadership roles in the workforce. Though the gender distinction still remains in our society, the trend…
Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.
3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…
Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.
Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441463
Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=42471043
Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035170430
Having grown up in an era where sex-based discrimination was legal, they understand how easy it would be to return to that era. This has led to a characterization of second-wave feminists as somehow militant, a label that even third-wave feminists might apply to them.
Looking at the 2008 Democrat presidential primaries, the conflict between second and third wave feminists became apparent. Many second-wave feminists felt that it was a woman's duty to vote for the female candidate because having a woman run as a serious contender in a presidential primary could be an isolated event. In contrast, many third-wave feminists, though thrilled that Clinton was taken seriously as a candidate, simply did not think that her candidacy would be an isolated event; instead, they believed that women would continue to make credible candidates in presidential elections. Moreover, many third-wave feminists, like the author, seemed to find racial barriers more…
Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the construction of Masculinities" offers insight into a study he completed regarding male attributes and how masculinity is defined within organized sports. Following is a summary of the article denoting the hypothesis, dependent and independent variables if identifiable as such, the data source, methodology and answers to the posited hypothetical question(s).
Messner makes it very clear from the outset what the questions or hypotheses are in his study and the answers that he seeks in conducting the study. The questions Messner raises includes: "In what ways do males construct masculine identities within the institution of organized sports? In what ways do class and racial differences mediate this relationship and perhaps led to the construction of different meanings and perhaps different masculinities?" And the last hypothetical question is "what are some of the problems and contradictions within these constructions of masculinities?" (Messner, p. 88).
Messner is also…
Messner (the source article needs to be cited here)
La Mission act together as a historical document of interracial and other lifestyle issues in today's urban environment. Although the film takes place within San Francisco and the documentary evidence cannot necessarily be applied to any other city or geographic region, La Mission does tell a story that is familiar to many Americans. Homophobia is one of the central themes of La Mission. Americans throughout the nation are challenging homophobia, which is part of what the filmmakers are trying to say. Moreover, San Francisco is a highly heterogeneous city. Yet issues related to interracial relationships are raised. These same issues play themselves out in the lives of millions of Americans who feel the residual effects of prejudice in their lives.
Che, the protagonist, embodies the complexities of life in a modern and progressive city like San Francisco. He is Latino, and therefore identifies as being a minority. This is an…
Bratt, B & Bratt, P. La Mission. Feature film.
"La Mission Lecture."
Wilson, Emily. "Benjamin Bratt & Peter Bratt Discuss Their Latino Gay Film 'La Mission.'" April 16, 2010.
What is "hegemonic masculinity"? Explain one way in which "hegemonic masculinity" is related to violent crime.
Connell (1987) suggested that cultural definitions of what constitutes "ideal" masculinity strongly influences the way that males interact with their social environments. Specifically, if a culture values professional success, social power, physical strength, and emotional independence in males, most males within that culture will strive toward those ideals. According to Connell (1987) this is equally true irrespective of how successfully individual males achieve those ideals because they still motivate males to strive to meet elements of those particular ideals. Since a large part of hegemonic masculinity in many cultures relates to maintaining one's "honor" or respect, males are generally much more inclined to respond to insults or to perceived issues of lack of respect with violence. Similarly, since cultural concepts of masculinity often relate to providing for one's family financially, males often experience a…
In the context of violent crime, doing gender has been suggested as part of the reason that crime, and violent crime in particular, are perpetrated much more often by males than by females. Males are more likely to react to personal struggles by ignoring them until erupting in violence; females are more likely to share their feelings with others and seek assistance instead of lashing out against others (or themselves). Males are also more likely to form delinquent or deviant associations that increase their respective propensity to violence and criminal conduct
2. What is "hegemonic masculinity"? Explain one way in which "hegemonic masculinity" is related to violent crime.
Connell (1987) suggested that cultural definitions of what constitutes "ideal" masculinity strongly influences the way that males interact with their social environments. Specifically, if a culture values professional success, social power, physical strength, and emotional independence in males, most males within that culture will strive toward those ideals. According to Connell (1987) this is equally true irrespective of how successfully individual males achieve those ideals because they still motivate males to strive to meet elements of those particular ideals. Since a large part of hegemonic masculinity in many cultures relates to maintaining one's "honor" or respect, males are generally much more inclined to respond to insults or to perceived issues of lack of respect with violence. Similarly, since cultural concepts of masculinity often relate to providing for one's family financially, males often experience a more intense urge to engage in criminal conduct for profit where their efforts to do so lawfully are unsuccessful.
Gender reflection: On identifying with a particular gender
Until I took a class in critical theory, I never gave much thought to my gender. I am sure that some of this is by virtue of being a straight male. I have female friends who have experienced discrimination or harassment in school and at work by virtue of not being male. I do not believe I have experienced such direct prejudice as a result of my gender. Also, physical fitness is a very important part of my life, and many of my female friends and girlfriends have been very passionate about working out, yet unlike me they have been told not to lift weights or box because this would give them 'bulky' and masculine-looking muscles (which is not true). Obviously, I have never faced such discrimination based upon my interests or because I look strong.
I have come to understand that…
"Dude, you're a fag." YouTube. 20 Sept 2011. [8 Apr 2013]
Fogel, Curtis. Review of Kath Woodward, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The 'I' of the Tiger.
New York: Routledge, 2007. Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies, 19 (2007): 1-2. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.genderforum.org/issues/illuminating-gender-ii/kath-woodward-boxing-masculinity-and-identity-the-i-of-the-tiger-new-york-routledge-2007/
Sociology research review and critique: "oyz to Men"
Anoop Nayak's 2003 sociological study "oyz to Men: masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de- industrial times" examines the adaptation (or lack thereof) of a representational group working-class ritish young men to a changing labor economy. Life in ritain has been profoundly altered due to shifts in the class structure. There is a dearth of stable factory jobs and a shift to "service sector economies, part-time work, fixed-term contracts and more 'flexible' patterns of labour" (Nayak 2003: 148). The study focuses specifically on the Northeast of England and details a specifically 'male' experience inside and outside of school. The perspective adopted is thus one of social constructivism, which seeks to understand how the subjects understand their own experiences in a social context and contextualizes those experiences within a wider cultural framework of interpretation which has many 'layers.'
The Northeast region was historically…
Nayak, Anoop. 2003. 'Boyz to Men': masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de-
industrial times. Educational Review, 55(2): 147-158.
Based on those responses, the BSRI assigns a characterization of either "sex- typed" or "androgynous" depending on how much subjects identify only with adjectives considered desirable of their gender or with desirable traits of both genders, respectively.
The PAQ uses similar methodology to generate results that link identification with adjectives considered desirable in both genders with high self-esteem in subjects of either gender.
Generally, both instruments have been criticized because it is virtually impossible to ignore the influence of social learning on the degree to which individuals identify with gender-specific attributes. In effect, a diagnostic questionnaire may answer little else besides the identification of particular attributes associated positively with masculinity or femininity in the social culture in which subjects were socialized. More specifically, the PAQ has been criticized for equating identification with desirable male attributes with high self-esteem in "androgynous" females without considering the greater degree to which society reinforces…
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.
Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?
Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…
environment host country chose study. Discuss briefly political, economic, legal environment focus culture. Make present deeper levels culture, artifacts. HOFSTEDE'S DIMENSIONS .ID
Germany: Country analysis
Germany is a parliamentary democracy. It is a multi-party system, which means that political parties must often share power to govern. It is currently led by Chancellor Angela Merkel, who became Germany's first female chancellor in 2009. Merkel is the leader of the center-right Christian Democrats (CDU). Merkel won a close election and serves as "chancellor in a 'grand coalition' involving the CDU, its Christian Social Union (CSU) allies and the centre-left Social Democratic Party (SPD)" ("Germany," BBC, 2012). Merkel has faced recent resistance from the Germany populace, who are growing increasingly discontented with the feeling that Germany is being forced to 'bail out' financially undisciplined members of the European Community, to preserve the EC in the wake of the meltdown of the…
Crumly, Bruce. "In Paris and Berlin, fury over a Greek bailout." Time. 2010. [23 Mar 2012]
"Germany." BBC. [23 Mar 2012]
James Bond's penis" author Toby Miller writes that after the 1960s: "masculinity is no longer the exclusive prominence of men, either as spectators, consumers or agents of power. And Bond was an unlikely harbinger of this trend" (Miller 233). Bond, rather than being a 'sexist dinosaur' and relic of the Cold War era (as he was once called by Judi Dench's M) actually an innovator in terms of the way he legitimized male sexuality on film. Miller sees Bond as questioning the male-centered gaze of desire presumed by the camera. It is Bond who leaves his women in a state of desire, never fully fulfilling their fantasies, even though he was viewed as exemplifying 'imperial decline' in the way he ruthlessly purses his self-interest in an amoral fashion as an agent in Her Majesty's Secret Service.
In the books, Bond is often shown burning with desire and having to put…
Communication -- Gender and Communication
The parameters of gender have undergone a dramatic expansion through the efforts of Science and enlightened feminists such as Nancy Mairs. Their contributions allow a multitude of genders and new definitions that account for the richness of human sexuality. As a result, femininity can be defined in the broadest and richest terms as a set of psychological traits unconstrained by classically masculine and feminine boundaries.
"Femininity" is best defined as sensitivity and awareness, a firm set of psychological traits that is not reflected in behavior. Actions are not masculine or feminine, but approaches to them are masculine or feminine. The classically oppressive confinement of "normal" gender to male and female is no longer viable, for humanity exists in a far greater array of sexual characteristics than genitals can distinguish or dictate. Anne Fausto-Sterling offers many examples of Science's growing acceptance of broad gender range, reaching…
Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. Retrieved on February 19, 2013 from www.uta.edu Web site: http://www.uta.edu/english/timothyr/Fausto-Sterling.pdf
Mairs, N. (1986). Plaintext essays by Nancy Mairs. Tucson, AZ: University of Airzona Press.
In this project, two research study questions are outlined. This paper answers these questions in detail. The first part of the paper touches on quantitative approach in research and focuses on the first question. Here the paper highlights on the reasons for the approach selected highlighting on variables in the study. In the second part of the paper, qualitative approach is discussed as the appropriate choice as an answer to the second question. Here also, the approach is justified as a preferred choice.
Quantitative research is the best suited design and serves the purpose of this study. The study is aimed at determining the level of weight loss for patients in a primary care clinic who are using marketed natural supplements. The study involves a systematic empirical inquiry of the weight of these patients through a statistical method; their weight is assessed at 3, 6 and…
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…
Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,
L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].
Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.
Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
Azure Sky Tea needs to determine the best choice of a home base.
A number of factors must be taken into consideration including the cultural dimensions of the different potential host nations.
There are a number of countries that Azure Sky Tea can consider. The company can take into consideration when making this decision. Hofstede identified a number of different cultural dimensions that can be examined for each potential host country. These are individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity/femininity (Hofstede, 2013). Individualism reflects the importance of the individual in the culture, compared with collectivism which emphasizes a collective group. Uncertainty avoidance reflects "the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty." Power distance reflects power roles in a society, manifested mainly in the interactions between people in different positions within the company. Masculinity emphasizes competition, assertiveness and achievement, while femininity is seen…
Hofstede (2013). Dimensions. Hofstede Centre. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7FIvfx5J10
MindTools.com (2013). Hofstede's cultural dimensions. MindTools. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_66.htm
Van den Anker, B. (2013). Cross-cultural training: A waste of time, money and effort? Expatica.com. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from http://www.expatica.com/hr/story/Crosscultural-training-a-waste-of-time-money-and-effort.html
Moreover, because of the high levels of tourism, no one would be out of place in Miami. acism exists in North America, in the United States and in Miami; however, it is determined to be as pronounced in some other more conservative cities.
With race and ethnicity it is important to mindful of the history of America in relation to how immigrants have been treated in general, and to Latin immigrants specifically. There are a number of ethnic groups represented within the Latin immigrant population and there should not be blanket generalizations applied to the group as though they represent one culture or ethnic group.
Ofttimes, nonverbal communication can be as significant as verbal communication. For those individuals of Latin descent, some of the more general associations with nonverbal communication are the importance of shaking hands in the introduction process. Culturally, there is purportedly the view that…
Hofstede, G. (1984) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related
Values, (2nd ed). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Hofstede, G. (2001) Culture's Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…
Jensen, R. (2007). Getting Off: Pornography and the End of Masculinity. South End Press.
Renzetti, C.M.; Curran, D.J. & Maier, S.L. (2012). Women, Men & Society. Allyn & Bacon.
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…
Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.
I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.
The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.
They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.
College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.
Dr. Gregory House MD. Fox TV series House. I Gender Theory theme Masculinity Gregory House MD theme. Disregard option A. Option B. I figure I paper display. Our papers ran program Turn .
Gender is often referred to as any socially assigned roles given to a certain gender be it a male or a female. This gender is normally expected to act in a way familiar to the expectation of the society or the people around him or her Butler, 1990.
Gender roles and responsibilities is usually different both in females and males and the roles can be assigned at any setting such as a workplace, community, in the churches and in a family unit among other. But the main difference arises among the various cultures existing because of their beliefs and customs present among them. Gender complements both the physiological and the biological differences existing between the female and…
Butler, J. (1990). Subjects of sex/gender/desire in Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity (pp. 25).
Calasanti, T.S., KF (2001). Gender, Social Inequalities and Aging (pp. 27).
Lippa, R.A. (2002). Gender, Nature, and Nurture: L. Erlbaum.
Peters J. (2005). Gender prac: Gender as performance, not gender theory. Gay & Lesbian Issues. Psychology, 1(3), 1-98.
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
The role of sex in advertising is even more blatant in a food advertisement of an ejaculating Tabsco sauce bottle over a split bake potato -- hot and spice as a metaphor for intercourse.
Sex sells: a woman wants to be desired by a man which requires the perfect figure, in the perfect low-cut dress with the perfectly matching nail polish, and a man can only be desired by a woman if he drives a BMW, wears a olex watch and has on a alph Lauren suit (which is not a Polo suit but the higher end and much more expensive Purple Label suit). Media's objectification of women and the fact that sex does sell has lead to the "sexification" of young girls and teens. Kilboure makes her point with magazine covers and television spots, including JonBenet in full makeup for a toddler beauty pageant, a teenage Brittney Spears displayed…
Keith, Thomas. 2008. Tough Guise: Violence, Media & the Crisis in Masculinity. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DP1ACIUHhp4&feature=related , parts 1-9.
Keith, Thomas. 2008. GENERATION M: Misogyny in Media & Culture. Available at http://www.mediaed.org/cgi-bin/commerce.cgi?preadd=action&key=234&template=PDGCommTemplates/HTN/Item_Preview.html
Kilbourne, Jean. Date unknown. Killing Us Softly 3: Advertising's Image of Women. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zudgbjFvvo&feature=related
Moore, Alecia Beth (AKA Pink). 2006. Stupid Girls. Lyrics available at www.lyricstop.com/s/stupidgirls-pink.html. Music available at iTunes.com.
For the health promotion to be successful, they must look at the broad spectrum facing both men and women when they become sexually active and the context in which young people conduct their sexual lives should be analyzed. These limitations on both men and women work to limit the powers of the gender in relation to various situational areas. For instance, the methods advocated for safe sex are usually out of reach for many people maybe due to the cost or their availability.
'A woman is limited in making influential and important decisions and so is the man.' (Tannen, 1996) For instance, the man cannot sometime make a decision on how many children they will have especially if they both do not make the decision together. This particular discourse around gender is mainly in the developing countries where safe sex is still being introduced and efforts are at their peak…
Baxter Judy. Positioning Gender in discourse: A feminist Methodology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2003. Web. 1 Mar 2010
Tannen Deborah. Gender and Discourse. USA: Oxford University Press 1996. 6 February, 2007
Shiach Moraq. Discourse on popular Culture. New York: Stanford University 1989. Web. 10 March 1992
Body, Identity, Gender]
From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.
For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…
de Beauvoir, Simone. "Femininity and Sisterhood." In Evelyn Ashton-Jones and Gary A. Olson (Eds.) The Gender Reader. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991, pp. 34-350.
Bordon, Susan. "Material Girl." In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 335-358.
Butler, Judith. "Exerpt from 'Inroduction' to Bodies That Matter. In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.531-542.
hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.
Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."
With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.
With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.
In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…
Adair, Vivian C. "Branded with Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in the United States." Signs. Vol. 27, No. 2. (Winter, 2002.)
Collins, C. & Yeskel, F. "Economic Apartheid in America: A Primer on Economic Inequality & Insecurity." New York: The New Press, Oct. 31, 2005.
Conley, Dalton. Being Black and Living in the red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America." Berkley: University of California Press, 1999.
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here. New York: Anchor Press, 1992.
Fitzgerald and Hemingway
The writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway have quite a lot to do with one another. Besides the fact that both men were writing during the same historical period in time, both men were interested in some of the same themes and expressed their feelings through their writings. Two novels, F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender is the Night and Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, deal with American male protagonists who find themselves in foreign lands following the First orld ar. Each turns his back on his American nationality and becomes an expatriate, wallowing in the grandeur of foreign pleasures while at the same time serving no real function in the world outside of their indulgences. The men are part of what would come to be known as "The Lost Generation." This was a group of people who were so impacted by the blood, gore, and…
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Tender Is the Night. London, 1953. Print.
Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises. New York: Scribner, 1996. Print.
Gender Politics and the Nation
The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.
Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).
Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…
Enloe, Cynthia. 2001. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics Updated Edition with a New Preface. University of California Press.
Women un Fotune 500 companies and men may become 'stay-at-home' dads. Howeve, despite the fact that a woman has made a cedible bid fo the pesidency in ecent memoy, and the geate success of women in pofessional life, it is likely that 'soft-spoken' is still viewed as a moe desiable attibute fo a female. Attibutes such as 'athletic' may have become moe gende-neutal, given the geate pemeation of women in spots and some of the most limiting steeotypes, that women ae moe 'shy' might have deceased to some degee. The list of positive female and male attibutes would likely have moe convegence today, and thus thee would be moe gende-neutal values. Howeve, some taits would likely still be seen as moe desiable fo men and women along the lines of the oiginal list, although to a lesse degee -- leadeship skills might be seen as moe impotant fo males to…
references to different words for assertiveness, presumably because women were discouraged from being assertive in Bem's view, when she first constructed the test. Today, we might be more apt to ask: why is assertiveness seen as the most positive value for men, and for women wishing to assume what are considered more masculine positions in the workforce? What does this say about our culture as well as about gender stereotypes? Being a good listener is equally as important as being a leader, as is intelligence and open-mindedness.
The very fact that the magazine openly admires men like Ray Liotta, who show depth beyond the typical alpha male and women like Christina Aguilera, who has chosen to use her sexuality rather than being used by her sexuality, demonstrates that the magazine does not even seriously believe that anyone should become the ideal male. On the contrary, the magazines use of stereotype-heavy advertising and writing suggests that the editors believe that men and women should try to incorporate some of the elements of these traditional stereotypes, while retaining their own individualized personalities. Such a position only becomes problematic when a consumer is not sophisticated enough to recognize that there is a distinction between writing about a stereotype and supporting all aspects of that stereotype. For example, violence against women has long been considered acceptable in sexual stereotyping. Maxim does not have articles, advertisements, or photos that glorify violence against…
Jeep advertisement. 2007. Maxim, March, 77.
Crown Royal advertisement. 2007. Maxim, March, 73.
Trojan advertisement. 2007. Maxim, March 71.
Mythic Constructions of Masculinity and Feminity:
A Jungian Analysis
A myth is a story that spreads out a psychological blueprint for a certain kind of human experience. The story of Parsifal and his search for the Holy Grail is a myth about what is required for a boy to reach a complete sense of manhood; the myth of Eros and Psyche shows what a girl must do to become a fully self-actualized woman. Robert A. Johnson, author of He: Understanding Masculine Psychology and She: Understanding Feminine Psychology, points out that basic human needs and motivations "have remained stable over the years" (He, p. ix). ecause human nature does not change, we can learn about human behavior from ancient stories. A myth can be seen as society's collective dream. Analysis of a myth is like analyzing a dream in which all the characters represent parts of the self. In this paper…
Johnson, Robert A. He: Understanding Masculine Psychology. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.
Johnson, Robert A. She: Understanding Feminine Psychology. New York: Harper
Anti-Jock, Cyber 'Movement'?
Brian ilson, in his article The Anti-Jock Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet, uses new social movement theory to examine the nature of a cyber-community that has emerged in opposition to the so-called 'jock culture' endemic in American high schools. ilson divides his analysis of the 'anti-jock' youth resistance into two parts. The first part examines published research on youth resistance and then attempts to weave a cohesive argument by relying on new social movement theory to address the role internet-based social media might be playing. In the second part, ilson briefly reviews what is known about jock culture and applies his theory to the emergent anti-jock websites and webzines to see if new social movement theory is adequate to the task of describing this cyber-community. ilson's approach is therefore qualitative in nature and represents a case…
Wilson, Brian. "The "Anti-Jock" Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet." Sociology of Sport Journal 19.2 (2002): 206-233.
Freudian Reading of "The Short and Happy Life of Francis Macomber"
Diagnose Hemingway on the basis of the characters in Macomber. Freud felt that the work exemplified the author's mental state, so on the basis of the biography and the characters in the story, what might you conclude about Hemingway himself?
"The Short and Happy Life of Francis Macomber" is one of many of Ernest Hemingway's compelling and dense short stories. This paper will attempt to psychoanalyze Hemingway by critically reading and interpreting the themes, characters, and narrative of the short story. Hemingway was a man who was concerned with virility and masculinity as a writer and in his life. This story centers around a weak man married to a strong woman. Hemingway's female characters are often exceptionally alluring, but not because they are perfect or healthy. The women of Hemingway's stories and novels are imperfect, flawed, and often perceptibly…