Max Weber Essays (Examples)

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Weber's Science as a Vocation and Politics as a Vocation

Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46973544

eber's Analysis Of Vocation In The Modern, Secular Protestant orld

In both his essays on "Science as a Vocation" and "Politics as a Vocation," the father of sociology Max eber advances the idea that the development of a Protestant religious ideology created modern, secular notions of what constituted a vocation. At the time of his writing, eber stated, it had become increasingly accepted that there was an equal validity of the vocations of science and politics, as opposed to the sole existence of a vocation of faith in service of God. Before Protestantism, religious dogma and religious bureaucratic institutions alone determined scientific truth. Religious internal politics also influenced national politics and political affairs. Now, Protestantism allowed for the creation of a private, religious sphere of the sacred that was intrinsically separate from a public, secular sphere of academic or political thought.

This rendering science and politics as potentially respectable vocations…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Weber, Max. "Science as a Vocation" and "Religion as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Translated and edited. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946. Retrieved from Dead Sociologist's Society Website at http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Weber/scivoc.html and http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Weber/polvoc.html.
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Weber & Durkheim Different Views

Words: 1226 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1018529

Durkheim called the unfortunate mental state produced by modernity "anomie." Anomie is best expressed as the state of alienation felt by the modern urbanite, dwelling far away from traditional family structures and religious rituals. "Anomie is impossible whenever interdependent organs are sufficiently in contact and sufficiently extensive. If they are close to each other, they are readily aware, in every situation, of the need which they have of one another, and consequently they have an active and permanent feeling of mutual dependence." (Durkheim, p.184, cited by Dunman, 1996)

In contrast to eber, rather than fearing too many constraints as a result of industrialization, Durkheim believed that the dangers of alienation lay in having no connections or confines within accepted laws of family, culture, and traditional governance. (Dunman, 1999) Durkheim felt that a lack of societal limits on behavior in an anonymous, modern society led to sadness and despair, which he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dunman, Joe. "The Emile Durkheim Archive." Created 1996. Updated 2003. [12 Jul 2006]

http://durkheim.itgo.com/anomie.html

Elwell, Frank. "Max Weber's Home Page." 1996. [12 Jul 2006]

http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Weber/Whome.htm
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Weber and Marx on Labor in the

Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67220502

eber and Marx on Labor

In the 19th century, leading social theorists such as Karl Marx and Max eber believed that because its many inherent contradictions, the capitalist system would inevitably fall into a decline.

More than a century later, however, the capitalist system is far from dead. Rather, it appears to be further entrenched, encircling the world in the stranglehold of globalization.

Despite the continued growth of capitalism, however, this paper argues that both Marx and eber's writings remain relevant to explaining many aspects of advanced industrial capitalism. In this paper, the Marx and eber's writings on estranged labor are explored in detail, to examine if the labor theories both men used to analyze capitalism and the plight of workers in the 19th century can also be applied to 21st century capitalism.

The first part of this paper discusses Marx's theory of estranged labor, as written in The Economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alarcon-Gonzales, Diana and Terry McKinley, "The adverse effects of structural adjustments on working women in Mexico" Latin American Perspectives, 26, 3, May 1999, 103-117. Available from Proquest Database.

A ore, Tom, ed. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Second Edition. London: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

Coser, Louis. Masters of Sociological Thought. New York: Harcourt Brace Janovich, 1977.

Lee, Matthew T. And Ermann, David. "Pinto madness as a flawed landmark narrative: an organization of and network analysis." Social Problems, Feb 1999 v46 i1 p30(1). Proquest Database.
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Weber the Protestant Ethic and

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53445351



Another approach taken by Weber in this study consists in explaining the characteristics of the bureaucracy. In the opinion of the author, this term may occur only in "political and ecclesiastical communities only in the modern state, and in the private economy only in the most advanced institutions of capitalism" ("The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism"). Moreover, the principle on which it is established is that of office hierarchy, in which the lower offices are supervised by the higher ones, which also exists within a legal framework, meaning that its activity is guided by written documents and usually follows some general rules.

The official is usually named in the office and, in the case of the political leaders, they gain a certain position due to their charisma, to which it also contributes his privilleged statute within the social system. Moreover, he is usually appointed, as an elected official…… [Read More]

Bibliography

WEBER Max, 1981, "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," Blackwell Publishing, 324 pages;

FISCHOFF Ephraim, 1944, "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Social Research," Vol. XI, pp.62-68;

FREUND Julien, 1968, "The Sociology of Max Weber," New York: Vintage Books.
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Marx Weber Politics Economy and

Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94881364

. . ' Their authority may only be of the order and breadth determined by the Idea of the whole; they may only 'originate from its might'. That things should be so lies in the Idea of the organism. But in that case it would be necessary to show how all this might be achieved. For conscious reality must hold sway within the state." (Marx, 77)

This suggests that independence is a pathway to authoritarian tyranny, whereas the 'might' of the state is accorded only by a collective population supporting this right. this resonates most closely with my own personal perspective, denoting something of a universal order in which central authority is necessary to retain civility but in which collectivism is elevated over materialism as a way of empowering such leadership.

2.

The spread of capitalism as both a chief ideology and an aggressive response to the mores of socialism…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Eksteins, M. (2000). Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Mariner Books.

Gerth, H.H.; Mills, C.W. & Weber, M. (1958). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Oxford University Press.

Hachmeister, L. (2006). The Goebbels Experiment. First Run Features.

Marx, K. (1992). Early Writings. Penguin Classics.
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Organizational Theory and Public Management Marx Weber

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82800370

Organizational Theory and Public Management:

Marx, Weber, and Freud.

When one considers the vast topic of organizational theory, one of the foremost names in modern study is undoubtedly Robert . Denhardt. As a professor of Public Administration at Arizona State University, he has authored numerous works on the topic of human behavior as it relates to public organization. Of course, in today's world, this area of study is no small thing -- for in virtually every society the role of the organization -- especially the public/governmental organization is of tremendous influence on the lives of humankind. In such an environment, then, Denhardt has come to focus directly on issues of behavior and ethics -- and draws heavily on the ideas of Weber, Marx and Freud to illustrate just how the governing theories and scholarly assumptions concerning organizational theory has developed into what one recognizes today.

Of course, one of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adler, Yael. "Organizational Behavior and Freud." Vault. 2001>http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3& ch_id=402& article_id=18863& cat_id=2071< (22 February 2005).

Burrell, G. And G. Morgan. Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis. London, Heinemann. 1979.

Denhardt, Robert B. Theories of Public Organization. Fourth Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. 2002.

Price, Alan. "Classical Organization Theory: Bureaucracy, Power and Control." HRM Guide. >  http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/history/classical_organization_theory.htm  < (22 February 2005).
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Protestant Ethic and the Evolution

Words: 7228 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62928220

Any one who tried to gain enough power and wealth would be considered a threat to the power of the church and was therefore quickly deposed of their wealth.

Weber proposed that even though Catholics tolerated a greater display of outward wealth, Protestant doctrines asked the followers to concentrate on mundane pursuits. It also asks its followers to accept a lower station in life without a hierarchical structure to force the issue. There were no examples of upward mobility or examples of extravagance to follow. The Protestant faith in promoted a pride in one's work and the "work and Save" ethic. The members were self-motivated, not forced into submission by the Church. This was a key difference between these two philosophies. Weber claimed that this attitude was much more productive than the Catholic idea of wealth attainment. The Calvinists had a word which meant ones calling, or duty on earth.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashley, D. And Orenstein, D. 1995. Sociological Theory: Classical Statements, third edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Baechler, J. 1988. The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England

John A. Hall & Michael Mann, Europe and the Rise of Capitalism (Blackwell, 1988).

Bendix, R. 1977 http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520031946&id=63sC9uaYqQsC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&sig=g-kn8gtBIRvG-ss0I_-BmrBz9YE" Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. University of California Press.
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What Do State Do

Words: 779 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33619065

Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from charisma, tradition, or law" (Hokim 2012). Weber held that domination of people being ruled by a ruler is an unavoidable political fact. His vision for democracy in Germany was a political marketplace where charismatic rulers are elected by winning votes in free competition, whether in struggle or not. He saw localized, public associational life as the breeding ground of charismatic rulers.

Weber suggested that social pluralism should be the sociocultural ground for political education of lay citizens, which requires an organized civil society. He also suggested that the political education should contain ethics in conviction and responsibility. The political ethics also involved value-freedom and value-relativism.

Under Weber's definition, North Korea under Kim Jong-il, after American invasion or Cambogia under the Khmer…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Charisma." New World Encyclopedia. Apr 2, 2008.  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Charisma  (accessed Jan 26, 2013).

Hokim, S. "Max Weber." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. July 31, 2012. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/weber / (accessed Jan 25, 2013).

Norman, J. The world's enduring dictatiors: Kim Jong-il, North Korea. June 4, 2011. http://www.cbsnews.about.com/od/profilesofasianleaders/p/BioKimJongil.htm (accessed Jan 25, 2013).

totalitarism. 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/600435/totalitarism (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
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Understanding Leadership

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68423746

Leadership

The theories of leadership advanced by Max Weber, James MacGregor Burns and Daniel Goleman are some of the most influential and sophisticated notions in the field of leadership. Some of the ideas denoted by these men have an intrinsic link to one another, such as both Weber and Burns' conception of transactional and transformative leaders. The philosophical espousing of this triumvirate have directly influenced many of the ideas of contemporary leadership philosophers, and have largely set the stage for modern day notions of leadership as both an academic and pragmatic field of interest. The positive and negative attributes of their theories are examined in the subsequent paragraphs.

Weber's most outstanding contribution to the field of leadership was his initial conceptualization of leadership largely hinging upon both context and circumstance. This realization of Weber's allows for a fluidity and flexibility in leadership that varies upon whatever sort of situation a…… [Read More]

References

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., McKee, A. (2001). "Primal Leadership: The Hidden Drive of Great Performance." Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from http://waldorf.nexlearn.com/harvard/c3eilb/course3tools/LTEI_8296p2_PrimalLeadership.pdf

London, S. (2008). "Book Review." Scott London. Retrieved from  http://www.scottlondon.com/reviews/burns.html 

Williams, D. (No date). "Max Weber: Traditional, Legal-Rational, and Charismatic Authority." Tripod. Retrieved from  http://danawilliams2.tripod.com/authority.html
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Sociological Theories the Theory of

Words: 3250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16562043



Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.

This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Durkheim, E. (1997). The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press.

____. (2008). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Oxford University

Press.

Grusky, D., ed. (2000). Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological
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Sociological Theory

Words: 3338 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14590401

Sociological Theory

Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.

Sociological imagination

The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…… [Read More]

References

Schaefer, R.T. (2007). Sociology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Ballantine, J.H., & Roberts, K.A. (2010). Our social world: Introduction to sociology. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publications.

Giddens, A., & Sutton, P.W. (2009). Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

King, L., & McCarthy, D. (2009). Environmental sociology: From analysis to action. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
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Sociology Concepts About Rationalization Introduced

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20067321

While in Durkheim's concept of moral density, competition is a pre-existing condition, rationalization and social change in Weber's terms is determined by the enhancement or development of humans in their ability to adapt to their social environment. Competition, although a factor in the individual's social environment, did not become the focus of Weber's process of rationalization, as compared to Durkheim's conceptualization. Marx's dialectical materialism is likened to Durkheim's concept of competition in that through this concept, human society is illustrated to be part of an ongoing history of social change premeditated by class conflict, which emerged out of the unequal control of the mode of production or technology. The relationship between the forces (elite and working classes) and mode of production determine the existence of a class stratification and conflict in the society. This class conflict led to differentiated roles in the society, resulting to formal rationality, and ultimately, after…… [Read More]

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Sociology of Work

Words: 2225 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72811523

Sociology of Work

ASSESSING UREAUCRACY

Max Weber advocated a management system, which would replace the influence of tradition and personal connection with clearly defined roles independent of those who occupied them. It was the need of his time when he and fellow theorists sought ways of increasing efficiency in production. Machines were then taking over the workload of many industries and people's lives, necessitating an immortal organization. He believed that a hierarchy had to be established to get things done. With the help of his contemporary Henry Ford, the concept of specialization was incorporated into system. Weber firmly believed it would increase efficiency of production. Strong rules and regulations must be set to keep tight control by management ranks. The bureaucratic organizational structure has been handed down to the present time with mixed effects. It has enabled governments and corporations to assert and exert power and to project power in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Altay, A. (1999). The efficiency of bureaucracy on the public sector. DEUIIBF Dergisi:

Dokuz Eylul Universitesi. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://www.libf.deu.edu.tr/dergi/1999_2_4.pdf

Carnis, L.A.H. (2009). The economic theory of bureaucracy: insights from the Niskanian model and the Miserian approach. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian's

Economics. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae12_3_4.pdf
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Philosophy Division of Labor the

Words: 2669 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7887827



As the roles and functions of religions and their leaders changed according to the changing needs of the communities they served, they provided both stability in times of change as well as the leadership to effect changes as necessary.

Of the three theorists, Marx appears to include the most negative elements in his considerations of religion. It must also be noted however that Marx places more focus on elements other than religion, whereas the other two theorists study religion in itself as it connects with society and its needs. Marx instead viewed religion as one of the elements that could be detrimental in effecting social change when necessary. Durkheim in turn places greater emphasis on the spiritual and esoteric quality of religion than the others, but nevertheless also places it within the context of a society that creates their gods as reflections of themselves. Weber is the most practical of…… [Read More]

Sources

Cox, Judy. An Introduction to Marx's Theory of Alienation. International Socialism, Issue 79, July 1998.  http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj79/cox.htm 

Deflem, Mathieu. Max Weber (1864-1920): The Rationalization of Society. Sept 2004. http://www.cas.sc.edu/socy/faculty/deflem/zClassics.htm

Dunman, L. Joe. Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor. 2003. http://durkheim.itgo.com/divisionoflabor.html

Townsley, Jeramy. Marx, Weber and Durkheim on Religion. Aug. 2004.  http://www.jeramyt.org/papers/sociology-of-religion.html
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Enabling Others to Act

Words: 2813 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61072196

Old and New Leadership Styles

Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Adrian, C. (2006). Political Democracy, Trust and Social Justice. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.

Coles, R. (2001). Lives of Moral Leadership: Men and Women Who Have Made a Difference. Random House.

DePree, M. (1992). Leadership Jazz. Dell Trade Paperbacks.

Dobel, P. (1998). "Political Prudence and the Ethics of Leadership." Public Administration Review, 58, 74 -- 81.
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Marxist or Neo-Marxist Research Theorist Theory Summary

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70523138

arxist or Neo-arxist Research

Theorist

Theory Summary

Critique of Theory

ax Weber

According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.

Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.

Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…… [Read More]

Mao Zedong

Marxism identifies only 2 types of production, Two types of production can be used, human and material. These two aspects have interrelation and they depend on each other. However, Mao tried to prove that such an interrelation is not essential. In his opinion both types of production should be included in the economic plan. He also took care and observed the process of population growth. Initially, China's post-1949 leaders were ideologically disposed to view a large population as an asset. Mao said an army of people is invincible. During Mao's rule, from 1949 to 1976, China's population increased from around 550 to over 900 million people. Mao believed that family planning should be integrated as a part of the overall plan for the development of the national economy, and that people should learn how to manage material production and how to manage themselves.

Although
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War in Iraq

Words: 2751 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10391735

ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory

The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.

Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.

Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.sunflower.com/~syber/sociology/html/conflict.html.

Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.

Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.dustbunny.fsnet.co.uk/Soci1.htm.
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Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54511113

.. "answers in his autobiography with a quotation from the ible: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? He shall stand before kings. (Proverbs 22:29)."

Weber's explanation of the rise of capitalism through the rise of Protestantism in Western Europe and in the United States is also a criticism of another sociologist and economist's theories, Karl Marx. The latter also use religion to find explanation for overwhelmingly numerous human activities, before the humankind freed itself from the magic of religion, but it was the other way around. Marx found religion as the product of human activities, while Weber contradicts his theories by putting religion at the core of capitalism. Weber studies the role of religion not as a generally attribute of the humankind, no matter where and when. In our case, Weber relates economic growth in the modern western world to the Protestantism based on the reformism. The only…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1.Engerman, Staley. Economic History Services. Project 2001: Significant Works in Twentieth-Century Economic History. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Review Essay. 2000 by EH.NET. Retrieved: Jul 15, 2006 http:/ / the.net/bookreviews/library/engerman.shtml

2. Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

Retrieved: Jul 15, 2006.  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/WEBER/cover.html 

3. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Jul 12, 2006.Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived: Jul 15, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Protestant_Ethic_and_the_Spirit_of_Capitalism
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Macro Theory of Sociology Regarding the Classical

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61676320

Macro Theory of Sociology

Regarding The Classical tradition and Social Imagination: Overall, what kinds of messages do we inherit from the "classical tradition"? How does the "sociological imagination" inspire and direct our activities as students and practitioners of the social sciences? How might an understanding of the key ideas of long-dead theorists inform how you live your personal life today? How might a reading of the classics benefit your everyday work life?

The Classical tradition of sociology stresses the importance of rational understanding of one's social and economic purpose in life. In other words, to be a fully functioning human entity in an ethical and moral context, one must be philosophically aware of the way one's social context has evolved, historically, and think critically to create an ethical system of morality. Even though the current postmodern conception of the sociological imagination may not be commensurate with, for instance, all of…… [Read More]

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Junction Hotel Is One of

Words: 2451 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79546091

They think about the break, they go on the break and the come back thinking about the passed break and waiting to the future one. By the time they focus on the actual task, the next break is up. But if they get two breaks, of 30 minutes each, then they will not constantly interrupt their work and the efficiency would increase.

Setting stricter deadlines, but -- as a manager -- being prepared for them to be delayed. This strategy is useful as the stress of an upcoming deadline will often press the employees to be more active and efficient (Schilling, 2007). This does not mean that the employees would be exploited, only that the time allocated to procrastination is decreased.

Developing and implementing a reward system, based on performances. In other words, it would be necessary for the managers at the Junction Hotel to evaluate the efficiency of each…… [Read More]

References:

Chapman, A., 2010, Frederick Herzberg's motivation and hygiene factors, Business Balls,  http://www.businessballs.com/herzberg.htm  last accessed on July 19, 2011

Cullinane, K., 2011, International handbook of maritime economics, Edward Elgar Publishing, ISBN 1847209335

Griffin, R.W., Moorhead, G., 2009, Organisational behavior: managing people and organisations, 9th edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0547167334

Knorr, A., Arndt, A., 2003, Why did Wal-Mart fail in Germany? Institute for World Economics and International Management,  http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pdf/w024.pdf  last accessed on July 19, 2011
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Sociology in His Discourse the Protestant Ethic

Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83920577

Sociology

In his discourse, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Max Weber discussed the importance of religion in dealing with capitalism, which he considered the most important economic revolution in humankind's history. Weber asserts that in capitalism, "which has come to dominate economic life, educates and selects the economic subjects which it needs through a process of economic survival of the fittest," there must be a new "manner of life" where people can adapt to the "peculiarities of capitalism" (Weber, 1958:47-8). This new manner of life, which he calls the Spirit of Capitalism, interweaves rationalism (giving birth to capitalism) and spiritualism (through religion). Weber proposes the Spirit of Capitalism in order to solve the problems of human greed, which stems from people's motivation to increase their material wealth. Thus, greed, human suffering, and inequality are the result of capitalism without its "spirit." Weber reminds that capitalism (and thus,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coser, L. (1977). Introduction to Sociology. New York: Harcourt-Brace.

Weber, M. (1958). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Schribner's Press.
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Organizational Theory & Behaviour Organizational

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14445447

The goal is approached through three distinct channels -- (1) a bottom up approach, focused on the individual administrator; (2) a top down approach focused on organizational culture, and (3) the approach to values from a functional and practical angle. The conclusions can easily be extrapolated to the totality of entities, public or private, to reveal how an incremental emphasis is being placed on culture, ideologies, reform and efficiency.

The third source to be analyzed is represented by Camilla Stivers' Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State (2002). With a slightly more specific agenda in mind, Stivers' book looks at the role of women in public institutions. Sadly enough, she finds that despite the growing number of public administration female students, their actual role and presence within public institutions remains reduced, due to a long lasting perception of public jobs as having a masculinity in nature. The…… [Read More]

References:

Fry, B.R., 1989, Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, ISBN 093454056X

Stivers, C., 2002, Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State, 2nd Edition, SAGE, ISBN 0761921745

Van Wart, M., 1998, Changing Public Sector Values, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0815320728
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Government Has a Perfect Right

Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48657994

eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.

orks Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .

Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.

Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.

Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.

Barry, B. Why Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.

Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. Web. April 2013. .
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Organizational Theory & Behaviour Organizational

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56903914

" In other words, the conclusion is that women have a negative impact on all five organizational performance criteria -- personal achievements, accountability, team building, morale and customer service. A similar view is shared by Elton Mayo, who argues that women tend to talk too much among themselves, fail to become subordinate and as such distract the attention of the whole group, negatively impacting power of concentration, and consequently, performances and the rest of the criteria.

The inferiority of the female gender comparative to the male gender is also sustained by sources quoted by Montgomery Van Wart in his Changing Public Sector Values (1998). He presents the subject in the context of discriminations against certain groups, but argues that the gender criterion is the least important one as more dramatic discriminations occurred based on race or social status. Nevertheless, the pillar of these discriminations was the belief in elite systems,…… [Read More]

Reference:

Fry, B.R., 1989, Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, ISBN 093454056X

Stivers, C., 2002, Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State, 2nd Edition, SAGE, ISBN 0761921745

Van Wart, M., 1998, Changing Public Sector Values, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0815320728
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Departments Police Officer a Generalist Discuss Inconsistent

Words: 822 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64835715

departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.

Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.

Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…… [Read More]

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Organizational Behavior Q's Classical Theory

Words: 1762 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18794337

The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.

b.

The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…… [Read More]

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Management Theories Historical Records Show That People

Words: 2061 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99899559

Management Theories

Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific

2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374

3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html

4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
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Subordination of Labor a Necessary Condition for

Words: 2582 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27677488

subordination of labor" a necessary condition for establishing an employment relationship? Are there other necessary conditions?

The capitalist take-over of production was at first merely formal. Capitalists took control of production methods via ownership and employed workers in their privately owned factories. Workers agreed to labor for the owners, because they believed that this was a more financially and socially beneficial relationship than working for their own farms, on their own privately owned land. The formal subordination of labor to capital thus is necessary in a situation of private enterprise, where labor can be rented cheaply to work on preexisting property owned by capitalists.

Why is the "real subordination of labor" described as a fundamental aspect of management? How does the unique nature of the human factor make this form of subordination problematic?

It is only later, in part under the pressure of workers' struggles, when capitalists begin to invest…… [Read More]

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Motivational Theories Teamwork L03 1 Recommendation to

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73968207

Motivational Theories / Teamwork

L03.1

Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.

The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).

The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dyer, W. Gibb, Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Dyer, William G. 2013. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. John Wiley & Sons: Santa Barbara, CA.

House, Robert J. 1996. 'Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory.' Leadership Quarterly, vol. 7, 323-353.

Kirkpatrick, Shelly A. 2011. 'Visionary Leadership Theory', Encyclopedia of Leadership. SAGE Publications. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://knowledge.sagepub.com.

Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. 2006. Essentials of Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education: Mumbai, India.
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Pubic Administration What Is Public Administration Marc

Words: 1335 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13277363

Pubic Administration?

What is Public Administration?

Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.

The Quadrants

The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…… [Read More]

References

Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Follett, M.P. (1996). The giving of orders. In Shafritz, J.M. & Ott, J.S. (Eds.). Classics of organization theory (pp.156-162). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the Theory of Organization. In Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther Gulick and Lydal Urwick. New York. Institute of Public

Administration, Columbia University.
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Sociology Comprehending September 11 Attacks Through the

Words: 2577 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72239595

Sociology:

Comprehending September 11 attacks through the eyes of Emile Durkheim

This research paper discusses a current event through the eyes of a social theorist. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.

Societies form individuals and social orders of different kinds produce different individuals. Hence our research paper will revolve around the following thesis statement:

An individual is the product of his/her own society therefore those who take extreme measures to become what they grow to expect themselves to be and those who strive hard to cooperate with certain groups even at the cost of their own lives, do so as a result of the social external forces that are at work. Both social as well as political elements, primarily cultural components play a pivotal role in forming various groups including the main example of terrorist groups and suicide commandos including those that made the orlds' skyscrapers disintegrate into…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Social Problems. Retrieved April 7, 2003 at http://www.soc.duke.edu/courses/soc11/11syls02.htm

Arthur & Kroker. Terrorism of Viral Power. CTHEORY THEORY, TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE VOL 24, NO 3.

Achenbach J. THE CLASH; Two professors, two academic theories, one big difference. depending on which is right, September 11 may mark a brief battle against terrorism, or an endless struggle between Islam and the., The Washington Post, 12-16-2001, pp W17.

Goska D. Islam & Terror. Retrieved April 7, 2003 from:  http://answering-islam.org/Terrorism/islam_terror.html
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Sociology the Shifting Definitions of

Words: 3386 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41556052

eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.

One sign that is frequently taken…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000633200

Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/.Internet. Accessed 4 June 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49065068

1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94050575

Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007673311
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Sigmund Freud With George Herbert

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99210676

Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Max Weber (1864-1920) were the distinguished German scholars of their time and both of them individually contributed a great deal in the understanding of society and its paraphernalia.

There is not much to compare between the two scholars apart from the fact they both were Germans and prominent sociologists. Karl Marx is regarded as the founder of 'socialism'. He was a great philosopher and intellectual. His philosophy essentially articulates that it's in the very nature of man to bring change in the world. This transformation process is called labor and this capacity to bring change is termed as labor power. Karl Marx's thought on sociology and philosophy had deep rooted impact on society. He was of the view that ideologies are the product of the social structure and by that he meant the theoretical perception of right being the driving force for setting up of mechanism…… [Read More]

References

Gillespie, a. 2005. G.H. Mead: Theorist of the social act. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 35, 19-39.

George Herbert Mead. March 15, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Herbert_Mead"

Freud, Sigmund. General Psychology Theory (Macmillan, 1963).

Freud, S., Civilization and its Discontents (Standard Edition), 21 (1930), pp. 59-145.
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Public Administration and Considers the Effect of

Words: 2154 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13271500

public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.

An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.

The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…… [Read More]

4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~whatley/PADM5302/theo14e.htm

5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/1,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA

6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://newtexts.com/newtexts/book.cfm?book_id=816
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Society How Does Durkheim Address

Words: 1679 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63934943

Individuals can find some sanctuary in the diverse population of urban areas. Unlike small family groups, which enforce social restrictions much tighter, larger urban areas give their inhabitants more freedom to explore diverse paths without fear of judgment or social outcast. More subgroups within a population lead to more individual exploration with fewer worries than lesser populated areas.

orks Cited

Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm

Durkheim, Emile. "hat is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theoryeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html

Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com

Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max eber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/eber/whome.htm

Marx, Karl. "Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." The Communist Manifesto. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/courses/COMMAN.htmL

Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at  http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm 

Durkheim, Emile. "What is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/TheoryWeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html

Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com

Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max Weber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/Weber/whome.htm
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Durkheim Asserts That it Isn't

Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62144234



Weber, on the other hand, did not agree that social and political class could really be considered one and the same. For him, the material inequality observable in society was the source of power and stratification, and not merely the result of the system (Davidson 2009). While still uniting the concepts of ideology and materialism, Weber's view can in some ways be seen as a reversal of Marx's; the material inequality was the means by which the ideological and political inequality could be perpetuated (Davidson 2009). The greater opportunities available to those who had greater wealth allowed for their continued dominance.

Briefly describe how two different theorists might analyze the economic climate of today and what brought it on? How would each of them understand how it would happen and what will happen in the near future.

There are many similarities between the sociological theories of Emil Durkheim and Max…… [Read More]

References

Bartle, P. (2009). "Durkheim & Weber." Accessed 12 October 2009.  http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/soc-web.htm 

Davidson, a. (2009). "Comparing Karl Marx and Max Weber." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.helium.com/items/1598754-marx-and-weber-on-social-class

Ritzer, G. & Goodman, D. (2004). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill.
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Sociologists Protestant Ethic Played

Words: 2679 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51076813

Companies practically make it mandatory for these people to employ a "nicer than natural" attitude and thus influence them to feel estranged from their emotions. Even with the fact that flight attendants manage to avoid being stressed as a result of their coping mechanism, their thinking can turn in an occupational hazard. Employing such attitudes can lead to serious problems as flight attendants feel detached from their jobs and basically come to express no actual interest in the well-being of passengers.

* Hochschild's theory concerning emotions can be applied to Goffman's understanding of people's attitudes when interacting with others. People communicate through emotions and depending on how they see other people they feel more or less inclined to express intense sentiments. An 'actor' thus shares information with his or her audiences depending on the information that his or her audiences provide him or her with. Hochschild goes in depth with…… [Read More]

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Religion and Sociology Challenges to

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48674123

(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."

Blend et al. 30)

Max eber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.

Sharlet, Jeff, "Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian Right is Reimagining U.S. History" 33-43.

Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.

Wood, Richard L. Introduction to Politics and Religion
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Growth of Modernity Is a Wide and

Words: 1893 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69417576

Growth of Modernity

Modernity is a wide and commonly debated expression utilized to explain the history of Western European nations from approximately the early-seventeenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Generally, modernity's signature features comprise augmented urbanization, a move from feudal economies to industrial capitalism, and a going away from the power and restraints of ancient customs and religious attitudes towards an acceptance of scientific and theoretical rationalism, liberalism, and egalitarianism. Modernity is therefore connected with technological and economic conversions and just as thoughtful, shifts in awareness. Particularly critical to these shifts is the appearance of the person as a shape of significant cultural and economic authority (Kennedy, n.d.).

Modernity has to do with social outlines linked to industrialization. Modernization is consequently the procedure of social alteration started by industrialization. There are four common characteristics of modernization that have been identified:

1. The turn down of small, customary neighborhoods

2. The…… [Read More]

References

Abbinnett, Ross. (2007). Marxism After Modernity. Retrieved from http://www.revalvaatio.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/abbinnett-marxism_after_modernity_politics.pdf

Chapter 24: Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies. (n.d.). Retrieved

http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/macionis7/chapter24/objectives/deluxe-content.html

Kennedy, Jake. (n.d.). Modernity. Retrieved from http://www.globalautonomy.ca/global1/glossary_pop.jsp?id=CO.0032
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Individuals the Product of Society

Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11200819

Individuals and Society

Action theories and structural theories are both endeavors to understand different aspects of society. They try to explain the behaviors of individuals as separate entities and also as a part of group. They further attempt to explain the effects or implications of people's actions on society and on making on rules, norms and customs that prevail in a society.

According to action theories, sociology is a science "is a science concerning itself with the interpretive understanding of social action and thereby with a causal explanation of its course and consequences" (Weber, p. 4) where actions can be objectively studied with the course and consequence can be explained.

It is different from other subjects such as history, where the emphasis on the individual events, rather than individuals who lead to a certain event. However, though the social action is to be studied with objectivity on the part of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Abercrombie, N. (2000) Contemporary British Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.

2) Max Weber, Economy and Society, volume 1, pp. 4-7 and pp. 22-31

3) Durkheim, The Rules of Sociological Method (1895).

4) Taylor P, Richardson J, Yeo A et al. 1995 Sociology in focus. Causeway, Ormskirk
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Anomie and Alienation Lost With No Possibility

Words: 1581 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83835533

Anomie and Alienation

Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found

Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…… [Read More]

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Hanna Rosin's Work Striking a

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78082581

(115) "hen the old yogis complain about commercialization, who can blame them? Gucci sells a yoga mat and matching bag for $655. Companies use famous yogis and yoga lingo to advertise cereal, beer and Hormel pork-loin fillets...Yoga is at a confused, precarious place, teetering on the edge of overexposure." Though, Rosin stresses that there is no real harm in the utilization of such a tool to teach and help people grow in spirituality and body, as a social outlet and a manner of life. (119)

Max eber contends that a great deal of the importance of understanding the sociology of religion lies in understanding the way such groups access power, and in the modern America what better way for a movement to gain power than through modern media commercialization? "...one aspect of the sociology of religion is the study of how certain groups or institutions (theologians, prophets, churches and sects)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.

Rosin, Hanna "Striking a Pose" The Atlantic Monthly December 2006, 114-119.

Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
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Leadership in International Schools

Words: 29649 Length: 108 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20990082

Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education

CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION

Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools

THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION

What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?

Challenges of Intecultual Communication

Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values

Impotance of the Team

Leadeship Style

LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Cuent Leadeship Reseach

Tansfomational Leadeship

Skills-Authoity

Contingency Theoies

APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING

Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship

Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change

Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…… [Read More]

reference:

http://mason.gmu.edu/~lshafer/schoolsetting.html].

Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html

Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html

Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
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Social Groups Modern Bureaucracies and

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34966056



The Catholic Church, in other words, exists for many members on both a primary and secondary mode of membership and association. "Primary groups tend to be informal in nature and dominate the structures of traditional societies. Often organized around kinship ties, these groups regulate the activities of their members through informal norms and folkways of the culture. Secondary organizations are much more formal in structure and are usually coordinated through bureaucracy" (Elwell, 2008). The secondary organization of the Catholic Church is quite formal, organized, and bureaucratic in structure, but the informal social rules of the neighborhood church -- how much participation is demanded at the church bake sale, for example, is quite informal and based upon social and kinship ties. A parallel could be drawn with the American Heart Association, another organization I am a member of. The American Heart Association is a nonprofit charity, led by all of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elwell, Frank. (2008). "Universal Structures of Societies." Harris: Social Materialism. Retrieved 15 Feb 2008 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Harris/SocioMat/infra.htm

Rollag, Keith. "Bureaucracy (Weber)." Organizational Theory. Babson College. Retrieved 15 Feb 2008 at  http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/encyclop/bureaucracy.html
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For Profit Prisons and Ethics

Words: 3566 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95905857

US PIVATE PISONS & PISONE LABO

Event

First Theory: Karl Marx

Analysis of the Evidence

Second Theorist: Max Weber

Analysis of Evidence

Event

The event being investigated in this study was published in the New York Times on May 24. 2014. The article is about the very low pay for working prisoners in the U.S. private jails and about allegations about them being exploited. The article is written by Ian Urbina and is titled "Using Jailed Migrants as a Pool of Cheap Labor." The article is available at the following link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/us/using-jailed-migrants-as-a-pool-of-cheap-labor.html.

The article describes the plight of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and how the government policy has prevented them from being employed in the U.S. However, when these very illegal immigrants land up in the prisons, especially in the private prisons of the country, they are forced to contribute labor at very low rates or even without pay.…… [Read More]

References

Bloch, Maurice. Marxist Analyses And Social Anthropology. Print.

Bowles, Paul. Capitalism. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman, 2007. Print.

Engels, Friedrich. On Historical Materialism. New York: International Publishers, 1940. Print.

Massey, Garth. Readings For Sociology. New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., 2009. Print.
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Charismatic Leadership

Words: 3055 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74114876

strong leaders has been an important aspect of organizational development since the beginning of time. Compelling leaders possess a number of personality traits and skills that require constant development, and it has been demonstrated that leaders who possess charismatic qualities are likely to gain respect and admiration over those that lack this characteristic. Within the structure of organizations, one of the primary requirements for fostering charisma is the development of a vision, defined as a mental image of an idealized future for an organization (Awamleh and Gardner 346). Once a vision has been established in a leader's mind, it can only be successful once it is expressed to all levels of the organization. Outstanding leaders are able to establish their goals and objectives for the organization in a charismatic fashion. The following discussion will provide an analysis of charisma and its role in leadership development and will provide some influential…… [Read More]

References

Awamleh, R., & Gardner, W. (1999). Perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness:

the effects of vision content, delivery, and organizational performance. Leadership Quarterly 10(3), 345-373.

Bast, M. The ethics of charismatic leadership. Out of the Box Coaching and Working With the Enneagram, 1-3.

Beyer, J.M. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. Leadership Quarterly 10(2), 307-330.
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Politics Some Say That World

Words: 3064 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33301639



yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…… [Read More]

Reference List

1962-Year in Review. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1962/Cuban-Missile-Crisis/12295509437657-6/

BusinessMate. (2009). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. BusinessMate.org.

Retrieved from   http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=30  

Chayevsky, P. [writer]. (1976). Network. Los Angeles: MGM.
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Why Don't Class Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies Advanced Capitalism Social Differentiation and Politics

Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48546093

Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies? Advanced Capitalism, Social Differentiation, and Politics

The focus of this work is to examine the question asking why it is that class politics fail to be predominant in advanced industrial societies. Towards this end, this work will review the work of Karl Marx entitled "Classes" (1867) and the work of Calhoun, et al. (2012) entitled "Contemporary Sociological Theory."

Summary of the Theories

The work of ourdieu (1976) entitled "Outline of a Theory of Practice" demonstrated the development of the core of his theory as an effort to "understand the clash between enduring ways of life and larger systems of power and capital, the ways in which cultural and social structures are reproduced even amid dramatic change, and the ways in which action and structure are not simply opposed but depend on each other." (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p.325-26) In addition, ourdieu is reported to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Calhoun, Craig, et al. (2012) Contemporary Sociological Theory. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Marx, Karl (1867) Classes. Chapter 14.

Weber, Max (1914) The Distribution of Power within the Political Community: Class, Status, Party. Chapter 22.
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Compare Christianity and Hinduism

Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58031791

Christianity and Hinduism -- Similarities and Differences

Christianity and Hinduism

This paper will provide a comparison and contract of Christianity and Hinduism with particular regard to the subjects of monotheism and eschatology. Christian monotheistic practice and Hindu monotheism will be highlighted, and the end-times philosophies of each religion are reviewed with regard to structure and caste system.

Monotheism

Christianity has always stood out as a monotheistic practice, celebrating belief in the one God, the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth, "all things visible and invisible" (Bolt, 2004). Many sects within the Christian faith believe in the Trinitarian principle, which is the idea or concept of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as one body (Bolt, 2004; Sunday, 2005).

Most do not consider Hinduism a monotheistic practice; but it is actually if one believes in monotheism as the belief in one God. Hinduism is not polytheistic, because it simply recognizes…… [Read More]

References:

Bhattatiri, Mepathur Narayana.2003.Narayaneeyam-Bhagavata, Condensed

Edition.SriRamakrishna Math. pp. 234-239.

Bolt, Peter. 2004. The cross from a distance: Atonment in Mark's gospel, a new studies in biblical theology. Downers Grove: Intervarsity.

Gulshan, Esther. 2010. The torn veil, a biography. CLC Publications.
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Economic and Cultural Convergence Brought on by

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62775690

economic and cultural convergence brought on by globalization and its subsequent mixing of previously unknown combinations of workers. What is excellent about the Tyson case is that it illustrates in a macro and microeconomic way there is an amazing convergence upon workers as well upon the business systems from radically different countries and their importation and reconstitution in a U.S. type of corporate culture.

What are business systems? As usually defined, it is "A methodical procedure or process that is used as a delivery mechanism for providing specific goods or services to customers (Business Dictionary 2011)."

In terms of theoretical sociological approach, it is hard to see Steve Striffler as anything but an anti-positivist. In his approach, a precise analysis of "Mexican" as an ideal type, even though Laotians and Marshallese were included in the group, even Striffler was "almost Mexican" due to his presence amongst the workers not just…… [Read More]

References

Business Dictionary. (2011). What is a business system? Available:

 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/business-system.html . Last accessed 5th June 2011.

"Marxists.org. (2011). Marxism & Alienation. Available:

http://www.marxists.org/subject/alienation/index.htm. Last accessed 5th June
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Harts Postscript Dworkin's Early Work

Words: 2808 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5994986

Both of these perspectives are, from Hart's perspective, too extreme: he wants a legal theory which would be free from moral evaluations or moral commitments (unlike Finnis' approach), while remaining a descriptive theory of the practice rather than a participation in it (unlike Dworkin's approach). Hart was trying to keep a difficult middle position (Hacker, 1977-page 31). He argued that a legal theory should be constructed around the perspective of someone who accepted the legal system, but the theory itself (or, to put the matter differently, the theorist herself) need not, and should not, endorse the system (as one which is generally just or which creates binding moral obligations). In other words, the theory simultaneously:

(1) attempts to take into account the participant's perspective; and (2) manages to choose among possible participants' perspectives without having to make moral judgments; while

(3) keeping sufficient distance from the participants' perspective to allow…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Austin, John, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (H L.A. Hart ed., London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1955).

Austin, Regina, "Sapphire Bound! (Minority Feminist Scholarship)" (1989) Wisconsin Law Review 539.

Baird, Douglas; Gertner, Robert and Picker, Randal, Game Theory and the Law (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994).

Baker, Gordon, "Defeasibility and Meaning" in Law, Morality, and Society (P M.S. Hacker and J. Raz eds., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), pp. 26-57.
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Fallout of the 1913 Armory

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18513774



The New York skyline changed almost simultaneously with the opening of the show, and these two visual shifts coalesced into a change in the ways that Americans viewed art. Shortly after it opened, the oolworth's building opened for business and stood as a symbol of sleek, stylized American commerce. Until the construction of the Empire State Building it was the tallest building in New York City (Roeder 1987, p.61). Another criticism of the show is that it merely inspired reverence for Europe, and connoisseurship of European tastes, but the artists, such as Max eber, who were influenced by the show, fused a new sensibility with curiosity about the changing New York visual landscape. Although eber had studied European art and Picasso before the show, only after the Armory did eber fuse his style with his perceptions of the New York skyline.

This is evidenced in how Max eber did a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Picasso's Influence on American Artists." CBS News. 18 Jan 2007. 26 Oct 2007. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/18/sunday/main2371451.shtml

Roeder, George H. "What Have Modernists Looked at? Experiential Roots of Twentieth-Century American Painting." American Quarterly. 1987.

Staples, Shelley. "As Avant-Garde as the Rest of Them." An Introduction to the 1913

Armory Show. 2001 26 Oct 2007.  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MUSEUM/Armory/intro.html
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To What Extent Are Individuals the Product of Society

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72945574

individual in society: To what extent are individuals the product of society?

The idea of 'the individual' has become such an accepted construct in modern life it is easy to forget that the idea of an isolated, all-important private and individual 'self' is a relatively new development in human sociological thought. Even today, human beings define themselves, not simply as individual selves, but as persons who must function within particular social contexts of family, work, and school. Quite often, when one asks 'who am I,' one's societal roles of child or parent, worker or employee, or student formulate one's answer. But although societal ideals and ideas have produced the modern notion of the individual as an isolated, psychologically contained essence, this idea has grown so powerful that even as societal institutions of church and education continue to shape the collective, individual persons now seek a sense of empowerment and actualization…… [Read More]

Works Cited.

Abercrombie, N. And Warde, A. Contemporary British Society. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.

Durkheim, Emile. Suicide, 1929.

Freud, Sigmund. Freud's Collected Writings, 1924.

Marsh I. Sociology: Making sense of Society. 2000.
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EU and Absolute Control

Words: 3353 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87677867

Meeting the Objectives of the EU: What They Are, What They Entail for Member Nations, and Why They Are Difficult to Attain Without Absolute Supremacy

That it would be difficult for the European Union (EU) to meet its objectives effectively without the principle of supremacy is true enough, but what are the objectives that the EU desires to meet? Can what is good for Croatia be equally good or even relevant to nations like UK, France or Spain? If supremacy is important, who is supreme? In modern times, behind federalist powers always lurks a deeper state (Scott, 2007). Identifying the deeper state then becomes necessary in understanding the EU's objectives. However, if the objectives of the EU are to preserve the sovereignty and dignity of its member states, the principle of supremacy may not be the best option, as the Treaty of Lisbon appears to recognize. This paper will discuss…… [Read More]

Reference List

BBC News (2014). Germany 'would accept UK exit from EU' to protect migration rules.

BBC. [Accessed 24 Jan 2015]. Retrieved from:  http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-29874392 

Bonde, J (2008) The Treaty of Lisbon: an impact assessment. London: Stationery Office.

Broadberry, S, O'Rourke, K (2010) The Cambridge Economic History of Modern
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Sociology of Poverty and Welfare

Words: 3817 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79188435

Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology

Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.

Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
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Political Machines

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88294879

Political Machines: Politics as a Tammany Vocation

hen Max eber made a speech on politics as a vocation he defined the political machine as a creation of the modern, pluralistic democratic state. A political machine, unlike a purely charismatic individual leader, was a functional bureaucracy attempted, however imperfectly to serve the popular interest through the use of an institutional framework. A quick-voiced opponent of political corruption might protest the use of the political machine as a contemporary model for American democracy, as it has often been associated with corruption, specifically pork barrel politics in America's urban past. Yet, before the creation of political machines, the national apparatus of the state used physical force to ensure compliance with its actions, rather than bestowing any kind of favors to ensure popular compliance.

For example in eber's Europe, the result of this use of aristocratic force was a form of political tyranny over…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.

Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, The Politics of Urban America: A Reader. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.

Riordan, William L. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall / Edited with an Introduction by Terrence J. McDonald. New York: Bedsford St. Martins. Originally Published in 1905.

Weber, Max. "Politics as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated and edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Pp. 77-128, New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.
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Class and Gender

Words: 4228 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11311644

Oppression of Class And Gender

Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)

According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.

All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."

(MAX WEER: asic Terms)

Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. (http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html)

Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com)

Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. (http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937

"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
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System Paradigms Humans Have the

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70999728

The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).

EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION

Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…… [Read More]

References

Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304

Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B

Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
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Understanding Rational Choice Theory President Obama Approving Sanctions Against Iran

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98287662

Rational Choice Theory -- Obama's Sanctions on Iran

The Rational Choice ade by a U.S. President

The recent action by U.S. President Barack Obama to place additional sanctions on the country of Iran represents one more step in the West's attempt to stymie Iran's apparent drive to build a nuclear bomb. It has been known for some time that Iran had nuclear reactors for generating electricity, and from the production of electricity through nuclear fission, materials for a bomb can be gleaned. But the key issue to Western governments (Europe, the U.S., Canada and other Western nations) is to try and block Iran's policy by cutting off the number of countries that Iran can sell crude oil to. Specifically, Obama targeted "financial institutions doing business with Iran's central bank, a key conduit for the country's oil sales," according to The Wall Street Journal (Hodge, et al., 2012)

. In making…… [Read More]

Max Weber, "Conceptual Exposition," In Economy and Society Ed. G. Roth and C. Wittich (1968).

John Scott, "Rational Choice Theory," in Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Eds. G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster (Sage Publications, 2000).

George Homans, "A Psychological Basis?" In Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Eds. A. Halcli, and F. Webster (2000).
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Value of the Traditional Managerial Approach to

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63911420

value of the traditional managerial approach to public administration?

Accountability

Economy

Effectiveness

Providing for political representation in public administration

Which of the following best describes "externalities"?

They are profits

They are always in the public interests

They are costs absorbed by the manufacturers of products

They are created by economic activities but not accounted for in market transactions

The judiciary's power to dispense with the harsh application of law is known as:

Adjudication

Equal protection

Equity

Constitution:

Comprehensively provides for federal and state administration

Comprehensively provides for federal administration

c. Contains no provisions for public administration

None of the above

Which of the following is not associated with the traditional managerial approach to public administration?

a. Max Weber

b. Paul Appleby

c. Woodrow Wilson

d. Frederick Taylor

6. Public Administration resembles private management in that:

a. It is profit-seeking

b. It regulates the public at large

c. It provides services…… [Read More]

References

Fanning, Fred. (n.d.). Public sector safety professionals: Focused on activity or results? Best of the Best Newsletter. Retrieved: http://www.asse.org/practicespecialties/publicsector/docs/PSPS%20Best-of-the-Best%20Newsletter%20Article%202006-2007.pdf

Fessler, Pam. (2012). Struggling families lift themselves out of poverty. NPR. Retrieved:

http://m.npr.org/news/front/155932539?page=2
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Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs The

Words: 4190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57183615

This similarly encourages modest investment in ussia, a market of 150 million, even in the face of continuing economic difficulties and political uncertainty (Saunders, 105).

According to Sunders, the strategy developed to "globalize" ussia was known as "shock therapy." And its implementation began with the January 1, 1992 elimination of price controls on most goods. The objective of "shock therapy" was, in essence, to create a market economy in ussia as quickly as possible. Sunders claim that this was to be achieved by freeing prices and liberalizing trade policies, which would stimulate competition; and by privatization, which would create private property with all its attendant behavioral incentives for enterprises. At the same time, it was essential to make the ruble convertible and ensure that its value remained relatively stable. This meant controlling inflation and, therefore, keeping tight control of currency emissions and government spending.

Consequently, Saunders appreciates that successful economic…… [Read More]

Reference:

Batygin, G. S. 'The Transfer of Allegiances of the Intellectual Elite'. Studies in East

European Thought 53 (2001)

Boris Yeltsin quoted in Urban, M. Re-mythologizing the Russian State. Euro-Asia Studies

50/6 (1998): 969
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The Notion of Transformational Leadership

Words: 3591 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34090792

hile the case study approach would have allowed
Gubman to interview employees on their degree of loyalty, one is left to
wonder whether a few selective interviews, which would be in line with the
case study format, would allow Gubman to make any generalizations about a
company with thousands of employees, like Motorola.
Stephen Denning (2005) also attempts to measure the effects of
transformational leadership through a case study approach of IBM's e-
business strategy in the 1990s. Denning demonstrates how the idea of
Internet business actually originated from a low-level IBM engineer, who
was able to get access to and convince corporate leadership, including CEO
Lou Gerstner. Company management eventually supported the idea and launched
what became a multi-billion-dollar business unit.
Denning (2005) is able to demonstrate various components of
transformational leadership in his research. For example, he demonstrates a
vision that originated from employees and was eventually disseminated…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bass, B.M. and Steidlmeier, P. (1998). Ethics, character and authentic
transformational
leadership. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2007 from
http://cls.binghamton.edu/BassSteid.html.

Bass' transformational leadership theory (No date). Changing Minds.
Retrieved Oct. 19,