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Max Weber's Theory
Max Weber and modernization in the U.S.A.
The concept of modernization has not escaped the controversy that has surrounded most ideas that have come up in the process of giving the globe a new face that is different from the one that was there before. Modernization happens around us on a daily basis and it is a continuous process that accompanies the human life. There is a general agreement that things like the industrial cities are modern cities. Modernization is therefore generally understood as the process in which people adopt new, more productive ways and means in almost all economic sectors. In order to sustain or uphold these shifts in the economic levels there is need to have a value system that gives emphasis to rationality, specialization, efficiency, cosmopolitanism as well as a keen interest in the prospective of having a future that is better than the…… [Read More]
The author describes how journalism is in itself a form of political power but that major news media are really controlled by capitalists.
One of the salient issues Weber discusses in "Politics as a Vocation" is the ethical dimension of political life. Weber focuses on three main qualities that politicians need in order to be effective: "passion, a feeling of responsibility, and a sense of proportion." Weber also refers to what he calls the "ethic of the Sermon on the Mount" as a guide for political thought. The ethic of the Sermon of the Mount offers a reasonable means to exert just and dignified political control. Finally, Weber distinguishes between the "ethic of ultimate ends" and the "ethic of responsibility," which are two different ways of approaching morality in politics. The two are not mutually exclusive, according to the author, for the politician must sometimes justify the means in order…… [Read More]
He determines that "the age old problem of theodicy consists of the very question of how it is that a power which is said to be at once omnipotent and kind could have created such an irrational world of undeserved suffering, unpunished injustice and hopeless stupidity." (Gerth et al., 122) Here, he inclines the understanding that religious institutions may serve to most as a preexistent institution by which the individual conscience may be explored.
ith that in mind, eber allows us to turn our attention to America, which would be a significant influence on his writing and on his endorsement of capitalism. To his perspective, the resonance between Protestant value and the capitalist principles of the United States would be a natural integration of two social characteristics defined by context. The frontier would be a sensible place for the theretofore hierarchically diminished Protestant to assume a new approach to social…… [Read More]
The University of Michigan's use of race as a "plus" indicator for applicants, and its employment of said rule on both applicants Gratz and Hamacher, is an example of a wertrational ideal type. The consideration of race as a qualifier or an ideal type itself in the University's admission rules is a rational step in order to satisfy or achieve an irrational goal. The rule does not, as the Supreme Court decision elaborated, in any way demonstrate consideration of racial diversity except for the fact that the University admits individuals who belong to underrepresented minorities. This being the case, it is irrational that such rule should be employed, and included still after annual revisions of the University's admission policies. This case serves as an example of how the wertrational ideal type is present in social phenomenon, and can provide reflections on how policies and rules are crafted, applied, and critically…… [Read More]
For the author, the Church had "institutional preconditions" that made capitalism emerge and develop for as early as the High Middle Ages which occurred between the 14th and 15th centuries. The Church organization showed several features that were also manifested in Protestantism, or more generally, in nations that have developed a capitalist economic society: (1) the growth of rationalized technology and (2) institutional transformation.
In terms of the growth of rationalized technology, Collins asserted that the gradual shift from the use of windmills, water mills, and engines for processing agricultural products (also called the "mill-building craze") gave way to innovations in machinery, where the 14th century was characterized to have produced mechanized tools for agricultural production (48). Apart from these technologies, the organization of the Church itself, including its laws and tenets demonstrate how the clergy and its faithful followers "entered into a contractual relationship that not only gave oaths…… [Read More]
Max eber's book "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism" deals with the idea of capitalism as having been partially influenced by Protestant thinking. hile some might be inclined to believe that there is a strong difference between religious ideas and capitalist ideas (with the latter being primarily meant to influence people to become rich), the reality is that there is a powerful connection between the two schools of thought.
Economic conditions today have been influenced by early Protestant thinking and one can easily find parallels in religious principles promoted in Calvinist circles. Calvinists' belief that God provides people with resources based on the strength of their relationship with him influenced people belonging to the community to focus on increasing their finances on account of how such behavior would be perfectly rational in the eyes of God.
Catholics through the ages have been passionate about improving their relationship…… [Read More]
Max eber's sociological theory, discuss impact Mcdonaldization society relates today's culture. Do agree disagree sociologist George Ritzer
McDonaldization seen from a sociological point-of-view
Max eber's sociological theory provides people with the opportunity to have a better understanding of how the process of McDonaldization affected cultural values today. eber emphasized that society was the product of people getting actively involved in building a set of rules and a community that promotes certain values. eber promoted social actions as one of the principal concepts that should be studied through sociology. hen considering how individuals perform actions that they associate with a meaning, it seems that the McDonaldization process is obviously supported by society as a result of the perceived benefits it provides people with.
eber's sociological theory alongside of the idea of McDonaldization virtually promotes the belief that people are gradually becoming robots. Bureaucracy comes to dominate the social order as most…… [Read More]
Max eber's "THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM," "Religious Affiliation and Social Stratification," discusses the relationship between the religion and financial status. eber associated financial status with Protestantism and with the idea of people wanting to have more financial independence as a result of detaching themselves from the Catholic Church. The writer does, however, emphasize that it would be difficult and almost impossible to verify this theory, considering that Protestants also inherited great wealth and their participation in capitalism might thus be coincidental and with no connection to their religious preferences.
From eber's point-of-view, Catholics are more likely to promote abstinent values and to focus on respecting traditions while Protestants are generally appreciative toward change and welcome attitudes that increase their social and financial status. Catholicism apparently influences people to focus less on material values and more on preserving their cultural values. In contrast, Protestants grow up learning…… [Read More]
Max eber's book "THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM," "The Spirit of Capitalism," addresses a series of factors that come together in forming the idea representing the economic system. eber uses an excerpt written by Benjamin Franklin in an attempt to provide more information concerning the concept as seen from the perspective of one of the most important individuals in the history of capitalism. Franklin goes at emphasizing the role that money play in making people wealthier. He addresses ideas involving time being equivalent to finances, credit being money, and money being essential in producing more money.
Modern capitalism promotes the idea that people need to raise as much money as they possibly can, as this is apparently one of their principal duties as members of a capitalist economic system. eber's use of Franklin's excerpt is generally meant to put across information with regard to how a person…… [Read More]
Max Weber is a strong supporter and advocate for bureaucracy which he defines as "the means of carrying community action over into rationally ordered social action… an instrument of socializing relations of power, bureaucracy has been and is a power instrument of first order." (Weber, 1946). His point-of-view is however debatable with the question whether public administrators should be restricted to only laid down rules in the discharge of their duties as or should they have some amount of discretion always arising. In his argument, Weber states that there are three types of authority that facilitate evolution of societies, these are traditional, charismatic, and legal-rational authority. He bases his concept on the legal-rational authority, this authority believes in the legitimacy of normative rules and that those elevated to authority through such rules have a right to issue commands. His presentation is that of an ideal bureaucracy whose major…… [Read More]
Max eber's philosophy in regards to Protestantism, precisely Calvinism, had a lot to do in the progress of a spirit of capitalism in the western part of Europe has had a deep consequence on the rational of sociologists and historians ever since its publication in 1904. Numerous historians value its use of social theory to past proceedings and admire it for its effort to clarify why capitalism flourished in United States and Europe and not as much in other dwellings. Immanuel allerstein, for example, depicted deeply on eber for clarifications of the development of capitalism into the contemporary financial world-organization in his classic three volume masterpiece, which was called the Modern orld-System (Giddens, 2007). Max eber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is considered to be the study of the relationship that occurs between the morals of severe Protestantism and the presence of the spirit of…… [Read More]
Society was more complex than a world divided merely into workers, aristocrats, and clergy, and contained many classes, from workers to owners to civil servants to politicians to aristocrats. Marx saw the major difference after the Industrial Revolution to be that of a shift from agriculture to industry, although the inequities and exploitation of the class possessing the means of production remained constant. But as a result of the complexity created through industrialization, eber believed social power had become more diffuse. Social power and classes were not based simply upon land ownership, money and wealth. Social power also rested in social prestige and political power and influence. (Bartle, "Community Empowerment: Lecture Notes, Marx and eber -- Inequality, 2006) Social classes were not fixed entities. A person's power and class allegiance could shift quite rapidly, depending upon one's immediate context.
eber might argue, for example that some persons who are not…… [Read More]
The sociology of Max Weber (Question No. 1)
Max Weber's sociology involved two important concepts: Protestant ethic and capitalism. Establishing a causal connection between this two concepts, Weber presented in his discourse, "Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," how the Protestant ethic was the catalyst that propelled Western societies towards social progress through capitalism. This causal connection was developed through a string of observations and ideas that helped Weber analyze the course of human history and interaction as it moved from 19th towards the 20th century.
In establishing his thesis, Weber centered his observations by looking into the interaction or social action among people in Western societies. This methodology enabled him to create descriptions, implications, and meanings in determining the origin of capitalism and how it developed. Social action was explicated by Weber as 'action that is social' -- that is, social action that has "subjective meaning…… [Read More]
eber's Analysis Of Vocation In The Modern, Secular Protestant orld
In both his essays on "Science as a Vocation" and "Politics as a Vocation," the father of sociology Max eber advances the idea that the development of a Protestant religious ideology created modern, secular notions of what constituted a vocation. At the time of his writing, eber stated, it had become increasingly accepted that there was an equal validity of the vocations of science and politics, as opposed to the sole existence of a vocation of faith in service of God. Before Protestantism, religious dogma and religious bureaucratic institutions alone determined scientific truth. Religious internal politics also influenced national politics and political affairs. Now, Protestantism allowed for the creation of a private, religious sphere of the sacred that was intrinsically separate from a public, secular sphere of academic or political thought.
This rendering science and politics as potentially respectable vocations…… [Read More]
Durkheim called the unfortunate mental state produced by modernity "anomie." Anomie is best expressed as the state of alienation felt by the modern urbanite, dwelling far away from traditional family structures and religious rituals. "Anomie is impossible whenever interdependent organs are sufficiently in contact and sufficiently extensive. If they are close to each other, they are readily aware, in every situation, of the need which they have of one another, and consequently they have an active and permanent feeling of mutual dependence." (Durkheim, p.184, cited by Dunman, 1996)
In contrast to eber, rather than fearing too many constraints as a result of industrialization, Durkheim believed that the dangers of alienation lay in having no connections or confines within accepted laws of family, culture, and traditional governance. (Dunman, 1999) Durkheim felt that a lack of societal limits on behavior in an anonymous, modern society led to sadness and despair, which he…… [Read More]
eber and Marx on Labor
In the 19th century, leading social theorists such as Karl Marx and Max eber believed that because its many inherent contradictions, the capitalist system would inevitably fall into a decline.
More than a century later, however, the capitalist system is far from dead. Rather, it appears to be further entrenched, encircling the world in the stranglehold of globalization.
Despite the continued growth of capitalism, however, this paper argues that both Marx and eber's writings remain relevant to explaining many aspects of advanced industrial capitalism. In this paper, the Marx and eber's writings on estranged labor are explored in detail, to examine if the labor theories both men used to analyze capitalism and the plight of workers in the 19th century can also be applied to 21st century capitalism.
The first part of this paper discusses Marx's theory of estranged labor, as written in The Economic…… [Read More]
Another approach taken by Weber in this study consists in explaining the characteristics of the bureaucracy. In the opinion of the author, this term may occur only in "political and ecclesiastical communities only in the modern state, and in the private economy only in the most advanced institutions of capitalism" ("The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism"). Moreover, the principle on which it is established is that of office hierarchy, in which the lower offices are supervised by the higher ones, which also exists within a legal framework, meaning that its activity is guided by written documents and usually follows some general rules.
The official is usually named in the office and, in the case of the political leaders, they gain a certain position due to their charisma, to which it also contributes his privilleged statute within the social system. Moreover, he is usually appointed, as an elected official…… [Read More]
Karl Marx, Max Weber, Antonio Gramsci and Pierre Bourdieu all conceptualize culture power in different ways. Each identifies the agent (the specific social group) which acquires and makes use of cultural power as well as the means by which the agents acquire and maintain cultural power.
As Marx and Engels observe in The German Ideology, "The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it" (64). Thus, for Marx, laborers were the specific group that needed to acquire power from the elites (capitalists), owners of the means of production. The means of production were, of course, the laborers. Communism was the ideology that would free the laborers from subservience to the owners of capital.…… [Read More]
. . ' Their authority may only be of the order and breadth determined by the Idea of the whole; they may only 'originate from its might'. That things should be so lies in the Idea of the organism. But in that case it would be necessary to show how all this might be achieved. For conscious reality must hold sway within the state." (Marx, 77)
This suggests that independence is a pathway to authoritarian tyranny, whereas the 'might' of the state is accorded only by a collective population supporting this right. this resonates most closely with my own personal perspective, denoting something of a universal order in which central authority is necessary to retain civility but in which collectivism is elevated over materialism as a way of empowering such leadership.
The spread of capitalism as both a chief ideology and an aggressive response to the mores of socialism…… [Read More]
The Sociological Method
The sociological method was viewed very differently by Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. One focused on objectivity, the other on subjectivity. The consequences of their different methodological principles in terms of each author’s understanding of society can be found in how people today view, discuss, think about and manage the development of society. Durkheim’s methodology helped lead to the establishment of the use of statistics in social analysis and the management of what the Frankfurt School would go on to call the culture industry, as the prime dictator of social facts. Adorno and Horkheimer were more influenced by Weber’s antipositivism, however, and Weber’s methodology helped lead to the formation not only of the Frankfurt School but also of the Austrian School of economics, which acknowledged the problem of accurately determining the relative value of goods for which reason no centralized planned economy could ever work efficiently in…… [Read More]
Any one who tried to gain enough power and wealth would be considered a threat to the power of the church and was therefore quickly deposed of their wealth.
Weber proposed that even though Catholics tolerated a greater display of outward wealth, Protestant doctrines asked the followers to concentrate on mundane pursuits. It also asks its followers to accept a lower station in life without a hierarchical structure to force the issue. There were no examples of upward mobility or examples of extravagance to follow. The Protestant faith in promoted a pride in one's work and the "work and Save" ethic. The members were self-motivated, not forced into submission by the Church. This was a key difference between these two philosophies. Weber claimed that this attitude was much more productive than the Catholic idea of wealth attainment. The Calvinists had a word which meant ones calling, or duty on earth.…… [Read More]
Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from charisma, tradition, or law" (Hokim 2012). Weber held that domination of people being ruled by a ruler is an unavoidable political fact. His vision for democracy in Germany was a political marketplace where charismatic rulers are elected by winning votes in free competition, whether in struggle or not. He saw localized, public associational life as the breeding ground of charismatic rulers.
Weber suggested that social pluralism should be the sociocultural ground for political education of lay citizens, which requires an organized civil society. He also suggested that the political education should contain ethics in conviction and responsibility. The political ethics also involved value-freedom and value-relativism.
Under Weber's definition, North Korea under Kim Jong-il, after American invasion or Cambogia under the Khmer…… [Read More]
The theories of leadership advanced by Max Weber, James MacGregor Burns and Daniel Goleman are some of the most influential and sophisticated notions in the field of leadership. Some of the ideas denoted by these men have an intrinsic link to one another, such as both Weber and Burns' conception of transactional and transformative leaders. The philosophical espousing of this triumvirate have directly influenced many of the ideas of contemporary leadership philosophers, and have largely set the stage for modern day notions of leadership as both an academic and pragmatic field of interest. The positive and negative attributes of their theories are examined in the subsequent paragraphs.
Weber's most outstanding contribution to the field of leadership was his initial conceptualization of leadership largely hinging upon both context and circumstance. This realization of Weber's allows for a fluidity and flexibility in leadership that varies upon whatever sort of situation a…… [Read More]
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…… [Read More]
While in Durkheim's concept of moral density, competition is a pre-existing condition, rationalization and social change in Weber's terms is determined by the enhancement or development of humans in their ability to adapt to their social environment. Competition, although a factor in the individual's social environment, did not become the focus of Weber's process of rationalization, as compared to Durkheim's conceptualization. Marx's dialectical materialism is likened to Durkheim's concept of competition in that through this concept, human society is illustrated to be part of an ongoing history of social change premeditated by class conflict, which emerged out of the unequal control of the mode of production or technology. The relationship between the forces (elite and working classes) and mode of production determine the existence of a class stratification and conflict in the society. This class conflict led to differentiated roles in the society, resulting to formal rationality, and ultimately, after…… [Read More]
Sociology of Work
Max Weber advocated a management system, which would replace the influence of tradition and personal connection with clearly defined roles independent of those who occupied them. It was the need of his time when he and fellow theorists sought ways of increasing efficiency in production. Machines were then taking over the workload of many industries and people's lives, necessitating an immortal organization. He believed that a hierarchy had to be established to get things done. With the help of his contemporary Henry Ford, the concept of specialization was incorporated into system. Weber firmly believed it would increase efficiency of production. Strong rules and regulations must be set to keep tight control by management ranks. The bureaucratic organizational structure has been handed down to the present time with mixed effects. It has enabled governments and corporations to assert and exert power and to project power in…… [Read More]
As the roles and functions of religions and their leaders changed according to the changing needs of the communities they served, they provided both stability in times of change as well as the leadership to effect changes as necessary.
Of the three theorists, Marx appears to include the most negative elements in his considerations of religion. It must also be noted however that Marx places more focus on elements other than religion, whereas the other two theorists study religion in itself as it connects with society and its needs. Marx instead viewed religion as one of the elements that could be detrimental in effecting social change when necessary. Durkheim in turn places greater emphasis on the spiritual and esoteric quality of religion than the others, but nevertheless also places it within the context of a society that creates their gods as reflections of themselves. Weber is the most practical of…… [Read More]
Old and New Leadership Styles
Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…… [Read More]
arxist or Neo-arxist Research
Critique of Theory
According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.
Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.
Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…… [Read More]
ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory
The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…… [Read More]
.. "answers in his autobiography with a quotation from the ible: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? He shall stand before kings. (Proverbs 22:29)."
Weber's explanation of the rise of capitalism through the rise of Protestantism in Western Europe and in the United States is also a criticism of another sociologist and economist's theories, Karl Marx. The latter also use religion to find explanation for overwhelmingly numerous human activities, before the humankind freed itself from the magic of religion, but it was the other way around. Marx found religion as the product of human activities, while Weber contradicts his theories by putting religion at the core of capitalism. Weber studies the role of religion not as a generally attribute of the humankind, no matter where and when. In our case, Weber relates economic growth in the modern western world to the Protestantism based on the reformism. The only…… [Read More]
Macro Theory of Sociology
Regarding The Classical tradition and Social Imagination: Overall, what kinds of messages do we inherit from the "classical tradition"? How does the "sociological imagination" inspire and direct our activities as students and practitioners of the social sciences? How might an understanding of the key ideas of long-dead theorists inform how you live your personal life today? How might a reading of the classics benefit your everyday work life?
The Classical tradition of sociology stresses the importance of rational understanding of one's social and economic purpose in life. In other words, to be a fully functioning human entity in an ethical and moral context, one must be philosophically aware of the way one's social context has evolved, historically, and think critically to create an ethical system of morality. Even though the current postmodern conception of the sociological imagination may not be commensurate with, for instance, all of…… [Read More]
They think about the break, they go on the break and the come back thinking about the passed break and waiting to the future one. By the time they focus on the actual task, the next break is up. But if they get two breaks, of 30 minutes each, then they will not constantly interrupt their work and the efficiency would increase.
Setting stricter deadlines, but -- as a manager -- being prepared for them to be delayed. This strategy is useful as the stress of an upcoming deadline will often press the employees to be more active and efficient (Schilling, 2007). This does not mean that the employees would be exploited, only that the time allocated to procrastination is decreased.
Developing and implementing a reward system, based on performances. In other words, it would be necessary for the managers at the Junction Hotel to evaluate the efficiency of each…… [Read More]
In his discourse, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Max Weber discussed the importance of religion in dealing with capitalism, which he considered the most important economic revolution in humankind's history. Weber asserts that in capitalism, "which has come to dominate economic life, educates and selects the economic subjects which it needs through a process of economic survival of the fittest," there must be a new "manner of life" where people can adapt to the "peculiarities of capitalism" (Weber, 1958:47-8). This new manner of life, which he calls the Spirit of Capitalism, interweaves rationalism (giving birth to capitalism) and spiritualism (through religion). Weber proposes the Spirit of Capitalism in order to solve the problems of human greed, which stems from people's motivation to increase their material wealth. Thus, greed, human suffering, and inequality are the result of capitalism without its "spirit." Weber reminds that capitalism (and thus,…… [Read More]
The goal is approached through three distinct channels -- (1) a bottom up approach, focused on the individual administrator; (2) a top down approach focused on organizational culture, and (3) the approach to values from a functional and practical angle. The conclusions can easily be extrapolated to the totality of entities, public or private, to reveal how an incremental emphasis is being placed on culture, ideologies, reform and efficiency.
The third source to be analyzed is represented by Camilla Stivers' Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State (2002). With a slightly more specific agenda in mind, Stivers' book looks at the role of women in public institutions. Sadly enough, she finds that despite the growing number of public administration female students, their actual role and presence within public institutions remains reduced, due to a long lasting perception of public jobs as having a masculinity in nature. The…… [Read More]
eber and Spencer took this further and say the need for government control over some aspects of society, but not those that removed decisions and rights from the individual. Thus, as adults and citizens the government should offer structure and guidance in a manner that is consistent with the social goals of the Enlightenment; namely allowing actualization without overly reducing individual decisions and actualization.
Aristotle. Nichomaecean Ethics. New York: Nuvision Publications, 2007. Print.
Barry, B. hy Social Justice Matters. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005. Print.
Bayer, R., ed. Public Health Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Constitutional Rights Foundation. "Plato and Aristotle on Tyranny and the Rule of Law." Fall 2010. crf-usa.org. eb. April 2013. .
Gay, P. The Enlightenment - the Science of Freedom. New York: .. Norton, 1996.
Porter, R. The Enlightenment. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2001.
Sharma, C. "Beyond Gaps and Imbalances." Public Administration…… [Read More]
" In other words, the conclusion is that women have a negative impact on all five organizational performance criteria -- personal achievements, accountability, team building, morale and customer service. A similar view is shared by Elton Mayo, who argues that women tend to talk too much among themselves, fail to become subordinate and as such distract the attention of the whole group, negatively impacting power of concentration, and consequently, performances and the rest of the criteria.
The inferiority of the female gender comparative to the male gender is also sustained by sources quoted by Montgomery Van Wart in his Changing Public Sector Values (1998). He presents the subject in the context of discriminations against certain groups, but argues that the gender criterion is the least important one as more dramatic discriminations occurred based on race or social status. Nevertheless, the pillar of these discriminations was the belief in elite systems,…… [Read More]
departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.
Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.
Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…… [Read More]
The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.
The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…… [Read More]
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]
subordination of labor" a necessary condition for establishing an employment relationship? Are there other necessary conditions?
The capitalist take-over of production was at first merely formal. Capitalists took control of production methods via ownership and employed workers in their privately owned factories. Workers agreed to labor for the owners, because they believed that this was a more financially and socially beneficial relationship than working for their own farms, on their own privately owned land. The formal subordination of labor to capital thus is necessary in a situation of private enterprise, where labor can be rented cheaply to work on preexisting property owned by capitalists.
Why is the "real subordination of labor" described as a fundamental aspect of management? How does the unique nature of the human factor make this form of subordination problematic?
It is only later, in part under the pressure of workers' struggles, when capitalists begin to invest…… [Read More]
Motivational Theories / Teamwork
Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.
The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).
The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include…… [Read More]
What is Public Administration?
Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.
The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…… [Read More]
Comprehending September 11 attacks through the eyes of Emile Durkheim
This research paper discusses a current event through the eyes of a social theorist. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Societies form individuals and social orders of different kinds produce different individuals. Hence our research paper will revolve around the following thesis statement:
An individual is the product of his/her own society therefore those who take extreme measures to become what they grow to expect themselves to be and those who strive hard to cooperate with certain groups even at the cost of their own lives, do so as a result of the social external forces that are at work. Both social as well as political elements, primarily cultural components play a pivotal role in forming various groups including the main example of terrorist groups and suicide commandos including those that made the orlds' skyscrapers disintegrate into…… [Read More]
Bethany Moreton's "To serve God and Walmart: The making of Christian free enterprise." (Harvard University Press, 2009)
Author Bethany Moreton's work provides an insight into Walmart's corporate history and its swift climb, within 50 years, from a little discount retail chain opened up by Sam Walton to an international retailing giant. The author goes beyond readers' expectations to include Walmart Country's religious, social, and cultural history (the term 'Walmart Country' would refer to its politically charged birthplace and surroundings of East Oklahoma, north-western Arkansas, and south Missouri). It is a place where the retailer's customers, supervisors and staff collaborate with missionaries, evangelical housewives, and pastors, within a doctrine of free enterprise and community service.
Moreton has penned an in-depth and captivating analysis of the popular global retail giant, America's largest private-sector employer, and the largest global public company. Through an elaborate case study, the author has effectively assimilated its cultural…… [Read More]
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…… [Read More]
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Max Weber (1864-1920) were the distinguished German scholars of their time and both of them individually contributed a great deal in the understanding of society and its paraphernalia.
There is not much to compare between the two scholars apart from the fact they both were Germans and prominent sociologists. Karl Marx is regarded as the founder of 'socialism'. He was a great philosopher and intellectual. His philosophy essentially articulates that it's in the very nature of man to bring change in the world. This transformation process is called labor and this capacity to bring change is termed as labor power. Karl Marx's thought on sociology and philosophy had deep rooted impact on society. He was of the view that ideologies are the product of the social structure and by that he meant the theoretical perception of right being the driving force for setting up of mechanism…… [Read More]
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…… [Read More]
Individuals can find some sanctuary in the diverse population of urban areas. Unlike small family groups, which enforce social restrictions much tighter, larger urban areas give their inhabitants more freedom to explore diverse paths without fear of judgment or social outcast. More subgroups within a population lead to more individual exploration with fewer worries than lesser populated areas.
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "hat is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theoryeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max eber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/eber/whome.htm
Marx, Karl. "Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." The Communist Manifesto. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/courses/COMMAN.htmL
Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental…… [Read More]
Weber, on the other hand, did not agree that social and political class could really be considered one and the same. For him, the material inequality observable in society was the source of power and stratification, and not merely the result of the system (Davidson 2009). While still uniting the concepts of ideology and materialism, Weber's view can in some ways be seen as a reversal of Marx's; the material inequality was the means by which the ideological and political inequality could be perpetuated (Davidson 2009). The greater opportunities available to those who had greater wealth allowed for their continued dominance.
Briefly describe how two different theorists might analyze the economic climate of today and what brought it on? How would each of them understand how it would happen and what will happen in the near future.
There are many similarities between the sociological theories of Emil Durkheim and Max…… [Read More]
(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."
Blend et al. 30)
Max eber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…… [Read More]
Growth of Modernity
Modernity is a wide and commonly debated expression utilized to explain the history of Western European nations from approximately the early-seventeenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Generally, modernity's signature features comprise augmented urbanization, a move from feudal economies to industrial capitalism, and a going away from the power and restraints of ancient customs and religious attitudes towards an acceptance of scientific and theoretical rationalism, liberalism, and egalitarianism. Modernity is therefore connected with technological and economic conversions and just as thoughtful, shifts in awareness. Particularly critical to these shifts is the appearance of the person as a shape of significant cultural and economic authority (Kennedy, n.d.).
Modernity has to do with social outlines linked to industrialization. Modernization is consequently the procedure of social alteration started by industrialization. There are four common characteristics of modernization that have been identified:
1. The turn down of small, customary neighborhoods
2. The…… [Read More]
Individuals and Society
Action theories and structural theories are both endeavors to understand different aspects of society. They try to explain the behaviors of individuals as separate entities and also as a part of group. They further attempt to explain the effects or implications of people's actions on society and on making on rules, norms and customs that prevail in a society.
According to action theories, sociology is a science "is a science concerning itself with the interpretive understanding of social action and thereby with a causal explanation of its course and consequences" (Weber, p. 4) where actions can be objectively studied with the course and consequence can be explained.
It is different from other subjects such as history, where the emphasis on the individual events, rather than individuals who lead to a certain event. However, though the social action is to be studied with objectivity on the part of…… [Read More]
Anomie and Alienation
Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found
Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…… [Read More]
(115) "hen the old yogis complain about commercialization, who can blame them? Gucci sells a yoga mat and matching bag for $655. Companies use famous yogis and yoga lingo to advertise cereal, beer and Hormel pork-loin fillets...Yoga is at a confused, precarious place, teetering on the edge of overexposure." Though, Rosin stresses that there is no real harm in the utilization of such a tool to teach and help people grow in spirituality and body, as a social outlet and a manner of life. (119)
Max eber contends that a great deal of the importance of understanding the sociology of religion lies in understanding the way such groups access power, and in the modern America what better way for a movement to gain power than through modern media commercialization? "...one aspect of the sociology of religion is the study of how certain groups or institutions (theologians, prophets, churches and sects)…… [Read More]
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…… [Read More]
US PIVATE PISONS & PISONE LABO
First Theory: Karl Marx
Analysis of the Evidence
Second Theorist: Max Weber
Analysis of Evidence
The event being investigated in this study was published in the New York Times on May 24. 2014. The article is about the very low pay for working prisoners in the U.S. private jails and about allegations about them being exploited. The article is written by Ian Urbina and is titled "Using Jailed Migrants as a Pool of Cheap Labor." The article is available at the following link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/us/using-jailed-migrants-as-a-pool-of-cheap-labor.html.
The article describes the plight of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and how the government policy has prevented them from being employed in the U.S. However, when these very illegal immigrants land up in the prisons, especially in the private prisons of the country, they are forced to contribute labor at very low rates or even without pay.…… [Read More]
yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…… [Read More]
Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies? Advanced Capitalism, Social Differentiation, and Politics
The focus of this work is to examine the question asking why it is that class politics fail to be predominant in advanced industrial societies. Towards this end, this work will review the work of Karl Marx entitled "Classes" (1867) and the work of Calhoun, et al. (2012) entitled "Contemporary Sociological Theory."
Summary of the Theories
The work of ourdieu (1976) entitled "Outline of a Theory of Practice" demonstrated the development of the core of his theory as an effort to "understand the clash between enduring ways of life and larger systems of power and capital, the ways in which cultural and social structures are reproduced even amid dramatic change, and the ways in which action and structure are not simply opposed but depend on each other." (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p.325-26) In addition, ourdieu is reported to…… [Read More]