Medical History Essays (Examples)

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Medical Case Study Florence F Is a

Words: 1951 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33192255

Medical Case Study

Florence (F) is a 43-year-old woman who is two days post-operative, following an appendectomy. She has a history of arthritis, and currently takes 10mg of prednisone daily. She is allergic to penicillin. She weighs 46 kg (101.5 lbs.) and is 168cm tall (5'6"). This puts her slightly underweight for her age and height, at least 18-25 pounds (Height and Weight Chart, 2010). While doing a route in dressing change, nurse notice a yellow discharge emanating from the wound.

Identify and discuss the importance of obtaining information during a nursing admission in relation to post- operative assessment. In modern healthcare, a nurse must first and foremost try to understand and utilize a systematic and synergistic model of data collection and assessment. Human beings are complex creatures, and the more data one has, the easier it will be to ensure that a proper diagnosis is made. A systematic assessment…… [Read More]


Height and Weight Chart. (2010). HealthCheck Systems. Retrieved from: 

Prednisone and Other Corticosteroids: Balance the Risks and Benefits. (2011). The Mayo

Clinic. Retrieved from:
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Medical Assessment Initial Patient Analysis Chief Complaint

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71592150

Medical Assessment

Initial Patient Analysis

Chief Complaint

Discomfort in lower back.


Patient is a 78-year-old woman presented as disheveled, with bug bites throughout her body, and exuding a foul odor. Cognitively, she orients only to her name with a BMI of 30 and a minimal understanding of the English language. She is able to nod "yes" or "no" to questions, but calls the nurse "Mother." She is unsteady on her feet, and has a fine "pill-rolling "tremor in her left hand. He legs are quite cool to the touch, hairless, and toe capillary refill is greater than 2 seconds.

Past Medical History

Unknown, but patient appears to be in distress both physically and psychologically.


General App.

Poor, disheveled, may not be receiving adequate care or living in an environment with enough food or warmth. BMI of 30 is technically obese, which also may indicate the patient is not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hypoglycemia. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved from: 

Michael, K. And Shaughnessy, M. (2006). Stroke Prevention and Management in Older

Adults. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 21 (55): 521-26.

Mohr, J., et al. (2004). Stroke: Pathopshyciology, Diagnosis and Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone.
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]


Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
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Medical Skills Needed to Be

Words: 2203 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74711001

According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)

In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…… [Read More]


Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.

Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.

St. Onge, Joye (1997) Medical Education Must Make Room for Student-Specific Ethical Dilemmas" Canadian Medical Association Journal 15 Apr 1987, 156(8).

Hicks, L. et al. (2001) Understanding the Clinical Dilemmas that Shape Medical Students' Ethical Development: Questionnaire Survey and Focus Group study. BMJ Journal 2001;322-709-71- 24 march 2001.
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Medical Records System Definition of

Words: 3005 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30994463

The master patient index (MPI) value was mainly liked by the personnel in the medical record section.

The Golden 90s

Equipped with MPI and record-keeping growth, software designers sustained to generate and progress with a new emphasis on individual hospital sections. Auxiliary department purposes, for example radiology and laboratory showed to be fairly adaptive to software that is fresh and innovative, and computer healthcare applications start to show on the market. Patient test outcomes that instigated in the laboratory and radiology department now too were obtainable via computers nonetheless again with limit as the outcomes were separate and were not linked to one another, or to any other software for instance that being done with the patient registration. A lot of these applications had basically been marked as "source" governments, and they were not courteous to assembly athwart the healthcare aptitude. This is the state that mechanization in healthcare found…… [Read More]


Holden, R.J. (2011). Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: An application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety. Cognition, Technology & Work, 13(1), 11-29.

Kaliyadan, F., Venkitakrishnan, S., Manoj, J., & Dharmaratnam, a. (2009). Electronic medical records in dermatology: Practical implications. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, 75(2), 157-61.

Kochevar, J., Gitlin, M., Mutell, R., Sarnowski, J., & Mayne, T. (2011). Electronic medical records: A survey of use and satisfaction in small dialysis organizations. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 38(3), 273-81.

Kurbasic, I., Pandza, H., Masic, I., Huseinagic, S., Tandir, S., Alicajic, F., & Toromanovic, S. (2008). The advantages and limitations of international classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death from aspect of existing health care system of B&H. Acta Informatica Medica, 16(3), 159.
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Medical Records

Words: 499 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63667855


Electronic Medical Records

Electronic Medical Record (EMR) keeping can definitely add efficiency into the modern healthcare system. However, this efficiency might be associated with some hidden costs. One example of such a cost will be due to the loss of privacy that is allowed by shared records. Not only will doctors be able to see your entire medical history, but other agencies that you might not want to share information with will have access as well. Therefore, there are both advantages and disadvantages associated with the move to a digital system.

"Imagine a world where everything important about a patient is known to the physician the first time that patient presents," says Andrew Rubin, vice president for NYU Medical Center Clinical Affairs and Affiliates in New York City (Mann, N.d.).

Doctors have full access to a patient's medical health history has the potential to reduce errors and improve patient…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mann,, . D. (N.d.). Technology Plays Key Role in Health Care Reform. Retrieved from WebMD:
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History of Nursing

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72659178

History Of Modern American Nursing

When the Crimean War ended in 1856, patient mortality at British hospitals was forty-two percent. Despite the fact that Joseph Lister introduced the concept of antisepsis as early as 1867, the germ theory of disease would not be adopted for another several decades. Nevertheless, already by the end of the American Civil War in 1865, Union hospitals had treated over one million battlefield casualties, with only eight percent mortality. Mainly, historians credit Florence Nightengale, whose campaign for cleanliness and hygiene in hospitals fortuitously predated the crucial implementation of medical antisepsis in modern medicine (Starr, 1984).

Women in Early American Medicine:

Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, admission to formal medical education was largely restricted to males until Quakers in Philadelphia founded the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1850. While more than a dozen women's medical schools were subsequently founded by the turn…… [Read More]


Caplan, A.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Starr, P. (1984) The Social Transformation of American Medicine.

New York: Basic Books
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History of Occupational Therapy 1950-1960

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31110152

History Of Occupational Therapy

Frame 1 - Introduction

Occupational therapy is an essential part of the recovery process. It allows the person to engage in meaningful activity that adds structure and purpose to their daily routine. Occupational therapy is now considered an essential part of the treatment process for those with long-term, or severe injuries. The role of the occupational therapist is to help the person we turn to a life where they can be independent and are in there and living, regardless of their condition. Occupational therapy helps a person to adjust to the changes in their lives as result of a severe illness or injury. This presentation will explore the history of occupational therapy with a focus on the changes in paradigm that took place during the 1950s and 1960s.

Frame 2 - Occupational therapy was first conceived in the early part of the 1900s. It was originally…… [Read More]


American Occupational Therapy Associaton. (2010). Occupational Therapist. Health Care

Careers Directory 2009-2010. Retrieved from 0

Essentials of an acceptable school of occupational therapy. (1950). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4, 126-128.

Kearney, P. (2004). The Influence of Competing Paradigms on Occupational Therapy Education:
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History of MRI

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28873916

History of Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI)

Getting an MI scan may someday become as common as getting an X-ray. - Davis Meltzer, 1987

According to Gould (2004), on July 3, 1977, an event took place that would forever alter the landscape of modern medicine, although outside the scientific research community, this event hardly attracted any notice at all. The event in question was the first MI exam ever performed on a human being. The procedure required almost five hours to produce one image, and the images were, by today's standards, very primitive (this first MI machine now occupies a special niche in the Smithsonian); however, its successors number if the thousands today (Gould, 2004). The advent of the MI clearly represented the beginnings of a new standard in noninvasive radio imaging that continues to be refined. This paper provides the background and history of magnetic resonance imaging, including its discovery…… [Read More]


Albertine, K. (2001). Anatomica. Willoughby, NSW, Australia: Global Book Publishing.

Gould, T.A. (2004). How MRI Works. (2004). How Stuff Works. Available:

Hornak, J.P. (2002). The Basics of MRI. Available: .

Ioannidis, J.P. & Lau, J. (April 5, 2002). FDG-PET for the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcoma. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Available:
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Medical Use of Marijuana Increasing Use of

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30556120

Medical Use of Marijuana

Increasing use of medical marijuana

Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.

Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research…… [Read More]

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History of Web Crawling the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37784294

This is where the ethicacy of web crawlers comes into play and is discussed in a later section of this paper. Finally the economic aspects of how web crawlers enable more effective forms of communication in shared networks and over Wi-Fi networks is just beginning to be studied (Bidoki, Yazdani, 2008). The growing reliance on smartphones, Wi-Fi networks and contextual advertising will result in entirely new business models based on web crawler technology as well.

Environmental Considerations of Web Crawling

f the four factors analyzed, this is the most positive as web crawlers have significantly reduced emissions and lessoned the dependence on foreign oil by providing interactive, real-time search research. The ability to run servers and entire data centers far more efficiently through the use of web crawlers is contributing to less electric being used, which in turn frees up the petroleum and fuel to create energy to begin with.…… [Read More]

Of the four factors analyzed, this is the most positive as web crawlers have significantly reduced emissions and lessoned the dependence on foreign oil by providing interactive, real-time search research. The ability to run servers and entire data centers far more efficiently through the use of web crawlers is contributing to less electric being used, which in turn frees up the petroleum and fuel to create energy to begin with. Web crawlers' effects on a cumulative reduction of fuel and carbon are significant. Add into that the focus of web crawlers on creating platforms for specialized search applications, and the benefits of this technology from an environmental standpoint exponentially increase (Yan, Wang, Li, Guo, 2002). Web crawlers can also reduce the amount of electricity used on a given laptop or PC over time, as fewer queries are needed to get the information required. All of these factors contribute to the fact that web crawlers can drastically reduce the carbon and energy footprint of data centers, user's servers, laptops, and PCs over time.

Medical Considerations of Web Crawling

The many medical considerations of web crawlers can be seen in how effectively they are being used to manage medical records in very large databases, and how they are also used
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History of the Rosicrucian Order

Words: 5816 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46875287

ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…… [Read More]


Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.

Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian

Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,

1985. Print.
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Medical Records Case Study Section I Introduction

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77572928

Medical Records Case tudy

ection I (Introduction) -- Liam O'Neill and William Klepack, the authors of Case tudy # 3, Integrating Electronic Medical Records and Disease Management at Dryden Family Medicine, begin their published findings by introducing readers to the concept of electronic medical records (EMR). The authors immediately narrow their focus to the adoption and implementation of EMR by Dryden Family Medicine, a rural family practice located in upstate New York, and explain that "for smaller group practices, electronic medical records (EMR) adoption is a huge undertaking that poses significant risks" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The Introduction section then covers the multitude of obstacles encountered by small group practices attempting to convert to EMR, including the limited information technology experience possessed by most staff members, and the constant concern of budgetary constraints. Finally, the authors seek to clarify the emphasis of their study by stating that their focus remains…… [Read More]

Section III (The Vendor Selection Process) -- This section covers the process employed by Dryden Family Medicine to direct the transition to EMR. The authors begin with the steering committee established in 2002, which was "composed of one physician, the office manager, the nursing supervisor, and the front-desk supervisor" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The issue of vendor fallibility is explored, as the choice of an unprepared or unskilled billing systems provider could easily undermine the practice's 50 years of record keeping. Finally, the reader is guided through the EMR vendor selection process, from the industry trade journals to consultations with fellow family practices that have previously implemented EMR systems.

Section IV (Stages of EMR Implementation) -- This section includes a detailed timeline of the EMR implementation process utilized by Dryden Family Medicine. Found in Table C3.1 and Figure C3.1 are various benchmarks in the EMR adoption process, such as "August 2003 Prescriptions generated electronically and faxed to pharmacies" and "March 2005 Patient education literature is scanned into the system and linked to EMR" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The informative tables are followed by a thorough analysis of the three-stage process used to effectively introduce EMR strategies to Dryden Family Medicine's overall system. The section concludes with a concrete example of EMR-based improvements, as the authors recount a 2005 incident involving the painkiller Bextra and a Food and Drug Administration recall that patients were notified about immediately.

Section V (Impact on Job Responsibilities) -- The purpose of this section is to determine the impact of implementing an EMR system which clearly "resulted in changes in the job descriptions and responsibilities of all members of the practice" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The authors observe several instances involving physician's problematic interaction with
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Medical Advances in Cancer

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44527155

Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research

This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.

In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…… [Read More]

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History of Nursing Science Nursing Has Existed

Words: 1117 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30135288

History Of Nursing Science

Nursing has existed in some for as long as humans have roamed the earth. The modern era of nursing began with the emergence of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War in the 1850's. The daughter of affluent parents, Nightingale greatly accelerated the development of nursing and is widely acknowledged as the most important person in the history of nursing. Nursing science translates to the profession itself in the form of best practices that have been formulated, debated, reviewed and analyzed so as to verify the validity of nursing theories before they are put into practice.

Nightingale Emerges

As is the case with many nurses and others who dedicate their lives to the care of others, Nightingale was driven largely by her spirituality and religious convictions. Many people perceive there to be an inherent conflict between religion and science but Nightingale did not believe this to be…… [Read More]


George, J.B. (2011). Nursing theories, the base for professional nursing practice. (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

McKenna, H. (1998). Nursing theories and models. Taylor & Francis.

Parker, M.E., & Smith, M.C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practice. (3 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.

Walker, L.O., & Avant, K.C. (2011). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. (5 ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
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History of Communication

Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37691919

History Of Communication Timeline


(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…… [Read More]

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
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History of the Areas of

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93612485

It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.

Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).

The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…… [Read More]

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History of the World in

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9274352

111), a product that gathered both good and evil forces on its way, a drink that could not have become global without the use of the slaves on a mass scale.

long their existence, the spirited drinks were designated as medicine, recreational drinks for pastime, means of social control, and due to the high degree of addiction that set in as soon as they moderation went out of the way, a source of distress for those who became addictive and their families. Rum, the first to replace the ratios of beer of the British ships and the main ingredient in the first cocktail, became the favorite drink of the English settlers who came to Virginia hoping to find a new source of wealth for them and their country. The second cocktail based on rum came on the tables of the Englishmen in the New World, under the form of punch.…… [Read More]

After centuries of using the spirits as a trade currency and means of alleviating during hard time, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States came to a stage when a movement that started by the middle of the nineteenth century will spread and end in the Prohibition era, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Health and religious reasons had led more and more people to believe that the only answer to the loss of moderation was to ban the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages altogether. Today, the period of fourteen years when the Eighteen Amendment was in use, is regarded as e period of experimentation that proved once again that any interdiction attracts the rise of illegal activities meant to work around it.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

Drink: The History of Alcohol 1690-1920. The National Archives. Retrieved: Oct. 20, 2009. Available at:
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History of Aviation Safety Aviation

Words: 2180 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67399676

All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).

The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…… [Read More]


Boeing. (2010). Making flying safer -- how Boeing helps to advance safety. Retrieved on September 19, 2010, from the Website:

Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA regulations. Retrieved on September 18,

2010, from the Website,
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History of Psychology Over the

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71637223

The ideal self is the person, someone feels they should be and will model their behavior, based upon this image. The real self is the side of your personality that friends and family know well. This creates a conflict in the individual called self-actualization, as the person will attempt to live up to the image of their ideal self. Where, these perceptions will affect the self-image of the individual throughout their life. (Gentile, 2008)

Evelyn Hooker

Evelyn Hooker conducted the first scientific experiment on male homosexuality. Where, she would survey both heterosexuals and homosexuals, to determine if homosexuals have trouble adjusting to various social circumstances. The effects of the survey were: homosexuals have no difference in adjusting to social situations in comparison with heterosexuals. As a result, this information would help to provide a research methodology that would be used in the future, to understand homosexual behavior. (Gentile, 2008)

Thomas…… [Read More]


Gentile, B. (2008). Foundation of Psychological Thought. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
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History of CNC Computer Numerical

Words: 5340 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95617189

Michael Cooley (1972) has suggested that the drawing office has been downgraded in importance as a result of the finer division of labor in engineering that began in the 1930s. He described how the creative design element had become increasingly separated from the work of executing drawings. The fragmentation of shop floor jobs was, according to Cooley, paralleled by fragmentation of the job of the designer/drafter. Until the 1930s, drafters in ritain were responsible for designing a component, stress testing it, selecting materials for it, writing the specifications, and liaising with the shop floor and customers. ut starting in the 1930s, these functions were progressively broken down into separate jobs and taken over by various specialists, such as stress testers, metallurgists, tribologists, methods and planning engineers, and customer liaison engineers, leaving drafters with only the job of drawing (3D Systems Corporation, 2001).

In effect, in the ritain of the 1930s,…… [Read More]


3D Systems Corporation. 2001, 3D Systems. Retrieved Nov 3, 2011. from the World Wide Web:

Brown, Richard D. 2009, Knowledge Is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700 -- 1865. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., 1977, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Cooley M. 1972, Computer-Aided Design-Its Nature and Implications. Richmond, Surrey: AUEW/TASS.
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History of Health Care Few Professions Offer

Words: 1097 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2119913

History Of Health Care

Few professions offer the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of others on a daily basis. Health care is one of those professions. There are life and death situations, but there are also quiet moments such as routine office visits in which health care professionals can make a difference to someone with a kind and genuinely caring demeanor. Being a health care professional is more than a career. It is a choice one makes as someone who cares deeply about fellow human beings. Personally, I have always had a desire to make others feel comfortable, secure and cared for. I am interested in how this aspect of health care evolved. Health care professionals treat illness and injuries but it must be remembered that along with those are whole human beings who may be frightened, confused or angry. The emotional aspects of patient care have…… [Read More]


Kret, D.D., 2011. The qualities of a compassionate nurse according to the perceptions of medical-surgical patients. MEDSURG Nursing 20(1), pp. 29-36.

Oreopoulos, D.G. (2001). Compassion and mercy in the practice of medicine. Humane Medicine

Health Care 1 (1). Retrieved from 

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History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drug Products in US

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57150721

History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.

Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.

Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…… [Read More]


Jackson, Charles O. (1970). "Food and Drug Legislation in the New Deal." Princeton University


Palumbo, Francis B. "The Development of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising

Regulation." Food and Drug Law Journal 57.3 (2002). 423-443.
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History of Health Care Mandate the Signing

Words: 1751 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48881351

History Of Health Care Mandate

The signing of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) by President Obama must be considered a landmark event in the history of the nation regardless of how one views the constitutionality of the legislation. Passage of the legislation marked the end of a long and acrimonious debate and brought the United States in line with the rest of the developed world in terms of providing universal health coverage to its citizens (Orszag, 2010). Unfortunately, the debate over the constitutionality of the ACA did not end with Obama's signing of the legislation as within days several different states filed suit against the law's requirement that most Americans purchase health; against the health care mandate.

The health care mandate was first offered as an option by the conservative think tank, the Heritage Foundation, as an option to the single-payer system that had been historically supported by Democrats and…… [Read More]


Block, S. (2010, April 29). IRS Lacks Clout to Enforce Mandatory Health Insurance. USA Today, pp. healthirs28_CV_N.htm?loc=interstitialskip.

Jost, T.S. (2010). Health Insurance Exchanges and the Affordable Care Act: Eight Difficult Issues. Lexington, VA: Washington and Lee University School of Law.

Orszag, P.R. (2010, August 12). Health Care Reform and Cost Control. New England Journal of Medicine, pp. 601-603.

Ponnuru, R. (2012, March 27). The History of the Individual Mandate. Retrieved from National Review Online:
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History of Human Services

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31976697

History Of Human Services

When the Kalamazoo Foundation began in 1925, the welfare state in the U.S. was minimal, and on the federal level almost nonexistent. Problems of poverty, hunger, racism, unemployment, and inadequate education were largely left to the start and local levels to be dealt with by private charities and religious organizations. This only changed with the expansion of the federal safety net during the New Deal of the 1930s and the Great Society of the 1960s, although it has been contracting again over the last thirty years. During the Progressive Era of 1900-20 and into the next decade, civic-minded philanthropists and capitalists often took the lead in dealing with the social and economic problems of urban, industrial America, among them Dr. W.E. Upjohn, founder of Upjohn Pharmaceuticals. In addition to donating the first $1,000 in stock to establish the Kalamazoo Foundation, Upjohn also founded Bronson Methodist Hospital,…… [Read More]


Kalamazoo Community Foundation (2011). The Lifeline Initiative.

Miller-Adams, M. (2009). The Power of a Promise: Education and Economic Revival in Kalamazoo. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Rakstis, T.J. (1967). "Grass Roots Philanthropy." The Rotarian, March 1967, pp. 34-37.
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History of Quarantine in the

Words: 3672 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17203367

She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.

The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.

It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…… [Read More]


Barroni & Lemer, (1993). Temporarily Detained: Tuberculous Alcoholics in Seattle: 1949

through 1960. Public Health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 86 No. 2.

Elizabeth & Daniel M., (1988). AIDS: The Burdens of History. PP 151-152. London: University

of California Press Ltd. retrieved on May 17, 2010 from
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History of Psychology and Hysteria 1

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95011493

History Of Psychology and Hysteria

Hysteria, symbolize women in the field of psychology during history and in many different cultures for the reason that the issues that society goes through are reflected in the area of psychology. Hysteria has been broken down into various parts in history that had to change influences on the diagnosis and its implication for women. History has shown that parallel patterns can be observed in the growth of menstruation and sexuality. Hysteria is unquestionably the first mental disorder attributable to women, precisely labeled in the second era BC. This was until Freud looked at it as being an entirely female illness. Above 4000 years of history, this syndrome was reflected from two viewpoints which were the scientific point-of-view and the demonological standpoint.

What is Hysteria?

esearch shows that Hysteria was the ?rst psychological disorder that was labeled at women. This condition is known for having…… [Read More]


Pearson, C. (2016, March 12). Female Hysteria: 7 Crazy Things People Used To Believe About The Ladies' Disease. Retrieved from ***

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History of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24319515

History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act

The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…… [Read More]


McBride, A. (2006). Brown v. Board of Education. Retrieved from 

Parks, P. (2010). What is the Hill-Burton Act? Retrieved from 

Thomas, K. (2008). Hill-Burton Act. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved from

Wormser, R. (2002). Plessy v. Ferguson. Retrieved from
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Medical Nursing Education

Words: 3350 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49965165

Medical/Nursing Education

Nurses are required to make many immediate decisions in their assigned duties. Unfortunately, in recent years, patient care has often been compromised as a nursing shortage crisis has escalated to epic proportions. Increased patient loads have resulted in often hasty nursing decisions as responsibilities and hours worked have increased. Although precious time must be spread thin to accommodate higher numbers of patients, nurses must exercise their morals through consistency in ethical behaviors. According to Peggy Chinn (1), "Many ethical issues, such as end-of-life decision making, have increased in complexity. Other issues, such as advocacy and choice, have changed in certain respects but are more clearly centrally situated within nursing's ethical domain."

As a result, nurses are held accountable for a variety of decisions in nursing practice and in many instances, a patient's life depends on such decisions to survive. Gastmans (496) states that "Generally, the goal of nursing…… [Read More]


Chinn, P. (2001). Nursing and ethics: the maturing of a discipline. Advances in Nursing Science

Erlen, J. (2001). Moral distress: a persuasive problem. Orthopaedic Nursing 20(2): 76-80.

Erlen, J. (2001). The nursing shortage, patient care, and ethics. Orthopaedic Nursing 20(6):

Gastmans, C. (2002). A fundamental ethical approach to nursing: some proposals for ethics education. Nursing Ethics 9(5): 494-507.
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History of Project Management at

Words: 6401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38615055

Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.

It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…… [Read More]

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History of X-Rays Rays Were

Words: 305 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69896274

" (Jan. 16, 1896, p. 9) oentgen won a Nobel Prize for his discovery which was very well deserved considering the fact that he was the first to notice the X-rays when similar rays had been seen before. Once the discovery became public, there was no stopping the physicists, scientists and even photographers. Everyone tried to find out how they could make use of those rays with Edison developing incandescent bulbs to produce X-rays and British scientist William Bragg worked on inner nature of X and y-rays. Many more researches and studies followed the initial discovery and they helped better understand the nature of X-rays and how they could benefit the medical community.


Alexi Assmus: Early History of X-rays. etrieved online 3rd June 2009 from… [Read More]


Alexi Assmus: Early History of X-rays. Retrieved online 3rd June 2009 from
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History of Special Operations in

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40421336


The Army's Special Forces, referred to as the legendary Green Berets, consist of a unique, unconventional combat arms organization, that are considered the most versatile Special Operations soldiers in the world. Their lineage dates back more than two hundred years of unconventional warfare, including predecessors such as Francis Marion of the Revolutionary ar, the orld ar II OSS Jedbourg Teams and Detachment 101 in Burma, and the Alamo Scouts.

According to Robert Andrews, principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict, it takes two years to train some of the enlisted personnel, and longer for officers. In fact, Special Forces units "continually train to conduct unconventional warfare in any of its forms - guerrilla tactics, evasion and escape subversion." In order to learn to fight in cold weather and mountainous environments, special operators attend a two-week course at the Army's Mountain arfare School in Jericho,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dyhouse, Tim. (2004 February 01). 'Black ops' shine in Iraq War: the scope of U.S. special operations in the Iraq War was the largest in American military history. VFW Magazine. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Kennedy, Harold. (2002 February 01). Special ops equipment: Newest -- and Oldest.

National Defense. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Special Forces: History. Special Operations Recruiting Battalion. Retrieved July 02, 2006 at
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History of Europe and World

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3474409

Each base their stories in the excluded diversity of first-generation immigrants - Samad and Jess's parents - but it is the younger characters' exploration of and affiliation with the exterior society that allows for a most accurate reflection of cultural mores.

Jess, whose natural talent and skill remind the viewer of the recent star Aman Dosaj of Manchester United, is torn apart by her love and respect for her family and culture and desire to take part in the greater world surrounding her. Yet, while she plays football and becomes friends with female athletes and romantically involved with men, her sister rejects the newer world around her in its extremities. Instead, she mollifies her own frustrations with the ethnic community with the insertion of cell phones, designer clothes, and expensive accessories; in the wedding scene, the younger girls stand in staunch visual opposition to the older women around them, whose…… [Read More]

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History of Human Resource Management in the Public Sector

Words: 1940 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73010501

History Of Human Resource Management in the Public Sector

efore business was conducted in the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of commerce that exists today, large firms in the public domain were able to keep a much more direct eye on their employees. This historic reality involved much more personal and face-to-face interactions within much smaller operating environments. There were far less multibillion dollar corporations, and thus workforces were typically much less segmented and estranged . This made labor pools much easier to supervise and monitor. Consequently, periodic progress and performance reports were the primary human resource management tools utilized during much of the 20th Century . Recently, however, the globalization of public sector business has forced companies to restructure their human resource management systems. eing that performance-screening devices (that have been dated back to the Chinese Empire in 1115 .C.) started to show their age, firms must now…… [Read More]


Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2000). Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. Mahwah, NJ, United States: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Carroll, a.B., & Buchholtz, a.K. (2008). Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. Mason, OH, United States: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Chen, C.-J., & Huang, J.-W. (2009). Strategic Human Resource Practices and Innovation Performance. Journal of Business Research, 62 (1), 104-114.

Despres, C., & Hiltrop, J.-M. (1995). Human Resource Management in the Knowledge Age. Employee Relations, 17 (1), 1-23.
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History of Economics the Way

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20653031

These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.

Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…… [Read More]


Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001

Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004

Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, accessed on February 4, 2009

Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, Ast accessed on February 4, 2009
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Nursing Assessment Taking the History of a

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45591901

Nursing Assessment

Taking the history of a patient is a crucial aspect of patient assessment and treatment. A good history can mean the difference between a successful patient outcome and unsatisfactory outcomes. However, taking a complete and useful history is a skill that is developed by means of training and practice; it is not some talent that is innate (Bickley & Szilagyi, 2007; McKenna et al., 2011). According to Craig (2007) nurses are increasingly being asked to take patient histories. Given these growing responsibilities nurses need training and guidelines to taking an adequate patient history. The following is a summary and critique of Craig, L. H, (2007), A "Guide to Taking a Patient's History" in Nursing Standard, volume 22, issue 13, pages 42-48.

Craig (2007) takes a comprehensive approach to explaining the interview and history taking process. This approach is applicable for most any patient population; however, Craig does not…… [Read More]


Alarcon, R.D. (2009). Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: Review and projections. World Psychiatry, 8, 131 -- 139.

Bickley, L.S. & Szilagyi, P.G. (2007). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History

Taking. 9th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Craig, L.H. (2007). A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard, 22 (13), 42-48.
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Patient Histories Can Often Provide a Great

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87376546

Patient histories can often provide a great deal of information about their condition and what the underlying causes may be. As such, taking an accurate patient history can be one of the most important aspects of a patient's visit to a medical facility. There are a number of factors that are important with respect to taking a patient's history, and they include one's ability to gain accurate information, one's ability to have a rapport with the patient that encourages trust, honesty and openness, and being very thorough, so as to not miss important information, such as current medications or past medical events. The following is a review of an article presented in Nursing Standard concerning the details of how to take a patient's history.


The article is very thorough in its instructions on how to take a proper patient history. The article begins by emphasizing the importance of taking…… [Read More]


Craig, L.H. (2007). A gudie to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard, 22(13), 42-48.
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Ruchi Tomar Advantages of Electronic Medical Records

Words: 3264 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74105747

The issue of misplaced or lost patient files is also gotten rid of. These advantages aid in producing a marked rise in the health connected security of patients and the welfare of patients (Ayers, 2009). Furthermore, electronic medical records and patient care are identical in that such systems effortlessly permit restrictions to be placed upon end users' admission to specific information of the patient. This personal security feature is likewise significant to meeting a patient's confidentiality anxieties.

Figure 4 Electronic medical records and their advantages with patients (Slaughter, 2000).

The Benefits of access that is easy to each patient's comprehensive medical information, and the ability for physicians to rapidly take part in medical records and organize patient care. Even though every department at SMG utilizes the EM, it is particularly valuable in the Urgent Care Center when rapid admission to a patient's material can make all the change in medical…… [Read More]


Angst, C.M., Agarwal, R., Sambamurthy, V., & Kelley, K. (2010). Social contagion and information technology diffusion: The adoption of electronic medical records in U.S. hospitals. Management Science, 56(8), 1219-1241.

Ayers, D.J., Menachemi, N., Ramamonjiarivelo, Z., Matthews, M., & Brooks, R.G. (2009). Adoption of electronic medical records: The role of network effects. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(2), 127-135.

Berner, E.S., Detmer, D.E., & Simborg, D. (2005). Will the wave finally break? A brief view of the adoption of electronic medical records in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 12(1), 3-7.

Brooks, R., & Grotz, C. (2010). Implementation of electronic medical records: How healthcare providers are managing the challenges of going digital. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8(6), 73-84
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Organizing Medical Records One of the Most

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78391916

Organizing Medical ecords:

One of the most important factors for proper billing and coding starts with the development of a well-documented and organized medical record. This is largely because patients and health care providers are normally faced with the need of keeping and providing medical records. These individuals are usually responsible for providing copies of their medical records to health care specialists and consultants. In most cases, medical records are typically organized in various ways including:

Source-oriented ecords:

This is a traditional patient record model that maintains reports depending on the source of documentation with each source of data containing a labeled section known as sectionalized record. In this format, all documents created by the nursing staff are located in record's nursing section, medical section for physician-generated documents, and radiology section for radiology reports (Green & Bowie, 2010, p. 89).

Problem-oriented ecords:

This is a more systematic method of documentation…… [Read More]


Green, M.A. & Bowie, M.J. (2010). Essentials of health information management: principles and practices (2nd ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.

Rajakumar, M. (n.d.). Numbering and Filing System. Retrieved November 19, 2011,


Weber, G.I. (n.d.). Achieving a Patient Unit Record Within Electronic Record Systems. Retrieved from University of Missouri -- Kansas City website:
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Predicting the Future of Medical Health Records

Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98288447

Predicting the Future of Medical Health ecords

Predict the form and function of medical health records in 2030 (provide specific example to support your response).

With the advent of digital databases used to store vast amounts of medical information, health histories, and vital statistics for millions of patients across America, a concept known on the local level as electronic medical recordkeeping (EM), and collectively forming the electronic health record (EH), the delivery of healthcare services has undergone a rapid transformation during the last two decades. The traditional clipboard and paper chart carried by physicians and nurses, which held an often indecipherable maze of pencil-etched recordings made throughout a patient's stay, has since been replaced in many modern healthcare facilities by the iPad and other handheld computer tablet devices. Banks of unwieldy filing cabinets, each storing hundreds of individual patient files, have vanished in the private practices and doctor's offices of…… [Read More]


Ford, E.W., Menachemi, N., & Phillips, M.T. (2006). Predicting the adoption of electronic health records by physicians: When will health care be paperless?. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(1), 106-112. Retrieved from

Wall, P.T., Kudtarkar, P., Fusaro, V.A., & Pivoravov, R. (2010). Cloud computing for comparative genomics. BMC Bioinformatics, 11(259), Retrieved from
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Patient Centered Medical Homes

Words: 3042 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30529280

Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMH) are often confused as being actual "homes" for patients to be admitted in and given medical treatment and care. PCMH is actually a health care model based on which health care is provided to patients, under the supervision of physicians. The PCMH model of health care provides patients with continuous, comprehensive medical care, in order to increase the chances of achieving the goal of benefitting the patient with as much attention and medical care in order to maximize his/her health outcomes.

Over the years the PCMH model of health care has become widely adopted and preferred. This is because of the philosophy and approach that the model adopts in organizing and delivering the health care initiatives. The PCMH model is based upon delivering medical care and attention to patients with team-based health and medical experts that are focused strongly on the quality and the safety…… [Read More]


109-432, P.L. (2006, December 20). TAX RELIEF AND HEALTH CARE ACT OF 2006. Public Law 109-432 (109th Congress) .

Backer, L.A. (2009). Building the Case for the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Family Practice Management 16 (1), 14-18.

De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut, C., Lindpaintner, L., & Spirig, R. (2008). Introducing advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: a framework for reflection and analysis. Swiss Medical Weekly (138), 621-628.

NASHP. (2013, April). Medical Home & Patient-Centered Care. Retrieved from The National Academy for State Health Policy:
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Patient Centered Medical Homes

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73130692

Patient Centered Medical Homes

In the 1960s, the medical home concept referred to as patient centered medical home was developed.In order to reform the healthcare in the U.S.; the patient centered medical homes are evolving as a centerpiece of efforts (Bates, 2010). Basically, PCMH can be defines as a primary care model that offers coordinated and comprehensive care to the patients in order to improve health outcomes. PCMH is also recognized by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA). Patient centered medical homes can be portrayed as a team of people working together in form of a community. The purpose is to improve the health as well as healing of the people in that community. In comparison with the primary care, PCMH is more responsive towards the needs of local patients.

PCMH offers a number of benefits including complementary nutrition as well as wellness counseling along with providing prevention education…… [Read More]


Aysola, J., E.J. Orav, and J.Z. Ayanian. 2011. "Neighborhood Characteristics Associated With Access To Patient-Centered Medical Homes For Children." Health Affairs no. 30 (11):2080-2089.

Bates, D.W., and A. Bitton. 2010. "The Future Of Health Information Technology In The Patient-Centered Medical Home." Health Affairs no. 29 (4):614-621.

Nutting, Paul A., William L. Miller, Benjamin F. Crabtree, Carlos Roberto Jaen, Elizabeth E. Stewart, and Kurt C. Stange. 2009. "Initial Lessons From the First National Demonstration Project on Practice Transformation to a Patient-Centered Medical Home." Ann Fam Med no. 7 (3):254-260.
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Paxil History of Paxil in the 1960s

Words: 1858 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97585016


History of Paxil

In the 1960s a Danish company named Ferrosan began performing research on aspects of the central nervous system. Ferrosan was most interested in the relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and depressed mood in people. The original idea was that if a drug could be developed to increase serotonin levels in the brain it might lead to improvements in treating people with depression (DeGrandpre, 2006). The research resulted in the development of a formula for a compound then known as the "Buus-Lassen Compound" which allegedly had the capability to relieve the depression in people. The compound was patented in the United States in 1977 and the company later sold all rights and research surrounding this patent to SmithKline (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1980 (DeGrandpre, 2006).

SmithKline put significant effort into developing the compound and much of this development occurred in the SmithKline plant in Harlow, England (DeGrandpre, 2006).…… [Read More]


Anderson, I.M. (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors vs. tricyclic antidepressants: A

meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Affective Disorders, 58(1), 19-36.

DeGrandpre, R. (2006). The cult of pharmacology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Kim, S.W., Grant, J.E., Adson, D.E., Shin, Y.C., & Zaninelli, R. (2002). A double-blind placebo-
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Patient's History Involves More Than

Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91918676

Another way to put the patient at ease during moments like this is for the nurse to be absolutely certain that she is not showing any signs of being judgmental. If this happens, it could throw the patient off guard and create an uncomfortable situation where the patient no longer feels comfortable being honest with the nurse. Once this happens, the nurse will have an inaccurate patient history and the patient runs the risk of not being treated properly for the underlying symptoms.

In order for the history to be as accurate as possible, the nurse should ask questions regarding several issues that may affect the patient's health. The patient's past medical history is vitally important to the process because it can serve as a guide to what has worked in the past and what treatments are ineffective. The patient's mental health is also important. This will give the nurse…… [Read More]


Lloyd, H. And Craig, S. (2007). A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard. 22(13),
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Patient's History According to the

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33396547

I.M. King adds that a nurse should attempt to avoid during the interview process "the use of technical language, stereotyping and interrupting the patient when he/she is trying to answer the nurse's questions" to the best of their ability (1981, 256).

Some of the questions which a nurse might ask a patient during the interview process includes finding out if the illness was sudden or developed gradually, the duration of the illness, the physical site of the illness, how it might be aggravated, associated symptoms, such as pain or discomfort in another part of the body, and the frequency of the illness. According to A. Crumbie, these and other pertinent questions must be "carefully thought-out beforehand and after the initial interview, the nurse should recap his/her questions for accuracy and specificity" (2006, 216).

In conclusion, the authors of this article maintain even an experienced nurse should be required to achieve…… [Read More]


Crumbie, A. (2006). Taking a history. Nurse Practitioners: Clinical Skills and Professional Issues, Edinburgh: Butterworth Heinemann, 14-26.

Glanze, W.D. (2002). Mosby's nursing encyclopedia. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby


King, I.M. (1981). A theory of nursing: systems, concepts, process, New York:
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People From History That Impacted the World

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92264298

People From History That Impacted the World in a Positive Way

Three People from History

Three People from History who impacted the World in a Positive Way

Ross Granville Harrison (1807 -- 1959)

Ross Granville Harrison was an American zoologist. He is known for his discovery of a method of growing cells outside of the body. In his famous experiment carried out in 1906 he placed a piece of a frog's embryonic nerve tissue into a drop of frog lymphatic fluid, and saw that the nerve tissue did not die, but rather continued to grow. (Ross Granville Harrison) The method that Harrison developed from this experiment was to form the foundation of the tissue culture technique used in modern medicine and in medical research. This technique has become an extremely important part of contemporary medical research as it allows for "…the study of isolated living cells in a controlled environment."…… [Read More]


Alexander Fleming (1881-1955). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.

Beale, Norman, and Elaine Beale. "Evidence-based Medicine in the Eighteenth Century: the Ingen Housz-jenner Correspondence Revisited." Medical History 49.1 (2005): 79+. Questia. Web. 18 Nov. 2010.

Edward Jenner (1749-1823). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.
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Patient's History Taking Is a

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60508163


The article was written quite comprehensively and gave enough information about the different aspects of history taking. The way all the different components of the history taking process were split up and explained in more detail was very helpful. It was noted that the entire information in this article was present in a rather organized way. This organized way of presenting the details helped in teaching the history taking process and left less ambiguity. One thing that could have been improved is that common mistakes in the history taking process should have been mentioned. Surely with the amount of research done on this topic, the common mistakes and questions would have been figured out. If the commonly made errors are highlighted in these articles, then those errors are less likely to be repeated by other nurses as well.

This article did interest me as it provided me with a…… [Read More]


Crumbie, A. (2006). Taking a History. In: Walsh, M. eds. (2006). Practitioners: Clinical Skiiis and Proffesional Issues. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 14-26.

Dougias, G., Nicoi, F. And Robertson, C. (2005). Madead's Ciinicoi Examination. 11th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Kurtz, S., Benson, J., Draper, J. And Silverman, J. (2003). Marrying content and process in clinical method teaching: enhancing the Calgary-Cambridge guides. Academic Medicine, 78 (8), pp. 802-809.

Lloyd, H. And Craig, S. (2007). A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard, 22 (13), pp. 42-48.
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Offshore Medical Outsourcing an Analysis of Moving

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20538705

Offshore Medical

Medical Outsourcing

An Analysis of Moving Major Medical Treatments Offshore to educe Costs and it's Implications

Not too long ago the idea of traveling for medical treatments would have been unimaginable for most people. However, after a long streak of double digit cost increases in the medical industry in general, many procedures can be conducted on foreign shores for much less than can be performed in the United States; even when travel costs are included in the calculations. The globalization of healthcare will influence the United States healthcare system on many fronts and the increases in competitiveness should have overall positive implications for the economy. The healthcare consumers are likely the ones to benefit the most from the increases in competition however other industry players could benefit as well. Those who stand to lose the most are the firms with the most monopolistic market structures such as pharmaceutical…… [Read More]


Carrera, B. (2006). Globalization and healthcare: understanding health and medical tourism. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 447-454.

Connell, J. (2006). Medical tourism: Sea, sun, sand and & #8230; surgery. Tourism Management, 1093-1100.
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Home Computerized Medical Records Computerized Medical Records

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82065271

Home Computerized Medical ecords

Computerized Medical ecords


One major advantage of computerizing medical records is that this method saves money and time for medical professionals. A traditional record system consists of files stored in a filing cabinet or other physical location. Files stored this way can easily become lost or displaced; the t time and resources to track down files that are missing can have a huge effect on the efficiency, effectiveness and revenue of the medical practice. Missing files can result in duplicate paperwork, lost time and productivity. For example, a medical office assistant that spends 20 hours a week searching for missing files, at an hourly rate of $15 costs the office over $14,000 a year in wasted time and money! Computerized medical records eliminate all these issues. With files kept in one database, they can be quickly located and retrieved. esulting in less rework and less…… [Read More]


Computerized medical records: Security, privacy, and confidentiality. (n.d.). Med League. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from | Newsroom. (n.d.). News. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from 

Safety risks seen in computerized medical records . (n.d.). STL Today. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from

The Benefits, and Potential Side Effects, of Sharing Medical Records Online - Knowledge @ Wharton. (n.d.). Knowledge @ Wharton. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from
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Iceman Confessions A Social History

Words: 2060 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36325584

His convictions are believed to represent only a small portion of his actual crimes; he is believed to have committed upwards of 100 murders.

Mental Status and Behavior Observation (must have subheading):

Appearance, Attitude, and Activity

Kuklinski was a tall, physically imposing man. He was over 6 feet tall and over 300 pounds. He seemed physically fit, despite his immense size. He had several tattoos on his body at the time of his prison interviews. He had a beard and was balding. Otherwise, he presented a clean-cut disposition. His attitude was very soft-spoken, even when discussing horrific events. However, he did make it clear to the interviewer that, despite being incarcerated at the time of the interview, he still posed a threat to the interviewer.

Thought Process, Thought Content, and Perception

His thought process seemed coherent, with no obvious defects in cognition or reasoning. While he was relating horrific events…… [Read More]


Musto, M. (2001). The Iceman: Confessions of a Mafia Hitman 2 of 2. Retrieved July 10, 2012

from website:

Musto, M. (2001). The Iceman: Confessions of a Mafia Hitman 1 of 2. Retrieved July 10, 2012

from YouTube website:
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Paper Medical Record System Presently

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23252947

Records of full medical operations are stored in primary storage facility, and are filed numerically in an attempt to realize efficiency. The filing system of an organization is usually numerical, and is based on terminal digits of the patient's HRN (Health Record Number). An up-to-date copy of the Paper-based medical records register should be kept in the file at all times. This may be the system used most of the time to locate medical records but it also provides a system to search when the power fail. Ideally, two-colored coded number of stickers are placed on the protruding right hand side back cover, of the medical record cover. These numbers normally match the last numbers on the HRN on the register. The digits that are colored, and in the case where they are misplaced, then it will show that the charts are misfiled. Ideally, file location can be determined from…… [Read More]

Consequently, in an attempt to ensure efficiency in chart filing system, it is vital for the management to retain and update the interim data collection tool at the health center and notify the information management officer of changes requiring central updating- HRN, given name and surname (Fordney & Follis, 2007).

Purpose of Paper Medical Record

The function of paper medical record is to provide guidelines for maintenance medical activities, its contents, security, and patients' confidentiality. However, the medical records available should always conform to the set requirements especially the rules and regulations guiding medical records. These laws are structured in federal and state constitutions. In addition, it provides a distinct definition
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Diagnostic Medical Sonography What Do

Words: 308 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25869489

They have a great deal of responsibility for selecting the images during the scan that provide the most comprehensive picture for diagnostic purposes, as well as recording their own preliminary findings.

Why did you apply to this health program?

I have worked three years as a 401K plan analyst. I enjoy making the complex financial services industry comprehensible to clients, but I am seeking a job that is more meaningful and hands-on that still makes use of detail-oriented personality. The field of medical sonography is fascinating and likely to be more and more important in the future because of its ability to quickly provide a portrait of a patient's state of well-being. Working in the field will allow me to be in close contact with patients and to give them meaningful comfort, advice, and care during diagnostic procedures.… [Read More]

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WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present

Words: 2515 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66978809

Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…… [Read More]


Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:

"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,

May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder:
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Medico-Legal Investigations How Adequate Medical Death Investigative

Words: 1745 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35234598

Medico-Legal Investigations


Medical Death Investigative Systems

Past and Present Systems

Death investigation of some sort has existed in all countries for centuries, but not always performed by medical professionals (Committee, 2003 as qtd in Moldovan, 2008). The link between law and medicine traces back to the ancient Egyptian culture in 3000 .C. This was followed by the English coroner system in around the 12th century. The 194 Articles of Eyre first used the term "coroner" by the English until brought by the first colonists to the New World, America as basis for a legal investigative function. A medical examiner replaced the coroner system in 1890 then functioning in altimore. A medical examiner is a trained medical specialist in pathology. The field of death investigation became more and more sophisticated in cities and States, like New York. The Office of the Medical Examiner was established in 1918. Its main…… [Read More]


National Academy of Sciences (2003). Medico-legal death investigation system workshop. Committee for the Workshop on the Medico-legal Death Investigation

System. Institute of Medicine: National Academy of Sciences Press. Retrieved on October 12, 2010 from

Moldovan, E (2008). The medico-legal death investigator. ProQuest: ProQuest LLC.

Retrieved on October 12, 2010 from
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Electronic Medical Health Records Utilizing Electronic

Words: 5456 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39373512

However, because they make billing more efficient, the majority of large urban practice groups and hospitals have already made the switch to electronic records, according to Michael R. Costa, attorney and associate at Greenberg Traurig, LLP, in oston, Mass. However, he adds, most of these organizations maintain warehouses where they store paper records that have been transcribed to electronic form. "There is resistance from some about going to a completely electronic format because there are still some questions about privacy," Costa says. "There is definitely still a place for paper-based medical records, but the focus from now on will be on making sure that information can be adequately secured" (Fiske).

Frederick Geilfuss, partner in the health law department of Foley & Lardner, in Milwaukee, Wis. says that while many larger providers have already begun the shift, he has not encountered any institutions that have made a complete transition -- an…… [Read More]


Ball, Marion, Carla Smith and Richard Bakalar. "Personal Health Records: Empowering Consumers." Journal of Healthcare Information Management (2007): 76-83.

Brenner, Bill. "Secure Electronic Medical Records: Fact or Fiction?" 3 March 2009. The Standard. 10 April 2009 .

Bright, Beckey. "Benefits of Electronic Health Records." 29 November 2007. The Wall Street Journal. 10 April 2009

Byers, Jay. "Medical Records Scanning: Convert your paper-based patient records into electronic records." December 2008. EMR Services of Canada. 9 April 2009 .
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Patient Handoffs Majority of the Medical Errors

Words: 2315 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67770180

Patient Handoffs

Majority of the medical errors take place in the patient's handoffs. A shift among the doctors is a common practice. There are a number of old patients who approach around 16 different doctors in a year, while young patients who are healthy refer to normal physicians and to specialists as well (Philibert, 2008). In a hospital normally, less attention is given to the patient by his primary doctor, while the trainees and the hospitalists are more involved in that patient. Patients are rotated to different doctors with an average of fifteen times in a five day stay at the hospital. Young doctors often accept appointments of more than 300 patients in a month, in their initial training period just because of time pressure (Chen, 2009, p. 1).

Alteration that have been brought about in the patients care have increased the quality of the services that are offered to…… [Read More]


Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2010). Electronic health records overview. Retrieved from

Chen, P.W. (2009, September 3). When patient handoffs go terribly wrong. The New York Times. Retrieved from 

Decision support systems may reduce inappropriate medical tests. (2011). Retrieved from / article:decision-support-systems-may-reduce-inappropriate-medical-tests-/

Encinosa, W.E., & Bae, J. (2011). Health information technology and its effects on hospital costs, outcomes, and patient safety. Inquiry, 48, 288-303. doi:10.5034/inquiryjrnl_48.04.02
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Privacy and Ethics in Medical Testing

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78003301


Incidental findings are fairly common in the course of medical testing, occurring in around one-third of all tests (Ofri, no date). Yet, the medical field is torn about what the ethical implications of such findings are. In particular, it can be difficult to determine whether reporting such findings is important, and therefore medical practice seeks to establish a threshold of what should and should not be reported. This particular finding, that the son is not the biological son of the father, does not appear to be medically relevant. First, it is not relevant to the question at hand, which is whether the people in the family have the marker for Huntington's Disease. The child could or could not, and his parentage is not relevant to that question. Second, who is or is not his biological father is not a matter of medical health, and especially not an immediate matter.…… [Read More]


Illes, J. & Kirschen, M. (2014). Unexpected findings. Monitor on Psychology. Vol. 45 (3) 54.

Meiser, B. & Dunn, S. (2000). Psychological impact of genetic testing for Huntington's disease: An update of the literature. Journal of Neuroology and Neurosurgery Psychiatry. Vol. 69 (2000) 574-578.

Ofri, D. (no date). Ethical implications of incidental findings. Danielle Ofri. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from
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Electronic Medical Records Interoperability

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24598244

Interoperability of Electronic Medical ecords

Electronic Health ecords (EHs) are patient-management tools that have been created in the health sector to help coordinate patient care. These tools or system focuses on capturing patient-generated health information from outside the clinical setting and incorporating it into the patient's medical history. Electronic health records were developed to help improve patient care through sharing patient information seamlessly. However, for EHs to have the ability to share patient information seamlessly, an interoperable health information technology environment should be established. This essentially means that an interoperable health IT environment is mandatory for electronic health records to be effective.

What is Interoperability?

Interoperability is a term used to refer to the level with which devices and systems can share data and interpret it (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society, 2013). This means that two devices or systems are considered interoperable when they exchange data seamlessly and eventually…… [Read More]


Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. (2013). What is Interoperability? Retrieved November 7, 2016, from 

Schiller, D. (2015, November 30). EHRs and Healthcare Interoperability: The Challenges, Complexities, Opportunities and Reality. Retrieved November 7, 2016, from 

Stroupe, M.P. (2011, May). What is EHR Interoperability and Why Should I Care? Retrieved November 7, 2016, from
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History of Crime Measurement as Well as

Words: 3197 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52358775

history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.

The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…… [Read More]


Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from 

Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from

Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from

Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from
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History of the Future Strathern

Words: 3036 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34895497

This became an age in which visionary thinkers said, "see, we told you so," and were able to garner additional support from not only the activist type, but the regular citizen.

Talking Points

Malthusian dynamics (overpopulation and resource allocation) became a focus of futurists. Marshall McLuhan, for one, combined futuristic predictions with analysis of global media and advertising trends.

Noam Chomsky was revolutionizing the idea of linguistics as a way to view our innate cultural mechanisms.

Science fiction writers like Clarke, Asimov, and Lem pushed the boundaries of science as far as possible -- insisting that the reader ask very difficult questions about what it truly means to be human, what it truly means to have conservatorship of a planet, and whether or not we have the wisdom to maintain life on earth as we know it.

Chapter 6 -- Fast Forward

Arthur C. Clarke made an interesting remark about…… [Read More]

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History of Surgery

Words: 6608 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18946792

History of Surgery had been started from the prehistoric time with its appropriate technique and tools applicable during the age. There was no sophisticated care of hygiene and anatomic knowledge in the early days; the basic research was started using trial and error on every case and it had set a very strong basic which still makes sense and counts into modern practice.

The following summary of history of surgery is compiled from various sources based on the timeline set in dr. Schell's lecture: The History of Surgery.

The Ancient Medicine (Prehistoric Time)

People had strong magic beliefs and connection to multiple gods during the prehistoric time, so that any cases of illness were also believed as the punishments from angry gods for community's or one's moral failure. Some common cases recorded were respiratory and digestive problems, infections, and gynecologic disorders. Life expectancy low, then 28-35 years was a successful…… [Read More]


13.3 Trephination, An Ancient Surgery. March24, 2002.

Anaesthesia History. The Surgery Door Pain Centre by Neurofen. March26, 2002.

Anesthesia: A Brief History. Feb 13, 2001. Simon Fraser Health Region. March26, 2002.

Bune, Matt and Gregor, Pam. Ancient Egyptian Surgery ed. Majno, Guido. The Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1982. pp. 86-121. March26, 2002.
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History of Informatics

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18566498

Health care has always been concerned about information management, especially as health care interventions and management have become increasingly complex. In spite of this, health care has weakly welcomed information technology into its midst, shunning computerized data management systems in favor of anachronistic and antiquated ones. When health care started using information technology, the role informatics played was largely ancillary. There were few specialists, and informatics were considered novel and strange. Yet since Virginia Saba introduced technology specifically designed for healthcare, the informatics field has become one of the most relevant to the gamut of healthcare management and operations. Currently, healthcare informatics stands alone as a unique area of specialization that fuses passion for health care management, concern for patient care, and computer technology.

There are five major milestones in the creation and evolution of health informatics. The first was the initial first wave of computing and information technology that…… [Read More]


AMIA (2012). Mission and history. Retrieved online:

Burke, L., & Weill, B. (2009), Information technology for the health professions (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Detmer, D.E., Munger, B.S. & Lehman, C.U. (2009). Medical informatics board certification: History current status, and predicted impact on the medical informatics workforce. Applied Clinical Informatics 1(1): 11-18.

Hebda, T., Czar, P., Mascara, C. (2009). Handbook of informatics for nurses and healthcare professionals (4th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Medical Reconciliation and and Attached References

Words: 415 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37286030

Barnsteiner JH. Medication reconciliation: transfer of medication information across settings -- keeping it free from error. Am J Nurs. 2005;05(3 Suppl):3-6.

This article evaluates the need for proper medication reconciliation across various nursing settings. This article is important as emphasis is placed on error free reconciliation which is very important for proper client service and treatment.

Bullough, Vern L. and Bonnie Bullough. The Emergence of Modern Nursing (2nd ed. 972)

This reference emphasized modern nursing and many of the practices and advances of nursing over the years. This is important as it provides a historical perspective of medical reconciliation. A historical perspective is needed to better understand improvements that will need to be made in the future.

D'Antonio, Patricia. American Nursing: A History of Knowledge, Authority, and the Meaning of Work (200), 272pp

This reference provides further evidence into the history of medical reconciliation and recommendations on improvements that should…… [Read More]

13. Rogers G, Alper E, Brunelle D, et al. Reconciling medications at admission: safe practice recommendations and implementation strategies. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2006;32:37-50

14. Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Historical Encyclopedia of Nursing (2004), 354pp; from ancient times to the present

15. Sullivan C, Gleason KM, Rooney D, et al. Medication reconciliation in the acute care setting: opportunity and challenge for nursing. J Nurs Care Qual. 2005;20(2):95-98
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History of Healthcare in the

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7178250

By 1935, during the Presidency of Franklin oosevelt, the Social Security Act, "one of the great landmarks in the history of healthcare legislation in the United States" (Couchman, 2001, p. 245), prompted the government to accept some responsibility for the future security of the aged, the handicapped and the unemployed as it relates to healthcare needs. In 1939, the oosevelt Administration also introduced the Wagner National Health Act which "gave general support for a national health program to be funded by federal grants to states and administered by states and localities" ("A

Brief History," 2009, Internet); however, due to a rapid decline in progressivism and the costs linked to World War I, this act failed to create a national healthcare agenda.

In 1943, the federal government finally came to acknowledge that healthcare was a major national priority which soon led to the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill which called for "compulsory national health…… [Read More]


"A Brief History: Universal Healthcare Efforts in the U.S." (2009). PNHP. Internet.

Accessed June 15, 2009 from

Anderson, William H. (2006). The U.S. Healthcare Dilemma: Mirrors and Chains.

New York: Auburn House.
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History From 1865 to the Present Day

Words: 3112 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82260009

istory from 1865 to te present day. To focus te researc, select six subtopics (specific events or developments related to te topic, separated in time); tree from before 1930 and tree from after.


Tere are more tan 50 million immigrants (legal and illegal) and teir U.S.-born cildren (under 18) in te United States as of August 2012. As of te last decade, most immigrants come from te following countries: Honduras (85%), India (74%), Guatemala (73%), Peru (54%), El Salvador (49%), Ecuador (48%), and Cina (43%). Approximately, 28% of tese immigrants are in te country illegally. Rougly alf of Mexican and Central American and one-tird of Sout American immigrants are ere illegally.

Te Center for Immigration Studies (Rigt Side news) finds tat immigration as dramatically increased te population of low-income individuals in te United States, altoug many immigrants, te longer tey live in te country, make significant progress. However, immigrants…… [Read More]

Pula, James S. "American Immigration Policy and the Dillingham Commission," Polish-American Studies (1980) 37#1 pp 5-31

Yakushko, O et al. (2008) Stress and Coping in the Lives of Recent Immigrants and Refugees: Considerations for Counseling International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 3, 167-178
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History Cannabis

Words: 2977 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81381715

Cannabis in ancient history: From no courage necessary to the courage to explore the mind.

Cannabis cultivated in ancient China as hemp for fiber and cannabis for medicine.

Cannabis spread to India, where it is used as a religious sacrament as well as a medicinal herb.

Cannabis spread to Europe with the Scythians, who used it also as a mind-altering substance.

By the end of the Hellenistic and oman eras, cannabis use becomes widespread, and issues like conflict and greed have yet to come into the picture.

Cannabis in Europe: The beginnings of conflict and greed.

Cannabis is used medicinally and mentioned in scientific texts.

The Age of Enlightenment gives rise to the exploration of the herb.

Cultivation of hemp as a cash crop begins during the Age of Colonization, planting the first seeds of conflict.

D. As a cash crop, cannabis presents a potential for greed.

The Modern Era:…… [Read More]


"10,000-year History of Marijuana use in the World." Advanced Holistic Health. Retrieved online: 

Gumbiner, Jann. "History of Cannabis in Ancient China." Psychology Today. May 10, 2011. Retrieved online:

Head, Tom. "Marijuana in Ancient History." Retrieved online:

"Marijuana Since the Beginning of Time." Marijuana Today. Retrieved online:
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Medical Product Commercialization Action Plan

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71069560

Commercialization of a Medical Product

It is important to note, from the onset, that patents present the most effective approach to 'locking' the desired market after realizing the fruits of research. This is particularly the case given that the commercialization of medical research in itself brings about a high level of risk to the key stakeholders involved in the entire research process, particularly investors. In the case under consideration, we assume that investors will have a two-year period of market exclusivity, after which the medical research team will lose its patent protection. This effectively means that other companies will be free to manufacture and sell the drug. The relevance of formulating the right strategies to guarantee the profitability of the company after the two-year period cannot, therefore, be overstated.

The removal of patent holder's monopoly not only promotes, but also encourages competition (Joly and Knoppers, 2014). There are several approaches…… [Read More]


Gupta, H., Kumar, S., Roy, S.K. & Gaud, R.S. (2010). Patent Protection Strategies. J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2(1), 2-7.

Joly, Y. & Knoppers, B.M. (Eds.). (2014). Routledge Handbook of Medical Law and Ethics. New York, NY: Routledge
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History of Huey P Long

Words: 4624 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53698843

The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment

. This became known as "loody Monday." This time, Long's bullying tactics did not work.

Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office

. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed. Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well

. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…… [Read More]


Andrews, James and Zarefsky, David. American Voices: Significant Speeches in American history 1640-1945. (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1989.)

Authier, Philip. Duplessis, warts and all. 22 May 1999. Wednesday-Night. Available from . Internet: accessed 29 September 2008.

Botting, Gary. Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. (Calgary, Alta: University of Calgary Press. 1993).

Corner, Richard. The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996).
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History of the WWW HTML and the

Words: 2242 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78138917

history of the WWW, HTL and the architecture used to develop the World Wide Web. The study traces the history of the WWW to Berners-Lee who develops the first web page in 1990. However, before 1993, the WWW was only being used by the government and top research organizations; it was in 1993 that the Web was allowed for a public use. The study also identifies the HTL, XL Standards URI, and Protocols as the basic architecture to design the Web technology. The HTL consists of the structural open and close tags used to display information over the Web. The paper provides the annotated bibliography of three research articles that reveal the history of World Wide Web and basic architectures to design the WWW.


The WWW (World Wide Web) was designed to share information interactively through which organizations and individuals can communicate with one another using machine. Since the…… [Read More]

Maged, N. Kamel Boulos & Steve, Wheeler (2007). The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite of sociable technologies in health and health care education, Health Information and Libraries Journal,: 2-23.

Robert, C. & James, G. (2012). How the World Wide Web was Won. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. The OECD Observer 293: 32-33.

Vissers. M.C. & Hasman, A. (1999). Building a Flexible protocol Information System with 'ready for use' Web-technology. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 53 (2): 163-174.
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History Correctional Facilities in the US

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97661170

Prison system plays a significant part in promoting the well-being and sustainability of the global societies. he American prison system is an example of the prison system that has undergone significant transformation over decades to become what is seen in the present. he origin of the American prison system is traceable back to early ages before the 19th century when incarceration was introduced as a method of criminal punishment to those who violated the law. he early ages of the development of the prison system was characterized by a geographical widespread of the penitentiary systems that could serve the purposes of law. However, exposure of this system to significant changes such as scientific and political developments alongside reform movements resulted in the improvement of the prison conditions.

raditionally, the prison systems of the U.S. were used for punishing people who evaded paying their taxes. he history of the U.S. prison…… [Read More]

The mass prison era featured between 1825 and 1876. The use of treatments such as hard labor and whipping of the criminal offenders characterized this period. The system was the key competitor of the Pennsylvania system of prison that persisted between 1790 and 1825. This stage of the history of the U.S. prison system was dominated by the cases of vandalism, stealing water from the standpipes, and failure of individuals to pay taxes to the government. The reformatory era came between 1876 and 1890 where the prison system adopted the used of intermediate sentencing as a form of punishing the criminal offenders. This phase aimed at reforming the criminal offenders rather than punishing them. As such, it adopted the use of graded stages where there was the use of parole systems to achieve the desired social sustainability and well-being. However, the system failed due to the effects of recidivism during this period. Urban crimes such as burglary, robbery with violence, and murder were the most common crimes during this stage of the growth of the U.S. prison system.

The industrial era followed where the prisoners were used to provide cheap labor. Among the systems of inmate labor that were used during this period, include the piece-price system, the contract system, public account system, lease system, public works system, and state-use system. However, the passing of the Ashurst-Sumners Act and the Hawes-Cooper Act reduced the labor that could be provided by the inmates. Among the crimes during this period included murder, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of crimes. The 1935-1945 punitive era was characterized by the holding of prisoners owed a debt to their societies. As such, there were few innovations during this period and the form of crimes committed during this era-included robbery, murder, and other forms of violence against humanity.

The treatment era of 1945-1967 came where there was the recognition of the need of the use of medical models for the sick inmates. The forms of crimes encompassed the above crimes. The community-based era (1967-1980) followed where inmates were provided with privileges such as work release, study-release, and halfway houses. This was followed by the warehousing era (1980-1995) and the Just desert era (1995 to the present) that recognized the need for provision of services that recognized human needs of the inmates. The forms of crimes included terrorism, robbery, murder, and all other forms of crimes present in the other eras. Therefore, it is apparent that the prison system of the U.S. has undergone significant transformations over time to become the present prison system.
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Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available:

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available: .
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History of Hospitals Delivery of Inpatient Services

Words: 1191 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44676932


Health care in the United States has evolved through governmental and private answers to historical trends, starting with the first days of the United States. Often arising as responses to serious gaps in health care, these remedies traditionally build on each other and have resulted in a uniquely American health care system. The trickle of Baby Boomers into "the elderly" is now posing new challenges for both governmental and private providers, which must be met by new responses and a newly adapted health care system.

Discuss the government's role in responding to historical trends that impact the delivery of hospital care and how this has added to the expansion of hospitals in the United States.

Commencing with the very existence of our Republic, the United States government has taken a leading role in dealing with historical trends, significantly impacting delivery of hospital care and expansion of hospitals in this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barton, P.L. (2010). Understanding the U.S. health services system, 4th ed. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.

Hays Companies. (n.d.). Inpatient vs. outpatient care. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from Web site:

Setness, P.A. (2002, June 20). The looming crisis in geriatric care: As baby boomeers age, healthcare policy fallout seems inevitable. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from Web sit:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Timeline of the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from Web site:
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History of the American Public

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52676518

Johnson also used deceptive public relations tactics in publicizing a supposed attack on the U.S. naval fleet in the Gulf of Tonkin off the Vietnamese coast. Eventually, it would be acknowledged by former members of the Johnson administration that the incident was essentially fabricated as a means to justify the entrance of the U.S. military into the Vietnamese conflict in an operational (i.e. war-fighting) capacity instead of the advisory capacity in which U.S. forces had been involved to that point (McNamara, 1995; oberts, 2000; Vance, 1983).

The public relations industry and mechanisms have also been used effectively by foreign governments in a manner designed to instigate public opposition to the policies of the American administration. One of the best examples is the "No Nukes" political movement during the 1980s in opposition to President onald eagan's increased funding of U.S. defense capabilities against the threat believed to have been represented by…… [Read More]


Craig, R.T. (2007). "Pragmatism in the Field of Communication Theory" Communication

Theory, Vol. 17, No. 2: 125-145.

Commager, H.S. (1999). The American Mind: An Interpretation of American Thought

and Character Since the 1880s. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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History and Advancements in Diagnosis

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78433036

misconception in people that having an aneurysm means bleeding in the brain. An aneurysm is in fact a balloon-like swelling in a blood vessel that can affect any large vessel in your body; these larger vessels being arteries. Aneurysms pose a risk to health from the potential for rupture, clotting, or dissecting. It is the pressure of the blood passing through a weak part of the blood vessel that forces it to bulge outwards, forming a sort of a blister. If the sac that is formed extends the artery too far, the vessel may burst, causing death by bleeding. upture of an aneurysm in the brain causes stroke, and rupture of an aneurysm in the abdomen causes shock. (THIJ, 2001)

Aneurysms are the cause of many deaths because they are usually silent until a medical emergency occurs. "One author has referred to an AAA as a "U-boat" in the belly,…… [Read More]


Lieber, B.B, and Wakhloo, A.K. (1996) Optimization of Stents for cerebrovascular disorders using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Particle Image Velocimetry. / (Accessed April 7, 2002)

Minyard. Andrea N, MD, and Parker, Joseph C. JR., MD, (1997) Intracranial Saccular (Berry) Aneurysm: A Brief Overview., Louisville, Ky. (Accessed April 7, 2002)

Petito CK (1993) Cerebrovascular diseases. Principles and Practice of Neuropathology. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book Inc., pp 436-458

Stehbens WE (1995) Aneurysms. Vascular Pathology. London, Chapman and Hall Medical, pp 379-400
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History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drug Products in US

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80084716

Direct to Consumer Advertising

According to a report by the United States General Accounting Office, "spending on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has tripled in recent years," (Collins et al. p. 4). Consequently, spending on prescription drugs has also risen. Although the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the content of prescription drug advertisements under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), many critics of direct-to-consumer (DTC) promotion of prescription drugs contend that the advertisements can be misleading or even dangerous. Spending on DTC drug ads can also cut into costs that could be channeled into research and development, which is another reason why many consumer groups express concern over the proliferation of DTC ads for pharmaceuticals. The FDA changed their stance somewhat regarding DTC ads for prescription drugs in 1999, which is why DTC ads for pharmaceuticals have become commonplace, most notably on television (Palumbo and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'A Brief History of Drug Advertising." NOW Science and Health on 7 Jan 2005. .

Collins, Susan, et. al. "Prescription Drugs: FDA Oversight of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Has Limitations." United States General Accounting Office. Oct 2002. .

Deselle, Shane P. "Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising and Pharmacy Practice." Pharmaceutical Education. 27 July 2004. .

'Direct to Consumer Advertising for Prescription Drugs." American College of Physicians. 9 Oct 1998. .
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History of Love Canal the

Words: 2327 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71027084

Furthermore, both statutory and tort law at the time were ill-equipped with regard to provision of environmental safeguards and taking care of the fall-out of an environmental crisis . In fact, at the time that Hoover Chemical Corporation was dumping toxins into the canal, there was no law with regard to the disposal or dumping of chemicals; thus, Hoover was acting within its purview since at all times it either had the owner's permission to dump or it was the owner of the property itself. Consequently, in order to avoid this problem in the future, legislation was passed regulating the dumping of hazardous waste. Furthermore, environmental laws were passed such as CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liablity Act, aka Superfund) that held polluters accountable or the damages they caused. Additionally, in the realm of civil tort law, in 1994, a Federal District court ruled that Hooker had been negligent…… [Read More]


30th Anniversary of Love Canal. (2008, June). Retrieved from

Blum, Elizabeth D., Love Canal Revisited. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2008, p.20-22.

Brown, PhD, P., & Clapp, PhD, R. (2002). Looking back on Love Canal. Public Health Reports, 17, 95-98. Retrieved from Association of Schools of Public Health.

De Angelo, L. (2008). Love Canal, New York. In the encyclopedia of Earth. Washington D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Coalition for Science and the Environment.
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History and Industry Trends

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10587961

Information Technology

1985 "Hacking," or entering / gaining unauthorized access to a computer system, has been committed by a group of young computer programmers. The victims of this new incidence of hacking were the Pentagon and the telecommunications company, AT&T.

Nuclear energy became the primary source of energy used in weapons making, characterized to be more efficient and powerful compared to its predecessor, the atomic bomb (energy).

1986 The first operation was conducted which granted a patient an artificial heart, lengthening the life survival of patients who have poor heart conditions.

1988 Stealth bomber aircrafts were manufactured and introduced by the United States. These new aircrafts provide ease and increasingly rapid speed of flight without being detected by enemy radar (especially during war time).

1990 Switzerland had produced the first solar-powered vehicle, which runs on solar power alone, without the use of excessive fuel energy. This project aims to provide…… [Read More]


Daniel, C. (Ed.). (1993). Chronicle of the 20th Century. NY: JL International Publishing.

McNeil, I. (2002). An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. NY: Routledge.

Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Corporation 1983-2001.
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History and Development of Medicare

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44149601

Health Care Policy: Medicare

Medicare in the U.S. was formed in 1966 and is defined is one of the national social insurance program whose administration is vested in the federal government. The policy is dispensed through 30 private insurance organizations in the country. Medicare avails health insurance to Americans of ages 65 years and older that had worked and paid within the national system (Nadeau, Belanger & Petry, 2014). The policy avails health insurance benefits to different younger people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, disabilities, and end-stage renal disease.

Medicare availed health insurance to close to 47 million residents in 2010. 40 million of them were of 65 years and above while seven million were younger individuals with disabilities. The policy was the primary point of payment for close to 15.4 million inpatient cases in 2011 that was $182.7 billion (47.2%) of aggregate inpatient costs in the United States hospitals. Medicare…… [Read More]


Almgren, G.R. (2013). Health Care Politics, Policy and Services: A Social Justice Analysis. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Barr, D.A. (2011). Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. New York: JHU Press.

Holtz, C. (2008). Global Health Care: Issues and Policies. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Moniz, C., & Gorin, S. (2013). Health Care Policy and Practice: A Biopsychosocial Perspective. New York: Routledge.