Medical Marijuana Essays (Examples)

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Medical Use of Marijuana Increasing Use of

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30556120

Medical Use of Marijuana

Increasing use of medical marijuana

Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.

Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research can appropriately come up with.

There are various factors that point at devastating effects and after-effects of marijuana use be it for medical purposes or not. These reasons have left a trail of destructions some of which are non-redeemable. The calls for medical use of marijuana are not anything new…… [Read More]

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Marijuana Shouldn't Be Legalized

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86340785

Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized

Physical Health Concerns

According to a Harvard University Law School document, it would be "…fallacious to conclude that because the chemicals in marijuana have been found to present fewer dangers…" than cocaine, heroin, alcohol and tobacco, that the recreational use of marijuana "is safe" (Harvard). In fact, even though many states authorize the use of cannabis for medical purposes (for AIDS sufferers and for those experiencing harmful side effects from cancer chemotherapy and glaucoma), marijuana has "potentially dangerous side effects" (Harvard).

Those "dangerous [physical] side effects" include: a) damage to cells in the bronchial passages that could cause chronic bronchitis; b) a decrease in the ability of the body's immune cells to "fight off fungi, bacteria, and tumor cells"; c) the possibility of getting "pulmonary infections and respiratory cancer"; and d) since one joint of powerful cannabis has "four times more tar than a cigarette," lungs are exposed to the same dangers that cigarettes create (Harvard).

Mental Health Concerns

The Harvard paper asserts that use of marijuana "is at the root of many mental disorders," and those include: a) "acute toxic psychosis"; b) "panic attacks," which is one of the "very conditions it is being…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernstein, Douglas A. (2007). Psychology. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.

CNBC. (2010). Why We Should Not Legalize Marijuana. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from

Drug Enforcement Agency. (2011). The DEA Position on Marijuana. Retrieved December 12,

2012, from
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Marijuana Use

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1866288

Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy

It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. Research shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.

When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed medical marijuana laws permitting the production and use of medical marijuana for patients that qualify under state law. However, the medical use of marijuana remains illegal under federal law, and patients in the remaining states are without any legal access at all. Even…… [Read More]


Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals:

Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union:

Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from

State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures:
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Medical and Ethical Dilemmas Even if the

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25574413

medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.

This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for the actions once the circumstances became known. While some of the specific individuals may have escaped their own condemnation and may have even been initially rewarded, they were chastised professionally or isolated and had to hide their involvement. Today, we accept that having a cavalier attitude about a study (by…… [Read More]


Consumer Reports (2007). "Off-Label" Drug Use, Shopper's Guide. Downloadable at .

Pain Management of America (2011). Chronic Pain Treatment and Management with Medical Marijuana. Viewable at


Jewish Chronic Disease:
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Marijuana Be Legalized As a

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81434695

One very important aspect related to smoking marijuana concerns the number of deaths reported on an annual basis linked to using other legal and illegal substances. For example, according to the U.S. Bureau of Mortality Statistics, 400,000 Americans die annually as a direct result of smoking cigarettes; 100,000 die prematurely from drinking alcohol; some 20,000 die from abusing legal prescription drugs like Oxycontin, Valium, Percodan, and other drugs prescribed by physicians; 2,000 die from the effects of consuming too much caffeine, mainly from heart failure, while the number of Americans who die from smoking marijuana currently stands at zero, an indication that smoking marijuana does not directly cause any known fatal and debilitating disease ("The Legalization of Marijuana," Internet).

Therefore, considering the number of Americans who die prematurely from consuming alcohol which has been legal since the end of Prohibition in the early 1930's, there is no logical reason not to legalize marijuana; in fact, a number of U.S. states have recently made medical marijuana legal despite the fact that marijuana remains illegal under federal law. Many studies have conclusively shown that marijuana is an excellent pain reliever and has some positive traits for those suffering from the side effects…… [Read More]


Franklin, Michael J. The Pros and Cons of Marijuana Legalization in the United

States. New York: Random House, 2006.

"The Legalization of Marijuana." 2009. Internet. Accessed November 24, 2009

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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47854518

Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties

When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of legalizing marijuana for medicinal use. After decades of misinformation concerning the alleged link between marijuana use and addiction to more destructive "hard" narcotics like cocaine, methamphetamine or heroin, the lengthy period of legalized medicinal marijuana use in several states has provided a wealth of statistical data focused explicitly on long-term…… [Read More]


Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
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Legalization of Medicinal Marijuana

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71388871

Medical Cannabis

As of November 2012, eighteen states plus the District of Columbia voted by ballot initiative to legalize marijuana for medical use. The revolution in voter attitudes towards marijuana reflects a social, political, and to a lesser degree, economic trend. Many Americans already use marijuana, pot, also or "more appropriately" known as cannabis (NORML). However, cannabis has been banned at the federal level, classified as a Schedule I Substance under the Controlled Substances Act, which is the highest and strictest classification any drug can have. "Along with heroin, LSD and some other drugs, marijuana is classified as a Schedule 1 substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act. That means the drug is considered to have no accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse," (Andrews 1). Federal law prohibits or strictly controls scientific investigations into marijuana, which has stymied the growth of research into the plant for its potential as a healing substance. The new state legislation is in direct conflict with federal law. Moreover, the federal law conflicts with scientific evidence that has been gathered from various research institutions and universities showing that indeed, marijuana has medical relevance and should be taken off the federal controlled substances…… [Read More]


American Medical Association. "AMA Policy: Medical Marijuana." Retrieved online: 

Andrews, Michelle. "New medical marijuana initiatives haven't convinced insurers." The Washington Post. Nov 19, 2012. Retrieved online:

Cohen, Rebecca Richman. "The Fight over Medical Marijuana." The New York Times. Nov 7, 2012. Retrieved online:

Conaboy, Chelsea. "Massachusetts voters approve ballot measure to legalize medical marijuana." Boston Globe. Nov 6, 2012. Retrieved online:
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Rebuttal Argument Against Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1790 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87823454

Marijuana, which comes from the Cannabis plant, has been used by people since time immemorial. It was only in the 1960s that this plant received excessive media attention for the effect it had on people and the adverse potential to go wrong. Therefore, the American government illegalized the use of marijuana and anyone found to be in possession of this plant, or to be intoxicated by it, was told to be arrested by police forces and then further interrogated. Since this banning of marijuana and the imposition of harsh laws, many have stood up and spoke for legalizing the drug. The question at hand is whether using marijuana as a drug is a crime worthy of so much attention or rather is it a drug that needs to be removed from the blacklist, as per pro-marijuana activists' campaigning.

The issue began in 1960 when the government of the United States introduced anti-marijuana propaganda through the media and deemed it as a danger to national security and prosperity. This was backed by a claim that along with changing a person's emotions and feelings, it also makes a person lazy, unproductive and far from realistic thinking so much so that they may…… [Read More]


Bock, Alan. Waiting to Inhale: The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Seven Locks Press, 2000. Print.

Earleywine, Mitch. Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

Gerber, Rudoplh. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Praeger, 2004. Print.

Grinspoon, Lester. Marihuana Reconsidered. Harvard University Press, 1971. Print.
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Legalization of Marijuana for Medicinal

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87619549

The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and Richard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.

The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as a means of mitigating the severity of their MS symptoms. It collected demographic data, information about severity of disease symptoms, diagnoses, previous types of experiences with marijuana, beliefs about drug use, knowledge of the reported value of marijuana for medicinal purposes for the treatment of specific MS symptoms of and…… [Read More]


Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical

Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.

Page, S.A., Verhoef, M.J., Stebbins, R.A., Metz, L.M., and Levy, J.C. "Cannabis Use

as Described by People with Multiple Sclerosis." Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, Vol. 30 (2003): 201 -- 205.
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Medicinal Marijuana

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47178480

Medical Marijuana Use

Drugs & Alcohol

Marijuana is a plant or herb that grows on various parts of Earth. Other names for marijuana are hemp and cannabis, which refers to its biological name in Latin, cannibus sativa. Cannibus simply is the Latin word for marijuana, and sativa is the supine form a Latin verb meaning "sown" and "useful." The issue of marijuana use has been prominent in American culture since at least the 1930s, with propaganda films against the use of marijuana like Reefer Madness. Marijuana use has been in the news over the past few decades with specific regard to the medical uses of marijuana. There has been increased attention and research into the medical properties and benefits of marijuana, which is a new endeavor or perspective from mainstream America, as it has been historically viewed and publicized as a narcotic that makes users vulnerable to the use of much harder and more dangerous drugs. Cocaine is a drug that comes from a plant and so is heroin. They, like other drugs, are directly derived from plants and have the potential for medicinal purposes and for narcotic abuse. Where marijuana differs is that it does not need any special…… [Read More]


Okie, MD, S. (2005) Medical Marijuana and the Supreme Court. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(7), 648 -- 651.

Seamon, M.J., Fass, J.A., Maniscalco-Feichtl, M., Abu-Shrarie, N.A. (2007) Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists, 64, 1037 -- 1045.
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Legaliztain of Marijuana in 2009

Words: 2375 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85882007

President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.

Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.

The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed California to pass the first medical marijuana law in the country in 1996 Milestones. It was followed by several states including Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon and Rhodie Island, Vermont and Washington have all passed a version of medical marijuana Milestones. Other states are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. < milestones-history-marijuana/>.

Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .

"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .

Gray, Jim. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
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Medicinal Marijuana a Humanitarian Medical

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66080757

Evidence largely suggests that the subject in question would have been given a well-established pain-management strategy otherwise lacking had marijuana been available. Unfortunately, this plentiful, profitable, easy-to-grow and highly accessible substance has been demonized and victimized by hostile propaganda even as dangerous and deadly substances such as tobacco, alcohol and antidepressants remain highly proliferated.

From the combination of my experience and my value system, I must implore you to reconsider your position on the subject. You needn't simply take my work on the matter. Please conduct some actual research through peer-reviewed medical journals and I am confident you will find overwhelming critical evidence to support my position. Further, please consider, as will be detailed in the fact sheet hereafter, that the your political concerns over the position are unfounded. Public support for the legalization of marijuana has never been higher, and is largely a product of the view that it has both beneficial therapeutic properties and that its negative health repercussions have been either greatly exaggerated or simply conjured to support a reigning political perspective.

Quite frankly, we are beyond this as a citizenry. The draconian policies which have arbitrarily identified this as a substance so dangerous as to justify…… [Read More]

The United States has demonstrated itself on the whole to be increasingly more receptive to decriminalization on a state by state basis. To date, 14 states have joined a growing list of those in which medical marijuana is legal. Florida is, in this regard, behind the more progressive nations in the Union. (MPP, 1)

Research suggests that marijuana is anatamocially beneficial as a therapeutic substance for a wide array of health maladies. According to Ogborn et al. (2000), "There are indications that marijuana is sometimes used to alleviate pain from cancer, to reduce nausea from chemotherapy, to mitigate the wasting syndrome of AIDS, and for the treatment of glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and a variety of other disorders.1,2 A few studies have suggested that the medical use of marijuana is common among people with HIV / AIDS3,4 and those with certain psychiatric conditions." (p. 1)

Evidence suggests that any of the health hazards which are currently related to marijuana use
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Medicinal Marijuana the Advantages and

Words: 4258 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55458729

De Jong, Prentiss, McFarland, Machekano & Israelski (2005) note in one study that medicinal marijuana use may be particularly useful in patients suffering from HIV with moderate to severe nausea. There study points out that adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an essential and critical component for successful treatment of HIV infections. Further a recent study conducted by the researchers suggest that smoking marijuana improves adherence to ART, and thus leads to more successful treatment of HIV infections in patients (De Jong, et. a, 44).

The relationship that existed in this study was confirmed using a multivariate analyses controlling "for the interactions between nausea and marijuana use" in which "other illicit drug use remained a factor related to nonadherence" (De Jong, et. al, 44). This study confirms the notion that medicinal cannabis may be beneficial where other therapies or drugs have not. However to demonstrate further benefits or a more causal relationship the researchers do acknowledge that longitudinal and controlled studies would be required.

In another study conducted by Wade, Makela, Robson, House & Bateman (2004) the effects of medicinal extracts of cannabis are examined on specific symptoms associated with the disease multiple sclerosis. The double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study…… [Read More]


Berman, J.S., Symonds, C. & Birch, R. (2004). "Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: Results of a randomized controlled trial." Pain. 112(3): 299-306

Burstein, S.H., Karst, M., Schneider, U. & Zurier, R.B. (2004). "Ajulemic acid: A novel cannabinoid produces analgesia without a high." Life Sci, 75(12): 1513-22

Carter, G.T., Weydt, P., Kyashna, T.M. & Abrams, D.I. (2004 - May). "Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing." Idrugs, 7(5): 464-70.

Christenson, V. (2004). "Courts protect ninth circuit doctors who recommend medical marijuana use." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 32(1): 174
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Legalization of Marijuana IT's Not

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95638930

" In fact, the White House admits that "a direct cause and effect relationship between marijuana use and subsequent use of other drugs is hard to prove." At the same time, the White House tries to convince readers that adults who were early marijuana users were more likely to have used cocaine, heroine, and other drugs. Both websites offer a balanced viewpoint on the gateway drug issue, but the MPP makes a more convincing argument.

The White House publication called "What Americans Need to Know About Marijuana" is available in PDF format, either as a full file or in sections. The PDF format is convenient for people who wish to save the document to their hard drive and read it at a later date, and is also easy on the eyes. However, there are drawbacks to PDF files, such as the lack of hypertext and the amount of memory usage that the Adobe Reader takes up on people's computers.

The MPP website offers both PDF and HTML formats of their document "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base." The "questions about medical marijuana" are arranged in a table format with hyperlinks. However, the MPP website is difficult to navigate compared…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marijuana Policy Project website at

What Americans Need to Know About Marijuana." 2003. Online at
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Understanding Civil Society Through Legalize Marijuana Organizations

Words: 3120 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33997875

Civil Society Through "Legalize Marijuana" Organizations

As microcosms of civil society, collective action groups operate with processes used by civil society but with uniquely tailored processes and results. The National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) is one example of a collective action group that has used these processes to establish itself, grow, survive and currently flourish. Through intelligent framing, effective resource mobilization and wise use of political opportunity, NORML's 40+year history has resulted in growth from an idea supported by a few people to a well-funded and assertive national movement. This work will attempt to show NORML'S accurate reflection of successful civil society by reviewing research on civil society and collective action groups, reviewing NORML's history, and applying the research to NORML.


Collective Action Group as a Microcosm of Civil Society

Framing processes are a central dynamic, along with resource mobilization and political opportunity processes, for understanding civil society and social movements as a microcosm of civil society (Benford & Snow, 2000, p. 612). "Frames help to render events or occurrences meaningful and thereby function to organize experience and guide action" (Benford & Snow, 2000, p. 614). Flowing from that definition, "collective action frames are action-oriented sets…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arat, Y. (1994). Toward a democratic society: The women's movement in Turkey in the 1980s. Womenh's Studies Int. Forum, 17(2/3), 241-248.

Benford, R.D., & Snow, D.A. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611-639. Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from Web site: 

California Choices. (2010). Prop 19. Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from Web site:

McCarthy, J.D., & Zald, M.N. (May 1977). Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. The American Journal of Sociology, 82(6), 1212-1241.
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Legalizing Marijuana it Costs Significant Money for

Words: 1340 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36716487

Legalizing Marijuana

It costs significant money for governments to catch buyers and dealers of drugs in the black market, arrest them, file cases against them, and then keep them in jail. Hence, the war on drugs is a long, risky, expensive undertaking. (Boylstein, 2003) This spending is considerably high when talking about the drug marijuana, as it is one amongst largely consumed drugs as it does not cause much harm to health like tobacco or nicotine. Hence, the government was at a loss due to spending a lot of revenues on war on drugs and by not collecting taxes for the illegal drugs. According to the research, a lot of tax revenue can be collected by the governments by legalizing marijuana.

In old times, Americans considered marijuana, as an impecunious type of tobacco. Actually, its name marijuana was suggested by Mexicans, they considered marijuana as the lowest variety of cigarette. When these Mexican laborers mingled with other underprivileged farm laborers, some of them started to use marijuana as a recreational drink. In the beginning, it was only practiced by the poorest populations of the community and then it started to spread gradually. And currently, it has been calculated that its…… [Read More]


Anderson, D, M., Hansen, B., and Rees, D, I., (2012) Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use, Pg 24- 43.

Boylstein, C, A., (2003) Marijuana in America, Red Feather Journal of Graduate Sociology. The Red Feather Institute, 8085 Essex, Weidman, Michigan, 1-5.

Bradford, H., (2012), 14 ways Marijuana could boost the economy, Huff Post Business, 1.

Register, Charles A. And Williams, Donald R. (1992) Labor Market Effects of Marijuana and Cocaine Use Among Young Men, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, pp. 435-448.
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For the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82013604

Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.

As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have agreed to legalize the recreational use of marijuana. This means that anyone over the age of 21 can legally purchase a certain amount of pot without any criminal repercussions ( Some states have already allowed the use of marijuana in cases where it is medically necessary. However, the complete legalization…… [Read More]


ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. < >.

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post., 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. . "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2013. .
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Religion the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27739899

Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.

Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC, has been linked to short-term memory loss: 4th graders who tested equally on tests of memory and were retested in 12th grade has notably poorer performance, relative to their peers, if they admitted to being heavy marijuana smokers, although once again proponents of the drug argue that correlation does not…… [Read More]


Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at 

DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.

Retrieved July 14, 2010 at

Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
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Medicinal Marijuana Argument Natural Herbs

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28651862

Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still unproven in clinical trials, is logically and ethically inconsistent with the legal status of substances like tobacco which are devoid of any possible beneficial use and which, unlike marijuana, have actually been proven to cause disease and premature death.

Governmental paternalism is appropriate in many instances, including ensuring the safety and efficacy of substances used for medicinal purposes. However, the application of paternalistic legislation must, if nothing else, be logically consistent.

Federal prohibition criminalizing marijuana, even for medicinal purposes, is completely unjustified, particularly in light of the legal status of tobacco, which has absolutely no beneficial medical use and whose recreational use accounts for tremendous human harm.


The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)

Retrieved November 21, 2007, at

Advocate organization dedicated to the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes.

Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Textbook detailing the cultural history of the uses and classifications of substances designated as "drugs."

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in…… [Read More]

Critical literary work on constitutional law, civil rights, and the moral justification for paternalistic legislation authored by attorney and Harvard University law professor, Arthur Miller.

Taylor, R. (1982) Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political Philosphy. Buffalo: Prometheus

Critical literary work on the logical basis for social norms, laws, civil rights, and the morality of ethical principles in human life authored by renowned ethicist, and Cornell philosophy professor Richard Taylor.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12664306

marijuana should be legalized only for medicinal purposes.

The debate over medicinal marijuana usage and legality is a controversial one. Many experts argue the drug costs society too much money in terms of law enforcement and incarceration costs when the monies could be better spent in other law enforcement areas. A large majority of the American people does believe marijuana should be decriminalized for medical usage. In 2001, 34% of adult Americans believed marijuana should be legal, at least in small amounts, the largest percentage since 1969, and up to 70% of adults approved of using medicinal marijuana for certain ailments (Cauchon 01A). However, several questions regarding medicinal marijuana usage that must be addressed.

First, is marijuana a safe and effective medicine? Proponents maintain marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years and for a variety of uses. They claim that it is safe, no one has ever "died of an overdose," and that it is safe, effective, and helpful in a variety of serious ailments, from multiple sclerosis to cancer and AIDS. In fact, even the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA) chief administrative law judge maintains the DEA should decriminalize marijuana partly because of its medicinal benefits ("Briefing Paper").…… [Read More]


Author not Available. "Medical Marijuana Briefing Paper." Marijuana Policy Project. 2003. 22 March 2004.

Cauchon, Dennis. "Marijuana Attains Record Support." USA Today, 24 Aug. 2001, pp 01A.

Fackelmann, Kathleen. "Marijuana on Trial." 22 March 1997. 22 March 2004.

Frood, Arran. "Dope at the Wheel." 23 March 2002. 22 March 2004.
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Legalization of Marijuana Is One

Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40825370

The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.

A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization of marijuana will impact youth and adolescents. Similar to overeating, tobacco, and alcohol, children must be given all the needed information to make healthy decisions for themselves. The legalization of marijuana will support an individual's right to make their own choices. People have free will and can make decisions for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.

Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.

Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. < >.

Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
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Advocacy for Medicinal Marijuana Over Other Drugs

Words: 1341 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85858469

Advocacy for Medicinal Marijuana Over Other Drugs

For a considerable period of time, the reliance for the betterment of the health of an individual has depended on herbal remedies, and in many part of the world and in many households even, these continue to take a preference over the more advanced medical drugs that have come to define modern medicine.

Cannabis or Medical Marijuana is one such example of an herb that today is surrounded by controversy as regards to its usage and benefits. Besides the more negative connotations that seem to be attached to Marijuana, the medical benefits of it seem to surpass its disadvantageous. It will be the purpose of this paper, therefore, to establish a case for the use of Medical Marijuana based on its advantages as compared to Medical Drugs.

History of Cannabis:

Marijuana has come to be known by many names usually being a result of the different regions in which they are found. Cannabis Indica, Indian Hemp, Marihuana (Lester Grinspoon, 1995) Charas, Cannabis Sativa (Lester Grinspoon, Marihuana: The Forbidden Medicine, 1993) all are names that have been used to refer to Marijuana.

The historical importance of the this herb is indicative enough by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Manila Bulletin. (2011, April 7th). AP IMPACT: Synthetic Drugs Send Thousands to ER.

Amar, M.B. (2006). Cannabinoids in Medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential . Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1-25.

Barnes, R.E. (2000). Reefer Madness: Legal & Moral Issues surrounding the Medical Prescription of Marijuana. UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). "Medical" Marijuana - The Facts. Retrieved December 9th, 2011, from United States Drug Enforcement Administration:
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Legalization of Marijuana Illegal Substances

Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75182371

It has been proved that drug dealers succeed in selling their drugs, even with the measures introduced by the American government.

Countries like the Netherlands have become famous due to their tolerance of cannabis and millions of tourists visit them every year as a result. Considering the fact that the Netherlands has continued to have a great cultural value, and, that it has continued to have more tourists visiting it because of reasons other than its cannabis coffee shops, it is obvious that the Dutch have not been affected by the legalization of Marijuana.

Buckley Jr. William F. "Is Marijuana Fear a Myth?" National Review, Vol. 49, December 8, 1997.

Goode, Erich. "Marijuana." (Atherton: 1969)

Wisheit, Ralph A. "Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry." (Greenwood Press: 1992)

Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. (Praeger: 2004)

Chambliss, William J. "Another Lost War: The Costs and Consequences of Drug Prohibition." Social Justice, Vol. 22, 1995.

Nadelmann, Ethan A. "An End to Marijuana Prohibition: The Drive to Legalize Picks Up." National Review, Vol. 56, July 12, 2004.

Herman, Caroline. "United States V. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative: Whatever Happened to Federalism?." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 93, 2002.…… [Read More]

Wolf Shenk, Joshua. "Why You Can Hate Drugs and Still Want to Legalize Them." Washington Monthly, Vol. 27, October 1995.

"The War on Drugs: Fighting Crime or Wasting Time?" American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 38, 2001.

Souder Mark, Zimmer Lynn. "Q: Is the Government's War against Marijuana Justified as Public Policy?" Insight on the News, Vol. 13, January 12, 1998.
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Arguing for the Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

Words: 2434 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59214750

Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

The legalization of Marijuana would allow for the government to have more regulation over the drug and its users. This of course does not come without rules and blankets like how cigarettes and alcohol come with warnings when purchased. If Marijuana were to be legalized, it can be sold with a list of active ingredients, purity levels and warnings like those of pharmaceutical drugs; this would let people know more about the drug. Marijuana does not have any harmful effects besides for the user, who is willing to accept those risks when in taking the drug. Countries that have legalized Marijuana, such as Amsterdam, have had positive results. The legalization of Marijuana has more benefits for the state of Washington than negative aspects.

The state of Washington has enacted laws on the legalization of medical Marijuana. This is due to modern research which suggests that Marijuana can help with the treatment of a lot of clinical applications, and can ease pain (Bock 2000, null7). Additionally, this treatment includes relief from nausea, glaucoma, spasticity and movement disorders. Because Marijuana is a very strong appetite stimulant, research suggests that it could protect the body from a…… [Read More]


Alan W. Bock, The Politics of Medical Marijuana (Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2000), null7,

Erich Goode, The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970), 211,

Erich Goode, ed., Marijuana (Chicago: Atherton, 1969), 16,

James S. Frideres, and Lyle G. Warner, "Attitude-Action Relationships," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 17, no. 2 (1980): 109,
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U S Government Legalize Marijuana The

Words: 4538 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76963709

There is much more to the issue and how it is addressed than that (Seamon, 2007). These states are:










New Mexico


Rhode Island


Washington (Seamon, 2007)

Criticisms of Decriminalization

Gateway Drug

The war on drugs has been in the news for some time now, and marijuana has been included in that war. It continues to be listed as important in the speeches of many politicians, and it continues to be at the forefront of a great many debates about how our tax money should best be spent (Gray, 2005; Pacula, 2003b). One of the main concerns of the war on drugs, however, does not deal with what politicians think about it. Rather, it deals with what police think about it. Police are, after all, the ones that are out there on the streets every day, trying to fight the war on drugs. They have limited resources and limited manpower, but they fight just the same. So is the war on drugs really working, and how is it impacting the bottom line of the economy?

First, the war on drugs is not working as well as it could. Many studies…… [Read More]


Anslinger, H.J. & Tompkins, William F. n.d. "The traffic in narcotics." Drug Library. Retrieved at

Austin, James. 2005. "Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana." Washington, DC: The JFA Institute.

Brazaitis, Tom. 2002. "U.S. Should Concede Defeat in the War on Drugs." Media Awareness Project. Retrieved at 

Clements, Kenneth, et al. 2005. "Two Short Papers on Marijuana, Legalisation and Drinking: (1) Exogeneous Shocks and Related Goods: Drinking and the Legalisation of Marijuana; and (2) Notes on Projections of Alcohol Consumption Following Marijuana Legalisation." Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia Working Paper no. 05-14. Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
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Should Canada Decriminalize Marijuana

Words: 1839 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60865683

Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada

The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in Washington State.

What are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.

Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to users than alcohol and tobacco, and the potential tax windfall for the government would be enormously beneficial -- and the specifics of those positions are spelled out in this paper.

Writer's Position on Decriminalizing Marijuana

In the first place, alcohol and tobacco, according to the Drugs and Drug Policy in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.

Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."

Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.

Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
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Legalization of Marijuana History and

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66662191

Others believe that it is no better than other drugs and can even be more dangerous when used for long periods of time ("Medical Marijuana," 2008).

After centuries of use, it seems ridiculous that the government would get up in arms about marijuana proliferation for personal or medical use in the United States. If marijuana can relieve the symptoms of deadly diseases, allowing those suffering from them to be more comfortable, it should be used. In addition, Guither (2009) makes it clear that the reason marijuana was made illegal was not a result of scientific evidence or the opinions of experts. Instead, the illegalization of marijuana was fueled by political, economic, and social incentives. By legalizing marijuana, the United States would free law enforcement from focusing on this problem to train their focus on real crime.… [Read More]


Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? Retrieved June 18, 2009, from

Web Site:

"Medical Marijuana." (2008). Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Web Site:
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1566 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14233804

Legalization of Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most popular recreational drugs in the United States, exceeded in popularity by only alcohol and tobacco. Recent research reveals that "more than 70 million Americans have smoked marijuana at some point in their lives, and that 18-20 million have smoked during the last year (NORML, 1999)."

According to R. Keith Stroup, Esq., the executive director of National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML, 1999), "Like most Americans, the vast majority of these millions of marijuana smokers are otherwise law-abiding citizens who work hard, raise families and contribute to their communities..." A national survey revealed that 32% of voting adults in the U.S. have acknowledged having smoked marijuana at some point in their lives.

The legalization of marijuana has been a topic of controversy for several years. Many proponents of the drug argue that marijuana should be legalized for both medical and recreational use. Others say that it should at least be decriminalized, meaning that the penalty for growing or possession of marijuana would be a simple fine, rather than jail time.

This paper aims to examine the controversial aspects of legalizing marijuana, in an effort to present a strong argument…… [Read More]


Marijuana Policy Project (MPP). (March 30, 1998). Multiple Sclerosis Patient Arrested for Using Medicinal Marijuana in U.S. Rep. Jim Rogan's Office. Retrieved from the Internet at

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1999). Federally Commissioned Study Supports Medical Marijuana, Dismisses Drug's "High Potential For Abuse. Retrieved from the Internet at

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (1999). Testimony of R. Keith Stroup, Esq. Retrieved from the Internet at

Rosenthal, Ed. Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Thundermouth Press.
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Legalization of Marijuana and Its Benefits to

Words: 1354 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18779712

legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible losses to tax payer's money as a result of trying to implement its prohibition. Our analysis is done via a thorough review of relevant literature containing expert opinions. We support our proposition that marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. This is due to its medicinal value, revenue stream to the state and the reduced cost attributed to decreased prohibition budgets.

Marijuana which is the most commonly used illicit drug has faced has been heavily debated on issues of legalization and safe use. The debate has been so intense to an extent of which it has turned political (NYT, 2008). A recent study by Angus Reid concluded that a majority of Americans are in support of marijuana legalization (53% support) (Angus-Reid,2009).Marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. Throughout its history, it has been proven to have several medicinal as well as economic benefits through its use. Additionally, each year the federal government spends countless hours, resources, and funds to combat the seemingly detrimental effects of…… [Read More]


Angus-Reid (2009).Majority of Americans Support Legalizing Marijuana

British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.

Bensinger, P. (2010, Octobe 15). Legalizing marijuana unacceptable, danger to society. Chicago Tribune .
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Debate on Marijuana Use

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87528316

Legalizing Marijuana

The war on drugs is quite an expensive battle since a great deal of the resources are normally spent on catching those that buy and sell the illegal drugs in the black market prosecuting them and putting them in jail. The legalization of Marijuana in the U.S. has been an object of continued debate. Some states have already enacted laws that have legalized the therapeutic use of marijuana whereas there are others that still have pending legalization laws. There are confusing messages that re being sent by popular culture, media proponents of medical marijuana as well as political campaigns to make marijuana legal are used to perpetrate a false notion that marijuana causes no harm. This paper will look at the negative and positive aspects of legalization of marijuana in a community and in American society as a whole.

Positive aspects

The prohibition of marijuana has to be weighed against the loss of an individual's personal freedom. Every individual has to have his or her own free will and a community and America in general has the responsibility of respecting this free will. The legalization of marijuana means that an individual's free will is respected. Legally prohibiting marijuana…… [Read More]


Svrakic, D., Lustman, P,. Mallya, A 7 Finney, R. (2009). Legalization, Descrinilization & Medical use of Cannabis: A scientific and public health perspective. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from

Malerba, L. (2010). Medical Marijuana: The Pros and Cons of Legal Cannabis. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from
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Legalizing Marijuana There Is Presently

Words: 2758 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65581161

Marijuana users are accustomed to consuming the substance even with the fact that they risk greatly from the act. "Few people claim that they would change the amount they used if marijuana were legalized (Johnston, Bachman, & O'Malley, 1981). A poll of 1,400 adults found that over 80% claimed that they would not try the drug even if it were legal (Dennis, 1990)" (Earleywine 232). Numerous people who have not yet used marijuana are nonetheless aware of the fact that it is very easy to procure the substance and are likely to do so if they want to with or without waiting for support from the government. "Every year since 1975, over 80% of high school seniors have reported that marijuana is fairly easy or very easy to purchase (Johnston, Bachman, & O'Malley, 1996). Most teens find beer more difficult to buy than cannabis (Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse [CASA], 1996)" (Earleywine 232). If the authorities were to consider that they could relocate the funds spent every year to fight marijuana on other activities (such as fighting real crime), they would most probably reduce crime levels countrywide as a consequence. In addition to that, the government would gain supplementary…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Earleywine, Mitch. Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Goode, Erich. The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970)

Goode, Erich ed., Marijuana (Chicago: Atherton, 1969)

Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004)