Medical Marijuana Essays (Examples)

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Medical Use of Marijuana Increasing Use of

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30556120

Medical Use of Marijuana

Increasing use of medical marijuana

Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.

Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research…… [Read More]

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Marijuana Use

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1866288

Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy

It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. esearch shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.

When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states…… [Read More]

References

Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals: http://www.nadcp.org/drugpolicy

Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union: http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state-laws-related-to-marijuana

Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000242

State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures: http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx
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Medical and Ethical Dilemmas Even if the

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25574413

medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.

This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Consumer Reports (2007). "Off-Label" Drug Use, Shopper's Guide. Downloadable at  http://www.consumerreports.org/health/resources/pdf/best-buy-drugs/money-saving-guides/english/Off-Label-FINAL.pdf .

Pain Management of America (2011). Chronic Pain Treatment and Management with Medical Marijuana. Viewable at  http://www.medicalmarijuana.net/uses-and-treatments/chronic-pain/ .

SOURCES OF STUDIES

Jewish Chronic Disease:  http://johnmueller.org/Problems/Cancer.html
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Marijuana Be Legalized As a

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81434695



One very important aspect related to smoking marijuana concerns the number of deaths reported on an annual basis linked to using other legal and illegal substances. For example, according to the U.S. ureau of Mortality Statistics, 400,000 Americans die annually as a direct result of smoking cigarettes; 100,000 die prematurely from drinking alcohol; some 20,000 die from abusing legal prescription drugs like Oxycontin, Valium, Percodan, and other drugs prescribed by physicians; 2,000 die from the effects of consuming too much caffeine, mainly from heart failure, while the number of Americans who die from smoking marijuana currently stands at zero, an indication that smoking marijuana does not directly cause any known fatal and debilitating disease ("The Legalization of Marijuana," Internet).

Therefore, considering the number of Americans who die prematurely from consuming alcohol which has been legal since the end of Prohibition in the early 1930's, there is no logical reason not…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Franklin, Michael J. The Pros and Cons of Marijuana Legalization in the United

States. New York: Random House, 2006.

"The Legalization of Marijuana." 2009. Internet. Accessed November 24, 2009

from http://www.legalizationofmarijuana.com.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47854518

Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties

When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…… [Read More]

References

Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
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Legalization of Medicinal Marijuana

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71388871

Medical Cannabis

As of November 2012, eighteen states plus the District of Columbia voted by ballot initiative to legalize marijuana for medical use. The revolution in voter attitudes towards marijuana reflects a social, political, and to a lesser degree, economic trend. Many Americans already use marijuana, pot, also or "more appropriately" known as cannabis (NOML). However, cannabis has been banned at the federal level, classified as a Schedule I Substance under the Controlled Substances Act, which is the highest and strictest classification any drug can have. "Along with heroin, LSD and some other drugs, marijuana is classified as a Schedule 1 substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act. That means the drug is considered to have no accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse," (Andrews 1). Federal law prohibits or strictly controls scientific investigations into marijuana, which has stymied the growth of research into the plant for its…… [Read More]

References

American Medical Association. "AMA Policy: Medical Marijuana." Retrieved online:  http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/sourcefiles/AMA09policy.pdf 

Andrews, Michelle. "New medical marijuana initiatives haven't convinced insurers." The Washington Post. Nov 19, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/new-medical-marijuana-initiatives-havent-convinced-insurers/2012/11/17/2a5ebbcc-6a2e-11e1-acc6-32fefc7ccd67_story.html

Cohen, Rebecca Richman. "The Fight over Medical Marijuana." The New York Times. Nov 7, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/08/opinion/the-fight-over-medical-marijuana.html

Conaboy, Chelsea. "Massachusetts voters approve ballot measure to legalize medical marijuana." Boston Globe. Nov 6, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2012/11/06/Massachusetts-voters-approve-ballot-measure-legalize-medical-marijuana/EpDzgJGfBjnOAkoXpJwm1K/story.html
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Legalization of Marijuana for Medicinal

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87619549

The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and ichard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.

The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as…… [Read More]

References

Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical

Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.

Page, S.A., Verhoef, M.J., Stebbins, R.A., Metz, L.M., and Levy, J.C. "Cannabis Use

as Described by People with Multiple Sclerosis." Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, Vol. 30 (2003): 201 -- 205.
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Medicinal Marijuana

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47178480

Medical Marijuana Use

Drugs & Alcohol

Marijuana is a plant or herb that grows on various parts of Earth. Other names for marijuana are hemp and cannabis, which refers to its biological name in Latin, cannibus sativa. Cannibus simply is the Latin word for marijuana, and sativa is the supine form a Latin verb meaning "sown" and "useful." The issue of marijuana use has been prominent in American culture since at least the 1930s, with propaganda films against the use of marijuana like eefer Madness. Marijuana use has been in the news over the past few decades with specific regard to the medical uses of marijuana. There has been increased attention and research into the medical properties and benefits of marijuana, which is a new endeavor or perspective from mainstream America, as it has been historically viewed and publicized as a narcotic that makes users vulnerable to the use of…… [Read More]

References:

Okie, MD, S. (2005) Medical Marijuana and the Supreme Court. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(7), 648 -- 651.

Seamon, M.J., Fass, J.A., Maniscalco-Feichtl, M., Abu-Shrarie, N.A. (2007) Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists, 64, 1037 -- 1045.
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Legaliztain of Marijuana in 2009

Words: 2375 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85882007

President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.

Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.

The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. <rainz.org/420- milestones-history-marijuana/>.

Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .

"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .

Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
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Medicinal Marijuana a Humanitarian Medical

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66080757

Evidence largely suggests that the subject in question would have been given a well-established pain-management strategy otherwise lacking had marijuana been available. Unfortunately, this plentiful, profitable, easy-to-grow and highly accessible substance has been demonized and victimized by hostile propaganda even as dangerous and deadly substances such as tobacco, alcohol and antidepressants remain highly proliferated.

From the combination of my experience and my value system, I must implore you to reconsider your position on the subject. You needn't simply take my work on the matter. Please conduct some actual research through peer-reviewed medical journals and I am confident you will find overwhelming critical evidence to support my position. Further, please consider, as will be detailed in the fact sheet hereafter, that the your political concerns over the position are unfounded. Public support for the legalization of marijuana has never been higher, and is largely a product of the view that it…… [Read More]

The United States has demonstrated itself on the whole to be increasingly more receptive to decriminalization on a state by state basis. To date, 14 states have joined a growing list of those in which medical marijuana is legal. Florida is, in this regard, behind the more progressive nations in the Union. (MPP, 1)

Research suggests that marijuana is anatamocially beneficial as a therapeutic substance for a wide array of health maladies. According to Ogborn et al. (2000), "There are indications that marijuana is sometimes used to alleviate pain from cancer, to reduce nausea from chemotherapy, to mitigate the wasting syndrome of AIDS, and for the treatment of glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and a variety of other disorders.1,2 A few studies have suggested that the medical use of marijuana is common among people with HIV / AIDS3,4 and those with certain psychiatric conditions." (p. 1)

Evidence suggests that any of the health hazards which are currently related to marijuana use
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Medicinal Marijuana the Advantages and

Words: 4258 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55458729



De Jong, Prentiss, McFarland, Machekano & Israelski (2005) note in one study that medicinal marijuana use may be particularly useful in patients suffering from HIV with moderate to severe nausea. There study points out that adherence to antiretroviral therapy (AT) is an essential and critical component for successful treatment of HIV infections. Further a recent study conducted by the researchers suggest that smoking marijuana improves adherence to AT, and thus leads to more successful treatment of HIV infections in patients (De Jong, et. a, 44).

The relationship that existed in this study was confirmed using a multivariate analyses controlling "for the interactions between nausea and marijuana use" in which "other illicit drug use remained a factor related to nonadherence" (De Jong, et. al, 44). This study confirms the notion that medicinal cannabis may be beneficial where other therapies or drugs have not. However to demonstrate further benefits or a more…… [Read More]

References

Berman, J.S., Symonds, C. & Birch, R. (2004). "Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: Results of a randomized controlled trial." Pain. 112(3): 299-306

Burstein, S.H., Karst, M., Schneider, U. & Zurier, R.B. (2004). "Ajulemic acid: A novel cannabinoid produces analgesia without a high." Life Sci, 75(12): 1513-22

Carter, G.T., Weydt, P., Kyashna, T.M. & Abrams, D.I. (2004 - May). "Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing." Idrugs, 7(5): 464-70.

Christenson, V. (2004). "Courts protect ninth circuit doctors who recommend medical marijuana use." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 32(1): 174
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Legalization of Marijuana IT's Not

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95638930

" In fact, the hite House admits that "a direct cause and effect relationship between marijuana use and subsequent use of other drugs is hard to prove." At the same time, the hite House tries to convince readers that adults who were early marijuana users were more likely to have used cocaine, heroine, and other drugs. Both websites offer a balanced viewpoint on the gateway drug issue, but the MPP makes a more convincing argument.

The hite House publication called "hat Americans Need to Know About Marijuana" is available in PDF format, either as a full file or in sections. The PDF format is convenient for people who wish to save the document to their hard drive and read it at a later date, and is also easy on the eyes. However, there are drawbacks to PDF files, such as the lack of hypertext and the amount of memory usage…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marijuana Policy Project website at http://www.mpp.org/index.html.

What Americans Need to Know About Marijuana." 2003. Online at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/amer_know_marij/.
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Understanding Civil Society Through Legalize Marijuana Organizations

Words: 3120 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33997875

Civil Society Through "Legalize Marijuana" Organizations

As microcosms of civil society, collective action groups operate with processes used by civil society but with uniquely tailored processes and results. The National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) is one example of a collective action group that has used these processes to establish itself, grow, survive and currently flourish. Through intelligent framing, effective resource mobilization and wise use of political opportunity, NORML's 40+year history has resulted in growth from an idea supported by a few people to a well-funded and assertive national movement. This work will attempt to show NORML'S accurate reflection of successful civil society by reviewing research on civil society and collective action groups, reviewing NORML's history, and applying the research to NORML.

Analysis:

Collective Action Group as a Microcosm of Civil Society

Framing processes are a central dynamic, along with resource mobilization and political opportunity processes, for understanding…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arat, Y. (1994). Toward a democratic society: The women's movement in Turkey in the 1980s. Womenh's Studies Int. Forum, 17(2/3), 241-248.

Benford, R.D., & Snow, D.A. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611-639. Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from www.jstor.org Web site:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/223459 

California Choices. (2010). Prop 19. Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from californiachoices.org Web site: http://californiachoices.org/ballot-measures/proposition-19

McCarthy, J.D., & Zald, M.N. (May 1977). Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. The American Journal of Sociology, 82(6), 1212-1241.
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For the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82013604

Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.

As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have…… [Read More]

References:

ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2013. .
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Religion the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27739899

Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.

Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC,…… [Read More]

References

Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at  http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/ 

DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.

Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/on-the-legalization-or-not-of-marijuana/

Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
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Medicinal Marijuana Argument Natural Herbs

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28651862

Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still unproven in clinical trials, is logically and ethically inconsistent with the legal status of substances like tobacco which are devoid of any possible beneficial use and which, unlike marijuana, have actually been proven to cause disease and premature death.

Governmental paternalism is appropriate in many instances, including ensuring the safety and efficacy of substances used for medicinal purposes. However, the application of paternalistic legislation must, if nothing else, be logically consistent.

Federal prohibition criminalizing marijuana, even for medicinal purposes, is completely unjustified, particularly in light of the legal status of tobacco, which has absolutely no beneficial medical use and whose recreational use accounts for tremendous human harm.

References

The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)

Retrieved November 21, 2007, at http://americanmarijuana.org/…… [Read More]

Critical literary work on constitutional law, civil rights, and the moral justification for paternalistic legislation authored by attorney and Harvard University law professor, Arthur Miller.

Taylor, R. (1982) Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political Philosphy. Buffalo: Prometheus

Critical literary work on the logical basis for social norms, laws, civil rights, and the morality of ethical principles in human life authored by renowned ethicist, and Cornell philosophy professor Richard Taylor.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12664306

marijuana should be legalized only for medicinal purposes.

The debate over medicinal marijuana usage and legality is a controversial one. Many experts argue the drug costs society too much money in terms of law enforcement and incarceration costs when the monies could be better spent in other law enforcement areas. A large majority of the American people does believe marijuana should be decriminalized for medical usage. In 2001, 34% of adult Americans believed marijuana should be legal, at least in small amounts, the largest percentage since 1969, and up to 70% of adults approved of using medicinal marijuana for certain ailments (Cauchon 01A). However, several questions regarding medicinal marijuana usage that must be addressed.

First, is marijuana a safe and effective medicine? Proponents maintain marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years and for a variety of uses. They claim that it is safe, no one has ever "died…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. "Medical Marijuana Briefing Paper." Marijuana Policy Project. 2003. 22 March 2004. http://www.mpp.org/medicine.html

Cauchon, Dennis. "Marijuana Attains Record Support." USA Today, 24 Aug. 2001, pp 01A.

Fackelmann, Kathleen. "Marijuana on Trial." ScienceNews.org. 22 March 1997. 22 March 2004. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc97/3_22_97/bob1.htm

Frood, Arran. "Dope at the Wheel." NewScientist.com. 23 March 2002. 22 March 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/dopeatthewheel.jsp
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Legalization of Marijuana Is One

Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40825370

The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.

A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.

Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.

Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .

Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
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Advocacy for Medicinal Marijuana Over Other Drugs

Words: 1341 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85858469

Advocacy for Medicinal Marijuana Over Other Drugs

For a considerable period of time, the reliance for the betterment of the health of an individual has depended on herbal remedies, and in many part of the world and in many households even, these continue to take a preference over the more advanced medical drugs that have come to define modern medicine.

Cannabis or Medical Marijuana is one such example of an herb that today is surrounded by controversy as regards to its usage and benefits. Besides the more negative connotations that seem to be attached to Marijuana, the medical benefits of it seem to surpass its disadvantageous. It will be the purpose of this paper, therefore, to establish a case for the use of Medical Marijuana based on its advantages as compared to Medical Drugs.

History of Cannabis:

Marijuana has come to be known by many names usually being a result…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Manila Bulletin. (2011, April 7th). AP IMPACT: Synthetic Drugs Send Thousands to ER.

Amar, M.B. (2006). Cannabinoids in Medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential . Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1-25.

Barnes, R.E. (2000). Reefer Madness: Legal & Moral Issues surrounding the Medical Prescription of Marijuana. UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). "Medical" Marijuana - The Facts. Retrieved December 9th, 2011, from United States Drug Enforcement Administration: http://www.justice.gov/dea/ongoing/marinol.html
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Arguing for the Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

Words: 2434 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59214750

Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

The legalization of Marijuana would allow for the government to have more regulation over the drug and its users. This of course does not come without rules and blankets like how cigarettes and alcohol come with warnings when purchased. If Marijuana were to be legalized, it can be sold with a list of active ingredients, purity levels and warnings like those of pharmaceutical drugs; this would let people know more about the drug. Marijuana does not have any harmful effects besides for the user, who is willing to accept those risks when in taking the drug. Countries that have legalized Marijuana, such as Amsterdam, have had positive results. The legalization of Marijuana has more benefits for the state of Washington than negative aspects.

The state of Washington has enacted laws on the legalization of medical Marijuana. This is due to modern research which suggests…… [Read More]

References

Alan W. Bock, The Politics of Medical Marijuana (Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2000), null7, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98432636.

Erich Goode, The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970), 211, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99522922

Erich Goode, ed., Marijuana (Chicago: Atherton, 1969), 16, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96962183.

James S. Frideres, and Lyle G. Warner, "Attitude-Action Relationships," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 17, no. 2 (1980): 109, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95707042.
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Legalization of Marijuana Illegal Substances

Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75182371



It has been proved that drug dealers succeed in selling their drugs, even with the measures introduced by the American government.

Countries like the Netherlands have become famous due to their tolerance of cannabis and millions of tourists visit them every year as a result. Considering the fact that the Netherlands has continued to have a great cultural value, and, that it has continued to have more tourists visiting it because of reasons other than its cannabis coffee shops, it is obvious that the Dutch have not been affected by the legalization of Marijuana.

Buckley Jr. illiam F. "Is Marijuana Fear a Myth?" National Review, Vol. 49, December 8, 1997.

Goode, Erich. "Marijuana." (Atherton: 1969)

isheit, Ralph A. "Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry." (Greenwood Press: 1992)

Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. (Praeger: 2004)

Chambliss, illiam J. "Another Lost ar: The Costs and Consequences of…… [Read More]

Wolf Shenk, Joshua. "Why You Can Hate Drugs and Still Want to Legalize Them." Washington Monthly, Vol. 27, October 1995.

"The War on Drugs: Fighting Crime or Wasting Time?" American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 38, 2001.

Souder Mark, Zimmer Lynn. "Q: Is the Government's War against Marijuana Justified as Public Policy?" Insight on the News, Vol. 13, January 12, 1998.
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U S Government Legalize Marijuana The

Words: 4538 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76963709

There is much more to the issue and how it is addressed than that (Seamon, 2007). These states are:

Alaska

California

Colorado

Hawaii

Maine

Maryland

Michigan

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

Rhode Island

Vermont

Washington (Seamon, 2007)

Criticisms of Decriminalization

Gateway Drug

The war on drugs has been in the news for some time now, and marijuana has been included in that war. It continues to be listed as important in the speeches of many politicians, and it continues to be at the forefront of a great many debates about how our tax money should best be spent (Gray, 2005; Pacula, 2003b). One of the main concerns of the war on drugs, however, does not deal with what politicians think about it. Rather, it deals with what police think about it. Police are, after all, the ones that are out there on the streets every day, trying to fight the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anslinger, H.J. & Tompkins, William F. n.d. "The traffic in narcotics." Drug Library. Retrieved at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/people/anslinger/traffic/appendix1.htm

Austin, James. 2005. "Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana." Washington, DC: The JFA Institute.

Brazaitis, Tom. 2002. "U.S. Should Concede Defeat in the War on Drugs." Media Awareness Project. Retrieved at  http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v02/n1827/a09.html?397 

Clements, Kenneth, et al. 2005. "Two Short Papers on Marijuana, Legalisation and Drinking: (1) Exogeneous Shocks and Related Goods: Drinking and the Legalisation of Marijuana; and (2) Notes on Projections of Alcohol Consumption Following Marijuana Legalisation." Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia Working Paper no. 05-14. Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
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Should Canada Decriminalize Marijuana

Words: 1839 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60865683

Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada

The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.

hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.

Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.

Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."

Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.

Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
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Legalization of Marijuana History and

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Others believe that it is no better than other drugs and can even be more dangerous when used for long periods of time ("Medical Marijuana," 2008).

After centuries of use, it seems ridiculous that the government would get up in arms about marijuana proliferation for personal or medical use in the United States. If marijuana can relieve the symptoms of deadly diseases, allowing those suffering from them to be more comfortable, it should be used. In addition, Guither (2009) makes it clear that the reason marijuana was made illegal was not a result of scientific evidence or the opinions of experts. Instead, the illegalization of marijuana was fueled by political, economic, and social incentives. By legalizing marijuana, the United States would free law enforcement from focusing on this problem to train their focus on real crime.

eferences

Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? etrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.…… [Read More]

References

Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.

Web Site:

http://blogs.salon.com/0002762/stories/2003/12/22/whyIsMarijuanaIllegal.html

"Medical Marijuana." (2008). Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Pro-Con.org. Web Site:
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1566 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14233804

Legalization of Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most popular recreational drugs in the United States, exceeded in popularity by only alcohol and tobacco. Recent research reveals that "more than 70 million Americans have smoked marijuana at some point in their lives, and that 18-20 million have smoked during the last year (NORML, 1999)."

According to R. Keith Stroup, Esq., the executive director of National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML, 1999), "Like most Americans, the vast majority of these millions of marijuana smokers are otherwise law-abiding citizens who work hard, raise families and contribute to their communities..." A national survey revealed that 32% of voting adults in the U.S. have acknowledged having smoked marijuana at some point in their lives.

The legalization of marijuana has been a topic of controversy for several years. Many proponents of the drug argue that marijuana should be legalized for both medical…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Marijuana Policy Project (MPP). (March 30, 1998). Multiple Sclerosis Patient Arrested for Using Medicinal Marijuana in U.S. Rep. Jim Rogan's Office. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.mpp.org/releases/nr033098.html.

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1999). Federally Commissioned Study Supports Medical Marijuana, Dismisses Drug's "High Potential For Abuse. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/medical/iomresponse.shtml.

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (1999). Testimony of R. Keith Stroup, Esq. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/recreational/testimony99.shtml.

Rosenthal, Ed. Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Thundermouth Press.
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Legalization of Marijuana and Its Benefits to

Words: 1354 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18779712

legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible losses to tax payer's money as a result of trying to implement its prohibition. Our analysis is done via a thorough review of relevant literature containing expert opinions. We support our proposition that marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. This is due to its medicinal value, revenue stream to the state and the reduced cost attributed to decreased prohibition budgets.

Marijuana which is the most commonly used illicit drug has faced has been heavily debated on issues of legalization and safe use. The debate has been so intense to an extent of which it has turned political (NYT, 2008). A recent study by Angus eid concluded that a majority of Americans are in support of marijuana legalization…… [Read More]

References

Angus-Reid (2009).Majority of Americans Support Legalizing Marijuana

http://www.visioncritical.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/2009.12.09_Drugs_US.pdf

British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.

Bensinger, P. (2010, Octobe 15). Legalizing marijuana unacceptable, danger to society. Chicago Tribune .
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Nurses' Attitudes Towards Patients on Medicinal Use of Marijuana

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33217076

Attitudes Towards Medical Marijuana

The main purpose of the study will be to assess nurses' feelings and perceptions of patients who use medical marijuana for pain management. This will predominantly give light to the way the professionals who prescribe and supervise the use of marijuana think of the people they attend to on a regular basis. The research will be seeking to establish the perception created in the minds of the nurses and how this affects their reaction and handling of the patients who use marijuana for pain management. With the attitudes established, it will be fundamental in forecasting whether the use of medical marijuana will in the future have a positive reception and acceptance within the society or not.

esearch question

The research question that will guide the formulation of this study will therefore be 'What are nurses perception/attitude towards patients using medical marijuana for pain management?'

Method of…… [Read More]

References

Ballou and Janice, (2011). Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. Retrieved June 28, 2015 from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/chambliss4e/study/chapter/encyc_pdfs/4.1_Open-Ended%20Questions.pdf

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (2014 ). Phenomenology. Retrieved June 28, 2015 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology/
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Legalization of Marijuana An Economic

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The process is even unlikely to stop if dealers are arrested, given that clients remain and support the market. The government however is not probable to change its convictions concerning marijuana in the near future, most probably because marijuana continues to be linked to crime and more dangerous drugs.

Weisheit, Ralph a. Domestic arijuana a Neglected Industry (New York: Greenwood Press, 1992)

The masses continue to absurdly blame marijuana, even though they are unaware of its potential. Numerous people (even marijuana consumers) are indifferent toward the industry marijuana could produce and prefer to keep it at the present level, most probably because they are afraid of the law and for the fact that they are reluctant to go through what they perceive as being a great deal of trouble.

Yacoubian, George S. "Assessing the Relationship between arijuana Availability and arijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States…… [Read More]

Marijuana supporters lobby regarding how the substance cannot possibly produce any harm, to its users or to society in general. However, given that accidents of all kinds frequently happen as a result of people consuming marijuana, conditions are critical and the government needs to define an agenda that would effectively fight the substance.

"Official Statement of the Yes on Proposition 19 Campaign in Response to Election Results." Retrieved November 19, 2010, from the Yes on Proposition 19 Website: http://yeson19.com/node/316 http://yeson19.com/node/316

Cannabis is no longer the drug that had little supporters in the past, as more and more people have discovered that it is not actually as harmful as those against it have preferred to think it is. In spite of the recent failures in legalizing marijuana in California, the state has nonetheless experienced a notable change in convictions regarding the drug, as numerous people are no longer against it.
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Risk of Legalizing Marijuana on

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Fact 9:

Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.

Fact 10:

Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).

Conclusion

There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.

Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.

eferences

DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…… [Read More]

References

DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html

"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from  http://stopthedrugwar.org/ chronicle/618/los_angeles_medical_marijuana_dispensary_ordinance_approved

Joffe, a. & Yancy, W. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." 2004. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. e632-e638. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e632

"Legalization- Arguments Pro and Con." 2010 Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from  http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2395/Legalization-ARGUMENTS-PRO-CON.html
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Legalization of Marijuana Within the

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35786324

For example, in the state of Montana, initiative organizers and supporters "face much opposition from local law enforcement and youth substance abuse prevention groups" that claim legalizing marijuana will lead to a great increase in the number of users. However, as the organizers of the low police priority initiative point out, the evidence to support this assertion does not exist; in fact, "We know that liberalizing drug laws in other places has not led to an increase in drug use. This assertion has also been equated with the "eefer Madness mentality," a reference to the film "eefer Madness" of the 1930's which depicted marijuana smokers as deranged criminals ("Lowest Law Enforcement Priority," 2006, Internet).

According to statistics provided by the National Organization for the eform of Marijuana Laws, voters in the city of Oakland, just north of San Francisco, "overwhelmingly approved the nation's first-ever business tax on retail marijuana sales,"…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"Ban with the Bull, Chill with the Bear: The Coming Collapse of Marijuana

Prohibition." (2009). NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from   http://norml.org  .

"California: Oakland Voters Approve Nation's First Marijuana Business Tax." (2009).

NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from
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Communication Legalization of Marijuana Pro-Side There Are

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26524213

Communication

Legalization of Marijuana

Pro-Side: There are many good reasons for the legalization of marijuana. While there are few jurisdictions from which to pull evidence on the positive benefits of legalization, we do have extensive experience with the negative impacts of marijuana prohibition. Marijuana prohibition has resulted in high arrest rates, in particular for minorities, which has created social chaos in those communities as young men are incarcerated long-term for what is a victimless crime. Marijuana prohibition also denies governments a potentially important source of tax revenue, as there is a fairly high consumption rate of the plant already. Marijuana prohibition costs law enforcement millions, has created a massive and bloody gang war in Mexico, and has done nothing to stem the use of the plant. These financial and law enforcement resources would be put to better use elsewhere. It is the interests of law enforcement, many politicians and the…… [Read More]

Resources

ProCon.org. (2014) Medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from   http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000141  

LegalizationOfMarijuana.com (2014). Pros for legalizing marijuana. LegalizatoinOfmarijuana.com. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from   http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/  pros-and-cons-of-marijuana.html
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Legalize Marijuana Considering the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90125714

Legalize Marijuana?

Considering the Legalization of Marijuana

The federal government outlawed marijuana in 1937, a decision that remains controversial to this day. Proponents argue that growers have profited for decades and should be taxed accordingly. In the health care arena, medical marijuana is legal in a number of states, a decision with which seventy percent of Americans agree (Vlahos 18). Those against legalization cite potential health hazards, similar to those faced by smokers of tobacco. Although only mildly physically addictive, marijuana can be psychologically addictive. It is often called the "gateway" drug since users sometimes progress to more powerful illegal substances. Members of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) are against legalization for reasons that some may find surprising.

Marijuana is called a "soft" drug and seems more socially acceptable than other drugs; after all "smoking and eating are more naturally associated with pleasure than is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"15 Legal Medical Marijuana States and DC." ProCon.org. (n.d.) Web. Retrieved from  http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000881  2 May

2011.

"Medical Marijuana and the Mind." Harvard Mental Health Letter. 26.10 (2010): 1-3. Academic

Search Premier. 2 May 2011.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21318621

Legalizing Marijuana

Any drug that alters the brain chemistry, impairs cognitive functions, and creates an addictive personality cannot be recommended as safe. While there is no suppressing the fact that controlling illegal marijuana use continues to be a financial and administrative bottleneck, they are overridden by the potential harmful health consequences of legalizing marijuana.

Marijuana has been in use for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. With the development of new synthetic drugs there was a gradual decline in its use from the early part of the 20th century. Today however, though illegal, it continues to be a widely used drug in the United States for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In the year 2000 alone there were more than 2.4 million new users of marijuana and the drug is supposedly consumed by more than 76% of all drug users. [NCADI] The comparatively safer and proven remedial properties of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Edward A. Jacobs, "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth,"

PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. 1825-1826

2) Wayne Hall, Louisa Degenhardt and Michael Lynskey, "The Health and Psychological Effects of Cannabis Use," Chapter 5, Monograph Series No 44, 2nd Edition,

Accessed on March 24th 2005,
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A Concise Analysis of Should Marijuana Be Legalized Nationally

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70658318

Marijuana Be Legalized Nationally According to the Terms of California Prop. 64?

People have been using Cannabis Sativa, also known as marijuana, for a number of centuries now. The plant from which marijuana is made grows in several locations around the world. Cannabis Sativa plant's flowering top is the source of marijuana as it has Tetrahydrocannnabinol (THC), a chemical that induces the state changes among users of marijuana. Studies show that using marijuana has both long-term and short-term health effects. Marijuana's short-term effects include distorting the senses including the sense of time and a reduced ability to concentrate. Long-term effects can be more damaging health wise and include a drop in testosterone and sperm levels among men, respiratory problems similar to those suffered by those who smoke tobacco, fatigue, lower libido, reduced fertility and alterations of body composition where the body records a drop in muscle mass as fat mass…… [Read More]

References

Bates, B. (2010, Feb). Teen cannabis use predicts depression. Clinical Psychiatry News, 38(2).

Bender, S. W. (2017). The Colors of Cannabis: Reflections on the Racial Justice Implications of California's Proposition 64.

Blake, D., & Finlaw, J. (2014). Marijuana legalization in Colorado: Learned lessons. Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev., 8, 359.

Caulkins, J. P., Kilmer, B., & Kleiman, M. A. (2016). Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know? Oxford University Press.
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Legalize Marijuana Now Today the United States

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94331501

Legalize Marijuana Now!

Today, the United States enjoys the dubious distinction of incarcerating more of its citizens than any other industrialized nation on earth. Perhaps even more troubling still, the majority of these citizens have been imprisoned for nonviolent crimes involving drugs, with marijuana being one of the most prominently drugs. Furthermore, these issues have assumed new importance and relevance in recent years. As the country continues to struggle to recover from the Great Recession of 2008, dwindling federal and state budgets have forced lawmakers to scramble to identify ways to save money in order to turn the tide for economic recovery. One initiative that has been advanced time and again is the legalization of marijuana because it would reduce the number of people being incarcerated and help generate new tax revenues. To determine if this is the legalization of marijuana is a truly viable option, this paper provides a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cameron, Kenzie A., Campo, Shelly and Brossard, Dominique. (2003). "Advocating for Controversial Issues: The Effect of Activism on Compliance-Gaining Strategy

Likelihood of Use." Communication Studies 54(3): 265-266.

Dripps, Donald A. (1998). "The Liberal Critique of the Harm Principle." Criminal Justice Ethics

17(2): 3.
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Military Marijuana Military Has a Number of

Words: 867 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73685810

Military Marijuana

military has a number of jurisdictional and operational issues associated with what it will do with personnel involved with the use of medical marijuana. Though it claims that there is no ambiguity -- that its Directives (DOD 1010.1) are clear -- in reality it now finds itself facing a "Don't Ask, Don't Smoke" problem. What is happening inside and outside of the armed services is mystifying how the rules are actually enforced and understood by its legal structure.

In general, the rules are clear. Law enforcement and command personnel inside of the services say the same as those on the outside who advice people about this issue:

The fact that your state has decriminalized marijuana use is not relevant to military law. The military is a federal institution, governed by federal laws. Drug use is a crime under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Article 112a, 10…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Byrne, A. (2010). Some U.S. Military Veterans Allowed to Use Cannabis. The Daily Dose. Viewable at http://medicalmarijuana411.com/mmj411_v3/?p=10498.

DOD (1999). Directive 1010.1. Military Personnel Drug Abuse Testing Program.

Free Advice (2011). Public legal posting site. Viewable at  http://law.freeadvice.com/government_law/military_law/military_marijuana_illegal.htm .

Krawitz, M. (2010). Veterans Health Administration Tolerates Veterans Use of Medicinal Cannabis as Adjunct Therapy to VA Hospital Supplied Opioids. MedicalCannabis.com. Viewable at http://www.medicalcannabis.com/Journal-2010/vmma-press-release-41610.
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canada pot legalization marijuana

Words: 2530 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48845683

Canada boasts one of the highest cannabis usage rates in the world in spite of prohibition (Fischer, Kuganesan, & oom, 2015). Cannabis is also the most widely used illegal drug in the country by a wide margin (Hajidazeh, 2016). The complete decriminalization of cannabis in Canada would be unlikely to have any appreciable effect on raising rates of usage except potentially an initial spark of interest subsequent to the lifting of prohibition. Unfortunately, a dearth of literature exists on the actual effects of decriminalization given that the phenomenon has yet to occur, and given the fact that there are few case studies from other countries. The only country in the world to have outright legalized marijuana has been Uruguay; several other countries have relatively relaxed policies toward the drug but Canada's proposal to fully legalize would be revolutionary. This research can potentially contribute to the growing understanding of what consequences…… [Read More]

References

Fischer, B., Kuganesen, S. & Room, R. (2015). Medical Marijuana programs: Implications for cannabis control policy -- Observations from Canada. International Journal of Drug Policy 26(1): 15-19.

Government of Canada (n.d.). "Toward the Legalization, Regulation, and Restriction of Access to Marijuana," Discussion Paper. Retrieved online: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-system-systeme-sante/consultations/legalization-marijuana-legalisation/alt/legalization-marijuana-legalisation-eng.pdf

Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts. International Journal of Health Policy Management 5(8): 453-456.

Hall, W. & Lynskey, M. (2016). Why it is probably too soon to assess the public health effects of legalisation of recreational cannabis use in the USA. The Lancet Psychiatry 3(3): 900-906.
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Marijuana and the Brain

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psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can be long-term and very harmful. Using marijuana may seem harmless, and less harmful than other types of drugs, such as alcohol, but it is very harmful, and can have long-term affects on people who use it regularly.

Marijuana has many chemicals that are harmful. Doctors Bell and Hall note that THC is the most well-known and harmful of these chemicals. They write, "Among them, THC is the most psychoactive in humans, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration" (Bell & Hall, 2005). These affects do not typically last longer than a few hours, depending on how much of the drug the subject ingests, but the affects on the brain can…… [Read More]

One of the reasons marijuana can be so harmful to the brain is because people tend to start to use it at a young age, like adolescence, when the brain is not fully formed and is still maturing (Agosti, Nunes & Levin, 2002). This early drug use can lead to the abuse of other drugs, but it can also have lasting affects on the brain and the way it functions, because it hits the brain before the brain is ready for drug use. Because marijuana and other illegal drugs are also usually very addicting, they create an urge in the user to continue using them, and so dependence on them can grow, adding to the problem of long-term damage.

There is another problem associated with brain function and marijuana use. Authors Agosti et al. note, "Longitudinal studies have also found a significant association between chronic cannabis use, mental disorders, and social morbidity" (Agosti et al., 2002). Therefore, use of marijuana, especially early use, can ultimately lead to the use of more dangerous drugs, and chronic use can lead to many mental problems. Unfortunately, studies show that marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in use in America today, and that 81% of illegal drug users use marijuana (Trevino & Richard, 2002). What this means for the brains of these users is that they will show additional memory loss, confusion, and other signs of brain damage as their life progresses, especially if they continue to use the drug throughout their lives. It can even lead to mental disorders and death as previously noted. Thus, marijuana is more dangerous than many people believe.

Many proponents of marijuana believe that it should be legalized, but about 55% of the American population is against legalizing the drug (Trevino & Richard, 2002). Proponents of the drug cite many studies that have not shown any damaging affects of the drug, but these studies have consistently been disproved by more effective studies such as those cited here. There will always be a segment of the population that wants to legalize marijuana, especially those who use it for its claimed medicinal affects. However, scientific studies show that marijuana use is harmful to the brain and to the overall health of the user,
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Medical Cannabis Research Study in

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10). In this particular study, the effects of smoked cannabis as compared wit the results of patients who received and smoked placebos was significant, and showed a 34% reduction in daily pain amongst those patients receiving the cannabis, versus 17% amongst those patients receiving the placebo.

The outcome of the studies conducted would suggest that medical use of marijuana for pain is recommended. The study concluded that there is an absence of pain relieving analgesics available to patients in the classifications studied. The findings as they relate to the efficacy of cannabis for the treatment of spasticity in MS indicate that medicinal marijuana for that purpose is an avenue of treatment for this very difficult to manage condition and the pain associated with the disease (p. 16).

The future of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic approach to difficult to manage conditions like Parkinson's Disease, MS, and other conditions that have…… [Read More]

Reference List

Grant, I., Atkinson, J.H., Mattison, A., and Coates, T. Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California Presenting the Findings of Pursuant to SB847 Which Created the CMCR and Provided State Funding. University California, San Diego, Health Sciences, CMCR, February 11, 2010.
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Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

Words: 2696 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57524887

Marijuana

ecently, Uruguay became the first country to legalize in its entirety and without qualification the marijuana trade. Uruguayan senators spent a total of twelve hours debating the issue, which was proposed by the country's President. The bill was described by its proponents as "an unavoidable response to reality, given that the 'war' on drugs had failed" (BBC, 2013, 1). The law allows registered citizens to buy up to 40g per month. The law is the first of what could be many as South American nations in particular are coming to the realization that drug prohibition, backed by American interests with the support of the United Nations, has left the continent with powerful and violent gangs that control the trade, while doing nothing to stem consumption (Ibid). Indeed, the UN has already weighed in by stating that Uruguay's legislation is in contravention of the international treaties that are enforced by…… [Read More]

References

BBC. (2013, 1). Uruguay becomes first nation to legalise marijuana trade. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25328656 

BBC. (2013, 2). Uruguay marijuana move 'illegal' -- UN drugs watchdog. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25340324 

Chaloupka, F. & Laixuthai, A. (1997). Do youths substitute alcohol and marijuana? Some econometric evidence. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol 23 (3) 253-275.

Chokshi, N. (2013). After legalizing marijuana, Washington and Colorado are starting to regulate it. Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/10/09/after-legalizing-marijuana-washington-and-colorado-are-starting-to-regulate-it/
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Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13260871

Marijuana

Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized in United States

Marijuana is a plant with extreme strong fragrance, and its dry leaves are an active ingredient of a number of hallucinogenic drugs. The liberty endorsing and preaching societies of the world are still in a fit to either legalize the usage of marijuana or not. The argument that forms the mainstream of the authorization of the usage and legal selling of marijuana in the United States has long been a subject of contention. Health hazards pertaining to the usage of marijuana are a common stance used to justify the illegalization of this drug in United States. The following paper tends to highlight the various aspects that will justify that marijuana should be legalized in the United States.

The most important reason that forms the mainstream of the stance that marijuana should be legalized in the United States is the rational choice…… [Read More]

References

Bowman, K. (2001, July). Attitudes toward Marijuana. The American Enterprise, 12, 62. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000083032

Conservative Forum. (2002, February 4). Human Events, 58, 16. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035784226

Marandino, C. (1998, March). Fired Up. Vegetarian Times 18. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036612328

Notes & Comments: September 2002. (2002, September). New Criterion, 21, 1+. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000823678
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Domestic Marijuana Production and Regulation

Words: 1694 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12938672

S.

Conclusion:

Like alcohol and tobacco, marijuana has been consumed in human societies for thousands of years, and likely since before recorded history. Also like alcohol and tobacco products, marijuana is associated with certain dangers that warrant appropriate government paternalism in the form of legislation prohibiting its use by minors, regulating its manufacture and sale to ensure its relative safety and quality, and preventing the use of any substances capable of altering human perception in connection with the operation of motor vehicles. However, there is no logical basis whatsoever for distinguishing between alcohol and marijuana in terms of criminal legislation, and both substances are considerably less harmful to human health in the manner of their typical consumption than tobacco products.

Instead of subjecting marijuana users to criminal prosecution, government authorities should simply apply the same approach to marijuana as has been traditionally applied to alcohol and tobacco. The Prohibition era…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brecher, E.M. (1972). Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.

Drug Policy Alliance. (2008). Medicinal Marijuana. Retrieved February 17, 2009 from the Drug Policy Alliance website, at http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana/medical/

Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
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Past Present and Future of Marijuana

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96304325

Future of Marijuana in America:

Marijuana or cannabis was first identified by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE and has since been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. The introduction or arrival of medicinal cannabis in America was characterized with an amazingly colorful and checkered history. Medicinal cannabis was characterized with initial robust use in the United States, which faded after the development of aspirin and opioids. The decreased used culminated in the criminalization of cannabis in America in 1937 despite of the contradictory advice of the American Medical Association, which was submitted on record to Congress. However, the use of marijuana has emerged as a major issue in the past few decades because of the renewed interest in medicinal cannabis. Actually, several stakeholders in the health care sector including the American College of Physicians, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health have supported further research and…… [Read More]

References:

Aggarwal et. al. (2009, June). Medicinal Use of Cannabis in the United States: Historical

Perspectives, Current Trends, and Future Directions. Journal of Opioid Management, 5(3), 153-68.

Cardinale, A. (2014, January 14). A Brief History of How Marijuana Became Illegal in the U.S.

Retrieved July 16, 2014, from  http://mic.com/articles/78685/a-brief-history-of-how-marijuana-became-illegal-in-the-u-s
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Dangers of Marijuana Is a

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3899599

, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.

Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154

Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.

Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.

Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors

Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.

Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.

Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall

Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.

Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
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Legalization of Marijuana One of

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 598458

This is largely because there are two major reasons for the legalization of marijuana i.e. medical grounds and the potential revenues it could bring to the government. The decriminalization of the use of the drug can be a major point of governmental revenue through taxation of the sale of the drug. Secondly, as evident through history, the value of the drug to the medical field outweighs the disadvantages of its potential abuse in addition to its significance to both the paper and clothing industries ("Legalizing Marijuana," n.d.).

The decriminalization of the use of the drug will be of huge profit to the government because of the huge amounts related to the average price of the drug. Through this initiative, entrepreneurs are likely to begin their own operations because of the noticeable huge profits made in the marijuana market. Consequently, the supply of the drug on the streets will increase significantly…… [Read More]

References:

"Legalizing Marijuana." (n.d.). Marijuana Leaf. Retrieved from the University of Rhode Island

website: http://www.uri.edu/personal/atro6990/

Messerli, J. (2011, June 8). Should Marijuana be Legalized under any Circumstances? Retrieved

March 8, 2012, from  http://www.balancedpolitics.org/marijuana_legalization.htm
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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
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Decriminalization of Marijuana

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36062227

Decriminalization of Marijuana

he recent war against drugs in United States is causing much debate and discussion. In many cases the apparent result is a defeat for United States. Marijuana is known to be probably the drug that is used in maximum numbers in United States. However the method of prohibition for Marijuana is intrusive, divisive and very expensive. As a result the country is finally left with a drug problem that is worse than any other country that is afflicted by similar problems. (Decriminalization of marijuana in the United States) here is an urgent need to decriminalize Marijuana by the Federal government. his would permit society to transfer resources from the investigation, prosecution, and punishment, of drug offenders and enable the usage of these resources for more productive needs. Further such a course of action would eliminate the overcrowding of the jails, decrease the profits gained by organized crime…… [Read More]

The final decisions of National Commission on Marijuana and Drug abuse remain equally valid 25 years later. These tell us that use of marijuana for personal purposes should be decriminalized and possession of small amounts of the item should not be a crime. On the other side growing it or selling marijuana for commercial purposes, using marijuana in public, distributing marijuana to young persons, and driving under the influence of marijuana should be forbidden. The decriminalization of marijuana would be the first step in our move to a logical and sensible policy for drug control. This also includes the model used in Ohio. This should be the way to decriminalize the use of marijuana. When a person posses one ounce of marijuana or less, the fine on the individual should be $200 at the maximum, and if the person posses one ounce of it the punishment should a fine of $500 with or without a jail sentence. A lot of benefits will be seen immediately. (The Benefits of Decriminalization)

"Decriminalization of marijuana will in fact bring the perception of its usage closer to those held regarding alcohol and cigarettes: namely, kids won't start dropping tabs because they've smoked a joint" (Burn one down) The fact that use of marijuana follows a similar pattern to the use of alcohol has been shown through statistics. Most of the users of marijuana use it in a safe manner for recreation. These persons lead normal productive lives, with good careers, raise families and participate in civic life. There is also proof to show that marijuana has provided benefits in the treatment of many diseases and also provide a useful method of controlling pain in the case of terminally ill patients. When these contexts are seen there does not seem to be any rationale for the enforcement of prohibition on it in terms of the use being 'criminal'. (Marijuana Decriminalization) There have been many instances for possession of marijuana and consequent arrests -- as many as ten million from 1970. "While it may be a rare case these days that a person is put in prison for nothing more than smoking a joint, there is fairly solid evidence to conclude that at least 2.4% of total prison inmates are in for marijuana possession." (Friedman, Decriminalization)

There is also a case from the fact that 50,000 Americans have been punished with years of their lives taken away due to the possession of marijuana and this information hurts. This is a plant that about a third of Americans have used at one time or
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Should Marijuana Be Legalized in US

Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45014298

Legalization of Marijuana

SHOULD MARIUANA BE LEGALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES?

For over 40 years the United States has struggled with how the use of marijuana should be governed. On one side, proponents argue that it should be legal in the same way alcohol and cigarettes are, or legal in small amounts. They do not feel that people who have small amounts for personal use should be prosecuted in any way. Recently, the prestigious medical journal The Lancet has suggested that keeping marijuana illegal may do more harm to society than its actual use does. They point out that the negative effects from use of alcohol are far greater than any negative effects from the use of marijuana (offee & Yancey, et. al., 2004).

However, those in favor of maintaining marijuana's status as an illegal substance argue that marijuana is not harmless and that in some ways it is very…… [Read More]

Joffee, Alain, MD, MPH, and Yancey, Samuel, MD., with the Committee on Substance Abuse and the Committe on Adolescence. 2004. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth. American Academy of Pediatrics Technical Report." Pediatrics 113:6, June.

Portillo, Ely. 2005. "Web sites selling marijuana, paraphernalia proliferate." Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Serice, July 7.

Staff writers. 2005. "Safety - how alcohol affects the brain." New Straits Times (Science section), December 5.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36883289

Legalization of Marijuana

Marijuana or Cannabis is actually a plant, which has the scientific name 'cannabis sativa' and was originally used for ordinary purposes such as for fabric making and cloth weaving. Some are of the view that it was also used as sails when shipping industry had not become technologically sophisticated. The plant was also once used for the treatment of psychiatric conditions but after it was banned in the country, marijuana was forced to vanish from the medical field too.

Marijuana became a problem when people started using it as a drug in the form of powder. This is because marijuana affects chemical processes in the brain and puts a person in a state of elation. But all this is temporary and a person becomes so addicted to this drug that he cannot stay away from it. The dangerous impact on marijuana on the brain is also evident…… [Read More]

References

Cannabis" Accessed online 27 April 2004: http://www.cannabis.net

Richard Rudgley, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive substances, Little, Brown and Company (1998), http://www.cannabis.net/hist/index.html

Carol E. Rachal, Legalization of Marijuana for Medical Use: Accessed Online 27 April 2004:

http://www.uark.edu/misc/observa/rachal.htm
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Decriminalization of Marijuana

Words: 2090 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98169451

Decriminalization of Marijuana

Ever since marijuana was declared an illegal drug in the U.S.A. By the passing of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937 under dubious circumstances, there has been a realization among various groups of people that it was a mistake. However, almost 70 years on, and despite a watertight case in support of its decriminalization, marijuana -- a drug which is arguably less harmful than tobacco and alcohol -- continues to be illegal in the U.S. Of A. In this essay I shall argue why marijuana should be decriminalized without further delay by demonstrating that it is a relatively harmless drug and explaining the benefits of legalizing the drug.

Before I proceed to present arguments in support of decriminalization of marijuana let us ponder over two important questions: a) whether marijuana is a sufficiently dangerous, harmful or addictive drug to justify its prohibition? b) Has the prohibition of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Use." Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. n.d. November 28, 2004. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm

Bandow, Doug. "Forget the War on Drugs Already." Cato Institute. January 01, 2004. November 28, 2004. http://www.cato.org/dailys/01-01-04.html

'High Anxieties." New Scientist. February 21, 1998. November 28, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/news.jsp 'Marijuana Prohibition Facts." Marijuana Policy Project Foundation. 2004. November 28, 2004. http://mpp.org/pdf/prohfact.pdf

Mathre, Mary Lynn. "The Medicinal Use of Marijuana." Nursing Vol. 4, No. 2 pages 8-9. June 1993. November 28, 2004. http://www.ukcia.org/medical/medicinaluseofmarijuana.html
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Alcohol and Marijuana on Human

Words: 2947 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9366944

The user's mouth feels dry, and he or she may suddenly become very hungry and thirsty. His or her hands may tremble and grow cold. The euphoria passes after awhile, and then the user may feel sleepy or depressed. Occasionally, marijuana use produces anxiety, fear, distrust, or panic http://www.starliterecovery.com/marijuana.asp.

Marijuana use impairs a person's ability to form memories, recall events (see Marijuana, Memory, and the Hippocampus), and shift attention from one thing to another. THC also disrupts coordination and balance by binding to receptors in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, parts of the brain that regulate balance, posture, coordination of movement, and reaction time.11 Through its effects on the brain and body, marijuana intoxication can cause accidents. Studies show that approximately 6 to 11% of fatal accident victims test positive for THC. In many of these cases, alcohol is detected as well http://www.starliterecovery.com/marijuana.asp.

"An interesting study was done with airline…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Aukerman, Melissa. Alcohol on trial: the evidence.(Featured CME Topic: Alcohol)

Southern Medical Journal; 1/1/2005; Epidemiological Considerations of Alcohol Consumption

Herrman, Judith. . The teen brain as a work in progress: implications for pediatric nurses.(Updates & Kidbits). Pediatric Nursing; 3/1/2005;

Amodios, Joseph. Why pot's not cool: how marijuana messes with your brain and body.(DRUGS & ALCOHOL). Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader publication; 3/1/2005;
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Negative Effects of Marijuana Presently

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4474438

This engages a calm and quiet, however from time to time overjoyed state of mind. At high dosages, it can cause illusions. The consequences last from two to four hours after the drug is used and it mostly leaves the user of the marijuana in a calm condition for more than a few hours after getting high. One of the main invigorating properties is that temporary memory is reserved for the period of the high. Opinions may seem indistinct and it might be hard for a user to deliberate on rational difficult ideas like arithmetic. Long-standing causes have been disputed for several years. There are alleges of a motivational condition where the users marijuana are said to depart from civilization and lose their objective. (uckley, William F., 1997).

Conclusion whether cannabis usage effects enduring physical or psychological alterations in its users is still under question. The most solemn distress is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cabral, G. et al. Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and Protein Expression. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1991.

Cohen, S. Therapeutic Aspects. Marijuana Research Findings: 1980. NIDA Research Monograph 31. 1980.

Winters, T.H., Franza, J.R. Radioactivity in Cigarette Smoke. NEJM. 1982.

Buckley, William F., Jr. Marijuana Myths/Marijuana Facts. National Review. 1997.
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Legalization Debate on Marijuana There

Words: 1589 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9163297

Despite the fact that certain parties (as in Chicago) may be arguing that the war on drugs cost billions a year, it must not be forgotten that the war on drugs also yields revenue for the government, and that legalizing drugs would cost more than it saved. "Marijuana... harms society by causing lost productivity in business...and by contributing to illnesses and injuries that put further strain on the health care system." (National Drug Council) if drugs were legalized, they would increase health costs, especially among poor and black communities (which are more likely to take drugs and to be on federal support) and from there on the medical support system and taxpayers of the country. Additionally, such use would negatively effect businesses and families, and the loss in taxes from income earned could be significant.

In conclusion, marijuana restrictions should in no way be relaxed, because marijuana is a serious…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hager, Paul. "Marijuana Myths http://www.cs.indiana.edu/hyplan/hagerp/myths.html

Maginnis, Robert L. "Legalization of Drugs: the Myths and the Facts http:www.sarnia.com/groups/antidrugs/argument/myths.html

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws http://www.norml.org

Office of the National Drug Control Policy http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/
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Alcohol Tobacco and Marijuana The

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30695449



Like alcohol, tobacco use is prohibited by minors but permitted by adults. Also like alcohol, tobacco use is detrimental to the health of the user, except even more so.

Whereas alcohol consumption generally benign and only acutely harmful when it is overused, tobacco use (especially in the form of cigarettes) is extremely dangerous for practically all users. This is simply a function of the fact that "typical" use of tobacco entails physical addiction to nicotine, its primary active ingredient. For this reason, it is very rare for smokers to use tobacco too infrequently to become chronic daily users

In contrast, most alcohol users do not partake so often that it compromises their physical health.

The dramatic long-term medical consequences of long-term tobacco use are universal as well as predictable; in fact, the medical community is united in the position that tobacco use causes more preventable illness and death than all…… [Read More]

References

Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age

New York: Little Brown & Co.