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Medical Use of Marijuana Increasing Use of
Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30556120
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Medical Use of Marijuana

Increasing use of medical marijuana

Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.

Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research…

Medical Testing on Animals
Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27055506
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against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available:  http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc .

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .

Medical Product Commercialization Action Plan
Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71069560
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Commercialization of a Medical Product

It is important to note, from the onset, that patents present the most effective approach to 'locking' the desired market after realizing the fruits of research. This is particularly the case given that the commercialization of medical research in itself brings about a high level of risk to the key stakeholders involved in the entire research process, particularly investors. In the case under consideration, we assume that investors will have a two-year period of market exclusivity, after which the medical research team will lose its patent protection. This effectively means that other companies will be free to manufacture and sell the drug. The relevance of formulating the right strategies to guarantee the profitability of the company after the two-year period cannot, therefore, be overstated.

The removal of patent holder's monopoly not only promotes, but also encourages competition (Joly and Knoppers, 2014). There are several approaches…

References

Gupta, H., Kumar, S., Roy, S.K. & Gaud, R.S. (2010). Patent Protection Strategies. J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2(1), 2-7.

Joly, Y. & Knoppers, B.M. (Eds.). (2014). Routledge Handbook of Medical Law and Ethics. New York, NY: Routledge

Medical Home Model and Health Disparity Nursing
Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 51153740
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Medical Home Model and Health Disparity

Nursing esearch Proposal

The Impact of the Medical Home Model on Health Disparities

The Impact of the Medical Home Model on Healthcare Disparity

Medical homes are primary care practices where a physician or NP establishes a long-term care relationship with patients and provide patient/family-centered, coordinated, and culturally-sensitive care (AANP, n.d.; Strickland, Jones, Ghandour, Kogan, & Newacheck, 2011). The benefits include improved healthcare access, quality, and safety. A number of states have enacted statutes supporting the medical home model after research findings revealed health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities were reduced (NCSL, 2013).

As a nurse practitioner I am interested in how effective a medical home model would be in reducing healthcare disparities, especially for racial and ethnic minority children residing in underserved communities. Nurse practitioners have traditionally practiced in underserved communities and will continue to do so; therefore, any strategy that could improve…

References

AANP (American Association of Nurse Practitioners). (n.d.). Medicare legislation: Fact sheet: The medical home -- What is it? How do nurse practitioners fit in? Retrieved from:  http://www.aanp.org/legislation-regulation/federal-legislation/medicare/68-articles/349-the-medical-home .

Abrams, M., Nuzum, R., Mika, S., & Lawlor, G. (2011). Realizing health reform's potential: How the Affordable Care Act will strengthen primary care and benefit patients, providers, and payers. The Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved from:  http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Issue%20Brief/2011/Jan/1466_Abrams_how_ACA_will_strengthen_primary_care_reform_brief_v3.pdf .

NCSL. (2013). Health disparities: State laws. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/health-disparities-laws.aspx .

Strickland, B.B., Jones, J.R., Ghandour, R.M., Kogan, M.D., & Newacheck, P.W. (2011). The medical home: Health care access and impact for children and youth in the United States. Pediatrics, 127(4), 604-11.

Medical ID Theft and Securing Ephi Medical
Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73255136
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Medical ID Theft and Securing EPHI

Medical Identity Theft

Medical information can be stolen by 1) the bad guys getting sick and using a victim's information to obtain services, 2) friends or relatives use another friend's or relative's information to obtain treatment, 3) when professionals, such as physicians, fabricate services that did not exist, 4) organized crime, and 5) innocent or not so innocent opportunists (Lafferty, 2007). ad guys that get sick can take a victim's insurance information to obtain services for treatment. Professionals can fabricate false claims to cover medical errors. Opportunists have access to patient data and the ability to steal, use, or sell that information.

Effective security requires clear direction from upper management (Whitman). Assigning security responsibilities and access controls with audit controls to organizational elements and individuals helps to place accountability on individuals. They must formulate or elaborate security policies and procedures based on the organizational…

Bibliography

HIPAA Security Series. (n.d.). Retrieved from HHS.gov:  http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/administrative/securityrule/techsafeguards.pdf 

Hoffman, S. & . (2007). SECURING THE HIPAA SECURITY RULE. Journal of Internet Law, 10(8), 1-16.

Lafferty, L. (2007). Medical Identity Theft: The Future Threat of Health Care Fraud is Now. Journal of Healthcare Compliance, 9(1), 11-20.

Whitman, M. & . (n.d.). Case B: Accessing and Mitigating the Risks to a Hypothetical Computer System, pages B1-B24 .

Medical Nursing
Words: 1796 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6008465
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Medical Nursing

Medical l Nursing

The United States has the largest number of professional nurses in the world totalled 3 millions approximately. Despite the available large number of professional nurses, there is still imbalance between the supply and demand for nurses in the United States. Demand for the professional nurses has outnumbered the supply. Typically, critical nursing shortage has become a serious issue in the United States, and the production capacity is lagging based on the estimated future needs. The concept of nursing shortage refers to the situation where the demand for nurses outnumbers the supply. The worsening nursing shortage in the United States has created the demand for more nurses to fill the gap. Many private and public sectors healthcare leaders have advocated for the serious solution to boost the supply of nurses. One of the solutions advocated is that the U.S. should facilitate the migration of foreign graduate…

References

Aiken, L.H. (2007). U.S. Nurse Labor Market Dynamics Are Key to Global Nurse

Sufficiency. Health Service Research.42(3):1299-1320.

Brush, B.L. Sochalski, J. & Berger, A.M. (2004). Imported Care: Recruiting Foreign Nurses

to U.S. Health Care Facilities. Health Affairs. 23(3):78.87.

Medical Robotics in Spite of Research Gaps
Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53091203
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Medical Robotics

In spite of research gaps, medical robotics is a growing trend in the United States.

Advances in Medical Robotics (Diana, 2011)

Hybrid Assistive Limb 5 (HAL5) is an artificially powered ecoskeleton that helps double the amount of weight someone can carry unaided.

DaVinci Si HD Surgical System performs minimally invasive surgery through superior visualization and greater precision, with incisions of one to two centimeters causing less pain and speedier recovery. It reduces the hospital stay to one half and costs one third less.

Sofie incorporates force feedback allowing a surgeon to feel the pressure they apply making sutures and pushing tissue aside. Sofie is expected to develop in five years.

Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for treatment of cancerous and non-cancerous tumors.

Nursebot is designed to specifically help elderly deal with daily activities allowing them to live at home.

RIA is designed to…

Bibliography

Davies, B. (2006). Essay: Medical robotics -- a bright future. The Lancet, vol 368, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69929-7, S53-S54.

Diana, a. (2011, Jan 29). 12 Advances in Medical Robotics. Retrieved from InformationWeek Healthcare:  http://www.informationweek.com/healthcare/patient/12-advances-in-medical-robotics/229100383 

Huang, G.P. (2006). Robotics and clinical research: Collaborating to epand the evidence-based for rehabilitation. JRRD, 43(5), xiii-xvi.

Seaman, a. (2013, Jan 4). Racial gaps in access to robotic prostrate surgery. Retrieved from Yahoo Health:  http://health.yahoo.net/news/s/nm/racial-gaps-in-access-to-robotic-prostrate-surgery

Medical Advances in Cancer
Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44527155
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Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research

This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.

In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…

Medical-Nursing Patterns of Knowing and
Words: 844 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 1012213
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It is the dimension of knowing that connects with human experiences that are common but expressed and experienced uniquely in each instance. It is ultimately the processes of envisioning and rehearsing nurture artistic expression (Chinn, Kramer, & Chinn, 2008).

Empiric knowledge in nursing consists of knowledge development along with highlighting the role of conceptualizing and structuring ideas into knowledge expressions such as theories and formal descriptions. Theories and formal descriptions become shared as empiric knowledge in a discipline and serve to enable scientific competence in practice (Chinn, Kramer, & Chinn, 2008).

It is thought that if knowledge within any one pattern is not critically examined and integrated within the whole of knowing, that uncritical acceptance, narrow interpretation, distortions, and partial utilization of knowledge will occur. When the patterns are used in isolation from one another, the potential for synthesis of the whole is also lost. The formal expressions of knowledge…

References

Behm, Kathy, Comrie, Rhonda, Crane, Judy, Johnson, Charlotte, Popkess, Ann, Verbais, Chad,

Yancey, Val, Carstens, Belinda, Keene, Carol, Davis, Doris, and Durbin, Christine.(n.d.).

Knowledge Development: Patterns and Outcomes. Retrieved from Web site:

 http://www.siue.edu/UGOV/FACULTY/BRIDGE%20final%20proposals%20Mar06/Dur  bin.htm

Medical Theory Ever Since the
Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 24024442
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As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…

Bibliography:

Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.

Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.

Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.

Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.

Medical Case Study Florence F Is a
Words: 1951 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 33192255
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Medical Case Study

Florence (F) is a 43-year-old woman who is two days post-operative, following an appendectomy. She has a history of arthritis, and currently takes 10mg of prednisone daily. She is allergic to penicillin. She weighs 46 kg (101.5 lbs.) and is 168cm tall (5'6"). This puts her slightly underweight for her age and height, at least 18-25 pounds (Height and Weight Chart, 2010). While doing a route in dressing change, nurse notice a yellow discharge emanating from the wound.

Identify and discuss the importance of obtaining information during a nursing admission in relation to post- operative assessment. In modern healthcare, a nurse must first and foremost try to understand and utilize a systematic and synergistic model of data collection and assessment. Human beings are complex creatures, and the more data one has, the easier it will be to ensure that a proper diagnosis is made. A systematic assessment…

REFERENCES

Height and Weight Chart. (2010). HealthCheck Systems. Retrieved from:

 http://www.healthchecksystems.com/heightweightchart.htm 

Prednisone and Other Corticosteroids: Balance the Risks and Benefits. (2011). The Mayo

Clinic. Retrieved from:  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/steroids/HQ01431

Medical Skills Needed to Be
Words: 2203 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74711001
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According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)

In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…

References

Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.

Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.

St. Onge, Joye (1997) Medical Education Must Make Room for Student-Specific Ethical Dilemmas" Canadian Medical Association Journal 15 Apr 1987, 156(8).

Hicks, L. et al. (2001) Understanding the Clinical Dilemmas that Shape Medical Students' Ethical Development: Questionnaire Survey and Focus Group study. BMJ Journal 2001;322-709-71- 24 march 2001.

Medical Nursing Graduate Study Challenges
Words: 823 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83110191
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Bieber & Worley (2006) note that when students pay closer attention to their surroundings, and when teachers engage students in a more collaborative manner, students are more likely to set daily schedules that conform with their abilities and adapt to any limitations they may experience while juggling multiple responsibilities.

Anderson (1996) suggests that many Universities need to work with student's to accommodate their unique needs, as long as students are willing to engage in collaborative relationships with their peers (Austin, 2002) and families. One way to teach graduate students how to balance their education, career and any psychological or emotional blocks they may have to success is by teaching students to adopt self-efficient tools, such as creating daily task lists that limit the amount of time they spend on activities to ensure they fulfill all of their obligations (Bandura, 1982). Universities also have an obligation to effectively screen students (Brink,…

References

Anderson, M.S. (1996). Collaboration, the doctoral experience, and the departmental environment. The Review of Higher Education, 19, 305-326.

Austin, a. (2002). Preparing the next generation of faculty: Graduate school as socialization to the academic career. Journal of Higher Education, 73, 95-122.

Bandura, a. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanisms in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2),

Bieber, J.P., & Worley, L.K. (2006). Conceptualizing the academic life: Graduate students perspectives. Journal of Higher Education 77, 1009.

Mental Health Counseling and Research
Words: 3990 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 65935118
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However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.

Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.

Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis

In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…

References

Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.

Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.

Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.

Martin Army Medical Center Fort Benning Georgia
Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72428112
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Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia and St. Francis Medical, Columbus Georgia

Because resources are by definition scarce, it is important for tertiary healthcare providers to develop healthcare delivery structures that are efficient and effective. Since every healthcare organization is unique, though, these delivery structures can vary widely in scope and purpose. To gain some fresh insights into the healthcare delivery structures that are used by civilian and military health facilities, this paper provides a comparison of Martin Army Medical Center at Fort Benning, Georgia with St. Francis Medical in Columbus, Georgia, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

eview and Comparison

Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia

Health care delivery structure. Opened in 1958, this is a U.S. Department of Defense facility operated by the U.S. Army that offers inpatient, outpatient and emergency services. At present, Martin Army Medical Center 250-bed,…

References

About St. Francis Hospital. (2012). St. Francis Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.

sfhga.com/about-st-francis-hospital.

About us. (2012). Martin Army Community Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.martin.

amedd.army.mil/meddepts/about.htm.

Ethical Aspects in Research Studies the Essential
Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94884429
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Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies

The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…

References

Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.

Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Mission
Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98955770
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This is significant, because it shows how the funding and research provided by HHMI is establishing, scientific breakthroughs that are having a profound impact on the lives of millions of people. Evidence of this can seen with the fact that institute is funding 330 investigators in the United States alone (to include seven Nobel Prize winners). At the same time, they are funding research projects in a number of countries around the world such as: the former Soviet Union and South Africa just to name a few. This is important, because it shows how the fortune of Howard Hughes is being used, to benefit millions of people (who are seeking cures for a variety of diseases). (Leung, 2004)

Discuss some of the benefits and pitfalls of planning?

The benefits of planning are: you can be able to identify changes coming early and it helps you to have more flexibility. These…

Bibliography

Developing New Knowledge. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from:  http://www.hhmi.org/about/origins.html 

Leung, R. (2004). Howard Hughes. CBS News. Retrieved from:  http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/11/21/60minutes/main584945.shtml

Factors for Successful Research
Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12015030
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designing a study. Ensuring that the study meets the viability and reliability standards that can contribute to current literature is usually one of the main objectives of the researcher and to accomplish that objective some of the considerations that should be undertaken include questions such as; how is the study to be funded, how to identify the stakeholders, what standards are going to be met during recruitment of participants, and how to maintain confidentiality of the participants in the study.

ecruiting participants

Busey and Waring (2012) found that there are a variety of benefits derived from the positive effects experienced by study participants that translate into characteristics exhibited by good citizens. Konter (2009) found that participants exhibited an overall higher level of social behavior. When recruiting participants to a medical study these characteristics should be looked for and emphasized. It is not just the individual patients that are being recruited…

References

Barnett, A.G.; Herbert, D.L.; Campbell, M.; Daly, N.; Roberts, J.A.; Mudge, A.; Graves;

N.; (2015) Streamlined research funding using short proposals and accelerated peer review: An observational study, BMC Health Services Research, 15(1) p. 1-6

Busey, C.L. & Waring, S.M., (2012) Global mindedness as the 'goal': Soccer as a pedagogical tool in the social studies, Social Studies, 103(6) 260-266

Konter, E. (2009) Perceptions of soccer players about leadership powers according to their level of play, Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal, 37(4)

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of
Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95138553
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For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…

Works Cited

 

Nursing Research in Future Hallberg I R 2006
Words: 3307 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28418653
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Nursing Research in Future

Hallberg, I.R. (2006). Challenges for future nursing research: Providing evidence for health-care practice. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43: 923-927

Nursing research has become a question of practicality. Is it prudent for funding to go into Nursing research when there is so much funding getting cut from everything and anything that is involved in health care. This article goes into the usage of nursing research and examines its need for society, from both a sociological perspective, as well as a medical and health perspective. The idea is to get nursing research into a more mainstream type of environment in which its practicality is more valued and it can be seen as something that can be used in future studies outside of nursing.

Nursing research tends to lean more towards the qualitative side of research. Although this in itself has brought plenty of contribution into the medical…

Macnee, C.L. & McCabe, S. (2008). The role of research in nursing. In Understanding nursing research in evidence-based practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams, & Wilkens. 271-286.

Knowing the history of nursing research allows one to know that the challenges that currently faces it now have always been present. Its role within the health field has always been questionable because of its believed lack of applicability and practicality, and the use of it has always been determined practically non-existent. Having all this in mind, the future of this discipline in greatly discussed in this section and it is this that brings to mind its usefulness. If nursing research is compared head to that of a more scientific nature, or research conducted by medical doctors, than it could be viewed as coming in second, or lacking importance, but when reviewed by itself and broken down in terms of what it actually covers, nursing research can be as useful in any health discipline.

The challenges of nursing research in the future still does involve its lack of practicality and applicability, but since it is now shifting more towards health policy nature and it seems to have more practicality in the politics behind health care, that in itself has become the new challenge. Nursing research is being redefined to the point that it has lost what it once was. The way in which the nursing research being done now is conducted, its human side is being lost and more administrative applications are being put forth upon it. This is a challenge that has been overwhelming the discipline and having veterans of nursing research come face-to-face with what nursing research is slowly becoming. Having to enable this part of nursing research in order to redefine an entire concept has become something of concern that will only keep growing in the future. The challenges of nursing research can be defined as one of a constant battle.

Conflict Between Research and Ethics
Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 17287078
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I think that I would have to personally review any experiments conducted by that person, to assure myself that they did not contain the same types of ethical flaws. Furthermore, I would report the person to their appropriate governing body, so that they would at least be aware of the potential ethical problems that could be created by the researcher. If I were to enter into management and discover that one of the studies under me was being conducted in a manner like the Tuskegee study, I would not immediately end the study.

Instead, I would order that all study subjects be given effective medication to treat their disease and then end the study. One ethical question that I cannot answer is whether I would inform the patients that they had been subjected to years of useless treatments and then try to convince them that I was going to give…

References

Brunner, B. (2008). The Tuskegee syphilis experiment. Retrieved November 5, 2008 from Tuskegee University

Web site:  http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/Story.asp?s=1207586 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). U.S. Public Health Service syphilis study at Tuskegee: Home. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from Centers for Disease Control

Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/index.html

Ethics Human Research the Nuremberg
Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80577995
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Declaration of Helsinki

In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.

The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…

St Jude Children's Research Hospital
Words: 489 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79237709
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Survival rates of patients at the St. Jude Children's esearch Hospital for many of the cancers treated there are significantly higher than in other hospitals, which is another highly favorable outcome (SJCH 2010).

Efficiency

As previously detailed above, St. Jude Children's esearch Hospital manages to put eighty-one cents of every dollar raised by ALSAC to direct use in treating patients at the hospital and researching new treatments (SJCH 2010). This makes the organization one of the most successful and efficient both as a charity and in the hospital/medical research field. Volunteer efforts help to minimize costs, and streamlined administration with a clear dedication to the true and full mission of the hospital contribute to the hospital's efficiency.

Productivity

In 2004, fundraising efforts got a significant boost from a new program of celebrity endorsement called the Thanks and Giving program; as with previous fundraising efforts, the money was put to immediate…

References

SJCRH. (2010). "Public information guide." Accessed 17 February 2010.  http://www.stjude.org/stjude/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=434d1976d1e70110VgnVCM1000001e0215acRCRD&vgnextchannel=9e1c13c016118010VgnVCM1000000e2015acRCRD

Embryos and Fetuses in Research
Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3491935
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3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.

orks Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html 

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html

Participation in a Research Study it Is
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Participation in a esearch Study

It is imperative that a subject understands the importance of his or her involvement in any research study. This is fundamental especially in researches that may involve full participation of an individual (which may affect his or her daily activities). As a result, every researcher must ensure that his or her subjects are fully informed about the research and are ready to follow through to the end. Every researcher must have a set strategy, to evaluate how informed his or her subjects are on the research at hand.

Interview: The participant in this case is interviewed on the subject matter at hand to ensure that he or she knows the research in depth. This way the key leaders in the research have an opportunity to evaluate the credibility of the individual to participate throughout the research without fill discretion (ichardson & Godfrey, 2010).

Filling a…

References

Dobson, C. (2008). Conducting research with people not having the capacity to consent to their participation. The British Psychological Society, 1-44.

Dresser, R. (2001). When science offers salvation: Patient advocacy and research ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.

In Global Health Research, Is It Legitimate To Stop Clinical Trials Early on Account of Their Opportunity Costs?. (2009). PloS Med, 6(6).

Richardson, J.C., & Godfrey, B.S. (2010). Towards ethical practice in the use of archived transcripted interviews. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6(4), 347-355.

Dupont Research in Its Purest Definition Quantitative
Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 52186817
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Dupont esearch

In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…

REFERENCES

Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Swinging the Pendulum: Shifting Views of Justice in Human Subjects esearch" By Ana Mastroianni And Jeffrey Kahn (542-547)

Compare the conception of justice in the Belmont era to the conception of justice in the 1990s? What is the significance of these shifting views of justice?

The conception of justice in the Belmont era pertains to realizing that vulnerable groups, such as prisoners, elderly populations or children, can be exploited by researchers, who do not gain informed consent -- and thus justice was viewed as something that could protect these groups or prevent their exploitation from occurring. An example of exploitation that occurred would be the Tuskegee experiments, where a minority group (blacks) were not told they had syphilis by researchers nor were they told they were part of a study. They were deliberately not treated even when treatment was available because they were the control of the experiment (to see…

References

Anna Mastroianni & Jeffrey Kahn, Swinging on the Pendulum: Shifting Views of Justice

in Human Subjects Research, HASTINGS CENTER REP., May-June 2001, at 21-28, reprinted in HARV. HEALTH POL'Y REV., Spring 2002, and inHEALTH CARE ETHICS IN CANADA 325-31 (Francoise Baylis et al. eds., 2d ed. Thomson Nelson 2004)

King, P. (1992). The Dangers of Difference. The Hastings Center Report, 22(6): 35-38.

Overspending Government Health & Medical
Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91336037
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As it's expected that the mandatory federal spending on health will increase significantly in the future years, the health programs will remain broke and indebted.

Corrective Strategies:

Since the current state of the government's health programs is broke and indebted, there is a huge need for the adoption of effective strategies and actions to correct the tragedy. Some of the most suitable actions to correct the situation include legislative modifications, increase in revenues, and establishment of a private charity. First, the legislative modifications contribute to improved and sustainable long-term projections for the costs of government health programs. Such action would also be helpful in correcting the tragedy by enabling officials to lessen the adverse effects on helpless populations like lower-income workers and those who are currently dependent on the benefits of these programs.

Secondly, the establishment of a private charity to raise funds from willing financiers in order to assist…

Works Cited:

Johnson, Toni. "Healthcare Costs and U.S. Competitiveness." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 23 Mar. 2010. Web. 07 Mar. 2012. .

United States. Congressional Budget Office. The Long-Term Budget Outlook. Congressional Budget Office, 30 June 2010. Web. 07 Mar. 2012. .

United States. Social Security Online. SSA Logo: Link to Social Security Online Home Status of the Social Security and Medicare Programs. By Charles P. Blahous III and Robert D. Reischauer. Social Security Online, 5 May 2011. Web. 07 Mar. 2012. .

United States. The Congress. Government Spending on Health Care Benefits and Programs: A Data Brief. By Jennifer Jenson. Congress, 16 June 2008. Web. 8 Mar. 2012. .

Human Stem Cell Medical -
Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11610140
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This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…

Bibliography

O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at  http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html

Anlaysing Federally Funded Research
Words: 896 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73518300
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Federal Government Funding

Federal funding has been at the heart of many breakthroughs in medical research in the 20th century (Angela & Chris, 2000). The NIH takes credit for leading the research campaign for many years. The achievements by NIH are many. They include (Angela & Chris, 2000):

educed time frames for the discovery and development of new cures

Lowered the incidence of disease rates among the sick

educed mortality

educed disability levels

Better quality of life through pain reduction and suffering.

Sustaining University research, education and future leading scientists through support

The federal government, through NIH, funds 36% of all the biomedical research in the U.S. The Non-Profit Organizations contribute 7% while the private sector funds 57% (Angela & Chris, 2000).

Although the federal government funds both basic and applied research, it has focused most of the resources on basic research. Basic research is essential in the discovery of…

References

Angela Ritzert & Chris Edwards. (2000). the Benefits of Medical Research and the Role of the NIH

Wendy H. Schacht. (2011). Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Stakeholders Research Project
Words: 1483 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96829099
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Stakeholders Research Project
Introduction
Preliminary stakeholder identification around any natural resource proves vital to carrying out meaningful trans- disciplinary researches with regard to managing that particular resource. Stakeholders may be defined as all players capable of impacting, or being impacted by, any action or decision (after Freeman 1984). Natural resource management research scholars (e.g. Grimble and Wellard 1997; Dougill et al. 2006; Ravnborg and Westermann 2002) constantly report that the inclusion of stakeholders in finding solutions facilitates mutual learning and negotiation, improves stakeholder buy- in and support of actions and decisions, and decreases conflict. Trans- disciplinary study strategies build on this rationale through assimilating stakeholders and integrating the diverse kinds of ideas and knowledge they bring with them to the table in socially- sound, solution- focused studies (Lang et al. 2012; Bracken et al. 2014; Hurni and Wiesmann 2014).
Quite frequently, project reports and scholarly papers’ descriptions pertaining to stakeholder…

Medical Home Concept and Describe the Principles
Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56730739
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medical home concept and describe the principles (operational characteristics mentioned above) of the PC-MH as defined by these organizations. How does this concept differ from the gatekeeper concept of Managed Care Organizations?

According to the 'gatekeeper' philosophy of health management organizations (HMOs), physicians are intentionally given incentives to reduce access to care. This is based upon the assumption that patients will want to obtain as much care as they can receive and physicians will want to bestow that care to please patients and incur more revenue. HMOs encourage physicians to do the opposite and often financially reward physicians for cost reductions and limiting access of patients to specialists or heroic treatments. In the HMO model, physicians try to restrict access to specialists when they do not deem it necessary.

In contrast, the medical home concept is viewed as a partnership between "individual patients, and their personal physicians, and when appropriate,…

References

Case for change to the PC-MH Model (2011). American Dietetic Association.

Retrieved October 19, 2011 at  http://www.eatright.org/HealthProfessionals/content.aspx?id=7059 

Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home. (2007). American Academy of Family

Physicians (AAFP). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). American College of Physicians (ACP). American Osteopathic Association (AOA)

Medical Reconciliation
Words: 1028 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80459674
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Nursing

Describe briefly your topic of interest (15 possible points):

According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013), medical reconciliation is "the process of comparing a patient's medication orders to all of the medications that the patient has been taking. This reconciliation is done to avoid medication errors such as omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or drug interactions." The process of medical reconciliation falls within the rubric of electronic medical records, which enable medical reconciliation. Medical reconciliation saves lives, improves the efficiency of hospital administration and of the healthcare team, and is simply necessary for providing quality of care.

#1 Database (or collection) (30 possible points):

Title of source:

"Electronic Health ecord (HE)"

Location of source (UL): http://www.ihs.gov/ehr/index.cfm?module=medication_reconciliation

Owner or publisher:

Indian Health Service

The Indian Health Service (2013) offers an overview of what medical reconciliation is, and how it applies to both individual and community health.…

References

"Electronic Health Record (EHR)," (2013). Indian Health Service. Retrieved online:  http://www.ihs.gov/ehr/index.cfm?module=medication_reconciliation 

"Medical Reconciliation," (2013). Greater Baltimore Medical Center. Retrieved online:  http://www.gbmc.org/body.cfm?id=617 

United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013). Electronic health record (EHR). Retrieved online:

Medical Marijuana Growing in Butte County
Words: 2199 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24923351
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Introduction

Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an initiative to legalize either medicinal or recreational marijuana usage.  The history of marijuana in the U.S. is one that goes back as far as the country itself:  hemp (a type of marijuana plant) was used for rope, paper and a number of other purposes because of its strong fibrous tissue.1  It was not until the Prohibition Era of the 1920s that marijuana began to be prohibited by law in the U.S.—and within a decade, it was regulated among most states under the Uniform State Narcotic Act.2  Thus, from its very first days as a crop grown by the Virginia Company for exporting to England by decree of James I—and in fact from the days of the first President of the U.S.…

Medical Model and Learned Helplessness
Words: 1083 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78154146
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Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.

This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…

Bibliography

Santorck, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Medical and Ethical Dilemmas Even if the
Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25574413
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medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.

This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for…

REFERENCES

Consumer Reports (2007). "Off-Label" Drug Use, Shopper's Guide. Downloadable at  http://www.consumerreports.org/health/resources/pdf/best-buy-drugs/money-saving-guides/english/Off-Label-FINAL.pdf .

Pain Management of America (2011). Chronic Pain Treatment and Management with Medical Marijuana. Viewable at http://www.medicalmarijuana.net/uses-and-treatments/chronic-pain/.

SOURCES OF STUDIES

Jewish Chronic Disease:  http://johnmueller.org/Problems/Cancer.html

Medical Diagnosis vs Educational Diagnosis of Autism
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37766532
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Autism

The differences between a medical diagnosis of Autism and an educational diagnosis of Autism often have implications for the individualized educational prospects of an autistic student in public schools. Often even when a child has a medical diagnosis of autism parents still go through the diagnostic process of the school to determine what, if any, educational adjustments can or should be made. Diagnosis is made more difficult by the fact Autistic symptoms vary widely in individuals and often tend to manifest themselves in many different combinations (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Autistic impairment includes social, communicative, and behavioral development challenges. An autistic child may have trouble with nonverbal language, poor eye contact, and difficult making and retaining friends (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). n terms of communication, there may be delays in speaking difficulty using or imitating language and incorrect use of words (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Repeated body movements and…

In 2000, a set of guidelines were formulated by the American Academy of Neurology. (Blackwell, 2001). The panel's guidelines are widely recommended and urge providers to carryout diagnosis in several stages. In the very first stage of investigation clinical practioners are urged to screen for any children who may display behavior or characteristics which may place the child at risk for any developmental delays (Blackwell, 2001). The second investigative step is to screen for those children who are specifically at risk for autism so that they can be differentiated from those children who have other developmental disorders (Blackwell, 2001). Blackwell, et. al argue that before the diagnosis of autism is attempted all primary care physicians should routinely, when necessary, use developmental screening tests on their patients. Unfortunately, less than 1/3 of "primary care providers have been shown to conduct a standardized developmental screening test in child office visits" (Blackwell, 2001, p. 534).

The AAN guidelines urge that when a child has delayed language development or motor skills, the primary care provider should immediately engage in audio logical assessment to rule out any ear or auditory issues, followed by using the CHAT, Autism Screening Questionnaire (Blackwell, 2001, p. 535). At this stage, one of two things must happen, either the child passes or fails the test; if the child passes, then the child still must undergo a formal diagnostic procedure including a neurological evaluation, if the child fails the doctors must communicate the need for early child-hood intervention with the school district in addition to the formal diagnostic evaluation (Blackwell, 2001, p. 535). Although Blackwell, et. al do not detail the specific diagnostic indicators of autism their overview of the AAN guidelines are important in order to demonstrate the relationship between the school and the medical provider.

Whereas the medical diagnosis focuses on the symptoms the educational diagnoses often focus on the relationship between the symptom and its impact on the child in the class room. An individualized education plan is dependent on significant impairment in the classroom which is more than just behavioral in nature. Often behavioral problems in school are seen as acting out rather than a symptom

Research Summary
Words: 1249 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37510181
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Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.

The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.

Statement of Purpose

For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.

In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…

Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).

Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.

Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.

Medical Disorders Face Recognition
Words: 1892 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81215349
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Prosopagnosia

According to A.J. Larner's book, "A Dictionary of Neurological signs," prosopagnosia is a neurological condition, "a form of visual agnosia characterized by an inability to recognize previously known human faces or equivalent stimuli (hence a retrograde defect) and to learn new ones (anterograde defect)" (Larner, 2010). Larner further distinguishes between two forms of prosopagnosia: apperceptive and associative agnosia. This "category-specific recognition disorder," as G, Neil Martin calls it in his "Human Neuropsychology" is often, but not always, associated with other forms of visual agnosia such as alexia or achromatopsia.

Prosopagnosia can be congenital or developmental, or a consequence of brain damage, following a stroke, a brain injury, or caused by a degenerative disease (Kinai, 2013) . There are two types of prosopagnosia: apperceptive prosopagnosia and associative prosopagnosia. This form of visual impairment has various degrees of manifestation, from mild to severe and can or cannot be associated with other…

Bibliography

Bowles, Devin C. McKone, Elinor. Dawel, Amy. Duchaine, Bradley. Palermo, Romina. Schmalzl, Laura. Rivolta. Davide. Wilson, Ellie. Yovel. Galit.

Cognitive Neuropsychology, "Diagnosing prosopagnosia: Effects of ageing, sex, and participant-stimulus ethnic match on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Cambridge Face Perception Test." Available at:  http://www.faceblind.org/social_perception/papers/Bowles%2009%20CN.pdf 

Sperry, Roger Wolcott. Ed.Trevarthern, Colwyn B. 1990. Brain Circuits and Functions of the Mind: Essays in Honor of Roger Wolcott Sperry, Author. Cambridge University Press

Newman, Nancy J. Miller, Neil R. Biousse, Valerie. 2008. Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology: The Essentials. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Research Designs in Developmental Research
Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82919925
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Development Change Research Issue

Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.

An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…

Medical Experiments
Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75410058
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Ethical Dilemma: case study of clinical trial on a child

The field of medicine and research has been surrounded by issue of experiments in order to have the conclusive result of the effectiveness of a drug or otherwise. These results can only be obtained if the drugs are at times used on human beings with the real medical problem that the experiment seeks to find solution to. The problem of ethical dilemma often comes in at such stages on whether to go ahead to experiment on the effectiveness of the new drug or not.

Ethical dilemma refers to the situation that is deemed complex since it involves some element of mental conflict between moral imperatives that is one goes ahead and obeys one, it will mean the transgression of another (Braunack-Meyer A.J., 2001). The individual does not have a clear cut direction on which option to go for, despite there…

References

Braunack-Meyer A.J., (2001). What makes a problem an ethical problem? An empirical perspective on the nature of ethical problems in general practice. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from  http://jme.bmj.com/content/27/2/98.full 

Pier B.K., (2007). Children, Gillick Competency and Consent for Involvement in Research. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from  http://jme.bmj.com/content/33/11/659.abstract 

Spriggs M., (2010). Understanding Consent in Research Involving Children: The ethical Issues. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from  http://www.mcri.edu.au/media/62539/handbook.pdf

Medical Coding
Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5515484
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health information technology occupation and conduct a search of the Internet, consult professional

Thorough Job Details: Although there are not an abundance of qualifications that an individual must have to earn a position as a professional medical coder, there are several different avenues to pursue them. Candidates typically must have graduated high school or earned the equivalency of a high school diploma. Once they have completed this step, they can satisfy the general education requirements in a couple of different ways: either by earning an associate's degree or a postsecondary certification in health information technology or in a related field. Certificate programs typically last less than a year, whereas associate's degree programs are generally two years of full time study. The completion of these courses usually qualifies individuals to begin working within the field of medical records and health information technology as a medical coder. It is also permissible for…

References

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2014). Medical records and health information technicians. www.bls.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Medical-records-and-health-information-technicians.htm 

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014). Medical and health services manager. www.bls.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers.htm

Medical Marijuana
Words: 306 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56690460
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Chamberlain College of Nursing NR449 Evidence-Based Practice

Evidence Matrix Table

Independent (I)

Dependent (D)

Size and Selection

Major Findings

(sample not a real article)

Smith, Lewis (2013),

What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112.

How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes?

D-Dietary modifications

Education

Qualitative

Convenience sample-selected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PA

Focus Groups

Support and education improved compliance with dietary modifications.

de Vries K, Green AJ (2012) Therapeutic use of cannabis. Nursing Times; 108: 9, 12-15.

Describe the potential uses of cannabis in palliative care, and to help nurses advocate for patients by providing information about cannabis use and legality. How should nurses react when patients ask about medical marijuana?

None; not an experimental research design.

Literature Review

Untold quantities of research studies in published journals.

Peer-reviewed and professional literature. Legal…

Research on Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder
Words: 2145 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58591927
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Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…

References

Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.

Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.

Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.

Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.

Medical Disorders
Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45572513
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Pernicious Anemia

Many people hate to go to the doctor's office -- especially when they know that they will be receiving an injection. However, I, along with millions of people the world over, consider ourselves very lucky to do just that, each and every month of our lives. You see, for people like me with a disorder known as "pernicious anemia," the doctor and her needle are the important link between a healthy life and a life of absolute misery. This is because, unlike classic anemia, the common form of the blood disorder that usually results in little more than fatigue, pernicious anemia can result in catastrophic changes in the body, chief among them severe neurological impairment that, in its severe form, can result in absolute madness. For those of us who suffer from this disease caused by an inherited deficiency, or caused from some disruption or disorder in the…

Works Cited

Intelihealth. "Pernicious Anemia." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/20862.html

Medline Plus. "Pernicious Anemia." Medline Plus Medical Enclyclopedia. 2003 Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm

Research Apple
Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49879597
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Apple

"A population is thus an aggregate of creatures, things, cases and so on," ("Populations and Samples," n.d.). The population samples for this research will consist of product developers and engineers, market researchers, Apple employees, and consumers. Using a broad population base like this allows for the most thorough insight possible into how Apple can improve their innovation strategies. The product researchers, engineers, and developers are the people who are most in tune with what can be done, and what is within the pragmatic realm of possibility. For example, if product developers were asked what they would design if money were not an issue, they could help determine some new directions for Apple. Product researchers, engineers, and developers will be contacted directly by our research team. Our research team will phone or email a list of product researchers and developers working for different companies all over the world. The initial…

References

Easton, V.J. & McColl, J.H. (n.d.). Target population. Retrieved online:  http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/sampling.html 

"Populations and Samples," (n.d.). British Medical Journal. Retrieved online:  http://www.bmj.com/about-bmj/resources-readers/publications/statistics-square-one/3-populations-and-samples

Research on an Evidence Based Article
Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15305112
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Diabetes

Practice Project on Diabetes Intervention Based on Evidence

Diabetes mellitus is a kind of health problem where depicted by an abnormal increase in the level of blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus can be defined as a disease with an inappropriate hyperglycemia and disordered metabolism caused by inadequate insulin secretion or an imbalance between insulin resistance and the right amount of insulin secretion. There are two main forms of diabetes mellitus: Type I, symbolized by total insufficiency, and the more rampant type II symbolized by high insulin resistance with defects of different rates of secretion of insulin (Nanda Nursing, 2011).

Modification of lifestyle, in specific recommendations to go along with a suitable dietary plan, has been widely adopted as the major treatment procedure for people suffering type II diabetes, following the belief that an adequate energy and nutrients intake will reduce the risks of possible complications by improving glycaemic control. Nevertheless,…

References

Coppell, K., Kataoka, M., Williams, S., Chisholm, A., Vorgers, S., & Mann, J. (2010). Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimized drug treatment-Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomized controlled trial. BMJ.

Nanda Nursing. (2011, May 1). Nursing Intervention for Diabetes. Retrieved from Nanda Nursing Intervention:  http://nanda-nursinginterventions.blogspot.com.ng/2011/05/nursing-intervention-for-diabetes.html 

Nield, L., Summerbell, C., Hooper, L., Whittaker, V., & Moore, H. (2008). Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Create a Budget Qualification Personnel
Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 4602466
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Medical Research Funding - Government vs. Private

Most research funding comes from two major sources: corporations and government. Some small amounts of scientific research are carried out by charitable foundations, especially in relation to developing cures for chronic diseases.

Government funding for medical research amounts to approximately 36% in the U.S. he government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social science and humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions government provides the bulk of the funds for basic scientific research. In commercial research and development, all but the most research-oriented corporations focus more heavily on near-term commercialization possibilities rather than ideas or technologies.

Government-funded research can either be carried out by the government itself, or through grants to academic and other researchers otside the government. Critics of basic research are concerned that research funding for the sake of knowledge itself does not contribute to a great…

The various members of HHMI that are filling key staff positions include: Robert Tjian (President), Craig Alexander (Vice President / General Council), and Sean Carroll (Vice President for Science Education). Robert Tjian has formal training as a biochemist and has been the President of HHMI since 2009. He received a Bachelor Degree from Berkeley and a PHD from Harvard University. The greatest contribution that Tjian has made to medical research is through his groundbreaking work, regarding how genes are turned on and off. Craig Alexander has acted as legal counsel for HHMI since 1994 and has been the Vice President since 2006. He has a Law Degree from the Georgetown University Law Center. Sean Carroll is in charge of Science Education for HHMI. He has been working as an HHMI investigator at the University of Wisconsin Madison, where he is a world famous biologist.

Partnerships and cooperating agencies include: 18 Nobel Prize winners, the National Academy of Sciences, and 335 HHMI investigators around the world. The various board members include: James Baker, Garnett Keith, Fred Lummis and Paul Nurse. All of the different individuals made annual contributions to the foundation.

HHMI Personnel Budget

Management Research Following the Terrorist Attacks of
Words: 824 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66733708
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Management esearch

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the erratic responses to the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005, critical incident management has become the focus of a growing body of research. In addition, there is an ongoing need for timely and effective responses to manmade and natural disasters, and improved approaches continue to be identified. To gain some fresh insights into current critical incident management, this paper reviews three studies concerning a coordinated multi-disciplinary response to a critical incident as well as the National Incident Management System. A review of a final article concerning response and management of a chemical, biological, radiological and explosive incident is followed by a summary of the research and a description concerning how the research contributes to knowledge in these areas.

eview and Analysis

Coordinated Multi-Disciplinary esponse to a Critical Incident.

In his study, "esponding to Bio-terrorism equires a Concerted Effort," Mughai…

Ethics in Research for Organizations of All
Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 83305104
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Ethics in esearch

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…

REFERENCES

Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm

Pharmacists Get Involved in Medical
Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54707549
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ithin the profession itself, there are many ethical debates, pertaining to medications, such as prescribing psychotropic drugs like antidepressants to adolescents, the correct times to use palliative care at the end of a patient's life, the ethics of emergency contraception and giving 'the morning after pill' and contraception to adolescents without parental consent. For pharmacists engaged in research, the appropriate use of animals in research and whom to include or exclude in clinical trials may be another issue of personal concern (Applelbe 2008). In all cases, to dispense medication means one must dispense good judgment, not simply pills and potions.

orks Cited

Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.…

Works Cited

Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.

London: Pharma Press.

Electronic Database for Records Medical Division
Words: 756 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31752919
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Medical Affairs Department: Implementing Electronic Database Record Keeping

Feasibility Analysis:

This project is very feasible as it is a standard updating of record keeping procedures from manual to electronic database -- which is common practice among most records departments today. There is nothing exceptional or impractical about this project and it can be accomplished with relatively little cost, little time devoted to the transition, and few risks.

Technical Feasibility: The project is technically feasible and depends only upon the assistance of the IT division and the training staff/support system to help in the going-online phase of the transition. The database technology is standard for the industry and will be easily obtained and implemented.

Economic Feasibility: The project is economically feasible with systems ranging from low-cost to higher-end or premium packages. A medium-range database system will be sufficient for this project and is within the budget of the Department and can…

Organization Assessment Good Shepherd Medical
Words: 1323 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8650987
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For example, because different etiologies require corresponding therapeutic designs and mechanisms (Spector, 2000; Steefel, 2002), specific support group makeup must consider the need to develop different strategies and methodologies for the following types of patients at a minimum if support groups are to provide equal benefit to all patients:

Elderly Patients and Lifelong Laborers - This group typically presents with psychological issues in the realm of a direct link between their sense of purpose and self-worth and their ability to continue to function productively in their community. Their need for acute medical and ancillary services, particularly in the Longview/East Texas community are often precipitated by chronic physical deterioration from a lifetime of relatively hard labor. Therefore, support group rehabilitation services must address the issues of self-esteem as a function of vocational productivity and lifestyle changes necessitated by medical conditions.

Prime-of-Life Victims of Traumatic Injury - This group typically presents with…

References

Clark, C., Robinson, T. (2000). "Multiculturalism as a Concept in Nursing" Journal of the Black Nurses Association, 11(2), 39-43.

Spector, R. (2000). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004). Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.)

St. Louis: Mosby.

Improving Customer Service on a Medical Surgical
Words: 4407 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84030109
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Improving Customer Service on a Medical Surgical Nursing Unit

Quality Improvment Project-Customer service on the nursing unit

The hospital medical-surgical nursing unit is usually referred to as the "catch-all" department for different types of patients. This is because it includes renal patients, cancer patients, cardiac and surgical patient. It also includes other patients who do not particularly fall into any of these specialized units. The medical-surgical nursing unit is a conglomeration of all kinds of adults with all sorts of health problems and thus the nurses in this unit need to be dynamic, quick to respond and are almost on their toes at all times. Patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit are likely to develop changes in their condition quite rapidly and therefore they become more unstable even though they may have been admitted in a stable condition. This is because most patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit have unpredictable…

References

Amba-Rao, S.C. (1994). Human Resource Management Practices in India: An Exploratory Study. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 30(2), 190-202.

Dirks, K.T., & Ferrin, D.L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 611-628.

Glickman, S.W., Baggett, K.A., Krubert, C.G., Peterson, E.D., & Schulman, K.A. (2007). Promoting quality: the health-care organization from a management perspective. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 341-348. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm047

Judge, T.A., & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 755-768.

Patient Centered Medical Home
Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82102409
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Patient-Centered Medical Home

Medical Home

How the Patient-Centered Medical-Home reducing cost and improving quality and safety for patients.

The patient centered medical home is a platform that fills a need in the current healthcare system. The U.S. healthcare system has been plagued for quite some time with a trend of substantially rising healthcare costs as well as another trend of slipping quality standards. These two trends are argued to be a phenomenon that has emerged at least partly from poor planning and ineffective use of resources. One solution to some of these issues can be found in the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of primary care. This model has been developed with the coordination of long-term physician-patient relationships in mind. Developing these relationships further can not only reduce costs in unnecessary procedures that are the result of the missed opportunity for preventive care, but also have been shown to improve…

References

Christensen, E., Dorrance, K., Ramchandiani, S., Lynch, S., Whitmeore, C., Borsky, A., . . . Bickett, T. (2013). Impact of a Patient-Centered Medical Home on Access, Quality, and Cost. Military Medicine, 135-141.

Ewing, M. (2013). The Patient-Centered Medical Home Solution to the Cost-Quality Conundrum. Journal of Healthcare Management, 258-266.

Kern, L., Dhopeshwarker, R., Edwards, A., & Kaushal, R. (2013). Patient Experience Over Time in Patient-Centered Medical Homes. American Journal of Managed Care, 403-410.

Nielsen, M., Olayiwola, J., Grundy, P., & Grumbach, K. (2014). The Patient-Centered Medical Home's Impact on Cost & Quality. Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative, 1-38.

Diagnostic Medical Sonography What Do
Words: 308 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 25869489
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They have a great deal of responsibility for selecting the images during the scan that provide the most comprehensive picture for diagnostic purposes, as well as recording their own preliminary findings.

Why did you apply to this health program?

I have worked three years as a 401K plan analyst. I enjoy making the complex financial services industry comprehensible to clients, but I am seeking a job that is more meaningful and hands-on that still makes use of detail-oriented personality. The field of medical sonography is fascinating and likely to be more and more important in the future because of its ability to quickly provide a portrait of a patient's state of well-being. Working in the field will allow me to be in close contact with patients and to give them meaningful comfort, advice, and care during diagnostic procedures.

CPT Codes in Medical Offices That Employ
Words: 759 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66744667
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CPT codes in medical offices that employ Health Information Management professionals. Many current practices are using HIM professionals to help document patient visits and any treatments performed or offered to them. Having well trained HIM personnel can help the practice receive maximum reimbursement for the services that are performed there. This brief review will document the numerical system used for CPT codes that are detailed in billing literature as well as the appropriate methods for using them.

Coding professionals provide an invaluable service to physician practices and hospitals as they are truly the front line defense as far as ensuring reimbursements are near or even at maximum for their patients. The medical team works very hard for the patients they serve, and they should be reimbursed for it appropriately. Correct and appropriate medical codes will allow the office to recoup as much as possible from the services they provide.

Current…

References

Torrey, T. (2011) What Are CPT Codes?  http://patients.about.com/od/costsconsumerism/a/cptcodes.htm . Last accessed January 18, 2011.