Meningitis Essays (Examples)

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Jacob Warren-Scott Westman Was the Only Son

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22583198

Jacob Warren-Scott Westman was the only son of Bryan and Carla Westman and was a lovely child. On October 26, 1998, Jacob woke up in the morning feeling unwell, as his head and stomach hurt and in addition he felt dizzy. His mother gave him some Advil for his headache. She believed that he had a touch of flu as she and Jacob's sister Lacey had just gotten over a bout of flu. She did not go to work and instead put her son to bed and he slept a lot and vomited on one occasion. He woke up in the evening complaining that he was still unwell and he was found to have developed a temperature, as he was hot to touch. His exact temperature could not be measured as the thermometer was misplaced and so she gave him some more Advil and put him in a lukewarm bath…… [Read More]

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United States Army Do to

Words: 7293 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64522681

Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.

Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.

Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…… [Read More]

References, cont.

Minter, Stephen G. (2002). "Does Your Hearing Conservation Program Measure Up? Once Described as "Sleep Aid Material," the Dry Topic of Hearing Conservation Metrics Draws Increased Interest as OSHA's STS Trigger Undergoes Review." Occupational Hazards, 3/1/2002.

Mosley, Gerry L. (2004). "National Guard and Reserve Unit Health Protections." Congressional Testimony, 3/30/2004.

PR Newswire (2003). "Compound Licensed by American BioHealth Group From U.S. Navy Shown to Protect Against Hearing Loss From Impulse Noise; - New Data Presented at Association for Research in Otolaryngology Meeting." PR Newswire Release, 3/3/2003.

Rabinowitz, Peter M. (2000). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. American Family Physician, 5/1/2000,.
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Coli and IT's Filamentous Morphology

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98976208

"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."

E. coli Outbreak:

There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…… [Read More]

References

Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.

Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
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Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

elative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]

References

Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
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MMR Vaccine and Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Words: 6800 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49586616

Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it

SHAPE

Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:

Absence of Evidence for Link

to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Correspondence to:

Mentor:

Dr. Anshu Kacker

5650 including Abstracts

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…… [Read More]

References

Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009

Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.

ADDED

Autism Watch (2015)  http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
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Religion vs Medical Care

Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79209275

Ethical Frameworks

The author of this report has been asked to assess the options and mandates that exist when it comes to a six-year-old child has apparent contracted a case of meningitis. The mother is a Christian Scientist that refuses medical care while the father seeks treatment along with an independent consult. The course of action that should be taken is to be derived from that. As part of this situation, there are a couple of deliverables that will be given. First, the ethical dilemma in question will be identified. Second, the decision-making model that is to be used will be identified. Third, how the dilemma would be resolved will be identified. Fourth and finally, the dialog that would exist with the parents would be explained and detailed. While the biological mother generally has the right to raise her child as she sees fit, her decision to withhold medical care…… [Read More]

References

Fox, M. (2015). Doctor to Legislators: Refusing Medical Care Isn't Religious Freedom. NBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://www.nbcnews.com/health/kids-health/doctor-legislators-refusing-medical-care-isnt-religious-freedom-n320031 

Hall, H. (2013). Faith Healing: Religious Freedom vs. Child Protection. Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/faith-healing-religious-freedom-vs.-child-protection/

Law Info,. (2015). Health Insurance Resources: When Can a Parent Deny Medical Treatment to a Minor Child? - LawInfo. Resources.lawinfo.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://resources.lawinfo.com/insurance/health-insurance/when-can-a-parent-deny-medical-treatment-to-a.html 

NIH,. (2015). Parental refusals of medical treatment: the harm principle as threshold for state intervention. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 June 2015, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637945
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How to Treat Sinusitis in a Patient With Allergies

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31632573

Patient Cathy

Further questions I would have for Cathy during this visit are the following: Are you coughing phlegm (greenish in color)? Do you have a fever or feel ill or have a headache? Have you taken any long flights recently? Have you been feeling anxious about anything lately? Have you had any stiffness in your neck? Have you experienced a loss of appetite? Felt confused? Have you suffered from any seizures? Can you touch your chin to your chest? Do you drink alcohol? Do your ears feel full?

Because the patient has been using her inhaler when exercising, it is not likely that she would feel any pain in her chest because this is meant to prevent it; however, other signs are evident that she may have an infection and it is important to examine her body systems more closely.

The differential diagnosis list for this visit thus far…… [Read More]

References

Baldouff, G. (2012). When breathing is a burden: How to help patients with COPD.

American Nurse Today, 7(8).

Broekhuizen, B., Sachs, A., Hoes, A., Verheij, T., Moons, K. (2012). Diagnostic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Netherland Journal of Medicine, 70(1): 6-11.

Thigpen, M. et al. (2011). Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007. New
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Naegleria Fowleri Causes Symptoms Diagnosis

Words: 2518 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34947044

2004). In those cases, there was very early diagnosis and administration of intravenous and intrathecal or intraventricular amphotericin B. with intensive supportive care (2004). One survivor received miconazole intravenously and intrathecally and rifampicin orally (2004). Other treatment options include the drugs rifampicin and micoazole.

Khan (2008) notes that the mortality rate for PAM is 95%. Again, one of the major obstacles to effective treatment is the rapid progression of the disease. Another obstacle is the paucity of drugs that have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (Schuster & Visvesvara 2004; Khan 2008). Nevertheless, there have been documented recoveries from PAM (Seidel 1982; Wang 1993; Khan 2008). Early recognition and treatment of the disease appear to be the chief elements in successful outcomes (2008). At the time of Khan's (2008) writing, the drug of choice for treatment of human cases was amphotericin B. In conjunction with rifampin as well as…… [Read More]

References:

Embrey, Martha., Hunter, Paul., Chalmers, Rachel., Sellwood, Jane., Wyn-Jones, Peter., & Percival, Steven. (2004). Microbiology of waterborne diseases:

microbiological aspects and risks. Academic Press; 1st edition.

Jarillo-Luna, a., Moreno-Fierros, L., Campos-Rodriguez, R., Rodriguez-Monroy, M.A.,

Lara-Padilla, E., & Rojas-Hernandez, Saul. (2008). Intranasal immunization with Naegleria fowleri lysates and Cry1Ac metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium and inceases IgA secretion. Parasite immunology,30(1), p. 31-38.
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West Nile Virus

Words: 1924 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64185724

est Nile virus was first detected in the estern Hemisphere in 1999 and during the last few years has spread cross the North American continent into all forty-eight continental states, seven Canadian provinces, throughout Mexico (est). Moreover, the virus has been detected in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, and El Salvador (est). According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 15,000 people in the United States have tested positive for the virus since 1999, resulting in over five hundred deaths (est). Most experts believe that many more people have most likely been infected with the virus, but have experienced mild or no symptoms, thus have gone unreported (est). An individual's risk of contracting the est Nile is statistically low, and less than 1% of those infected develop serious illness (est). The elderly population and those with compromised immune systems are at the highest…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Guidelines for Investigating Suspect West Nile Virus Cases in Equine. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/issues/issues_archive/wnv/wnvguide.html

NIAID Research on West Nile Virus. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious

Disease. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:
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West Nile Virus Emerging Infectious

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72327041



Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…… [Read More]

References

Bourne, D. (2011). "West Nile Virus Disease." Available at: http://usgs.wildlifeinformation.org/List_Vols/westnile/Disease_WNVInfection/04WNVMortality.html

"Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control." (2003). Center for Disease Control (CDC) Website. Available at:  http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/wnv-guidelines-aug-2003.pdf#page=47

Mostashari, F., Bunning, M. And Kitsutani, P. (1999). "Epidemic West Nile Encephalitis: Results of a household-based seroseroepidemiological survey." In Lancet 2001; 358. Center for Disease Control Website. Available at:
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Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct

Words: 2739 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60665561

prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance.  http://www.cdc.gov/ drugresistance/actionplan/html/

4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
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Magic Johnson and HIV Science Knows That

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88093176

Magic Johnson and HIV

Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:

Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).

Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).

Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).

Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aidsinfonet.org. Fact Sheet 801: "Vitamins and Minerals." Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view.801. 2012.

Cancer.org. "Kaposi Sarcoma: What is Kaposi Sarcoma?" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.cancer.org. 2009.

Mayo Clinic. "HIV / AIDS" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com. 2011.

Medical News Today. "What is Tuberculosis? What Causes Tuberculosis?" Retrieved June 24,
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Religion and Science & Religion

Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36140675

There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…… [Read More]

References

Barnes L.L. & Sered, S.S. (2005). Religion and Healing in America. New York: Oxford University Press

Hamer, D. (2004).The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired Into our Genes.

Koenig, H.G. (2005). Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Nord, W.A. (1999). Science, Religion and Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(1), 28.
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Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
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Drug Monograph for Serious Infections

Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46553583

Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).

Contraindications

Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).

Drug-Drug Interactions

The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]

Reference: PDR Network LLC.

Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
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Mozambique Faces the Significant Problem

Words: 2571 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86844001

(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)

The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…… [Read More]

References

Drug deals: Medicines, Development and HIV / AIDS. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.vso.org.uk/Images/position_papers_drug_deals_tcm8-1597.pdf. Accessed 17 September, 2005

HIV / AIDS Situation in Mozambique. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/50875.pdf. Accessed 17 September, 2005

Marketing Medicine: Insider Secrets to online healthcare Marketing. March, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.medic8.com/MarketingMedicine.htm. Accessed 18 September, 2005

Mozambique: fact file. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozfact.htm. Accessed 18 September, 2005
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Effects of Having Herpes

Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50596058

herpes simplex viruses. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face and is often referred to as labial herpes. It is the most common herpes simplex virus and is usually acquired in childhood. y adulthood, up to ninety percent of individuals will have antibodies to HSV-1. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or genital herpes is sexually transmitted and is usually associated with genital ulcers or sores -- however individuals may harbor HSV-2 and not have developed any symptoms. Genital herpes can also be caused by HSV-1, but this is not as common. Up to twenty-thirty percent of U.S. adults have antibodies against HSV-2.

This paper discusses the effects of both labial and genital herpes in terms of typical consequences and more severe complications that are less likely to arise.

Labial Herpes

The first time a person is infected with HSV-1, he…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cold Sores." WebMD Health. 08 Apr. 2003. http://my.webmd.com/content/healthwise/117/29189.htm?lastselectedguid={5FE84E90-BC77-4056-A91C-9531713CA348}

Herpes Infections: Symptoms and Treatment." The University of New Mexico Student

Health Center. 08 Apr. 2003. http://www.unm.edu/~shc1/herpes.html.

Herpes Simplex Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." 1UP Health. 08 Apr. 2003. http://www.1uphealth.com/health/herpes_simplex_info.html.
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West Nile Virus

Words: 3522 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60647833

West Nile Virus

In recent years, every summer, the threat of West Nile (WN) virus has become the scourge of the temperate regions of Europe and North America. (Abramovitz, 2004) The virus presents a threat to the human and animal population -- especially the bird population. Symptoms of WN viral infection range from mild fevers and aches, to encephalitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain). The latter can be fatal. In 1937, a woman in Uganda complaining of a fever was the first known case of West Nile virus. In the 1950s, it was found in Egypt, hence the name. In 1957, some elderly people succumbed to the disease in Israel. Later, in the 1960s, in Egypt and France, an infection in horses came to be recognized as West Nile viral in nature. The WN virus appeared in North America in 1999, though it is not known where in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abramovitz, Melissa. West Nile Virus. San Diego, Calif.: Lucent Books, 2004.

Bunning, M.L., et al. "Experimental Infection of Horses with West Nile Virus and Their Potential to Infect Mosquitoes and Serve as Amplifying Hosts." Ann NY Acad Sci 951 (2001): 338-9.

Experimental Infection of Horses with West Nile Virus." Emerg Infect Dis 8.4 (2002): 380-6.

Campbell, G.L., et al. "West Nile Virus." Lancet Infect Dis 2.9 (2002): 519-29.
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Bell's Palsy

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37159497

ell's Palsy

Introduction person might wake up one morning and discover that one side of his or her face shows signs of paralysis. The symmetrical nature of the face might have a mismatched appearance. The afflicted side may have varying levels of deformity and droopiness.

The person might discover the inability to close the eye. The paralysis of one side of the face means that speech is often distorted. Feeding is difficult. Drooling is frequent. The person finds it impossible to pucker the lips into a shape that is often used for whistling. The direct diagnosis is that this person is suffering from ell's Palsy. This condition is relatively temporary. Only few people who suffer from this condition have permanent effects. ell's Palsy can develop over a few hours or a few days. It is not uncommon for a person to find that the condition has developed overnight.

Origins

Sr.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AAO-HNS. Doctor, What Is Bell's Palsy? 2004. American Academy of Otolaryngology. Available:

http://www.entnet.org/healthinfo/topics/bells.cfm.August 2, 2004.

Allen, D., and L. Dunn. "Aciclovir or Valaciclovir for Bell's Palsy (Idiopathic Facial Paralysis)." Cochrane Database Syst Rev.3 (2004): CD001869.

Finn, J.C. "Botulinum Toxin Type A: Fine-Tuning Treatment of Facial Nerve Injury." J. Drugs Dermatol 3.2 (2004): 133-7.
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Hearing Impairments

Words: 3047 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67382945

causes of hearing loss and reduction in people of all ages. Many people think of hearing loss as being either something a person is born with or something he or she experiences with old age, but those are far from the only factors that can result in hearing impairment. Whether the person is completely deaf or only has trouble hearing, there are a variety of causes that must be considered and ruled out before a definite determination as to the exact cause of the impairment can be made. Additionally, there are several treatments to be considered. Which one of these is best for the person with the hearing impairment will depend on the cause of that impairment and other factors. Not every option will work for every patient, and doctors must consider numerous issues before making a decision regarding which type of treatment may be the right choice. There are…… [Read More]

References

Kral, A, & O'Donoghue, G.M. (2010). Profound deafness in childhood. New England Journal of Medicine, 363: 1438-50.

Lieu, J.E. (2004). Speech-language and educational consequences of unilateral hearing loss in children. Archives of Otolaryngological Head & Neck Surgery, 130(5): 524-30.

Oishi, N. & Schacht, J. (2011). Emerging treatments for noise-induced hearing loss. Expert opinion on emerging drugs, 16(2): 235 -- 45.

Robinson, D.W. & Sutton, G.J. (1979). Age effect in hearing -- a comparative analysis of published threshold data. Audiology: Official Organ of the International Society of Audiology 18(4): 320 -- 34.
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Using Antibiotics

Words: 1386 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98812868

Antibiotics

Penicillin

Mechanism of Action

Penicillin G, when injected into the patient, will act against actively proliferating penicillin-sensitive strains of bacteria (Drugs.com, 2011). This does not include several strains of staphylococci producing penicillinase or bacteria that are quiescent. The mechanism of action is inhibition of cell-wall mucopeptide biosynthesis. Penicillin G. works best against staphylococci groups A, B, C, G, H, L, and M, pneumococci, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponemapallidum, and many others.

Clinical Uses

Penicillin is used to treat serious infections, such as septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, empyema, and meningitis (Drugs.com, 2011). Penicillin is also indicated in cases of anthrax, botulism, actinomycosis, diphtheria, listeria infections, erysipelothrix endocarditis, severe infections of the oropharynx, lower respiratory tract, and genitals. Penicillin is also used to treat gonorrhea, syphyilis, rat-bite fever, and Haverhill fever. Only penicillin-sensitive bacteria should be treated due to the risk of creating penicillin-resistant strains. Although treatment should begin immediately in…… [Read More]

References

Drugs.com. (2011). Penicillin G. Sodium Injection (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/penicillin-g-sodium-injection.html.

Drugs.com. (2013). Septra (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/septra.html.

Drugs.com. (2014a). Gentamicin Sulfate (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/gentamicin-sulfate.html.

Drugs.com. (2014b). Zithromax (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/zithromax.html.
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Indigenous Studies Colonization Can Negatively

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18600663

In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.

Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.

Government policy and exclusion

According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aboriginal health issues. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/aboriginal_health_issues-open

Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.

McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.

McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265
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Frank Mccourt's Angela's Ashes a

Words: 1454 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51482136



However, the reader might probably be disappointed at the lack of assignment of responsibility to any living being. Again, the author of this essay thinks that the book buying public who provides the author with the ability to make a living deserves better.

This portrayal of McCourt's father is further analyzed in the book by Helena Schneider. She has an entire chapter dedicated to McCourt's father. She quotes one of McCourt's interviews where he cites an extract from the book where he likens his paper in an Irish parody of the Holy Trinity. He said his father had one in the morning with the paper, then one at night with stories and prayers and then he said that the one reeking of whiskey comes home and wants them to die for Ireland (Schneider 6). The father is a complex figure who is just too proud to ask anyone for financial…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Doyle, Danny and Terence Folan, eds. The Gold Sun of Irish Freedom: 1798 in Song and Story. Dublin: O'Brien Press, 1998.

http://books.google.com/books?id=aDfhAAAAMAAJ&q=Frank+McCourt&dq=Frank+McCourt&lr=&cd=91

"Frank McCourt: A Writer Risen from the Ashes." Academy of Achievement. Academy of Achievement, Jul 29, 2009. 10 Apr 2010. .

Grossman, Lev. "Frank McCourt, Author of Angela's Ashes, Dies." Time Jul. 19, 2009:
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Achieving Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation Baby-Friendly

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26970491

496).

Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…… [Read More]

Resources needed for the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital designation are relatively limited, due in large part to the extensive work the Brookdale Hospital has recently done to begin to implement better breastfeeding and maternal practices, as noted at the close of the Problem statement section of this work. The hospital must implement additional changes, file the proper application for assessment and designation and prove and justify implementation of the 10 steps associated with the designation over a period of five years. The resources needed for this process will include participation by existing staff including nurses, nurse managers and the hiring of a certified lactation specialist. The most costly of all the implementation strategies will be hiring of a certified lactation specialist, other costs will be further detailed in the budget section of this work and will include administrative, office supplies, additional signage and support training of nursing and support staff.

Barriers to Change

Barriers to change must begin with a clear understanding and elimination of the kinds of hospital practices that are shown in evidence-based research to be particularly contraindicative of early, long-duration and successful breastfeeding including the; use of artificial nipples (pacifiers), bottles, and even nipple shields in mainly healthy newborns (McKechnie & Eglash, 2010) supplementation that is unneeded for natal nutrition, limitations in the practice of rooming in (infant stays with mother as much as possible over the first 24 hours after birth to ensure on demand nursing opportunities), limitations in skin to skin contact of infant with both mother and father, and other institutionally practiced barriers are not only common but traditionally accepted as standards of practice in most hospitals and birthing centers ("Breastfeeding-related maternity practices…" 2008 ). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation, and all the steps to prepare and implement it will go far to demonstrate change in hospitals including but not limited to Brookdale Hospital in NYC.

Barriers to change, that are specific to Brookdale hospital have been briefly developed in the problem statement of this work and demonstrate mostly institutional practices that are not only accepted but supported by the hospital and L&D and neonatal staff. Rooming in, where the newborn infant spends as much time as possible with the mother during the first 24-48 hours of life, leaving the bedside of the mother only when absolutely necessary is essential to change. The existence of a highly staffed and large newborn nursery, where infants spend a good deal of time and receive a great deal of care from staff rather than the mother is one of the first institutional issues that needs to change. This reduction of reliance on the newborn nursery may offset some of the costs of implementing change, as stricter rooming in policies and practices would indicate the need for fewer staff resources in the newborn nursery. Skin-to-skin contact of mother to infant should begin at the moment of birth, as is indicated by the hospital's new policies and procedures for breastfeeding support. Newborns should be given screening tests in the presence of the mother, and if at all possible while the mother is holding and/or nursing the child during skin to skin contact. Breastfeeding education should be continuous, beginning in prenatal clinics, extending throughout the hospital stay and supported and supplemented by follow up care with a certified lactation specialist and/or nursing staff that has taken CEC courses in breastfeeding support, and the number class offerings per week should be increased to every other day to support the usual uncomplicated discharge of mother and baby at 48-72 hours post delivery and the course for mothers should be a condition for discharge. L&D and nursery nurses should continue to be encouraged to take the available course with a first year goal of 100% completion. Lastly, cultural barriers to breastfeeding in the patient population should be mitigated with culturally sensitive training and breastfeeding support, long-term breastfeeding follow up and a sensitive but essential reiteration of the many benefits of breastfeeding for both child and mother, reiteration, for those who qualify, of the benefits of the Women Infant Children program which supports breastfeeding mothers with additional food and benefits for the mother not just by supplying formula or food for the infant after birth.

Role of Nurse Executive
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Heather Whitestone The First Miss

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55253629

Unfortunately, I could not hear any sound from my right ear even with the help of hearing aid. For this reason, I used my right ear for the cochlear implant. My right ear had been sleeping for 28 years until the cochlear implant woke it up on September 19th, 2002" ("FAQ," Heather hitestone ebpage, 2010). Heather writes on her webpage that she strongly supports implants for children and decided to have one as an adult so she could hear the voices of her two young sons.

hitestone was not only "the first deaf Miss America; in fact, she was the first Miss America with a physical disability of any kind" ("Heather hitestone," Alabama, 2003). She and continues to come fire because of her public and vocal support of acoupedics and orally-based deaf education. Today, hitestone lives in Alabama, raising her children. hitestone married a hearing man, John McCallum, an aide…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"FAQ." Heather Whitestone. Official Webpage. February 23, 2010.

http://www.heatherwhitestone.com/site/content/faqs.shtml

"Heather Whitestone." Alabama. 2003. February 23, 2010.

 http://www.al.com/south/celebs3.html
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Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]

References

ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site:  http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov/ hiv/aboutDHAP.htm

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
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Neuroborreliosis Borrelia Burgdorferi or Bb

Words: 2247 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57244825



Treatment

The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.

A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.

Greater Recovery Among Children

Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.

The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23

(April).Available from  http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm 

-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available

from  http://www.mentalhealthandillness.com/tnaold.html
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MMR Vaccine Autism MMR Vaccine

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56361000

This dramatic event followed the revelation that Wakefield had accepted money from lawyers representing parents who had filed lawsuits claiming that the MM vaccines had caused autism in their children. Some of these children were even part of Wakefield's original study. (Schreibman, 2005)

This disclosure may have laid some doubts to rest but is still not enough to answer the question whether there is actually a link between MM and autism. Firstly, there is a doubt amongst parents and scientists whether MM may cause measles, encephalitis or a depression of the immune system in general. However, numerous studies have looked into this possibility and have concluded that the chance is extremely less at the rate of… [Read More]

References

Bauman, Margaret L; Kemper, Thomas L. (2005) "The neurobiology of autism"

JHU Press.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008) "Measles, Mumps, and Rubella

(MMR) Vaccine" Retrieved 25 March, 2009 from  http://www.cdc.gov/ vaccinesafety/concerns/mmr_vaccine.htm
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West Nile Virus in Horses

Words: 2009 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14315101

" (Science Daily, 2008) it is related that these testing and diagnosis of West Nile in horses assist in the identification of where the disease is spreading and helps in the decision concerning whether to vaccinate horses in an area. Dr. Magnarelli states that the information used in this testing " is useful in confirming the epidemiology of the virus, determining when it arrived in certain areas and how it spreads." (Science Daily, 2008) the following illustration shows West Nile Virus (2008) in State with Equine cases with the total number of cases as of September 2, 2008 being 42.

West Nile Virus in 2008 (States with Equine Cases)

Total number of cases September 2, 2008

Source: United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (2008)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

West Nile Virus in horses requires diligent preventive factors because horses are more prone to become infected with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines (2005) American Association of Equine Practitioners. Supplement to the AAEP Guidelines for Vaccination of Horses, January 2001. Online available at http://www.aaep.org/pdfs/AAEP_WNV_Guidelines_2005.pdf

West Nile Encephalitis in Horses (nd) Penn State University. College of Agricultural sciences - Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension. Online available at http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/un008.pdf

Society for General Microbiology (2008, August 22). New and Improved Test for West Nile Virus in Horses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 13, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080819213052.htm

Animal Health Monitoring & Surveillance (2008) West Nile Virus - States with Equine Cases, Total Cases as of September 2, 2008-42. United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
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Powerful Antibiotics in Order to

Words: 386 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1193024

This was an extremely unethical move, because in many cases the parents had no idea their child was partaking in a study,

Another example of the unethical decisions made by Pfizer was the move not to remove many children off the experimental drug when they failed to respond to it. In response, many children died who might have had a chance if they had been removed off the Trovan and placed on a more traditional antibiotic. Yet, Pfizer made the decision to ignore such dire needs of its patients and continue on with the study despite the ramifications. This is a blatant example of a completely unethical decision made to promote a faster passing of the drug into FDA standards.

Although this strategy was meant to provide faster results to the FDA on the benefits of Trovan, I would have rather taken a slower and more ethical root. Yes, this…… [Read More]

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Mental Retardation Is Generally Understood

Words: 2000 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76150564

They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)

6. Conclusion

The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.

My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…… [Read More]

References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm

Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836

Lustig D.C. (1996)

Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825" Journal of Rehabilitation, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n4_v62" Oct-Dec, 1996. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_2_65/ai_54924773/pg_1?tag=artBody;col1

Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.hmc.psu.edu/childrens/healthinfo/m/mentalretardation.htm
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Playwright as Rock Star Art

Words: 2345 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87064722

It was also during this time that he started keeping a diary. The entry for that day is very relevant as to our attempt to understand what drove Orton to join the theater in hopes of an acting career. During the time he spent with the amateur theater company, Orton decided that he wanted to pursue a career in acting, and that his first step towards achieving this goal was to go to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art: "Last night sitting in the empty theatre watching the electricians flashing lights on and off, the empty stage waiting for rehearsal to begin, I suddenly knew that my ambition is, and always has been, to act." (Diary entry, April 13th, 1949: Joe Orton Online)

He quit the amateur acting company after his first role because he was not offered any other substantial roles. Although he got accepted into the Royal Academy…… [Read More]

Woodcock, George. The Paradox of Oscar Wilde. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

Terpening, William. "The Picture of Oscar Wilde: A brief life." Oscar Wilde Biographical Materials. 1998.  http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/wilde/wildebio.html 

Joe Orton Life and Work" Joe Orton Online.  http://www.joeorton.org/Pages/Joe_Orton_Timeline1.html
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William J Donovan and the

Words: 4625 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15468295

Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Us. (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. [Online]. Available:  https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html .

Donovan, William J. Preface to the Ultimate Weapon, Oleg Anisimov, Chicago: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1953.

Ford, Corey. Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.

Heidekinq, Jurgen, Christof Mauch and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
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Senegal Prior to Ordering Meat

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61963853

" There is also a problem with deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion and over-fishing, and because of the clear-cutting of forested areas in Senegal, a process of "desertification" is well underway. The problem of desertification is significant because according to United Nations' information (Thompson Gale / Nations Encyclopedia) 46% of Senegal is classified as semiarid. There has been "inadequately controlled cutting of forests for fuel" and there has also been significant overgrazing of existing grasslands (which are dwindling away). The capital of Dakar suffers from "improper sanitation" according to Nations Encyclopedia; but on the positive side of urban life, 92% of city dwellers have access to safe drinking water. Still, wherever you look in Senegal, you can't escape the fact that this is a third world country; to wit, 35% of people living in rural Senegal do not have access to safe drinking water.

Those above-mentioned facts having been presented, there…… [Read More]

Works Cited

African Conservation. "Senegal: The African Mangrove Network." Retrieved April 12, 2007 from http://www.africanconservation.org/senegal.html.

CIA. "The World Factbook: Senegal." Retrieved April 12, 2007, at http://www.cia.gov/publications/factbook/pring/sg.html.

Encyclopedia of the Nations. "Senegal: Environment." Retrieved April 12, 2007, from Thompson - Gale at http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/e/africa/Senegal-ENVIRONMENT.html.

Sakho, Amadou. "Senegal Shuts Down Mining Operations in Protected Areas." Inter
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Hearing Loss Kids With Hearing

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35466901

He now learns the written form of the language. During this phase the emphasis is on the mastery of reading and writing. At the near end of this phase, an eight-year-old has a command of about 80% of the grammar and 17,000 words at their disposal.

Children with a hearing loss in one ear may fall behind their peers with normal hearing during the first two stages of language development. When these children reach school age their behaviors may be taken to mean they are disinterested or not academically inclined, when in reality they are suffer a physical, not a mental disability.

If 5% (one in twenty) of children suffer from a hearing loss in one ear one can only image the number of children who are misdiagnosed, mislabeled or simply fall through the cracks. Depending on class size, statistically a teacher can expect at least one student who suffers…… [Read More]

References

Ericson, G. (2010, May 5). Kids with hearing loss in one ear fall behind in language skills, study finds. Science daily news. Retrieved July 17, 2011 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100504155411.htm
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Society & the Elderly the

Words: 3904 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7347205

It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor eb site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is "understood exactly as you intended" (Family Doctor).

The advance directives are sensitive and private, and they are very important for seniors. But the advance directives can be controversial, so it is wise for older people to know the law and understand the facts. To wit, there have been rumors and falsehoods spread on the orld ide eb and elsewhere about the advance directives that are spelled out in the recent overhaul of the healthcare system. Former governor of Alaska Sarah Palin made news in the summer of 2009 by asserting that the advance directives in the healthcare overhaul created a "death panel" of bureaucrats who will "decide, based…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Binstock, Robert H., and George, Linda K. (2010). Handbook of Aging and the Social

Sciences. Maryland Heights, MO: Academic Press.

Black, Jane A. (2008). Notes: The Not-So-Golden Years: Power of Attorney, Elder Abuse, and Why Our Laws are Failing a Vulnerable Population. St. John's Law Review, 82(1), 289-314

Collier, Elizabeth. (2005). Latent age discrimination in mental health care. Mental Health
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Treatment for Constipation Htn Seizure

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64324561

Treatments

EST TREATMENTS

Constipation, Hypertension, Seizure

Constipation

This is the infrequent or difficult bowel evacuation (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). While there are no strict standard for bowel elimination, it is generally believed that fewer than thrice a week constitutes constipation. Stools are usually hard and dry. Other common symptoms associated constipation include excessive straining during bowel evacuation, a sense of rectal blockage, a sense of incomplete evacuation and the need to perform manual measures to evacuate the bowels. Constipation may be the consequence of insufficient fluid intake or dehydration, inadequate fiber in the diet, foregoing elimination, irritable bowel syndrome, lack of physical activity, illness, abuse of laxatives and certain medical conditions. Those more likely to develop constipation are older adults, those who are sedentary, confined in bed, dehydrated, on low-fiber diet, on certain medications and undergoing chemotherapy. It is more common in women and children. Causes for alarm include fewer…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Makoff, D. (2012). High blood pressure. MedicineNet: MedicineNet.com. Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from http://www.medicinenet.com/high_blood_pressure/page

Mayo Clinic Staff (2012). Constipation. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Foundation for Medical

Education and Research. Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/constipation.DS0063/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all

PubMed Health (2011). Seizures. ADAM Medical Encyclopedia: ADAM, Inc. Retrieved
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Neurological Disorders Viral Induced Neurological

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13330310

"

The "norm" in motor skills testing is that an individual should be able to follow a complex command involving at least three body parts discrimination being made between the right and left side of the body.

Cranial Nerve Examination: depending on the site of the lesion the testing of the patient in the ability to identify certain distinct odors such as coffee, cloves, ammonia and so forth are used in testing the nociceptive receptors of the trigeminal, or 5th cranial nerve. The optic second, third oculomotor and fourth trocklearn as well as the 6th crnail nerves, or abducens are tested generally as a visual type test.

Examination of the motor system is done through testing of the patients muscle tone. Decreased tone in the muscle points to atrophy. The most common abnormality of movement are called "Fasciculations" which are twitches just under the skin indicating lesions in relation to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Merck Manual: "Neurological Examination" Section 14, Chapter 165 [Online] available at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section14/chapter165/165c.jsp

Neurological Assessment
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Iron Deficiency

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9520990

Iron Deficiency

In our high technological and global economy, we Americans think of malnutrition as a thing of the past. It is almost unheard of for our children to go hungry with a McDonald's on every corner. But that is only in our world. his report is a review of the 2003 report written by Karen Olness in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics called "Effects On Brain Development Leading o Cognitive Impairment: A Worldwide Epidemic." In keeping with the theme of nutrition and iron deficiency, this story points out that the world food shortages and other epidemic situations in developing nations has a direct bearing on the brains of children. For the poor nations of the world things like malnutrition, genetic disease, infectious diseases like meningitis, parasites, and cerebral malaria, in utero drug and alcohol exposure, newborn asphyxia, low birth weight, head injuries, and endocrine disorders to name…… [Read More]

The author points out that iron deficiency has been attributed to behavior problems in children who suffered in infancy. These children are seen as problematic. They also have very high counts of anxiety or depression, social problems, and other attention issues. With these statistics, the author seems to be pointing out how crucial it is to help feed the mothers and children in third world nations. "More than 30% of pregnant women in developing countries have iron-deficiency anemia, and iron deficiency without anemia is even more widespread. If the central nervous system effects of iron deficiency in the developing infant lay the ground for later learning problems, there is a large population of children at risk." (Olness, 2003)

My thoughts & Do I agree/disagree

I feel, like the author, that these cognitive brain issues are preventable. Iron deficiency for example seems like a very simple problem to fix. Give these pregnant mothers and infants iron supplements. But that is easier said then done. The problem is -- how do we take the last Miss America up on her speech where she said that she would attempt to solve world hunger? Fine, when is she or any of us going to start? "It is reported that 38.5% of children in developing countries are underweight, and that 42% are stunted. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) reports that 35% to 40% of children suffer from moderate malnutrition and that 10% of all children suffer a period of severe malnutrition during the crucial first 2 years of life." (Olness, 2003) I know I ate today and did not think once of a baby in Uganda not getting his share of the crop. I wonder if the last Miss America was more in line with
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Goldberger's War

Words: 1653 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1215052

GOLDBEGE'S WA"

Early 20th century saw the outbreak of a deadly mysterious disease, pellagra that could cause anything from fever to dementia to death. The disease that had killed over 100,000 people by the end of 1914 was shrouded in deep mystery because of the fact that the epidemic was largely limited to the South and was exclusively affecting the peasant class. It was indeed a poor man's disease and conventional wisdom suggested it had something to do with sanitary conditions.

"Pellagra, a classic dietary deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin, was noted in the South after the Civil War. Then considered infectious, it was known as the disease of the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. The first outbreak was reported in 1907. In 1909, more than 1000 cases were estimated based on reports from 13 states. One year later, approximately 3000 cases were suspected nationwide based on…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Etheridge EW. The Butterfly Caste: A Social History of Pellagra in the South. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company; 1972.

2. Harkness Jon M. Prisoners and pellagra, Public Health Reports; 9/1/1996;

3. Kraut, A.M. 2003. Goldberger's war: the life and work of a public health crusader. Hill and Wang. New York, New York, USA.

4. Roth, J. Goldberger's war:The life and work of a public health crusader -- Journal of Clinical Investigation 113 (5):650 2004
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Cerebral Intraventricular Hemorrhage Ivh Can

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83947559

ecause the germinal matrix is so very primitive and thin, there is a much higher chance that it could rupture. How primitive the glial and mesenchymal tissues are have a great deal to do with the extent of the hemorrhage (www.emedicine.com).

Within the United States, the number of babies that have IVH is related to how old they are gestationally when they are born and what type of birthweight they have. Perinatal care and obstetric care have increased greatly in recent years, and more mothers are becoming aware of how important this kind of care is. Due to this, there are more babies that are carried to term, and more premature infants are able to survive the problems that they are often faced with. Since this is the case, the incidence of IVH, which was as high as 50% in 1977, has come down to between 8-56%. Most nurseries have…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pediatrics.aappublications.org. (1980). Mitchell, W., and O'Tuama, L. Cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages in infants: a widening age spectrum. Pediatrics. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/65/1/35.

A www.emedicine.com.(2004). Leung, A. MD. Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage. Emedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic305.htm
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Psychologists Who Influenced Me the

Words: 2326 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17244275

There were many rumors of an affair with Fromm during the period she was developing her theories on neurosis. "Horney is best known for her theory of neurosis, which she saw as much more continuous with normal life than previous theorists. Specifically, she saw neurosis as an attempt to make life bearable, as a way of "interpersonal control and coping." It might be argued that this is what we all try to do on a continuous basis, though only some of us are successful, whereas the neurotic are not." (Quinn, 2005)

She created the patterns of Neurotic Needs becauee she had a "... another way of looking at neurosis -- in terms of self-image. For Horney, the self is the core of your being, your potential. If you were healthy, you would have an accurate conception of who you are, and you would then be free to realize that potential…… [Read More]

References

Bumb, Jenn. (n.d.). Dorothea Dix. Retrieved on May 6, 2005, at http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/dorotheadix.html

DITTMANN, M. (2002). 99 of the 100 most eminent psycholgists of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology, Vol. 6, No. 2,. Retrieved May 6, 2005, from MOnitor on Pschology Web Site: http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug02/studyranks.html

Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997 May). Carl Rogers. Retrieved on May 6, 2005, at  http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/rogers.htm 

Quinn, Susan. (n.d.). A Mind of Her Own: Karen Horney Lecture Notes. Retrieved on May 6, 2005, at  http://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/Horneylect.html
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Selling Medical Supplies to Mozambique

Words: 1252 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26708738

The first level of the NHS - health centers and health costs produce a considerable part of the total volume of health services in the nation and comprise the first and only point of contact with the health system for the major part of the Mozambican population. The present approach while delivering primary level health services in Mozambique has been very successful. (Expenditure Tracking and Service Delivery Survey: The Basic Concept) iv) Profitability: Prices of medicines often has no relation to costs, as included in the cost of research and development -- &D and production, are added a portion of the mixture of marketing costs, profit margins, subsidies, tariffs, and tax requirements that vary across nations. The outcome is great price variations both between and within the nations. Since the patent for lamivudine/zidovudine taken on 1996 is valid for 20 years and low cost generic copies cannot be sold prior…… [Read More]

References

About Our Work: Antiretroviral Therapy. Retrieved at  http://www.cdc.gov/ nchstp/od/gap/pa_art.htm. Accessed 23 September, 2005

Dare to Lead: public health and company wealth. Oxfam Briefing paper on GlaxoSmithKline.

Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/health/dare_to_lead.htm. Accessed 23 September, 2005

Expenditure Tracking and Service Delivery Survey: The Health Sector in Mozambique. Survey Information and Status Report. August, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.worldbank.org/research/projects/publicspending/tools/Mozambique%20PETS/mozambique.ETSDS.lindelow.statusreport.sep4.2002.pdf. Accessed 23 September, 2005
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Genital Herpes Is Another Type

Words: 2657 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26443995

Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Social Health Association. (1998), Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Fleming DT, et al. (1997), Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. NEJM; 337:1105-11.

Gandhi, M. (February 2006), Division of Infectious Diseases, VeriMed Healthcare Network UCSF, San Francisco, CA.

Genital Herpes," (May 2005), Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179/DSECTION=8
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Food Ban Food Should Be Banned From

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38515437

Food Ban

Food should be banned from the New York City subway system. There are a few reasons why the food ban should be enacted, chief among them are the health concerns cited by state senators. Proponents of eating food on the subway system generally have weak arguments based around their own personal desire to eat food on the subway, rather than any coherent responses to the central sanitation and public nuisance argument.

According to the text of the bill (S6312), the purpose of the bill is to "mitigate the growing rat infestation in the NYC subway system." The bill would establish fines and other punishments for eating food on the subway system. There are a number of problems with the rat issue in the subway system. In general, people experience a sense of revulsion at the sight of rats, in particular the large, greasy variety found in the subway…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

AP. (2012). MTA chief says he opposes subway food ban. ABC News. Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/story?section=resources/traffic&id=8543501

Prendergast, D. & Buiso, G. (2012). Pol push to ban eating in the subway. New York Post. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/pol_push_to_ban_eating_in_the_subway_ZvKq3qRxecSkAMTWoE6wmJ

S6312-2011: Prohibits the consumption of food in New York City subways. New York Senate.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://open.nysenate.gov/legislation/bill/S6312-2011
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]

References

Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
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Hospital Acquired Infections Popularly Known as the

Words: 1713 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3869727

hospital acquired infections, popularly known as the nosocomial infections in adults, specifically elderly adults. In this research paper, the focus is built on infections caught by elderly people and the preventions that can be taken as measures to eradicate the causes of this infection. esearch reports have been taken as references to describe the current situation of nosocomial infection spread in the American society and all over the world.

This infection is developed in a person after a visit to hospital within 48 hours or by patients who are discharged from the hospital and are diagnosed within 30 days of leaving the hospital. Patients who are diagnosed with such an infection carry diseases that are caused by fungal infections or through unsanitary conditions of the hospital environment (Norton, Barie, & Bollinger, 2008). Moreover, they catch infection through contamination from air droplets via sneezing or coughing and from contact with patients…… [Read More]

References

Allen, J.E. (2011). Nursing Home Administration. New York: Springer Pub.

Katlic, M.R. (2011). Cardiothoracic Surgery in the Elderly. New York; London: Springer.

Nelson, K.E., & Williams, C.M. (2007). Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Sudbury, Mass.; Toronto: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Norton, J.A., Barie, P.S., & Bollinger, R.R. (2008). Surgery: Basic Science and Clinical Evidence. New York, NY: Springer.
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Campylobacter Jejuni Is a Helical Shaped Non-Spore

Words: 2696 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78482727

Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…… [Read More]

References

Acheson, David. (2011). Campylobacter jejuni Infections: Update on Emerging Issues and Trends. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(8). Retrieved from  http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/8/1201.full 

Altrkruse, Sean, et al., (1999) Campylobacter jejuni - An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1). Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altekruse.htm

"Bad Bug Book" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllness

FoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070024.htm
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Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90362301

In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).

All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…… [Read More]

References

Akbas, Mert and Akcan, a Baris, "Epidural analgesia and lactation," Eurasian Journal of Medicine 43, (2010): 45-49.

Wilson, M. J, MacArthur, C, and Shennan, a. "Catheterization in labor with high dose vs. mobile Epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial." British Journal of Anesthesia 102, no. 2 (2009): 97-103.

Epstein, Nancy, "The risks of epidural and transforominal steroid injections in the spine: commentary and a comprehensive review of literature," Surgical Neurology International 4, (2013): 74-93.

Gwen Lewis, "Epidurals and child cancer," Journal of Childbirth and Medical Research, (2010): 30.
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Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in

Words: 4208 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81902786

Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).

Dissetation Pat

Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.

The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…… [Read More]