Select one bacterial, one fungal, and one viral pathogen capable of producing meningitis in humans.
Bacterial: Neisseria meningitidis
Fungal: Cryptococcus neoformans
Viral: Epstein-Barr virus
Describe the general characteristics and structure of each pathogen.
Neisseria meningitidis: parasitic, aerobic, Gram-negative, non-endospore forming, nonmotile, coccal bacterium (Devoe 1982,-page 162).
Cryptococcus neoformans: grows as a yeast, unicellular, replicates by budding, makes hyphae during mating, eventually creates basidospores (Heitman 2011).
Epstein-Barr virus: mature particle has diameter of 120 nm to 180 nm; has protein capsid, embedded with glycoproteins (Odumade 2011).
Describe in detail the pathogenic process for each pathogen. (How does the microbe produce meningitis?)
Neisseria meningitidis: Human infection begins with inhalation, attaching itself to the epithelial cells. Bacteria then passes the mucosal barrier and enters the bloodstream (Todar 2007).
Cryptococcus neoformans: Spores are inhaled by human beings. Infection can then spread throughout the body, most particularly the central nervous system (McClelland 2007,-page 131).…… [Read More]
Meningitis is an inflammation of the coverings of spinal cord and brain. Meningitis results from an infection to the cerebrospinal fluid in the spaces that surround the brain and spinal cord (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012). Either infections from viruses or from bacteria can cause meningitis; however, the viral form of meningitis is often significantly less severe than its bacterial counterpart and usually resolves without much treatment (CDC, 2012). Meningococcal disease (meningitis) is caused by bacteria Neisseria meningitides which is known also as meningiococcus (CDC, 2012). N. meningitidis is rather common and is actually is known to occur in the upper respiratory tracts of five to thirty percent asymptomatic individuals (Manchanda, Gupta, & Bhalla, 2006).
Meningococcal disease is primarily occurs in younger children. Nearly 50% of cases occur in children younger than four years of age (CDC, 2012). Adults who are at increased risk of developing meningococcal…… [Read More]
We are excited to have you as a student at Neisserian College and seek ways to make your educational experience here as rewarding as possible. We recognize that as a college student you are now a young adult and want to give you some important medical information regarding life at college.
While schools do everything they can to protect their students' health, occasionally students will acquire an infectious disease. In most cases these illnesses are easily managed, but one disease that surfaces in college, especially in dormitories, can have devastating consequences. Since it can be avoided by a simple vaccination we want to offer that choice to you.
The disease is called meningitis, an infection of the fluid found around the spinal cord. There are several forms of it. Some are viral, and while they will make the person very sick, generally people recover from those forms.…… [Read More]
Carriers might pass on the disease, but they may not suffer from it for days, months, years or even indefinitely. The cause of susceptibility, other than the obvious -- a weakened immune -- system is not known.
People who come in close contact, such as members of a family, children and youngsters at school of day care, those that are sexually or otherwise intimate will transmit the disease. These individuals are at high risk. If one of a cohort come down with symptoms, and it is proven to be meningitis, then others in close contact have to be vaccinated or otherwise medicated. The Center for Disease Control also through their own research identifies at-risk populations for vaccinations.(Humble 2009) the at large populace is not vaccinated. Members of the military as well as workers in medical facilities are at a higher risk and have to be necessarily medicated. Military personnel were…… [Read More]
Meningitis infects the meninges, the delicate membranes that house the spinal cord and the brain. It is a rare infection that can affect adults and children alike. The disease manifests in several types such as through viral, bacterial and fungal varieties. Bacterial meningitis is the most dangerous and infectious variety. It is a life threatening disease. It infects people in physical contact. Incidentally, viral meningitis is not as severe as most of the patients that develop the disease recover on their own without seeking treatment (Wang et al., 2014). Fungal meningitis is the rarest form. It occurs in people whose immune system has been compromised.
Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacteria that enters the body and relocates to the brain and spinal cord or when bacteria invade the meninges. The point of entry can be a skull fracture, ear or sinus infection, of surgery. Bacteria that cause bacterial…… [Read More]
It can be quite contagious.
Fungal meningitis generally occurs in patients who are immune compromised. The symptoms are similar to viral and bacterial meningitis. As with many opportunistic fungal infections of immune compromised patients, it can be quite serious, and treatment is difficult or impossible.
Diagnosis and Treatment
The biggest question for physicians treating patients with suspected meningitis is: "is it viral or is it bacterial?" Rapid tests for Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae Type have made it relatively easy to determine within a short period of time whether these are the causative agents. These tests are on CSF, however, which can be difficult and painful to extract from the patient. Since they are antibody tests, there can be a delay from onset of infection to production of antibodies; therefore, there can be a false negative early in the course of the disease.
Another indication is the presence of…… [Read More]
Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTEM-1) were found to be a biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid during the presence of bacterial meningitis; however, it is not yet recommended for clinical practice (Brouwer et al., 2010). Blood cultures and skin biopsy have been used to detect causative pathogens in patients when cerebrospinal fluid cultures are negative or unavailable, but these tests are not definitive enough to be used as the standard diagnostic method (Brouwer et al., 2010). Improvements to blood culture and skin biopsy testing could result in a quicker, more cost effective diagnostic technique that is also safer for the patient.
There are a variety of antibiotic regimens and therapies used for children with bacterial meningitis. Selecting the necessary antibiotic for treatment requires the assessment of its activity against the causative pathogen, its ability to penetrate the cerebrospinal fluid, and to determine the minimum antibiotic concentration…… [Read More]
Namani, S. A., Koci, . A., Qehaja-BuAaj, E., Ajazaj-Berisha, L., & Mehmeti, M. (2014). The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Kosovo. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 8(07), 823-830.
The article aims to present bacterial meningitis epidemiologic features presented in Kosovo, a developing country. The epidemiological data in question was analyzed with patient observation and chart review at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo for two years. The methodology also applied active surveillance for ten years for those patients treated with the disease at the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Prishtina. Data analysis was by use of age distribution and the definition given to bacterial meningitis as per WHO's criteria. The samples were forwarded to a laboratory for reference regarding processing, isolation and identification of pathogens. InStat 3 is the software used for statistical analysis. Qualitative variables were compared using Chi-square test and Fisher's.
The first study period's…… [Read More]
igns, Causes, Prevention and Management
Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. The condition is serious because the inflammation is so close to the vital areas of the body. In general, it can be caused by viruses, bacteria, drugs, or even certain microorganisms. There are at least five different types of meningitis that affect humans: bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and non-infectious (cancer, drugs or inflammatory conditions).
The Centers For Disease Control note that meningitis is a serious health problem for most of the United tates, but there are 16 states in which it has high enough numbers and deaths to be considered an epidemic. Tennessee has the highest number of diagnosed fungal cases, for instance.
The most common symptoms of meningitis in adults are severe headaches followed by the inability to flex the neck. The affliction usually starts with a painful headache…… [Read More]
Bacterial meningitis is a rare infection that attacks the meninges that shroud the brain/spinal cord. It is a potentially deadly infection and one that can be contagious as well. It is caused by a bacterial infection, as the name implies, that started somewhere in the body, for example in the sinuses, and made its way to the brain through the bloodstream (Understanding Meningitis -- The Basics, 2015). Thus, in the individual it spreads through the bloodstream, and from person to person, it can spread through close contact, sneezing, or coughing.
There are different bacteria strains that can cause meningitis, such as: pneumococcus (the most common cause in both young children and adults in the U.S., and typically begins as pneumonia or ear/sinus infection); meningococcus, which starts as a respiratory infection that spreads through the bloodstream and is very contagious, mostly found in teenagers and can spread quickly like an epidemic…… [Read More]
Based on the information provided in the case, my roommate’s major symptoms are headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and high fever. These symptoms are usually associated with meningitis, which implies that my roommate could be suffering from this condition. Meningitis is defined as an infection of the meninges or lining and fluid that cover the external parts of the brain and spinal cord. The classic symptoms of meningitis that affect nearly every individual with the condition are headache, vomiting, fever and chills, confusion, seizures, stiff neck, drowsiness, and photophobia i.e. extreme sensitivity to bright lights (Davis & Stoppler, 2017). The most probable cause of my roommate’s symptoms is viruses given that she could be suffering from viral meningitis, which is the most common and least dangerous form of this condition. In her case, the condition could have been caused by enteroviruses, which are found or live in the intestines.…… [Read More]
Jacob Warren-Scott Westman was the only son of Bryan and Carla Westman and was a lovely child. On October 26, 1998, Jacob woke up in the morning feeling unwell, as his head and stomach hurt and in addition he felt dizzy. His mother gave him some Advil for his headache. She believed that he had a touch of flu as she and Jacob's sister Lacey had just gotten over a bout of flu. She did not go to work and instead put her son to bed and he slept a lot and vomited on one occasion. He woke up in the evening complaining that he was still unwell and he was found to have developed a temperature, as he was hot to touch. His exact temperature could not be measured as the thermometer was misplaced and so she gave him some more Advil and put him in a lukewarm bath…… [Read More]
Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.
Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.
Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…… [Read More]
"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."
E. coli Outbreak:
There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…… [Read More]
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]
Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it
Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:
Absence of Evidence for Link
to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders
Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Dr. Anshu Kacker
5650 including Abstracts
Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.
Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to assess the options and mandates that exist when it comes to a six-year-old child has apparent contracted a case of meningitis. The mother is a Christian Scientist that refuses medical care while the father seeks treatment along with an independent consult. The course of action that should be taken is to be derived from that. As part of this situation, there are a couple of deliverables that will be given. First, the ethical dilemma in question will be identified. Second, the decision-making model that is to be used will be identified. Third, how the dilemma would be resolved will be identified. Fourth and finally, the dialog that would exist with the parents would be explained and detailed. While the biological mother generally has the right to raise her child as she sees fit, her decision to withhold medical care…… [Read More]
2004). In those cases, there was very early diagnosis and administration of intravenous and intrathecal or intraventricular amphotericin B. with intensive supportive care (2004). One survivor received miconazole intravenously and intrathecally and rifampicin orally (2004). Other treatment options include the drugs rifampicin and micoazole.
Khan (2008) notes that the mortality rate for PAM is 95%. Again, one of the major obstacles to effective treatment is the rapid progression of the disease. Another obstacle is the paucity of drugs that have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (Schuster & Visvesvara 2004; Khan 2008). Nevertheless, there have been documented recoveries from PAM (Seidel 1982; Wang 1993; Khan 2008). Early recognition and treatment of the disease appear to be the chief elements in successful outcomes (2008). At the time of Khan's (2008) writing, the drug of choice for treatment of human cases was amphotericin B. In conjunction with rifampin as well as…… [Read More]
Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…… [Read More]
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]
Magic Johnson and HIV
Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:
Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).
Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).
Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).
Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…… [Read More]
There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…… [Read More]
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]
(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)
The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…… [Read More]
herpes simplex viruses. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face and is often referred to as labial herpes. It is the most common herpes simplex virus and is usually acquired in childhood. y adulthood, up to ninety percent of individuals will have antibodies to HSV-1. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or genital herpes is sexually transmitted and is usually associated with genital ulcers or sores -- however individuals may harbor HSV-2 and not have developed any symptoms. Genital herpes can also be caused by HSV-1, but this is not as common. Up to twenty-thirty percent of U.S. adults have antibodies against HSV-2.
This paper discusses the effects of both labial and genital herpes in terms of typical consequences and more severe complications that are less likely to arise.
The first time a person is infected with HSV-1, he…… [Read More]
Introduction person might wake up one morning and discover that one side of his or her face shows signs of paralysis. The symmetrical nature of the face might have a mismatched appearance. The afflicted side may have varying levels of deformity and droopiness.
The person might discover the inability to close the eye. The paralysis of one side of the face means that speech is often distorted. Feeding is difficult. Drooling is frequent. The person finds it impossible to pucker the lips into a shape that is often used for whistling. The direct diagnosis is that this person is suffering from ell's Palsy. This condition is relatively temporary. Only few people who suffer from this condition have permanent effects. ell's Palsy can develop over a few hours or a few days. It is not uncommon for a person to find that the condition has developed overnight.
Sr.…… [Read More]
causes of hearing loss and reduction in people of all ages. Many people think of hearing loss as being either something a person is born with or something he or she experiences with old age, but those are far from the only factors that can result in hearing impairment. Whether the person is completely deaf or only has trouble hearing, there are a variety of causes that must be considered and ruled out before a definite determination as to the exact cause of the impairment can be made. Additionally, there are several treatments to be considered. Which one of these is best for the person with the hearing impairment will depend on the cause of that impairment and other factors. Not every option will work for every patient, and doctors must consider numerous issues before making a decision regarding which type of treatment may be the right choice. There are…… [Read More]
In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.
Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.
Government policy and exclusion
According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…… [Read More]
However, the reader might probably be disappointed at the lack of assignment of responsibility to any living being. Again, the author of this essay thinks that the book buying public who provides the author with the ability to make a living deserves better.
This portrayal of McCourt's father is further analyzed in the book by Helena Schneider. She has an entire chapter dedicated to McCourt's father. She quotes one of McCourt's interviews where he cites an extract from the book where he likens his paper in an Irish parody of the Holy Trinity. He said his father had one in the morning with the paper, then one at night with stories and prayers and then he said that the one reeking of whiskey comes home and wants them to die for Ireland (Schneider 6). The father is a complex figure who is just too proud to ask anyone for financial…… [Read More]
Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, I could not hear any sound from my right ear even with the help of hearing aid. For this reason, I used my right ear for the cochlear implant. My right ear had been sleeping for 28 years until the cochlear implant woke it up on September 19th, 2002" ("FAQ," Heather hitestone ebpage, 2010). Heather writes on her webpage that she strongly supports implants for children and decided to have one as an adult so she could hear the voices of her two young sons.
hitestone was not only "the first deaf Miss America; in fact, she was the first Miss America with a physical disability of any kind" ("Heather hitestone," Alabama, 2003). She and continues to come fire because of her public and vocal support of acoupedics and orally-based deaf education. Today, hitestone lives in Alabama, raising her children. hitestone married a hearing man, John McCallum, an aide…… [Read More]
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…… [Read More]
This dramatic event followed the revelation that Wakefield had accepted money from lawyers representing parents who had filed lawsuits claiming that the MM vaccines had caused autism in their children. Some of these children were even part of Wakefield's original study. (Schreibman, 2005)
This disclosure may have laid some doubts to rest but is still not enough to answer the question whether there is actually a link between MM and autism. Firstly, there is a doubt amongst parents and scientists whether MM may cause measles, encephalitis or a depression of the immune system in general. However, numerous studies have looked into this possibility and have concluded that the chance is extremely less at the rate of… [Read More]
They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)
The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.
My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…… [Read More]
It was also during this time that he started keeping a diary. The entry for that day is very relevant as to our attempt to understand what drove Orton to join the theater in hopes of an acting career. During the time he spent with the amateur theater company, Orton decided that he wanted to pursue a career in acting, and that his first step towards achieving this goal was to go to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art: "Last night sitting in the empty theatre watching the electricians flashing lights on and off, the empty stage waiting for rehearsal to begin, I suddenly knew that my ambition is, and always has been, to act." (Diary entry, April 13th, 1949: Joe Orton Online)
He quit the amateur acting company after his first role because he was not offered any other substantial roles. Although he got accepted into the Royal Academy…… [Read More]
Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]
" There is also a problem with deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion and over-fishing, and because of the clear-cutting of forested areas in Senegal, a process of "desertification" is well underway. The problem of desertification is significant because according to United Nations' information (Thompson Gale / Nations Encyclopedia) 46% of Senegal is classified as semiarid. There has been "inadequately controlled cutting of forests for fuel" and there has also been significant overgrazing of existing grasslands (which are dwindling away). The capital of Dakar suffers from "improper sanitation" according to Nations Encyclopedia; but on the positive side of urban life, 92% of city dwellers have access to safe drinking water. Still, wherever you look in Senegal, you can't escape the fact that this is a third world country; to wit, 35% of people living in rural Senegal do not have access to safe drinking water.
Those above-mentioned facts having been presented, there…… [Read More]
He now learns the written form of the language. During this phase the emphasis is on the mastery of reading and writing. At the near end of this phase, an eight-year-old has a command of about 80% of the grammar and 17,000 words at their disposal.
Children with a hearing loss in one ear may fall behind their peers with normal hearing during the first two stages of language development. When these children reach school age their behaviors may be taken to mean they are disinterested or not academically inclined, when in reality they are suffer a physical, not a mental disability.
If 5% (one in twenty) of children suffer from a hearing loss in one ear one can only image the number of children who are misdiagnosed, mislabeled or simply fall through the cracks. Depending on class size, statistically a teacher can expect at least one student who suffers…… [Read More]
It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor eb site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is "understood exactly as you intended" (Family Doctor).
The advance directives are sensitive and private, and they are very important for seniors. But the advance directives can be controversial, so it is wise for older people to know the law and understand the facts. To wit, there have been rumors and falsehoods spread on the orld ide eb and elsewhere about the advance directives that are spelled out in the recent overhaul of the healthcare system. Former governor of Alaska Sarah Palin made news in the summer of 2009 by asserting that the advance directives in the healthcare overhaul created a "death panel" of bureaucrats who will "decide, based…… [Read More]
Constipation, Hypertension, Seizure
This is the infrequent or difficult bowel evacuation (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). While there are no strict standard for bowel elimination, it is generally believed that fewer than thrice a week constitutes constipation. Stools are usually hard and dry. Other common symptoms associated constipation include excessive straining during bowel evacuation, a sense of rectal blockage, a sense of incomplete evacuation and the need to perform manual measures to evacuate the bowels. Constipation may be the consequence of insufficient fluid intake or dehydration, inadequate fiber in the diet, foregoing elimination, irritable bowel syndrome, lack of physical activity, illness, abuse of laxatives and certain medical conditions. Those more likely to develop constipation are older adults, those who are sedentary, confined in bed, dehydrated, on low-fiber diet, on certain medications and undergoing chemotherapy. It is more common in women and children. Causes for alarm include fewer…… [Read More]
In our high technological and global economy, we Americans think of malnutrition as a thing of the past. It is almost unheard of for our children to go hungry with a McDonald's on every corner. But that is only in our world. his report is a review of the 2003 report written by Karen Olness in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics called "Effects On Brain Development Leading o Cognitive Impairment: A Worldwide Epidemic." In keeping with the theme of nutrition and iron deficiency, this story points out that the world food shortages and other epidemic situations in developing nations has a direct bearing on the brains of children. For the poor nations of the world things like malnutrition, genetic disease, infectious diseases like meningitis, parasites, and cerebral malaria, in utero drug and alcohol exposure, newborn asphyxia, low birth weight, head injuries, and endocrine disorders to name…… [Read More]
Early 20th century saw the outbreak of a deadly mysterious disease, pellagra that could cause anything from fever to dementia to death. The disease that had killed over 100,000 people by the end of 1914 was shrouded in deep mystery because of the fact that the epidemic was largely limited to the South and was exclusively affecting the peasant class. It was indeed a poor man's disease and conventional wisdom suggested it had something to do with sanitary conditions.
"Pellagra, a classic dietary deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin, was noted in the South after the Civil War. Then considered infectious, it was known as the disease of the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. The first outbreak was reported in 1907. In 1909, more than 1000 cases were estimated based on reports from 13 states. One year later, approximately 3000 cases were suspected nationwide based on…… [Read More]
ecause the germinal matrix is so very primitive and thin, there is a much higher chance that it could rupture. How primitive the glial and mesenchymal tissues are have a great deal to do with the extent of the hemorrhage (www.emedicine.com).
Within the United States, the number of babies that have IVH is related to how old they are gestationally when they are born and what type of birthweight they have. Perinatal care and obstetric care have increased greatly in recent years, and more mothers are becoming aware of how important this kind of care is. Due to this, there are more babies that are carried to term, and more premature infants are able to survive the problems that they are often faced with. Since this is the case, the incidence of IVH, which was as high as 50% in 1977, has come down to between 8-56%. Most nurseries have…… [Read More]
The first level of the NHS - health centers and health costs produce a considerable part of the total volume of health services in the nation and comprise the first and only point of contact with the health system for the major part of the Mozambican population. The present approach while delivering primary level health services in Mozambique has been very successful. (Expenditure Tracking and Service Delivery Survey: The Basic Concept) iv) Profitability: Prices of medicines often has no relation to costs, as included in the cost of research and development -- &D and production, are added a portion of the mixture of marketing costs, profit margins, subsidies, tariffs, and tax requirements that vary across nations. The outcome is great price variations both between and within the nations. Since the patent for lamivudine/zidovudine taken on 1996 is valid for 20 years and low cost generic copies cannot be sold prior…… [Read More]
Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]
Food should be banned from the New York City subway system. There are a few reasons why the food ban should be enacted, chief among them are the health concerns cited by state senators. Proponents of eating food on the subway system generally have weak arguments based around their own personal desire to eat food on the subway, rather than any coherent responses to the central sanitation and public nuisance argument.
According to the text of the bill (S6312), the purpose of the bill is to "mitigate the growing rat infestation in the NYC subway system." The bill would establish fines and other punishments for eating food on the subway system. There are a number of problems with the rat issue in the subway system. In general, people experience a sense of revulsion at the sight of rats, in particular the large, greasy variety found in the subway…… [Read More]
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…… [Read More]
In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).
All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…… [Read More]
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…… [Read More]
ole of Family Physician
It is important for us to understand the role of a family physician before we begin our discussion on the importance of family physicians in any health care system of the community. Many reforms have been made in the health care systems of various communities all over the world. Almost all of these reforms lay their focus on the prevention as well as the treatment of any disease along with the promotion of health and management of conditions that have become a chronic problem for the patients. All of these areas are the center of the family physicians and therefore family medicine has a huge role to play in here.
In this paper, we shall look at the current health care system in Libya and see how the government and other organizations like WHO are playing their role to improve the health care system in the…… [Read More]
Non-Governmental Organization Placement: Examination of the Experience of Students In NGO Placement
The objective of this work is to examine the experience of students on the NGO placement in Nigeria. The NGO at focus is that of St. Joseph Orphanage and Women Development Center. The writer of this work was provided with an excellent opportunity to exam the organization chart and policy of the non-governmental and non-profit organization. In addition, the writer of this work was provided with insight on how the organization raises money to finance and sustain its diverse projects in Nigeria. During the course of job placement of this researcher with this NGO organization, and specifically St. Joseph Women Development and orphanage center it was amazing to realize that Media and Communication organizations play a significant role in the promotion and creation of community awareness and awareness on the national level. Consideration of the barriers…… [Read More]
Kaiser Permanente Quality Assurance Program
Facility description. Kaiser Permanente is a healthcare organization that had its origins in the pre-war industrial sector. The program offered health care for workers in the steel mills, the shipyards, and the construction companies in a nation just recovering from the depression and attempting to stand apart from the conflict and volatility evidenced across the globe.
A young surgeon, Sidney Garfield, borrowed money to build Contractors General Hospital with the idea of serving the thousands of contractors building the Los Angeles Aqueduct near Desert Center -- which was in the middle of the Mojave Desert. The 12-bed hospital found it difficult to get insurance companies to pay for the treatment of injured and ill contractors. Some of the workers did not have insurance, but Dr. Garfield treated them anyway and the hospital's debts piled up. With the help of man named Harold Hatch,…… [Read More]
Nerves Damaged Spinal Tap
Nerves Damaged During Spinal Tap: Can a spinal tap cause a person pain, numbness and weakness in the right lower leg for life?
The complications resulting from lumbar puncture (spinal tap) have been well documented in the neurosurgical literature. These complications include mild backache, persistent headache, meningitis, and herniated disc, as well as inoculation of epidermal tissue, and the associated growth of epidermoid tumors (Siddiqi and Buchheit, 1982).
There have also been documented cases of nerve root injury associated with spinal tap. Siddiqi and Buchheit have reported a case of an impacted or herniated nerve root associated with lumbar puncture. The patient presented with pain in the lower left leg into the ankle. Their finding of an impacted herniated nerve root, presumably causing postmyelogram sciatica and worsening of the preexisting low-back pain, appears unique. The mechanism of such an injury is thought to be herniation of…… [Read More]
Nutrition: Ethical or Unethical?
Should nurses withhold or withdraw nutrition & Hydration from terminally ill patients? This is a question that boggles the mind. Some feel that withholding anything from any patient is unethical, while others feel it is acceptable because we must promote quality of life. Furthermore, who decides within this issue the outcome of the patient? Nurses? Nurses? The Court? Recently, we have decided on a combination of the two. However, in order to discover what is actually best for patients, it is important to exmaine this paper.
What care is 'futile'? Throughout the years, the question of whether or not to withhold certain treatments to terminally ill patients has been addressed. Do we continue to treat people who are still alive, even if we know that there is no hope? This is a question that has been asked over and over again by various parties. This notion…… [Read More]
Parkland Hospital: A Dallas Icon
The history of the City of Dallas would hardly be complete without consideration of Parkland Hospital and its contributions to the Dallas community. Parkland Hospital began in the Civil ar Reconstruction era and has always maintained operations that were state of the art for the time. Parkland hospital has always aligned itself research and the academic community and it is for this reason that Parkland has always offered the latest in techniques and technology. Parkland Hospital has a long tradition of caring for the poor and those who cannot otherwise care for themselves. The following research will highlight the major accomplishments of the hospital from its primitive beginnings to its present position as a leader in patient care and technology Seven years after the end of the Civil ar; Dallas became a thriving city. In 1885 the Dallas Morning News began publication, at that time…… [Read More]
The great Avicenna or Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina, born in 980 was often known in the est by this Latin name. Among all the Islamic philosopher-scientists this Persian physician became not only the most famous but also an influential figure (Edward G, 1921). He was awarded royal favor for treating the Kings of Bukhara and Hamadan for illness which other physicians were unable to neither diagnose nor cure. He died in 1037 in Hamadan, where his grave is maintained (Edward G, 1921).
Out of his 450 works, only 240 have survived and among those surviving works, 150 are on philosophy, while the remaining majority 40 works are dedicated to medicine. Thus, his major contribution was in these two fields. However, he has also written on psychology, logic, mathematics, geology and astronomy (atan Afghanistan).
Although, he was educated and trained in the field of physics, he…… [Read More]
Penicillin focuses on the miraculous discovery of Alexander Fleming in the world of medicine called the Penicillin. This paper illustrates the process of discovery of this drug and outlines the various advantages it has caused not only to people but the society as well. This paper also emphasizes on the side effects of antibiotics but also proves how this may prove to be beneficial for many researchers, doctors and scientists.
One of the most brilliant knowledge advances of this century - as great as the computer, as great as the abolition of natural racial inferiority and growing awareness of spaceship earth, has been the conquest of infectious diseases. Drugs are thousands of years old. Neolithic, perhaps even paleolithic shamans and medicine men and women knew the curative powers of many plants. The ability of alcohol, in wine, beer and stronger liquors, to make life seem better than it really…… [Read More]