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self-absorption. This becomes a time of self-reflection and if all bodes well a time of increased creativity (Erickson & Erickson, 1997). However, should there be increasing family or financial stress, if there has been problems with their husband or children or they find themselves with looming bankruptcies, the likelihood of depression increases tremendously (obinson, et.al., 2001) and the maladaptations of overextension and rejectivity (Erickson & Erickson, 1997) can lead to increased depression and difficulty in coping with menopausal changes.
Other factors that can influence mood states include gender differences in the approaches to middle age / midlife. For instance it has been noted that the empty nest syndrome can be different for both men and women. Furthermore, the deeper effect of this syndrome on women depended on a large degree on their level of activity. Whether this included involvement with work or simply volunteer or community service outside the home,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K., & Slyter, M. (2003). The Impact of Menopause: Implications for Mental Health Counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4), 311+.
Degges-White, S., & Myers, J.E. (2006). Transitions, Wellness, and Life Satisfaction: Implications for Counseling Midlife Women. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 28(2), 133+.
Derry, P.S. (2006). A Lifespan Biological Model of Menopause. 393+.
Dillaway, H.E. (2005). (Un) Changing Menopausal Bodies: How Women Think and Act in the Face of a Reproductive Transition and Gendered Beauty Ideals. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(1-2), 1+.
Some of the more common tests include Estradiol, FSH and LH. Women can also request the assistance of obstetricians, who can identify changes in the vaginal lining as a result of decreasing levels of estrogen (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2010).
The highest concern with women is represented by the possibility of the menopause symptoms to be in fact indicative of a more severe health problem. This concern is best addressed in discussions with the personal doctor, and through the necessary medical investigations.
Another concern is represented by the diseases which can develop in connection with the menopause. At a general level, menopause does not generate any associated illnesses and the health condition is more so determined by the history and life style of the woman, rather than by the menopause. Nonetheless, there two specific illnesses which can develop in the postmenopause period:
Coronary artery disease, and Osteoporosis.
Alexander, I.M., Knight, K.A., 2005, 100 questions & answers about menopause, Jones & Bartlett Learning
Currie, H., 2006, Menopause, Class Publishing Ltd.
Loue, S., Sajatovic, M., 2007, Encyclopedia of aging and public health, Springer
O'Connell, L., The menopause diet, Good to Know, http://www.goodtoknow.co.uk/diet/268782/The-menopause-diet-plan last accessed on November 18, 2011
While some people may also seek treatment for minor symptoms like hot flashes, it is when more serious symptoms occur that women should see a doctor. Osteoporosis occurs in the first few years of menopause whereby rapid bone loss is experienced thus making bones both weak and brittle. Many treatments are available including drugs such as Boniva. It is thus extremely important to consume more calcium during these years and also include Vitamin D in the diet in order to make calcium absorption easier. Physical exercise such as walking and jogging can also help in reducing bone loss and lending more strength to bones during menopause.
Urinary incontinence may also be experienced by some women as their vaginal tissues and urethra loses their original elasticity. Women may be prescribed a medicine for urinary control or they may be asked to adopt lifestyle changes such as including Kegel exercise in their…
Hormone therapy is normally used as a drastic measure to deal with irritating symptoms of menopause. This therapy may include taking the hormone estrogen in combination with progesterone or estrogen alone to relieve symptoms. There can be several ways in which they may be taken including orally, as a cream or gel, or in the form of a patch or IUD. The method depends on the purpose for which therapy is sought. However hormone therapy doesn't have any beneficial impact on the risk of heart disease or osteoporosis.
Menopause: A Short History
From Human Anatomy and Physiology, Spence and Mason, 2nd Edition from 1983, comes this description of Menopause.
At about age 50, the ovarian and menstrual cycles gradually become irregular. Ovulation fails to occur during many of the irregular cycles and in most women the cycles cease altogether over the next several months or at most, a few years. The cessation of the menstrual cycle is referred to as menopause, and the entire period is called the female climacteric.
The female climacteric is thought to be caused by an inability of the ovaries to respond to hormonal signals, most probably due to a shortage of follicles resulting from their ovulation or degeneration during the reproductive years. As a result, production of estrogens and progesterone is quit low...(753)
The lady who gave me the above information from her old A&P book wants to make a correction. She was…
Although many of the symptoms commonly associated with menopause would suggest that women undergoing the change of life are no longer interested in sex, nothing could be farther from the truth. Many postmenopausal women "find it liberating to stop worrying about pregnancy and periods," (Mayo Clinic 2010). The BBC (2010) agrees: "some women find they enjoy sex more after the menopause. Freedom from worry about unwanted pregnancy can release your inhibitions, bringing with it spontaneity and an increase in sexual confidence. For some couples, it can be a new beginning," ("What is the Menopause?" 2010). Women who are divorced, or who get divorced after menopause, might view the change of life as a chance to explore sexuality. This may entail exploring multiple partners or homosexuality for some women.
Some women undergoing menopause rethink their social roles, with some opting for divorce after being trapped in loveless marriages for decades (Gibbs…
"Depression Screening Urged for Young Women With Menopause-Like Symptoms," (2010). U.S. News and World Report. 3 Dec 2010. Retrieved online: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/brain-and-behavior/articles/2010/12/03/depression-screening-urged-for-young-women-with-menopause-like-symptoms.html
Gibbs, N. (2005). Midlife Crisis? Bring it on! Time. 8 May 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1059032,00.html
Gorman, C. (2005). Menopause: A Healthy View. Time. 8 May 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1059018,00.html
"Hormone Replacement Therapy: Is it Good for the Heart?" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.thirdage.com/menopause/hormone-replacement-therapy-good-heart
transitions and symptoms that menopause can cause. The writer also explores things that can be done to ease the transition of menopause. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
When mankind was created, somebody made a mistake. As it stands menopause hits women right about the time that her children enter their late teen years. What a recipe for disaster. Menopause is a process that is either reached naturally, or induced artificially, but sooner or later every woman has to go through it. Menopause impacts different women in different ways. While one woman may have many bothersome symptoms that last for years, another woman may have a few symptoms that last a short while. Menopause is something that marks the end of the childbearing years, but also provides a new phase of life that can be fulfilling and fun.
Before one can begin to understand the total impact…
The impact of menopause: implications for mental health counselors.(Practice)
Women's Choicemaking About Menopause: Issues and Directions for Action
Menopause and the working woman.
Menopause: A Natural Transition.
Women Transition Pre-Menopause Menopause
Changes in Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary Axis
Menstruation takes place in the women as a result of a cyclical loss of the ovarian follicles every month. When this monthly cycle ends, it is termed as menopause. With menopause, the natural reproductive cycle of the women ends as well. Here it can be added that the menopause results from the alterations that take place in the ovarian functions when egg production is no more the function of the ovaries. Some of the main symptoms of the menopause as highlighted in the studies include an irregularity seen in menstruation, a menopausal transitions that begins when the women turns 40. This menopause is divided in an early as well as a late phase by conventional clinical and medical studies (Burger, Hale, obertson, and Dennerstein, 2007, p. 559). Based on a great decrease in…
Atsma, F., Bartelink, M.L., Grobbee, D., and van der Schouw, Y.T. (2006). Postmenopausal status and early menopause as independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Menopause 13, pp 265-279.
Boland, C.N., and Lavelle, L. (2006). Menopause: Just the Facts, Ma'am! AuthorHouse.
Burger, H.G., Hale, G.E., Robertson, D.M., and Dennerstein, L. (2007). A review of hormonal changes during the menopausal transition: focus on findings from the Melbourne: Women's Midlife Health Project. Human Reproduction Update 13, pp. 559 -- 565.
Currier, F.A. (2010). The Menopause: A Consideration of the Phenomena Which Occur to Women at the Close of the Child Bearing Period (1897). Kessinger Publishing.
Carrying on: The experience of premature menopause in women with early stage breast cancer," concerning its rigor as a grounded theory study, its contribution to nursing and its usefulness in practice. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Description and Summarize of Key esearch Components:
The title of the journal article under consideration is "Carrying on: The experience of premature menopause in women with early stage breast cancer," by T.M. Knobf (2002), appearing in Nursing esearch, volume 51, issue 1, pages 9-17.
In her abstract, the researcher includes the background of the problem, the objectives of the study, the methods used and the results obtained, as well as conclusions and key words.
Introduction. The introduction is used to expand on the background initially presented in the abstract, including an overview of the prevalence of breast cancer in the United States and the treatments used…
Ballard, K. (2003). Understanding menopause. Chichester, England: Wiley.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Denscombe, M. (2003). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.
Knobf, M.T. (2002, January/February). Carrying on: The experience of premature menopause in women with early stage breast cancer. Nursing Research, 51(1), 9-18.
Once this takes place, we will be able to determine the underlying impact of menopause on our select population and the kinds of effects it is having on their overall quality of life. (Hopkins, 2008)
Study population and sampling
Like what was stated previously, our research will focus on those women who are suffering from menopause and others that are selected randomly. We will subdivide respondents into various groups based upon: their racial / ethnic group, income status and if they are seeking any kind of treatment. This will help to improve the overall quality of our survey by: focusing on what segments of the population that are having an adverse impact on their underlying levels of mental health. Once this occurs, we will be able to make specific inferences about their how their attitude is affecting their quality of life. At which point, we can support or refute the…
Women's Reproductive Health. (2011). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/Reproductivehealth/WomensRH/Menopause.htm
Adler, B. (2002). Menopause Management Roundtable on Quality of Life. Menopause Management, 26 -- 30.
Atsma, F. (2006). Postmenopausal Status. Menopause 13 (2), 265 -- 279.
Gracia, C. (2005). Defining Menopause Status. Menopause, 12 (2), 128 -- 135.
It is generally assumed that iron stores increase during menopausal transition (Kim et al. 2012). However, no longitudinal studies have been conducted to ascertain this. Some women undergoing menopause experience increased insulin resistance and other cardiovascular conditions, which are not attributable to changes in adiposity or sex hormones. Iron is known to be a strong pro-oxidant, which catalyzes reactions tending to raise oxidative stress. This, in turn, is a risk factor for insulin resistance. Increased measures of iron during menopause may then contribute to insulin resistance at this period (Kim et al.).
In response, the Study of Women's Health across the Nation or SWAN was designed and conducted to determine and investigate biologic and sociologic changes during and after menopause (Kim et al. 2012). The researchers measured several iron markers at pre-menopause and post-menopause to find out if 1) iron measures increase from pre-menopause to post-menopause longitudinally; 2) there…
Kim, Catherine, et al. 2012. Changes in iron measures over menopause and associations with insulin resistance. Vol 21 # 8 Journal of Women's Health: 872-877
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Menopause and Its Consequences
Menopause is that inevitable and irreversible time when a woman's reproductive cycle and menstruation periods gradually end, as her ovaries cease to respond to male gonadotropins and her capacity to become pregnant stops (Mayeux, Jr. 1997). This spontaneously occurs between 45 and 55 in American women, with 51 as the median age.
A woman's ovaries at the menopause are nearly empty of primary follicles - which, in child-bearing age, are abundant, mature and can be fertilized by the male sperm cell, resulting in conception and pregnancy. At menopause, the ovaries' production of the hormone called estrogen becomes very minimal, and this altered condition of a lack of estrogen produces many unpleasant symptoms in approximately 70% of all postmenopausal women (Mayeux, Jr.). These symptoms include hot flushes and extreme warmth, profuse sweating, tremor, irritability, and depression. Physically, the female reproductive organs shrink and lose…
1. American Medical Women's Association. (1999). Q & A on Hormone Replacement
Therapy and Breast Cancer. (accessed 02-01-03). http://www.amwa-doc.org/healthtopics/hrt_breastcancer_qa.htm
2. Hempel, Karl. (1996). Estrogen Replacement Therapy. The Health Gazette.
A accessed 02-01-03). http://www.freenet.scri.fsu.edu/HealthGazette/ert.html
The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).
Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)
"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…
Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.
Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)
Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331
Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:
Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.
Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,
Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
Margaret Lock and Patricia Kaufert have written an article examining menopause, biologies, and cultures of aging. The authors begin their discussion with acknowledging that menopause is a symbol of the end of menstruation, which was once regarded as the culmination of a woman's reproductive life. In concurrence with majority of medical researchers and doctors, these researchers state that the closure of menstruation is a multifaceted biosocial and biocultural procedure that has seemingly common and universal biological changes. However, there are cases where there are several differences in experiences among women during this stage because of variations in social, cultural, and psychological factors. This has in turn contributed to recognition of this stage as a pathological incident with unique set of symptoms and diseases in woman's life. Despite the differences in the individual experiences of women, the end of menstruation is also characterized with considerable increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases,…
Lock, M. & Kaufert, P. (2001). Menopause, Local Biologies, and Cultures of Aging. American Journal of Human Biology, 13, 494-504.
The medicalization of the menopause includes "hormone replacement therapy" which consists of a particular program of hormone replacement. In this way, women can have the same quantity of hormones until they enter the menopause. Therefore, none of the basic functions hormones and the regular supply of hormones offered naturally by the body will be affected by the menopause.
The Menopause is an inevitable illness which takes place as women grow old; therefore, there is little that can actually be done in order to prevent and medicate oneself. It represents a sign of the maturity of the body. However, there are several aspects that can be taken into account not necessarily to prevent the menopause which is impossible, but rather to have less influence on the mind and body of the woman. In this sense, it is very well-known the fact that smoking is a vice. However, it is also contributing…
Arroba, Anna. The Medicalization of women's bodies in the era of globalization. Women's Health Journal, Jan-March, 2003. 23 May 2008 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MDX/is_1_2003/ai_n18616353
Our Bodies: ourselves. The Politics of Women's Health: The Medicalization of Menopause. 2007. 23 May 2008 http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/book/menoexcerpt.asp?id=53&chapterID=31
Social Gerontology. The Medicalization of Old Age. N.d. 23 May 2008. http://www.trinity.edu/~Mkearl/ger-med.html
Probable causes accounting for this are a holdup in the identification of cardiovascular ailment in women might not be enough to reveal medical implication. Variation in the accepted chronology of coronary arterial ailments is found in the genders, especially connected with the effect of menopause. Age of appearance, appearing of signs, influence of different causes of danger, and results of treatment vary between the sexes. (Tecce; Dasgupta; Doherty, 22)
In general, coronary artery ailment occurs 10 years past in life in women compared to men, and the median age for MI in case of women is approximately 20 years older, branding coronary heart ailment which affects elderly women. The causes for these disparities is not wholly intelligible, even if the prevalence of the sickness of coronary artery in women in the fertility years becomes low, signifying that endogenous hormones seems to exercise a defensive part beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women rapidly…
Barnett, Rosalind C. Gender, Job Stress and Illness. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors. Volume 2; No: 1; 2000; pp: 1-34; 77
Carmel S; Bernstein JH. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel. International Journal of Age and Human Development. Volume: 56; No; 2; 2003; pp: 113-131
Deborah, Gesensway. Reasons for Sex-Specific and Gender-Specific Study of Health Topics. The Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001; Volume: 135; No: 1; pp: 935-938.
Evangelista LS; Kagawa-Singer, M; Dracup K. Gender Differences in Health Perceptions and Meaning in Persons Living with Heart Failure. Heart Lung. Volume: 30; No: 3; May-June 2001; pp: 167-176
267266 correct context of schema, 2.016461 correct no context of schema, 2.12909 correct context to List . And 2.353001 correct no context.
Free recall refers to remembering unrelated items in any order immediately following presentation. Delayed recall occurs between hearing the words and writing them down. Recognition is the identification of items previously learned. Primacy effect occurs after the enhanced recall of items presented at the beginning of the list, while the recency effect is greater for those at the end of the list. On the other hand, the serial position is highest at 90% for the first word recalled and lowest for the 6th, 9th and 10th words recalled. Symbols are viewed along with cues and altered by schema-activating labels.
Findings of the experiment showed that the majority of the subjects tested had correct call of the words list, correct delayed recall, correct recognition, correct recall of the scheme…
Bode, N. (2001). Blocking Out a Painful Past. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1175/is_4_34/ai_76577443
Bower, B. (2003). Restoring Recall: Memories May Form and Reform with Sleep. Science News Online, vol 164 (15) p 228. http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20031011/fob4.asp
Cromie, W. (2002). Long-Term Memory Not fixed Until Age One. Harvard University Gazette: the President and Fellows of Harvard College. http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2002/11.07/01-memory.html
Walker, M. (2003). Stages of Memory. Nature Journal: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_release/2003-10/bidm-som100703.php
Depression in Young and Older Women
Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.
Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.
This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.
To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…
Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.
Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.
Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.
National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
Client Stressors Case Study
According to the Betty Neuman model, intrapersonal stressors are "internal environmental interaction forces occurring within the boundary of the client, between client sub-systems," (12). This commonly includes physical, psychological and emotional issues that become stressors for each particular case. The clear intra-factors in this case are the presence of a kidney infection, acute lower abdominal pain, the fact that she is not taking any medications. She has been staying hydrated, a previous back muscle injury in the past. The patient has been having heavier menstrual cycles with worse cramping, no breast tenderness, did not pass clogs, she believes she is getting close to experience menopause, no prior abnormal paps or STDs, normal mammogram and pap last year, did have surgery for PPTL in 1977 after her third child was born, does not douche, previous hospitalization for back pain 5 years ago, recently went to…
Reed, Karen S. (1993). Betty Neuman: The Neuman System's Model. Sage.
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)
Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed…
Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;
Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.
Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4
British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at http://www.buav.org/campaigns/primates/zerooption.html
Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).
There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…
Cottrell, C.K. et al. (2002). Perceptions and Needs of Patients with Migraine. Health and Fitness. Journal of Family Practice. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m 6689/is_2_51/ai_83551751' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…
American College of Sports Medicine (1995) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 5th Ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1-373
American Diabetes Association (2011) Hyperglycemia, accessed on May 5, 2011 at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html
Van Dusen, A. (2011) Tips to build your muscle mass at any age, accessed on May 1, 2011 at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20515088/ns/health-forbescom/
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
Soy Protein and Bone Health in Women
Soy, a protein-rich legume, has been prominently featured in the traditional cuisines of Far Eastern cultures for thousands of years. In addition to its high protein content, soy also contains the other two macronutrients, carbohydrates and fats, as well as many vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients such as calcium, folic acid, and iron. Dietary sources of soy protein include soybeans, tofu, beans curd, tempeh, miso, and soymilk. Since it represents a vegetable source of high quality complete protein, containing all of the essential amino acids, soy is particularly valued by vegetarians, who must derive all their dietary protein from vegetables rather than from animal products.(DGPL)
Soy has yet to become as integrated into American cuisine as it has always been in the Far East, but its sales have gradually increased over the last ten years, to approximately $3 billion and almost one third…
Boyles, S. (2002) Soy Doesn't Improve Bones in Young Women: Benefits May Be Confined to Those Who are Menopausal and Older. WebMD Inc.
Medical News Archive; Accessed March 21, 2004 at http://my.webmd.com/content/article/53/50459.htm
Messina M, Hughes C. (2003) Efficacy of Soyfoods and Soybean Isoflavone Supplements for Alleviating Menopausal Symptoms is Positively Related to Initial Hot Flush Frequency. Journal of Medicinal Food 6:1-11.
Rubin, K.W. (2003) Meat, Legume or Both?: Soy and Health. (Nutrition Update)
44). On a final note, Decamps' reporting of the NLHCS indicates that "more than half" of the 1,925 lesbians in the survey reported having been victim of a "hate crime" and roughly one in twenty of the 1,925 lesbians had been "physically assaulted" due to her sexual orientation (Decamps, p. 49).
Consequences of child sexual abuse for adult lesbians. Batya Hyman is a professor of social science at Salisbury University in Maryland; she also has published an article that investigates the ramifications of childhood sexual abuse on lesbians as they get up in years. Hyman goes somewhat deeper into the issue than Decamps had gone, noting that there are several health concerns in adult lesbian women who had experienced abuse as children. Among health concerns: pelvic pain; gynecological problems; migraine headaches; asthma; epileptic seizures; digestive system problems; and an "increased lifetime risk of surgery" (Hyman, 2000, p. 200).
Works Cited (Annotated)
Decamps, Monica J., Rothblum, Ester, Bradford, Judith, and Ryan, Caitlin. (2000). Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 11(1), 27-55.
This article presents a great volume of information regarding the mental health impacts of lesbians who had been abused as children, or raped or otherwise assaulted as adults.
Decamps uses precise breakdowns of data that reflect on these issues. It is an informative and helpful research work.
Hall, Kelley J. (1998). Lesbian Lifestyles: Women's Work and the Politics of Sexuality; and Sex and Sensibility: Stories of a Lesbian Generation. Gender and Society, 12(3), 359-360.
I might believe that other variables (such as gender and low income) have a more significant impact on the frequency of car accidents as compared to for instance the general belief that it is crime, and location that induce them.
Firstly, I have to ascertain that my operational terms of data are totally accurate and thorough, since the outcome depends on the data that is fed-in to the system.
Most significantly, however, the major conceptual limitation is that I can only ascertain a relationship but never be sure of the underlying causal factor. It may be a variable that is seemingly unrelated to the independent variables mentioned here and, therefore, has been overlooked. For instance, it may be a possibility that menopause may be responsible for inducing accidents; so even though the factor of age may have emerged as significant, the real problem -- menopause -- has remained…
Additionally, such programs can be "driven by economic and entrepreneurial interests. It was supported by a private biotechnology firm, justified by economic concerns about health care costs, and encouraged by the interests of a university research and development program" (Nelkin 1996: 540). However, parents supported the program and were in fact instrumental in organizing it, partially because they hoped the more information they had about their child's difficulties the better, because they desired to help future suffers, and because they hoped to prevent passing on the mutation to future generations (Nelkin 540).
Furthermore, when Fragile X is identified, however, some researchers argue, it can clarify research about other areas. For example, it can identify the cause of some cases autism, and make studies that look for non-Fragile X, genetically-related conditions that cause autism more instructive (Hertz-Picciotto et al. 1120). Knowing the source of a child's status as a Fragile X…
Abrams, Liane. (2008). "What Does it Mean to Be a Carrier?" National Fragile X
Foundation. Retrieved 19 Jan 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/carriers.htm
Summary of Fragile X Syndrome." (2008). National Fragile X Foundation. Retrieved 19 Jan 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/summary.htm
Nelkin, Dorothy. (Dec., 1996), "The Social Dynamics of Genetic Testing: The Case of Fragile-X Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series. 10. 4.: 537-550.
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.
Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).
It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…
Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.
Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.
Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…
Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.
Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html
General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1
Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
pathological hormonal imbalance effects of follicle stimulating hormone (FH), one first needs to know what FH is. This essay, accordingly, starts off with describing FH before proceeding with a description of how FH imbalance affects the body and providing concise description of the hormone, the target organs, and the cells. The essays also describes the types of receptors that are affected with the imbalance (i.e. The specific cellular effects); the mechanism that is being affected, and the type of receptors that are interfering with the mechanism.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FH)
FH is a hormone found in humans and animals that regulates the growth, development, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. It is synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. FH is intimately involved in reproduction by stimulating maturation of germ cells in both males and females and, in females, by initiating follicular growth. By leveling…
Boulpaep EL, Boron WF (2005). Medical physiology: a cellular and molecular approach. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders.
Fowler PA, Sorsa-Leslie T, Harris W, Mason HD (December 2003). "Ovarian gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF): where are we after 20 years of research?." Reproduction 126 (6): 689 -- 99.
Dr. Licciardi FSH and Estradiol (Estrogen). Infertility blog.
Gender and Identity
Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…
Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193
Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).
Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.
Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.
S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:
faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.
Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.
A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.
The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.
These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…
Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.
Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .
Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
Therapy was discontinued due to an adverse event in 11% of EVISTA®-treated women and 9% of placebo-treated women. Common adverse events related to EVISTA® therapy were hot flashes and leg cramps. Hot flashes were most commonly reported during the first 6 months of treatment and were not different from placebo thereafter.
Cholestyramine causes a 60% reduction in the absorption and enterohepatic cycling of raloxifene after a single dose. Thus, co-administration of cholestyramine with EVISTA® is not recommended.
Overall, raloxifene exerts similar positive on bone mineral density and bone turnover as other SEMS and estrogen therapy. However, the reduction in fracture risk is improved with SEMs vs. estrogen (Nakamura 632).
Overall, administration of calcium and vitamin D is more effective and economical than any approved drug for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The annual cost of calcium and vitamin D treatment is $22 compared to $255 for estrogen,…
Barrett-Connor, E., et al. "Risk-Benefit Profile for Raloxifene: 4-Year Data from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (More) Randomized Trial." J. Bone Miner Res 19.8 (2004): 1270-5.
Borgstrom, F., et al. "Cost Effectiveness of Raloxifene in the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Sweden: An Economic Evaluation Based on the More Study." Pharmacoeconomics 22.17 (2004): 1153-65.
Bryant, H.U. "Mechanism of Action and Preclinical Profile of Raloxifene, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation." Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2.1 (2001): 129-38.
Cranney, a., et al. "Meta-Analyses of Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Iv. Meta-Analysis of Raloxifene for the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis." Endocr Rev 23.4 (2002): 524-8.
Chen, Ho, Lam, Ho, & Woo, 2003)
The article used for this research is a free full-text manuscript that may be found on PubMed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary intake of soy isoflavones on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Subjects were aged 48 to 62 years and within 10 years of natural menopause. Exclusion criteria for this study included any diseases or medications, including use of exogenous estrogens, corticosteroids, thiazine, or any medication known to effect bone mass. This trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study that examined two doses of isoflavones (40 mg and 80 mg daily) and placebo on bone mass maintenance in early postmenopausal women. The alternate hypothesis of this study was that dietary isoflavone supplementation would prevent bone mineral loss in early postmenopausal women.
Subjects in the three intervention arms of the study had similar demographic characteristics. Annualized…
Chen, Y.M., Ho, S.C., Lam, S.S., Ho, S.S., & Woo, J.L. (2003). Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(10), 4740-4747.
Chapter 10: Direct to Consumer Advertising
Television advertising has caused a rift in traditional doctor-patient relationship.
Patients arriving for doctor visits with a firm, fixed idea of outcome -- prescribe me the drug because I saw it on television! Encourage consumers to think buying drug like buying soap.
End of expectation that individual doctor knows best and best medical care emerges from open discussion of patient symptoms, concerns, and exam and consideration of the options, some of which may involve lifestyle changes not drugs
1. Even in car, hear about medical miracles that can change your life. Unending assault on consumer ears through various media.
There are financial ties between many of the supposedly most trusted medical experts and the medical industry
Medical 'news' or advertising masquerading as news
Studies on real news shows, funded by drug companies are presented as objective
Inadequate medical coverage and…
mily-Rose had just turned 36 and was in her first semester at university when her world began to crumble. This could not have come at a worse time as she has always looked forward to doing a Health Studies degree. Her friends and family were alarmed at the sudden moodiness, insomnia, fatigue, headaches, confusion, joint and muscle pain, nausea & #8230;and above all, the enduring feeling of tiredness she complained of.
mily-Rose has suddenly changed from a happy woman to someone who battled daily episodes of what she calls extreme tiredness and anxiety. In the first three weeks of starting university, her husband Harry and sons, Brian and Bob have put this down to overwork at university and firmly told her to "slacken up a bit." Although she tried a new relaxation regime suggested by her friend Anita, she still complained of daily episodes of overwhelming tiredness and general malaise.…
Even in the west we have a relatively new field, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) that suggests a connection between mind and body. In 1964, psychiatrist George Solomon noticed that patients with rheumatoid arthritis got worse with depression. His reasoning was that the mind has an impact on inflammation and on the general immune system.
Another physician, Herbert Benson, later showed how medication could affect blood pressure and he coined the term "relaxation response." Mind -- body connection was becoming increasingly popular and reached further publicity when Robert Ader in 1975 showed the impact that the mind (and cognitions as well as mental state) had on the immune system.
Today, the mind has achieved a larger place in Western medical practice, although conventional medicine still battles with its principals and, in many places, denies its exclusive veracity. There are some areas that are still in doubt
Supplements, Fatigue and Lethargy
DO THEY HELP?
Vitamin E (p 1- 1.5)
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant, which inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS when fat is oxidized (NIH, 2013). The body produces ROS when it converts food into energy. As an antioxidant, Vitamin E protects body cells from the ill effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules containing an unshared electron. They damage cells and contribute to the development of heart diseases and cancer. Unshared electrons are very active and quickly react with oxygen to form ROS. Health experts conjecture that limiting the production of free radicals may, alone or through other mechanisms, help prevent or delay the formation of these dreaded chronic diseases associated with the action of free radicals. Vitamin E may serve that function (NIH).
As an antioxidant, it also plays a role in the immune function of the…
Bain, J. (2001). Andropause: testosterone replacement therapy for aging men. Vol. 47,
Canadian Family Physician: Janvier. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://www.cfp.ca/content/47/1/91.long
NIH (2013). Vitamin E Office of Dietary Supplements: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://www.ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional
Watson, S. (2014). The causes of women's fatigue. WebMD Magazine: WebMD LLC.
Definition of Middle Adulthood
When people are in their middle adulthood that means they are in the middle part of their lives. These include the people from the ages of 40 to 64, however a lot of researchers also use an age much lower to that i.e. 30. Some other studies do not measure the middle adulthood from the age that they reach, but from the tasks and opportunities that they have achieved. Looking overall into the middle adulthood, the people in that age have settled down, have a family, are under responsibilities of their children, and other people in the community; their career as well is settled down and they are having a comfortable family life. After the definition of middle adulthood is made clear, the researchers state that it is important that the society creates some roles for these people that they have to fulfill in…
Baltes, P., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. (n.d.). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. 569-664. Retrieved from: http://library.mpib-berlin.mpg.de/ft/pb/PB_Life_2006.pdf
Hutchison, E. (2008). Dimensions of Human Behaviour: Person and Environment. New York: SAGE.
Hutchison, E. (2011). Dimensions of Human Behaviour: the changing life course. New Delhi: SAGE.
Female hypoactive sexual disorder occurs in roughly one-third of adult women in the United States (Basson, 2000). The foundation of HSDD is predicated on a deficiency of sexual fantasies or desires for sexual activity. Ultimately this lack of desire causes females to experience marked distress and difficulty with interpersonal relationships. Evaluation and subsequent treatment for this disorder can be become very contentious. Treatment requires careful and thoughtful consideration of the patient and the litany of influences that impact female sexual desire. For example, many female life experiences may uniquely impact the overall sexual desire of the female. Events, including the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptives and postmenopausal states all contribute to the overall complexity of treatment. In particular, sexual dysfunctions in women have a strong correlation to low feelings of happiness and emotional satisfaction. Generally, theses feelings occur with women who are in a relationship. Logically, one of the most common…
1. Basson R, Berman J, Burnett A, et al. Report on the International Consensus Development Conference on female sexual dysfunction: definition and classification. J Urol. 2000;163(3):888-893.
2. Brotto L, Bitzer J, Laan E, Leiblum S, Luria M. Women's sexual desire and arousal disorders. J Sex Med. 2010;7(1 Pt 2):586-614.
3. Sand M, Fisher WA. Women's endorsement of models of female sexual response: the nurses' sexuality study. J Sex Med. 2007;4(3):708-719.
treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.
The esearch Question and its Importance
After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…
ANS (2010) Cancer Facts And Figures 2010. American Cancer Society. https://old.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf
Banerjee, S., Saxena, N., Sengupta, K. and Banerjee, S. K. (2003) 17 alpha-estradiol-induced VEGF-A expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is mediated through ER independent but PI3K-Akt dependent signaling pathway. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.300, 209-215.
Banning M (2012). Adherence to adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a review cc_1295 1.10
It is a generally known fact that some weaknesses in the body start developing that directly or indirectly affect one's mental health. Since physical health is related to its impact on the mental health visible in later stages of life, older people must take extra care of their mental health. This paper aims at first, graphically representing mental health conditions in older people in the form of Microsoft Word Excel bar chart for both males and females so that a better comparison could be made, and secondly analyzing the factors for one of those mental health diseases and explaining the reason for its gender disparity.
The following graphical representation of the five mental diseases for the age group 65 years and older within the US population. The data is extracted from Statista.com (2020) from the most recent years, 2017 and 2020. The only slight difference in the…
Alzheimer\\\\'s Society. (n.a.). Smoking and dementia. Retrieved from https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/risk-factors-and-prevention/smoking-and-dementia
Hasselgren, C., Ekbrand, H., Hallerod, B., Fassberg, M.M., Zettergren, A., Johansson, L., Skoog, I. & Dellve, L. (2020). Sex differences in dementia: On the potentially mediating effects of educational attainment and experiences of psychological distress. BMC Psychiatry, 20(434). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02820-9
Kiely, A. (2018, September 20). Why is dementia different for women? Alzheimers.org. Retrieved from https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/blog/why-dementia-different-women
Mosca, L., Barrett-Connor, E. & Wenger, N.K. (2012). Sex/gender differences in cardiovascular disease prevention what a difference a decade makes. Circulation, 124(19), 2145-2154. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.968792
Peralta, J. (2018, August 13). Can estrogen help protect women against dementia? Health line. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/can-estrogen-protect-women-against-dementia
Reckelhoff, J.F. (2000). Gender differences in the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension, 2001, 1199-1208. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.HYP.37.5.1199
Sabia, S., Fayosse, A., Dumurgier, J., Dugravot, A., Akbaraly, T., Britton, A., Kivimaki, M., & Singh-Manoux, A. (2018). Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: 23-year follow-up of White hall II cohort study. BMJ, 2018, 362. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2927
Stanford Health Care. (n.a.). Risk factors for dementia. Retrieved from https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/brain-and-nerves/dementia/risk-factors.html
Hence calcitonin has been found to reduce the turnover of bone and pain in Paget's disease patients.
It is found as an injection: 200 units/ml administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Also available is intranasal spray: 200 units/activation (0.09 ml/puff) which is administered into the nostril. There are no adequate studies of calcitonin in pregnant women and nursing mothers. Calcitonin salmon helps treat osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone but does not cure them. Patients should continue using calcitonin salmon even if they feel well and should only be stopped by the doctor. Using calcitonin salmon for osteoporosis, it is also essential to get enough calcium and vitamin D
Calcitonin salmon may cause side effects such as stomach upset, vomiting, redness, swelling, or irritation at the site of injection, flushing of the face or hands, increased urination at night, itching of the ear lobes, feverish feeling, eye pain, decreased appetite, stomach pain,…
elationship problems is another cause for instance the woman feel that her partner is distant emotionally or abusive and her attraction to him disappears.
During attempt of vaginal penetration, there is involuntary tightening of the muscles around the vagina. Sexual intercourse is made impossible especially if there is complete closing of the vagina and the woman also experiences pain. There are two forms of vaginismus: Primary vaginismus, when no previous sexual act has been possible as a result of the condition; secondary vaginismus, when it's now difficult to have sex due to the condition but previously there has been sexual activity. Distress and problems can be caused by this condition because the sexual life is disrupted.
Female Orgasmic disorder
This is a problem which is rarely complained about but is common in the females. It is characterized by not attaining orgasm or considerable delay in achieving orgasm during a…
Berney, K. (2008). Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: I'm Not in the Mood. April 26, 2010,
Blaur, K., & Crooks, R. (2008). Our Sexuality (10th ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.
Davidson, T. (2003). Sexual Aversion Disorder. April 26, 2010, from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/sexual-aversion-disorder
And for good reason: it's still one of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.
The company points out that this herbicide is 'safe' and that it is essential for increased crop production at a time of critical demand in the United States and the world. Syngenta also refers to the fact that in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "…re-registered atrazine in 2006, based on the overwhelming evidence of safety from nearly 6,000 studies" (Syngenta).
While the main reason for the EU ban on this product was the indication of contaminated drinking water supplies, Syngenta denies this claim. It supports this view by referring to a 2008 study in which 122 Community Water Systems monitored in 10 states were monitored. This study found that the federal standards set for Atrazine were not exceeded in any of the states.
One should however bear in mind that…
Ackerman F. ( 2007)the Economics of Atrazin. Retrieved from http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/EconAtrazine.pdf
Ackerman F. ( 2010) With weed killer atrazine, the benefits are small, the risks are huge. Retrieved from http://www.kansascity.com/2010/09/14/2224213/with-weed-killer-atrazine-the.html
A Field of Nightmares Updated: Atrazine, Corn, and Frogs. Retrieved from http://frogsaregreen.com/tag/effect-of-atrazine-on-frogs/
Atrazine. Retrieved from http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/Actives/atrazine.htm
Her journey of self betterment is not connected to her husband, children or society's approval. Her only goal is genuine happiness and inner serenity.
Mary Stuart Masterson's character undergoes a similar transformation, however, her journey is initiated by her willingness to follow the example of another. As a young woman, Idgie has a very self-destructive plan for her life, involving hard drinking, gambling and cheating death whenever possible. When Mary Louise Parker's character enters her life, she is exposed to a woman who is at once self assured, dignified and responsible. Idgie sees this as a better blueprint for living and overtime abandons her earlier philosophy of living hard and not caring. By the end of the movie she is a pillar of consistency in her community and the one people seek out for sage advice.
Bates' and Masterson's characters share similarities that are quite profound in their celebration of…
The subcutaneous fat -- that which is just beneath the skin in not as worrisome as the deeper visceral fat that surrounds the liver and other abdominal organs, This can cause arterial disease, heart attack, and other problems including increased risk of diabetes. Men have this issue with belly fat throughout their lives; women start to have more of this after menopause. For both sexes, the volume of visceral fat increases with age. Nonetheless, "a minimum amount of physical activity, with or without dietary changes or weight loss, goes a long way to neutralize this deep visceral fat, and even shrink it." (30).
In 1995, a 20-member panel of experts recommended that every adult should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate physical activity a day, or at least on most days: "An active lifestyle does not require a regimented, vigorous exercise program. Instead, small changes that increase daily physical…
Mitchell, T., Church, T., & Zucker, M. (2008). Move yourself: The Cooper Clinic medical director's guide to all the healing benefits of exercise. NY: Wiley.
Brannon, L., & Feist, J. Health Psychology (2007). USA: Thomson / Wadsworth.
The research also points out the largely unconsidered aspect of 'macho psychology' and its effect on men from seeking healthcare. Of particular significance was the inference from many studies that women tend to be less serious about the symptoms of heart problem. Cultural beliefs and their position in the family as responsible homemakers make them naturally less inclined to pass on the burden to others. (Johnson & Morse 1990) Women tend to ignore their symptoms and they are more worried about their spouses and children. (Svedlund et al. 2001).
The author stresses that CHD tends to be perceived as a 'male disease' by the patients and in some instances by doctors as well. For instance, Thomas (1994) reported that female patients complained about physicians taking them lightly while LaCharity (1997) reported that postmenopausal women were angry that their CHD symptoms were ignored and attributed to stress, muscle spasm, indigestion and…
1) Carol Emslie MA PhD, (Nov 2004), 'Women, Men and Coronary Heart Disease: A Review of Qualitative Literature," Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51(4), 382 -- 395
Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).
Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).
During a clinical breast exam the…
Cancer Gap Between Whites, Blacks May Be Biological in Part. (2009). Retrieved August 11,
2009, from http://healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=628785
Carcinogen Found in KFC's New Grilled Chicken. (2009). Retrieved August 13, 2009, from News and Media Center Web site: http://www.pcrm.org/news/release090521.html
National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (2008). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from American
Classroom engagement demonstrates, among all disabilities, one of the most important factors in future academic capabilities. (Symons, Clark, oberts & Bailey, 2001, p. 194) Children affected with FXS need additional classroom and behavioral support, in much the same way that high and low level functioning autistic children need assistance.
The fragile X mutation can also cause two less severe patterns of disorders that cause carriers to be affected, depending on gender. Older male carriers can exhibit fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, which can seriously effect balance, memory and cause a demonstrative tremor, while in women is can cause fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency which can in some women lead to infertility and very premature menopause. Neither of these carrier associated diseases are necessary for a carrier to have the necessary gene disparity that creates the mutation that causes Fragile X syndrome. Carriers can be completely asymptomatic and there may be…
National Fragile X Foundation "What is Fragile X Syndrome?" Retrieved April 30, 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/what.htm .
Strom, C.M. (1990). Heredity and Ability: How Genetics Affects Your Child and What You Can Do about it. New York: Plenum Press.
Symons, F.J., Clark, R.D., Roberts, J.P., & Bailey, D.B. (2001). Classroom Behavior of Elementary School-Age Boys with Fragile X Syndrome. Journal of Special Education, 34(4), 194.
These programs include the service of a registered dietician. (Monti, 2006) These and other programs and research adds to the insight and knowledge about prenatal nutrition that offer a valuable resource and knowledge base for the professional nurse.
Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875
Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,
Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.
J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
McCollister, B. (2001) the Social Necessity of Nurturance. Humanist, 61 (1).
Mead, M.N. (2007). You Are What Your Mother Ate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 492+. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182
Monti, Davorka (2003) Not so Common Nutrition Exercises for Your Childhood
Education Classes. International Journal…
Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875
Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,
Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.
J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
When done on a basis of mutual harmony and choice, sex can be a highly satisfying and emotional activity that brings partners in closer connection to each other. Unfortunately this is not always the case.
Being connected to human interaction, emotion, freedom of choice, and individual body function, an unfortunate possibility is sexual dysfunction. This manifests itself in particular ways in men and women. Generally, problems can be treated by therapy, as many cases of dysfunction relate to how people experience sex psychologically and emotionally. When the basis of problems are addressed by the therapist, dysfunction can also be resolved. In more serious cases, dysfunction can also be resolved by medication.
Examples of sexual dysfunction (Ballas, 2006) that might be experienced by both men and women include 1) a loss of libido, 2) inability to feel aroused, 3) painful intercourse. The third is much more common in women…
Ballas, Paul (2006, 25 July). Sexual Problems Overview. a.D.A.M. Inc., Medline Plus Medical Dictionary. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001951.htm
BBC News. (2003, 8 Feb). Female Sexual Dysfunction. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/medical_notes/486081.stm
Medicine.Net. (2006, 1 Feb). Sexual Problems in Men: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment. http://www.medicinenet.com/sexual_sex_problems_in_men/article.htm
Nevid, J.S., & Rathus, S.A. (2005). Psychology and the challenges of life: Adjustment in the new millennium (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.
Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.
Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
This is because "genetic, hormonal, and nutritional factors play a significant role in the development of stress fractures....Female runners with a history of stress fracture are more likely to have a history of irregular periods or lack of periods. A low body mass index is also a predictor of reduced bone mineral density in adolescents" ("Stress Fractures," 2006, Mass General Hospital for Children).
To gain a sense of the relative the bone density of the participants a DEXA bone scan pre -- and post-season will be required. (Pipenberg, 2005: 1). Athletes will be screened and questioned weekly regarding pain, performance, and to see if they exhibit other common symptoms of stress fractures.
Anticipated benefits and risks of taking part in the study
Low bone density and stress fractures, combined with irregular menstruation have long been the bane of long-distance runners, especially females. "The teenage years are the most important ones…
Calcium, vitamin D may reduce stress fracture risk." (2007). NutraIngredients. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007. http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/news/ng.asp?n=74103-calcium-vitamin-d-fracture
DeNoon, Daniel. (2006). "Weight Loss Can Mean Bone Loss: Dieters Who Don't
Exercise at Risk for Weaker Bones." WebMD Medical News Reviewed by Louise Chang 11 Dec 2006. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/130/117776.htm?src=AOLConditionWidget&ncid=cDaKHfNCCG
Pipenberg, Claudia. (Nov 2005). "Thin, Light... And Fragile: What all runners should know about bone health." The Running Times. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007 at http://runningtimes.com/rt/articles/?id=7376&c=375
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.
Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002
Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
The recommendation for the safest, most practical contraceptive device today's woman should consider would be the IUD. The choice between the ParaGard and the Mirena product should be up to the woman and her physician, once a good bit of research is conducted by the woman, and questions are asked of her doctor. If a device can be implanted and be effective for up to 10 years, and not have any serious - or even minor - side effects, that device would be well worth trying. In the event that it becomes unpleasant for any reason, the woman's doctor can easily remove it at any time.
Brody, Jane. "Jane Brody: New Devices and Effective Options in Contraception." The New
York Times (October 24, 2006). Retrieved 8 Nov. 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com.
Doheny, Kathleen. "The Birth-Control Choice of Female Docs." Shape 25.7 (March 2006)
86. Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006…
Brody, Jane. "Jane Brody: New Devices and Effective Options in Contraception." The New
York Times (October 24, 2006). Retrieved 8 Nov. 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com .
Doheny, Kathleen. "The Birth-Control Choice of Female Docs." Shape 25.7 (March 2006)
86. Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 from Thompson Gale, Document #A143060257.
88). One of the expressed "joys" of middle age, is that people no longer worry about what everyone else says is right or wrong. Their self-esteem grows, and they are more certain of their own self-worth.
Thus, so what if some people become nostalgic for the past more than ever as they become older? It's fine as long as it does not completely make them immobile, but rather keeps them whole and stronger as individuals. Nostalgia does not have to be "mired in the swamps of middlebrow mushiness" or mean that "being impervious to the past is a badge of sophistication" (p.114). Being nostalgic can also mean gaining pleasure and learning from the past.
Let's face it, says the author, everyone also feels differently about physical changes that occur when becoming older. Is each new change with age a cause of shame or a badge of experience? Some people can…
Ethical Dilemma in a Department of Veterans Affairs Tertiary Healthcare Facility
Selection of the environment.
Selected environment. The environment for the proposed study will be a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (hereinafter alternatively "VAMC") that provides the full complement of tertiary healthcare services. The pseudonym for the selected facility will be "Lincolnville VAMC" (because the VA's motto is derived from Lincoln's second inaugural address).
Description of environment and rationale for selection. The Lincolnville VAMC provides tertiary healthcare services for veterans living in a 25-county area in a midwestern state. Besides its operations in the main facility, the Lincolnville VAMC also operates two community-based outpatient clinics. Some of the primary services offered by the Lincolnville VAMC include:
Behavioral Health Service: This service provides consultation, evaluation, and treatment for a variety of issues that can impact emotional well-being.
2) Pharmacy: This service processes more than 80,000 prescriptions each month.
Gomulka, G.T. (2010). Saving military families. Military Review, 90(1), 111-112.
Hendin, H. & Foley, K. (2008). Physician-assisted suicide in Oregon: a medical perspective.
Issues in Law & Medicine, 24(2), 121-122.
Lighthall, A. (2010, November/December). The rules of engagement. Psychotherapy Networker,
These include aging, family history, diabetes, and artery disease. (Women and Stroke)
There are numerous factors that contribute to stroke prevention that are useful in a nursing situation. The include checking blood pressure as dietary observance and history. There are also a number of warning signs that should be monitored. These include:
Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg -- especially on one side of the body; Sudden confusion or trouble speaking; Sudden dizziness, loss of balance and coordination or trouble walking; Sudden difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; Sudden severe headache without a known cause." (ibid)
While there is no direct and exact correlation between stroke and migraine there are sufficient studies that have been undertaken to show that there is evidence to assume a link between these two ailments, especially among women. Studies have also found that among the many variables, women…
Cutlip, W.D., (1995). "Migraines and other headaches: an approach to diagnosis and classification. American Family Physician, May 1, 1995.
Headache and Migraine Glossary. Retrieved November 16, 2004 from Avout.Com. Web site: http://headaches.about.com/library/glossary/bl-isch-stroke.htm
Hecht, B. And Hecht F. (2004)
Migraine with Aura & Stroke. Retrieved November 18, 2004 from Medicine Net. Web site: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=32332
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…
Davidson, Alan. (1989). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ling, Wen Hua, et al. (2001). "Black and Red Rice Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increases Antioxidant Status." Journal of Nutrition. Vol. 131. 1421-26.
London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…
Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?
Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.
PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]