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It is in the nursing homes job description, that the nursing staff employed should be certified, and be able to perform a number of tasks in order to better understand the patient. This includes an assessment of the patient's mental status and thought process, an understanding of the patient's health concerns, ailments and other physical issues, with an open discussion between the nurse and the patient of anything troubling the patient with regard to their health or treatment plans and/or other mental worries that the patient faces.
If the patient insists on declining medicine, they need to be explained their necessity and adjusted, if the medication is causing some sort discomfort to the patient. The nursing staff should not only himself/herself care for the patient when it comes to their medication and rehabilitation, but also educate the patient themselves. The nursing staff constantly should supervise the elderly, however, if there…
Biedenharn, P., & Normoyle, J. (1991). Elderly Community Residents' Reactions to the Nursing Home: An Analysis of Nursing Home-Related Beliefs. The Gerontologist, 31(1): 107-115.
Bouve College of Health Sciences. (2013). Chronic Diseases Associated with Older Age. Retrieved from Northwestern University- Bouve College of Health Sciences: http://www.northeastern.edu/geriatricsbiger/biology_of_aging/chronic_diseases1/chronic_diseases/
Braithwaite, J. (2001). The challenge of regulating care for older people in Australia. BMJ, 323(7310): 443 -- 446.
Bresnahan, J.F. (1999). Ethical Issues in Geriatric Medical Care. Retrieved June 09, 1999, from Galter Health Sciences Library: http://www.galter.northwestern.edu/geriatrics/chapters/ethical_issues.cfm
Mental Health Service Reimbursement
How have changes in reimbursement and medications been a major driver in these policy and treatment changes?
As a Chief Nursing Officer, one must be at once informed of the practical, day-to-day challenges of nursing in the field and of the administrative realities shaping the occupation. ith respect to the latter, it is important to understand the implications of insurance, Medicare and coverage terms and conditions. These frequently complex terms will have a direct impact on the experience of providing treatment. This is well demonstrated in a discussion on coverage vagaries relating to mental health treatment reimbursement. Especially with so many changes now taking place in the healthcare field, there is practical value in understanding the emergent conditions of mental health coverage.
The most immediate and impactful change in mental health coverage relates to the historical limitations placed on the scope of treatment reimbursement. Insurance companies…
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). (2013). Medicare and Your Mental Health Benefits. Medicare.gov.
Geriatric Mental Health Foundation (GMHF). (2012). Paying for Mental Health Services Under Medicare. GMHFonline.org.
Williams, S.J. & Torrens, P.R. (2007). Introduction to Health Services. Cengage Learning.
Mental Health Policies and Legislation
It is not humane nor is it dignified to allow any living person to live in a florid psychosis; this would be a cruel and odd punishment. In the Australian medical practice, the health laws and regulations dictate that, doing the legal thing in the course of duty is not sufficient, but rather the professional must do what is morally right. In definition, recovery is the process of changing through which an individual improves in their health status and wellness, to live a self-directed life, striving to reach their maximum potential (Turton, Wright & Killaspy, 2010). The essay covers the introduction of the recovery model of care in Australia and the successive impacts it has on the treatment process of the patients: in addition to the impact on the nursing practice. The evolution of the recovery model, however, now presents a chance for the challenged…
Archambeault, J. (2009). Reflective reader: Social work and mental health reflective reader. Exeter [England: Learning Matters.
Forrester, K., & Griffiths, D. (2010). Essentials of law for health professionals. Chatswood, N.S.W: Elsevier Australia.
Davies, T., & Craig, T.K.J. (2009). ABC of mental health. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell/BMJ Books.
Elder, R., Evans, K., & Nizette, D. (2009). Psychiatric and mental health nursing. Sydney: Mosby Elsevier.
In the future, this will improve quality and it will reduce the total number of uninsured. This is when productivity and the standard of living will improve by proactively addressing these issues while they are small.
To deal with any potential challenges left behind from the Affordable Care Act requires looking at alternatives which can be augmented with the law. The various options that are available include:
Enacting provisions that apply to immigrants: The figures that were examined earlier in the table titled Immigration Status and the Percentage without any Health Insurance Coverage. They are showing that naturalized citizens and non-citizens do not have any kind of health care coverage. Inside the group of non-citizens are illegal immigrants. According to the Pew Foundation, they determined that the total number of illegal immigrants among this group is accounting for 28% of the population. (Lee, 2012)
Moreover, the Department of Homeland…
Annual Report and Accounts. (2012). CQC. Retrieved from: http://www.cqc.org.uk/sites/default/files/media/documents/cqc_annualreport_2012_tagged.pdf
How the Health Care Law Benefits You. (2012). Health Care.gov. Retrieved from: http://www.healthcare.gov/law/resources/benefits.html
Periodic Review. (2012). NHS. Retrieved from: http://www.leeds.nhs.uk/About-us/Our-Performance/Periodic-Review.htm
Baker, B. (2012). Estimates of the Size and Characteristics. DHS. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/immigration-statistics/ois_ni_pe_2011.pdf
Mental Health Policy
A healthy body keeps a healthy mind is a universal proverb applicable to people of all times. Mental illness not only harms the person himself but also the ones who are closely associated with him. The number of mentally ill people is increasing across the globe and there is serious need to devise an effective policy to control this situation.
An abusive, compelling and dominating behavior in a dating relationship among the teenage youngsters is termed as dating violence. Students susceptible to dating violence suffer greatly in terms of their academic performance, social and extra-curricular activities. They may show poor results and isolate themselves from colleagues and friends. They may show lack of interest in extra-curricular activities. All these activities are results of poor mental health. Such students have a profound effect on their psyche due to being exposed to some kind of in-home violence in their…
Chan et al. "Prevalence of Dating Partner Violence and Suicidal Ideation among Male and Female University Students Worldwide." Journal of Midwifery Women's Health 53 (2008): 529-537. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
"Dating Violence Common by 7th Grade: Survey." U.S. News. March 29, 2012. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
Maryland School Mental Health Alliance. Teen Dating Violence. School Mental Health.org. n.d. Web. 5 Feb.2013.
"Mental Health and Mental Disorders." Healthy people.gov. n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
Policy Issues in Mental Health and Impact
Mental healthcare is an area of care that has been neglected by policy makers and by the medical community at some point in its history. Examining how the mentally ill have been treated throughout history demonstrates that opinions have changed and people treatment has followed how the general public viewed mental health. At times reformers would make conditions better, but these always seemed to be followed by periods when the mentally ill were treated like criminals. This roller coaster ride of options and opinions seems to be changing currently, and the idea that mental health is as much of a disease as other forms of chronic illness is beginning to take hold with the general public.
Some of the credit for this can be laid at the feet of a greater awareness of how PTSD affects soldiers and other victims of…
NAMI. (2012). About NAMI. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/template.cfm?section=About_NAMI
NIMH. (2008). Strategic plan. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/strategic - planning-reports/nimh-strategic-plan-2008.pdf
Popper, R. (2011). Covering more uninsured Americans who have pre-existing conditions. Retrieved from http://www.healthcare.gov/blog/2011/02/pcip - enrollment.html
SAMHSA. (2011). Leading change: A plan for SAMHSAs roles and actions 2011-2014 executive summary and introduction. Retrieved from http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content//SMA11-4629/01-FullDocument.pdf
Mental health disorder is a continuum ranging from a severe disorder to minor distress of behavior or mind. The prime target of the health initiative is to enhance the social functioning and health of mentally ill persons (Halpern & Kaste, 2013). Oral health problem contributes to quality of life, general health, and self-esteem. Although it might have a minimal priority in the context of depression, the impact of mental health and treatment of oral health need to be addressed.
Dental Consequences of Depression
Studies indicate that high comorbidity and chronic dental pain are the most commonly recognized dental implications. Literature on chronic pain and depression extends to describe the reciprocal relation between depression and dental pain. Decreased motivation and energy, coupled with negative self-opinions associated with depression might cause a detrimental effect on oral hygiene habits and adherence to treatment interventions (Kandel, 2012). Depressed patients frequently have minimal interest in…
Ashton, Q. (2013). Depression: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition. New York: Scholarly Editions
Dumitrescu, A.L. (2010). Etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Heidelberg: Springer.
Halpern, L.R., & Kaste, L.M. (2013). Evidence-Based Women's Oral Health, An Issue of Dental Clinics. London: Elsevier Health Sciences
Kandel, J. (2012). Issues in Dentistry, Oral Health, Odontology, and Craniofacial Research: 2011 Edition. West Sussex: Scholarly Editions
It promised to be a very important resource to the primary care setting, but at present, the performance has not been considerable and there have been lack of funds and local consensus, which thwart its implementation (Pidd).
Shared Care etween GP Practices and Community Health Teams
This initiative aimed at developing cooperative partnership between these teams as well as establishing systems for proactive, structured care at the practice level (Pidd 2004). Implementation has similarly been problematic. When effected, it would insure the engagement and involvement of the key staff in GP practice and local community mental health teams; a participative, facilitated process for the shared care conceptual framework; joint working groups to develop shared care agreements; and a shared understanding of priorities for improvement. Meanwhile, pilot studies conducted on personal medical services identified five factors, which could enhance successful quality improvement. These were effective collaboration with community and secondary care,…
1. Bao, Y. (2004). The Effects of State Mental Health Parity Legislation on Perceived Quality of Insurance Coverage, Perceived Access to Care, and Use of Mental Health Specialty Care. Health Services Research: American College of Healthcare Executives
2. Glieb, S. (1998). Too Little Time? The Recognition and Treatment of Mental Health: Problems in Primary Care. Health Services Research: American College of Healthcare Executives
3. Lee, S.D. (2006). Assessing the Service Linkages of Substance Abuse Agencies with Mental Health and Primary Care Organizations. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Taylor and Francis, Ltd.
4. Menaged, S.C. (2003). Obstacles to Accessing Mental Health Care. USA Today: Society for the Advancement of Education
The ultimate solution is comprehensive mental health coverage, a solution which must be achieved on a political level. Full Circle Health is already striving to do so, as part of its political advocacy work. However, until then, one possible solution would be to employ individuals specifically to work helping patients negotiate the complex health care bureaucracy and to work with insurance agencies, government organizations, and private charities to ensure funding. Ideally, these individuals would be paid staff members, employed to work as advocates for funding and to work with insurance companies, to help with paperwork and to submit appeals, when necessary, if funding was threatened. If there is no budget for additional paid staff, volunteers could be employed, however the issue of confidentiality regarding mental health care records must be strictly observed. Paid and volunteer positions would be trained in the health care insurance industry's language, and provide needed and…
Cox, John, Ian a Campbell, & Victoria Lewin-Fetter. "Medicine of the person: the lost art of medicine." The Lancet. 371.9615. (2008): 812. 10 May 2008, ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1447922391).
Full Circle Health. Official Website. 11 May 2008. http://www.fullcirclehealth.org/index.html
Heckman, Bernadette Davantes, Kenneth a Holroyd, Francis J. O'Donnell, Gretchen
Tietjen, Christine Utley, Mark Stillman, & Gary Ellis. "Race Differences in Adherence to Headache Treatment Appointments in Persons with Headache Disorders. Journal of the National Medical Association." 100.2 (2008): 247-55. 10 May 2008. ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1425855661).
Mental Health Legislation
Critical Appraisal of ecent Mental Health Legislation and its Effect Upon Service Users and Carers
In recent years, we have seen a renewed government interest in public health. The everyday coming amendments and suggestions show that achievement of a healthy individual in society is not just related to medical treatment. It also shows that social, environmental and economic surroundings play an important part to determine levels of illness and disease (DoH, 1999). Before mid-twentieth century, majority of the moderate mental disorders were not taken seriously to treat and only people get assistance from their general physician and from family, friends, and clergy
." The care of people with serious mental illness was a state responsibility, provided in custodial mental hospitals for people who could not safely be cared for by themselves or their families...the segregation of such people in isolated custodial institutions probably contributed to the stigma…
British Columbia Ministry of Health and Ministry Responsible for Seniiors. (2001b). BC's mental health reform best practices for inpatient/outpatient services. Victoria. British Columbia.
Coker, R,(2004) 'Population movements and acute and chronic infectious diseases', paper written for the Nuffield Trust, November
Department of Health, (1998) Our Healthier Nation: a contract for health
Department of Health, (1999) Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation
Mental Health Care System
The mental healthcare system in the United States is historically fractured. A "silo"-based foundation precludes correlation between varied and integral systems that, collectively, offer a range of services to treat the whole patient. The President's ew Freedom Commission on Mental Health roused the debate of the mental health community and rallied them around one goal: providing thorough, coherent, and appropriate treatment to Americans with mental health and substance abuse problems. Particularly needy for this form of collected care is one demographic in particular: teens dealing with drug abuse and alcohol problems. The substance-abusing teen is caught between many cracks: between child and adult, the mental health system and juvenile justice. The ever-developing mental healthcare system in the United States is restructuring to address this failure, approaching the teen from both SAMHSA and affiliated programs as well as through the Justice Department, using individual, family, and developmentally-appropriate…
Nissen, p. 15.
AtHealth.com offers a variety of sources that provide for information about adolescent development. It provides the full text of many corresponding articles about development as it relates to treatment as well as access to other mental health community websites and information that provide treatment assistance and professional tools: http://www.athealth.com/Practitioner/Newsletter/FPN_7_8.html
Nissen, p. 16.
Providing patients with mental health problems with the proper care can be a difficult task. There are also many ethical issues that often arise in caring for patients who are mentally ill. The case of Rocky Bennett is a prime example of the ethical dilemmas that can arise when arriving for this particular population. These dilemmas can also be compounded when racial discrimination is involved. The purpose of this discussion is to examine issues related to the delivery of mental healthcare using the Rocky Bennett case as an example.
Delivery of community and health services
Mental illness is still a taboo subject in many communities throughout the world. As such the delivery of delivering community and mental health services can be difficult. Ethical issues abound in the field of mental health because of the sensitivities involved when treating patients who are mentally ill. The major issues are often…
Anglin, D.M. Alberti, P.M., Link, B.G. Phelan Jo C. (2008) Racial Differences in Beliefs About the Effectiveness and Necessity of Mental Health Treatment. Am J. Community Psychol 42:17 -- 24
Commission for Racial Equality. Appointing NHS consultants and senior registrars: report of a formal investigation. London: CRE, 1996.
Esmail A,. (1993) Racial discrimination against doctors from ethnic minorities. British Medical Journal. 306: 691-2
Esmail Aneez (2004)The prejudices of good people: Leadership is needed to combat continued institutional racism. British Medical Journal. 328(7454): 1448 -- 1449
Parents of children with psychological problems are often highly stressed, emotionally and economically, and many have observed that dealing with state bureaucracy can feel like a 'full job' in and of itself. The Case Management Service addresses this problem.
Of course, getting appropriate screening in the first place is essential: children with mental difficulties or learning disabilities, if not properly assessed by a professional, may simply be labeled 'bad' children. This is why all Californian children can be screened at relatively young ages for mental health complaints through the Preschool 0-5 Program. This program facilitates mental health screening, evaluations, treatment and consultation in childcare facilities, pediatrician's offices, and in other environments where children are likely to receive care or treatment (Children's Services, 2010, iverdale).
iverdale's mental health services are supported with a combination of state and county funding. However, according to the Department of Mental Health Services Website (2010) due…
Children's Services. (2010). Mental Health Service: Riverdale.
Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://mentalhealth.co.riverside.ca.us/opencms/english/services/childrens/
Department of Mental Health Services Website (2010). Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://mentalhealth.co.riverside.ca.us/opencms/english/services/
Detention Mental Health Services of Riverdale, CA. (2010). Mental Health Service: Riverdale.
By not complying with the medical treatment, they are making a statement about their own identity and how it is in their hands, not in their parents or the doctors'. Thus, compliance becomes associated with giving in. Moreover, many teens are worried about the medication itself. For example, "A teen may be wary of the side effects from the prescribed medication, and taking the prescribed medication may validate the teen's condition," (MassGeneral Hospital for Children 2009). By taking the medication, they are validating their disorder, which they may want to ignore. Thus, noncompliance serves as a method of denial -- denying the existence of the very disorder itself.
There are several ways that compliance can be increased. All parties involved should hold some responsibility for increasing compliance with treatment. Therefore, doctors especially should take time to adjust treatment to the teen's life in order to provide the greatest level of…
Graham, Jennifer. (2009). Recognizing and treating teen mental health issues. Teens and Depression. Retrieved December 26, 2009 from http://chronicillness.suite101.com/article.cfm/teens_and_depression
MassGeneral Hospital for Children. (2009). Compliance. Adolescent Health. Retrieved December 26, 2009 from http://www.massgeneral.org/children/adolescenthealth/articles/aa_compliance.aspx
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2009). Common mental health problems. Teens and Mental Health. Retrieved December 26, 2009 from http://www.4parents.gov/sexrisky/mentalhealth/mentalhealthproblems/index.html
The attitude of parents which came across as more authoritative, uncompromising, uncooperative and unaffectionate does result in higher levels of depression in the subject. Even though parental authority was required for disciplining the adolescents, it was the accentuated sort of antagonistic authority that resulted in higher levels of depression as well as increased the possibility of clashes and irritation. The fact of the matter is that in most occasions when the adolescent did not respond simultaneously to the overt and hesitant disapprovals and authority of the parents, it decreased with the passage of time.
Apart from these confined parenting approaches there were some peripheral, indirect and distant parenting approaches that brought about depressive inclinations in the adolescent as well. One of these indirect factors was the personal happiness and contentment of the parents within their own relationship or familial or financial situation. While positive growth of this child was also…
Aneshensel, C.S., and Huba, G.J. (1983). Depression, alcohol use, and smoking over one year: A four wave longitudinal causal model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 92: 134-150.
Attie, I., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (1989). Development of eating problems in adolescent girls: A longitudinal study of Developmental. Psychology. 7.5: 70-79.
Braucht, G.N., Brakarsch, D., Follingstad, D., and Berry, K.L. (1973). Deviant drugs use in adolescence: A review of psychological correlates. Psychology Bulletin. 79: 92-106.
Chorpita, B.F., Daleiden, E.L., Moffitt, C., Yim, L., & Umemoto, L.A. (2000). Assessment of tripartite factors of emotion in children and adolescents I: Structural validity and normative data of an affect and arousal scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22, 141-160.
Mental Health Memo
Process evaluation can be conducted in a manner highly similar to program evaluation, with an identification of specific levels of efficiency and consistency desired and empirical observation to determine if and to what degree those outcomes are being achieved (Lewis et al., 2012). Outcome measures can be obtained in a similar manner and often in more concrete and simply observed qualitative fashions (Lewis et al., 2012). For the evaluation of the Consultation and Education Department at Greenby Community Mental Health Center, one useful process evaluation measure would be self-reported learner satisfaction. This would demonstrate the degree to which the educational programs being implemented were perceived to be as efficient and effective as desired, and could help identify areas for improvement. Actual learner performance in practical and academic settings, whether through formal or informal quizzes or as measured in follow-up interviews regarding the handling of specific…
Lewis, J., Packard, T. & Lewis, M. (2012). Management of Human Services Programs.
Mason, OH: Cengage.
The outcome of post-combat rehabilitation counseling is directly dependent on the development of specific techniques and approaches conducive to their needs.
Conceptual elevance to Mental Health Counseling and Professional Practice:
Antiquated or outdated conceptual approaches to rehabilitation counseling are less effective than those that correspond more closely to the actual needs of patients. As a professional counselor, it is important to understand the specific needs of patients to best assist them achieve the maximum possible reintegration into a fulfilling and productive life after their return from combat with serious injures or long-term disabilities.
Stone, F.P. (1998). Attitudinal and Perceptual Barriers to Accessing Mental
Health Services among Members of the U.S. Air Force. University of Utah.
Summary of Major Findings:
A survey of enlisted members in the U.S. Air Force established that: (1) there is a general perception that seeking mental health counseling is associated with negative stigmas that are detrimental…
Dao, J. And Frosch, D. "Military Rules Said to Hinder Therapy." The New York Times.
(December 7, 2009). Retrieved October 15, 2010 from:
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,
In Mrs. K's case (as in terms of all patients to whom the test is administered) her educational attainment and age need to be considered.
Mrs. K's rating was low - 14 points - and although this does correlate closely with dementia, caution has to be exercised since other mental disorders can also lead to low readings on the MMSE testing. It was also taken into account that physical problems, such as deafness, fatigue, concern, inability to concentrate, inability to hear or read the instructions properly or to understand them, or perhaps a motor or visual deficit that affected writing and drawing skills may interfere with test results. As far as possible, we tried to correct for these occurrences.
What I would recommend is one or other of similar clinical tests for corroboration. The 6-item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT) may be an option. This instrument, also known as the Short…
Dementia link. An introduction to the cognitive tests http://www.bgs.org.uk/Publications/deliriumtk/contents/pdfs_word_files/intro_cognitive_tests.pdf
Andrade C, Radhakrishnan R. (2009) The prevention and treatment of cognitive decline and dementia: An overview of recent research on experimental treatments. Indian J. Psychiatry.;51(1):12-25.
The combination of these different element meant that the patient became very depressed about his life. However, after I told we can help him to be able to not feel so alone the patient was comforted. (Lynch, 2011)
uring this session we are meeting with a 52-year-old African-American female who is suffering from Bi Polar isorder and is having episodes of psychotic fueled outbursts. This patient was involuntarily admitted on August 17th and is showing signs of aggressive behavior. In this interaction, our goals are to have them focus on one single task and to help them express their feelings. The problems that we encountered are that this individual is very defensive, blaming and delusional. As, she was focused on: who took her clothes, changing her doctor, why she was at the hospital and how she cannot do what she wants. This is important, because any one of these…
Describe the differences and similarities you assess/observe in the unit milieu, staff behaviors and attitudes, interactions among clients and factors that impacted positively and negatively on your clinical experience each week compared to the previous week.
The similarities that were observed are that the staff took a consistent approach when dealing with a wide variety of patients. As they would ask a series of questions and then listen to the responses of patients to determine the most effective treatment options. This helped the unit / staff to be able to quickly diagnose and treat everyone. Over the course of time, this lead to behaviors / attitudes that were focused on: objectively understanding the scope of the problem and possible solutions for dealing with them. (Lynch, 2011)
The biggest differences were the overall scope of the treatment options that were recommended. Evidence of this can be seen by comparing
Carl Gustav Jung's stretched out Freud's unconscious concept by describing the collective unconscious which formed his theory of analytic psychology. He described the total personality as the psyche, classifications as follows. First is the ego which is the conscious dimension of personality, then the personal unconscious which includes anything that is not presently conscious. It includes memories that are easily brought to mind and those that have been suppressed for some reason excluding the instincts that Freud includes. And then there is the collective unconscious, a pool of our experiences and a type of familiarity we are all born with and yet we can never be directly mindful of it.
It persuades all of our experiences and behaviors, the majority in particular the disturbing ones, but we only know about it in some way, by looking at those influences. There are some experiences that give you an idea about the…
Argyle, M. (2000). Psychology and Religion. London, England: Routledge.
Kaplan, H., & Sadock, B. (1998). Synopsis of Psychiatry. Baltimore, Maryland: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins.
Kincheloe, J.L., & Horn, R.A. (2007). The Praeger Handbook of Education and Psychology. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
The client, a sixty-year-old male of average height but thinly built, demonstrated initial reluctance to meet with the therapist. However, within a few minutes of initiating the therapeutic conversation, the client smiled and seemed temporarily disarmed. I spoke to him with kindness but without condescension. The following encapsulates the therapeutic conversation that took place at the Veteran's Hospital at which the client had been receiving treatment for schizoaffective disorder, concurrent with alcohol dependency. I opened the conversation by introducing myself as a nursing intern.
'Mr. X, how are you? I understand you have been feeling depressed lately and I would like to be able to help you with that."
In accordance with some of the new modalities in therapeutic conversations, I enlisted input from the client. For example, I asked him what he felt was wrong with the therapy he had been receiving thus far. The client told…
Part A: Case Study, Mental Status Checklist, Narrative, Sample of MSE, BDI, BAI
Barbara Allen (BA), 39, a female professor at a local university, is brought by the partner who fears that the BA is schizophrenic. BA demonstrates paranoia about what the nurses and doctors and doing and keeps saying that she is being sabotaged by her enemies at her workplace. BA appears to refuse to answer questions initially, but when she does speak, she exhibits disordered thinking and confused speech. Her train of thought rambles briefly and incoherently between ideas. She shows an inability to concentrate; her face expresses a great deal of pain and anguish over her awareness of this inability. She says she does not know what is wrong with her intermittently while also saying that “they” are out to get her, while rising out her seat. Her partner tries to comfort her…
De Los Reyes, A., Augenstein, T. M., Wang, M., Thomas, S. A., Drabick, D. A., Burgers, D. E., & Rabinowitz, J. (2015). The validity of the multi-informant approach to assessing child and adolescent mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 141(4), 858.
Grossman, M., & Irwin, D. J. (2016). The mental status examination in patients with suspected dementia. Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology, 22(2), 385.
Leucht, S., Cipriani, A., Spineli, L., Mavridis, D., Örey, D., Richter, F., Samara, M., Barbui, C., Engel, R.R., Geddes, J.R. and Kissling, W. (2013). Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 15 antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. The Lancet, 382(9896), 951-962.
Marenco, S. & Weinberger, D. (2000). The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: Following a trail of evidence from cradle to grave. Development and Psychopathology, 12(3): 501-527.
Sands, R. & Gellis, Z. (2012). Clinical Social Work Practice in Behavorial Mental Health, 3rd edition. Pearson Publishing
Turkington, D., Kingdon, D., & Turner, T. (2002). Effectiveness of a brief cognitive—behavioural therapy intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(6), 523-527.
Zink, M., Englisch, S., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2010). Polypharmacy in schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23(2), 103-111.
Today, depression is a common mental health illness with a prevalence of 6.2%. This means in every 15 adult people, one has the disorder. The disease is characterized by loss of interest in routine activities, extensive sadness, and outrageous conduct. For an individual to be diagnosed with the disorder, these symptoms have to persist for more than 2 weeks. The high prevalence of the disorder has resulted in high rates of patients admission (Parekh, 2017). As a practitioner in the mental health unit, one is tasked with the responsibility to develop a treatment plan for each patient and a group plans for patients with similar challenges towards the realization of health. Group treatment plans establish interpersonal relationships among the patients which are therapeutic, cathartic, and equip the patients with skills to facilitate more effective functioning.
People who are affected by depression suffer humiliation especially due to stereotypes propagated by mainstream…
Brandler, S., & Roman, C. (2016). Group work: skills and strategies for effective interventions (3rd ed.), by S. Brandler & C. Roman. Social Work with Groups, 40(4), 381-383. doi: 10.1080/01609513.2015.1137448
Cohen, C., Doel, M., Wilson, M., Quirke, D., Ring, K., & Abbas, S. (2009). Global group work: Honoring processes and outcomes. Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups, 31.
Parekh, R. (2017). What Is Depression? Psychiatry.org. Retrieved 17 November 2017, from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/depression/what-is-depression
Yalom, I., & Leszcz, M. (2008). The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (5th ed.). Basic Books.
A Gap in Equity Related to Mental Health Access for Veterans
Describe a specific gap in the delivery of healthcare. Include the specific population affected by the gap
A specific gap that is existent in the delivery of healthcare takes into account a shortfall in equity that is associated with mental health accessibility for veterans.
Briefly describe the history of this gap in access to healthcare. Has this been an issue historically, or is it a modern issue?
A gap in accessibility to mental care has been a historical issue that has protracted into the present times. This gap in equity goes back to the mid-20th century during the Vietnam War. Thousands of recruits within the military armies that participated in the war developed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the culmination of their military duties. In definition, post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental health illness caused by the…
Selamu et al. (2015) establish that drug abuse and mental illness are greatly interlinked. The prevalence of stigma about mental health and substance abuse disorders often hinders the affected people from seeking mental health care. Rural areas and areas where there is a low resource allocation have limited mental healthcare services. This results in a larger financial burden in the management of the subsequent disabilities due to the lack of medical care in the early stages of the mental illness. Further, the lack of community-based rehabilitation centers leads to a higher prevalence of mental health disorders in marginalized communities. Acharya et al. (2017), report that there is limited access to culturally sensitive mental care. The provision of contextual care is limited despite great efficacy associated with this kind of care. As exhibited, there is a disconnect in the services provided by the government and non-governmental health care providers…
Acharya, B., Maru, D., Schwarz, R., Citrin, D., Tenpa, J., & Hirachan, S. et al. (2017). Partnerships in mental healthcare service delivery in low-resource settings: developing an innovative network in rural Nepal. Globalization and Health, 13(1). doi: 10.1186/s12992-016-0226-0
Addiction Treatment Starts Here: Primary Care Application. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.careinnovations.org/addiction-primary-care-2019/
Blanco, M., Gruppen, L., Artino, A., Uijtdehaage, S., Szauter, K., & Durning, S. (2015). How to write an educational research grant: AMEE Guide No. 101. Medical Teacher, 38(2), 113-122. doi: 10.3109/0142159x.2015.1087483
Funding & Grants | Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/funding/index.html
Health Care Apply for a Grant. (2018). Retrieved from https://dukeendowment.org/health-care-apply-for-a-grant
Killaspy, H. (2006). From the asylum to community care: learning from experience. British Medical Bulletin, 79-80(1), 245-258. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldl017
NOVA Award | AHA. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.aha.org/about/awards/aha-nova-award
NOVA Award | AHA. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.aha.org/about/awards/aha-nova-award
Community mental health group: Alcohol Anonymous Group
Every recovering addict is welcome to the Sunday Open Meeting organized by Narcotics Anonymous which is located at St. Andrews close to the Sea Lutheran church, 936 Baltic Avenue. The theme of the meeting is ‘We do recover’ and is aimed at helping anyone who desires to be free from drug abuse. This meeting is supportive / therapeutic in nature. These Open Narcotics Anonymous meetings can be attended by anybody who desires to be a part of our Fellowship and everyone is welcome (Narcotics Anonymous, n.d.).
Narcotics Anonymous refers to a non-profit society or Fellowship comprising of people of both sexes who are battling drug addiction. The major function of the Fellowship is creating an avenue where recovering addicts can meet with each other from time to time which would help them stay clean. This Fellowship fosters complete liberation from addiction. Total recovery…
Bate, S. P. (2010). Strategies for cultural change. Routledge.
Creek, J., & Lougher, L. (2011). Occupational therapy and mental health. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Narcotics Anonymous. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved September 24, 2017, from http://www.nanj.org/questions.shtml
Yalom, I. D. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy. Basic Books (AZ).
Drug abuse among patients with mental problems is a serious issue that has gained some popularity in America today because it affects people from all lifestyles and age groups. The associated health problems are common, serious, and recurrent although the prospects of recovery on both issues cannot be ruled out. Therefore, knowledge on common drug abuse and mental health problems is important. It helps the society and other stakeholders in recognizing their signs and guiding victims to seek medical help. Studies of drug abuse in mental health patients confirm their high comorbidity hence the classification as ‘co-occurring’ or ‘dual’ disorders.
Mental disorders normally involve the change in and people’s thinking, behavior, and mood that later affects how they make certain choices and their relationship to other people in society. They occur in different forms such as schizophrenia, which makes an individual have extremely bad temperament (Newman, 2016). Moreover, some people…
Berkman, N., Davis, T. and McCormack, l. (2010). Health literacy: What is it? Journal of Health Communication, 15(S2): 9-19.
DrugAbuse.com (2017). Mental health and drug abuse. Retrieved from https://drugabuse.com/library/mental-health-and-drug-abuse/
Newman, T. (2016). Schizophrenia risk increased with alcohol, drug abuse. Medical News Today.
NIH. (2011). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental disorders. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-disorders
SAMHSA. (2017). Mental and substance use disorders. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/disorders
Speros, C. I. (2011). Promoting health literacy: a nursing imperative. Nursing Clinics of North America, 46(3), 321-333.
Mental Health and Green Space
Measuring Mental Health and Green Space
Grahn and Stigsdotter (2010) sampled 953 randomly selected informants from 9 cities in Sweden to respond to a questionnaire. The responses were assessed using factor analysis and regression analyses to measure the impact of green space on mental health. Their study found that environments rich with nature and abundant wildlife help to minimize stress. Their finding is supported by Wolf (n.d.) who shows that by incorporating green spaces into urban areas, communities can improve the mental health of their population.
The study by Fjeld, Veiersted, Sandvik et al. (1998) focused on measuring the neuropsychological symptoms, mucous membrane symptoms, and skin symptoms of participants in an office building before and after foliage plants were introduced into the office. The study measured all of the symptoms were lessened by 23% in total following the introduction of greenery into the office. Their…
Fjeld, T., B. Veiersted, L. Sandvik, G. Riise, and F. Levy. 1998. The Effect of Indoor Foliage Plants on Health and Discomfort Symptoms Among Office Workers. Indoor and Built Environment 7(4), 204.
Grahn, P., and U.K. Stigsdotter. 2010. The Relation Between Perceived Sensory Dimensions of Urban Green Space and Stress Restoration. Landscape and Urban Planning, 94(3-4), 264-275.
Park Score. (2017). Rankings. Retrieved from http://parkscore.tpl.org/historic/2016_ParkScoreRank.pdf
Wolf, K. (n.d.). Mental Health & Function. Retrieved October 21, 2017, from https://depts.washington.edu/hhwb/Thm_Mental.html
Culture and Health Nursing
Case Study: Jeannette
Treating patients appropriately demands that providers foster an environment in which patients can be candid about their health conditions. It should be viewed as a positive first step that Jeanette and her mother disclosed the fact that they have been using a Haitian voodoo priestess (mambo) coming to the house to treat Jeanette. Unfortunately, many of the herbs used in such traditional practices are not only ineffective, but can be potentially dangerous, particularly if mixed with conventional medical treatments such as antidepressants (Kelak, Cheah, & Safii, 2018). Mental health issues such as posttraumatic stress disorder can be confusing and frightening for a family, and using traditional medicine may be comforting to people like Jeanette’s mother. It may also be less traumatic to think of her daughter as cursed rather than as suffering from a mental illness.
Clinicians must be culturally sensitive. Seeking spiritual…
Case information and intake information
The patient is a Caucasian female that is 29 years old. She presented the symptoms and signs of a mental health condition. Apart from having sleepless nights, she stated that she often felt sad, had crying spells almost daily, and that she was overeating. She stated that her sleeping was not right in the sense that it took her a couple of hours before finally falling a sleep. She also added that during certain nights, falling a sleep was impossible and if it happened, she would only sleep for few hours. She mentioned that she found herself thinking a lot and worrying during the time that she was awake. She said that her worries included the thoughts of her not being a good mother, and she felt as though she was a burden to her husband. She also acknowledged that she often thought…
My view of criminal justice has changed completely. Before this course, I was under the impression that the criminal justice system might be flawed—but what system is perfect? Now I have a much better understanding of the nature of that system and the reasons it is not just imperfect but in major need of reform if not total re-development. The reason I say that is I have come to understood criminological theories that explain why crime happens, and mental health issues are a big part of the problem. It is almost to the point where crime has really become not a criminal justice problem but rather a mental health problem, as nearly half of all crimes are committed by people with a history of mental health issues (Evans Cuellar, McReynolds & Wasserman, 2006). Instead of getting the mental health treatment they need, these people become self-destructive, break laws because they…
Verbatim Transcript counseling session analyst
Counseling Session Transcription and Analysis
Instructions: Place the counselors and clients verbatim statement in each row (Part I). Then identify the counseling skills that the counselor used and explain why that skill was used in the session. Note: each counselor statement or encourager must be identified (Part II.1). Next provide a alternative skill that could have been used and write the actual words you would use. Note: every counselor statement or encourager must have an alternative statement (Part II.2). Next, examine the transference (what the client reaction to the counselor) and the countertransference (counselor’s reaction to the client) reactions. Lastly, write a 1 page paper Transcript Video Critique and Analysis. In this paper you will discussed your critique yourself, skills, and theory used in the session (Part III)
(1). Counseling-skill used and purpose
(2) Alternative Skill, Counseling Statement, and…
Adolescent choices can determine outcomes that emerge later in life. Setting aside congenital conditions that adversely affect adolescent physical or mental health, adolescents and young adults also face risks related to lifestyle choices. Those risk factors increase among some demographic cohorts, especially low- and middle-income groups. Mental health is a major concern among adolescents and young adults, which is why numerous community-level task forces address these concerns. In fact, the American government’s Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP, 2020) lists mental health disorders at the top of the list of concerns for adolescent population health.
In “Peer-facilitated community-based interventions for adolescent health in low-and middle-income countries,” Rose-Clarke, Bentley, Marston, et al. (2019) offer the results of a systematic review of community-level interventions related to adolescent health concerns. Specific programs and services include peer counseling options, which provide meaningful social support systems for at-risk youth. Research in adolescent socialization…
Mental Health Disorders
Throughout the centuries, mental health disorder has been viewed in a number of different ways by different eras and communities around the world. Some approached it from a spiritual dimension, while others approached it from a naturalistic viewpoint (Kyziridis, 2005; Smith, 2007). Food, music, prayer, and time spent in comfortable surroundings were variously viewed as ways to treat mental disturbance in antiquity. Through the Middle Ages, mental disorder became associated with spiritual influence, either from Heaven or from Hell.
Hospitals were places where persons with severe mental disorders were placed, but there was not much good treatment—as the experiences at Bedlam in London have shown. When the Age of Enlightenment and more focus on naturalistic science prevailed in the 18th century onward, more focus on the brain and how to treat disturbances brought new treatments into existence.
Today, many mental health disorders are still not understood very…
Evidence- Based Patient Safety Initiative
Introduced in the year 2003, Transforming Care at A Bedside (TCAB) represents a national- level initiative originally formulated and headed by the IHI (Institute for Healthcare Improvement) and RWJF (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). TCAB ensures leadership involvement at every healthcare institutional level and authorizes front- line nursing staff and other healthcare workers to contribute towards improving healthcare safety and quality on surgical- medical units, increasing nursing personnel retention and vitality, improving overall patient care team efficacy, and engaging patients and their family members to improve their care experience. The following design themes or goals – dependable, safe patient care; value added healthcare processes; vitality and collaboration; and client- focused care – form the elementary framework when it comes to formulation of changes for accomplishing TCAB objectives (Rutherford, Moen & Taylor, 2009).
A number of elements set TCAB apart from other programs targeted at improving quality.…
American Psychiatric Association. (2009). Integrated care of older adults with mental disorders. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/.../Psychiatrists/Directories/.../rd2009_IntegratedCare.pdf
Brennan, T. A., Leape, L. L., Laird, N. M., Hebert, L., Localio, A. R., & Lawthers, A. G. (1991). Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients. Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. N Engl J Med, 324(6), 370-376.
Department of Health and Human Services Administration on Aging. (2001). Older adults and mental health: Issues and opportunities. Retrieved from https://www.public-health.uiowa.edu/icmha/training/documents/Older-Adults-and-Mental-Health-2001.pdf
George, J., Long, S., & Vincent, C. (2013). How can we keep patients with dementia safe in our acute hospitals? A review of challenges and solutions. J R Soc Med, 106(9), 355-361.
Kable, A., Gibberd, R., & Spigelman, A. (2008). Predictors of adverse events in surgical admissions in Australia. Int J Qual Health Care, 20(6), 406-411
Long, S. J., Brown, K. F., Ames, D., & Vincent, C. (2013). What is known about adverse events in older medical hospital inpatients? A systematic review of the literature. Int J Qual Health Care, 25(5):542-54.
McKay, R., & Casey, J. (2015). Psychiatry services for older people. Retrieved from https://www.ranzcp.org/Files/Resources/Reports/RPT-FPOA-Psychiatry-services-for-older-people-revi.aspx
Merten, H., Zegers, M., De Bruijne, M. C., & Wagner, C. (2013). Scale, nature, preventability and causes of adverse events in hospitalised older patients. Age Ageing, 42(1), 87- 93.
Parental Interventions for Oppositional Defiant Disorder Kids
Oppositional Defiant Disorder is characterized by irritability and anger among children. Such children also tend to be argumentative, defiant and vindictive towards anyone with authority over them. Their conduct is an impediment towards the normal daily activities expected of them. There is a lifetime prevalence of ODD that has been measured to stand at about 11% of the population in general. The ODD symptoms are apparent as early as 8 years. It has been established that about 70% of all children suffering from ODD no longer show symptoms of the condition at the age of 18 years. It has also been observed that only a small number of the group proceeds to develop antisocial conduct in adulthood. The disorder elicits a multifactorial basis for its existence. There is proper documentation that points at parenting styles, heredity and other psychosocial factors in the development…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2017, June). Conduct Disorder. Retrieved October 11, 2018, from https://www.aacap.org/aacap/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/FFF-Guide/Conduct-Disorder-033.aspx
Chiasson, P. (2015). Conduct Disorder. A Handbook for Elementary School Educators,90-157. Retrieved October 11, 2018, from http://dr.library.brocku.ca/bitstream/handle/10464/5829/Brock_Chiasson_Presley_2014.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Davies, N., Dr. (2016, January 07). Oppositional defiant disorder in the classroom. Retrieved October 11, 2018, from http://www.headteacher-update.com/best-practice-article/oppositional-defiant-disorder-in-the-classroom/112142/
Department for Education. (2016). Mental health and behaviour in schools: Departmental advice for school staff.
Graham Y. (2018). Oppositional Defiant Disorder. In: Vinson S., Vinson E. (eds) Pediatric Mental Health for Primary Care Providers. Springer, Cham
Henggeler, S. W., & Sheidow, A. J. (2012). Empirically Supported Family-Based Treatments for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency in Adolescents. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(1), 30–58. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00244.x
Jacobsen, Kari. (2013). Educators’ Experiences with Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom. Retrieved from Sophia, the St. Catherine University repository website: https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/199
Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Parent management training: Treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Oxford University Press.
Lack of Mental Treatment and Support
Introduction and Overview
Emergency departments (EDs) can play a major role in reducing the risk and occurrence of suicide, self-harm and harm caused to others by taking steps to create a safety plan for the patient (Stanley et al., 2018). However, many EDs do very little to actually assist patients in this regard. My own experience at Legacy Treatment Center, where I interned, allowed me to see as much. Legacy is in Lee County’s Screening Center for Mental Health Crisis and is located inside Main St Hospital, and patients from all over the county are processed through the Emergency Room. At Legacy, patients will be screened using the Columbia Assessment to see whether they are currently suicidal, homicidal or a danger to others. However, these patients are not offered counseling services. Instead, they are referred or voluntarily or involuntarily committed. The lack of any…
Elderly Australian Population A Therapeutic Approach for the Mentally Ill
Mood disturbances refer to a category of mental health issues that is utilized by mental health practitioners to describe all kinds of bipolar and depressive disorders broadly. A large number of individuals belonging to the senior population (65+ years of age) come in the high-risk group of the psychological illnesses development, substance abuse issues, neurological disorders, and other health issues like osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and loss of hearing loss. Also, with age, individuals display a greater likelihood of experiencing several health issues simultaneously (WHO, 2017). More than 15 percent of individuals belonging to the senior age group are diagnosed with a neurological or psychological illness, with the latter group of illnesses accounting for 6.6 percent of all disabilities (DALYs- disability-adjusted life years) in this population group (WHO, 2017). Hence, this essay attempts to examine further the mood disturbance problem in…
Abdul Manaf, M. R., Mustafa, M., Abdul Rahman, M. R., Yusof, K. H., & Abd Aziz, N. A. (2016). Factors influencing the prevalence of mental health problems among Malay elderly residing in a rural community: a cross-sectional study. PloS one, 11(6), e0156937.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), (2015). Australia\\'s welfare 2015. Australia\\'s welfare series no. 12. Cat. No. AUS 189. Canberra: AIHW.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), (2018). Mental health services in Australia. Canberra: AIHW.
Costa, R. T. D., Cheniaux, E., Rosaes, P. A. L., Carvalho, M. R. D., Freire, R. C. D. R., Versiani, M., ... & Nardi, A. E. (2011). The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in treating bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled study. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 33(2), 144-149.
Da Costa Lane, Valiengo, L., Stella, F., & Forlenza, O. V. (2016). Mood disorders in the elderly: prevalence, functional impact, and management challenges. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 12: 2105–2114.
Department of Health, (2010). Principles of recovery-oriented mental health practice.Australian Government.
Fiske, A., Wetherell, J. L., & Gatz, M. (2009). Depression in older adults. Annual review of clinical psychology, 5, 363–389.
Healthtalk Australia, (n.d.). Personal recovery. Retrieved from https://healthtalkaustralia.org/supported-decision-making/personal-recovery/ on 28 August 2020.
The prevalence of post natal depression amongst women who have delivered
Pregnancy and birth are major life occurrences that are largely positive experiences for most women. Nonetheless, a percentage of women experience mental issues in this course of time. Statistics give the suggestion that on average, between 10 percent and 15 percent of women report having experienced depression. In fact, roughly 16 percent report experiences of severe anxiety during the post natal period. Postnatal depression is functionally delineated as a significant depressive period taking place within the initial 12 months subsequent to giving birth. Mothers who have given birth and are facing life with postnatal depression epitomize different feelings like nervousness, solitude, loss of control and desperateness during a period when anticipations of happiness are expected. These mental issues can have adverse effects on women and their infants. The main objective of this literature review is to comprehensively discuss…
Ali, H., Humza, S., & Saeed, S. (2017). PERCEPTIONS OF INSUFFICIENT BREAST MILK: A COMPARISON OF DEPRESSED AND NON-DEPRESSED LACTATING MOTHERS. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 67(2), 226-231.
Denis, A., Michaux, P., & Callahan, S. (2012). Factors implicated in moderating the risk for depression and anxiety in high risk pregnancy. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 30(2), 124-134. doi:10.1080/02646838.2012.677020
Dinesh, P., & Raghavan, S. (2018). A comparative study of prevalence of postnatal depression among subjects with normal and cesarean deliveries. International Archives of Integrated Medicine, 5(2), 6-11.
Figueiredo, B., & Conde, A. (2011). Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum. Archives of Women\\\\'s Mental Health, 14(3), 247-255. Doi: 10.1007/s00737-011-0217-3
Garcia-Esteve, L., Navarro, P., Ascaso, C., Torres, A., Aguado, J., Gelabert, E., & Martín-Santos, R. (2008). Family caregiver role and premenstrual syndrome as associated factors for postnatal depression. Archives of Women\\\\'s Mental Health, 11(3), 193-200. Doi: 10.1007/s00737-008-0012-y
Kaaya, S., Garcia, M. E., Li, N., Lienert, J., Twayigize, W., Spiegelman, D., & Smith Fawzi, M. C. (2016). Association of maternal depression and infant nutritional status among women living with HIV in Tanzania. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 12(3), 603-613. doi:10.1111/mcn.12154
Likierman, M. (2003). Post-natal depression, the mother\\\\'s conflict and parent?-?infant psychotherapy. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 29(3), 301-315.
McManus, B. M., & Poehlmann, J. (2012). Maternal depression and perceived social support as predictors of cognitive function trajectories during the first 3 years of life for preterm infants in Wisconsin. Child: Care, Health & Development, 38(3), 425-434. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01253.x
The prevalence of depression and suicide in Australia has reached a crescendo, which requires a higher level of commitment from mental health workers in the country. It is believed that around 2.1 million (9.7) Australian population experience some level of affective disorders (Australian Bureau of Statistics, ABS 2012). The high rate of depression can also be traced to the upsurge in cases of death from intentional self-harm which rose from 2,866 in 2016 to 3,128 in 2017 (ABS, 2017). To effectively tackle the menace of depression and suicide in Australia, there is need for a higher level of alertness and awareness from mental healthcare professionals and members of the public. According to World Health Organisation, 300 million people of all ages worldwide suffer from depression. The world health body also highlighted several factors that put people at risk of depression. These factors range from economic, social, psychological and environmental issues.…
Causes of Depression: Health Direct. https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/causes-of-depression Clinicians’ Practice Guide to the Mental Health Act 2014: Government of West Australia Chief Psychatrist. (3), 20-57.
Depression, Anxiety and Perinatal Mental Health, (7), 247-278.
Depression: A Global Crisis (2012). World Federation for Mental Health. World Health Organisation https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/wfmh_paper_depression_wmhd_2012.pdf
Depression: Key Facts (2018). World Health Organisation. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
Horgan, D. (2002).Practical management of the suicidal patient. Australian Family Physician, Vol. 31, (9), 1-4.
Intentional self-harm, key characteristics (2018). 3303.0 - Causes of Death, Australia, 2017. Australian Bureau of Statistics. https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/by%20Subject/3303.0~2017~Main%20Features~Intentional%20self-harm,%20key%20characteristics~3
The Legal and Ethical Context of Mental Health Care, (3) 91-122
Gong et al. (2018) states that depressive symptoms and empty phenomenon of elderly people in rural areas is one of the major public health issues in China, which has one of the largest elderly population in the world. It is estimated that elderly people aged 60 years and more account for 15.5% of the Chinese population. In addition, empty-nest elderly families make up nearly 25% of older households in the country, which is projected to reach 90% by 2030. This implies that the country has entered a period of rapid aging, which has significantly increased in the 21st Century (Zhou et al., 2019). As the aging population increases, China continues to witness an increase in empty-net families due to the shrinking average family size (Zhang et al., 2019). Empty-nest elderly people are individuals aged 60 years and more who do not live with their children though they may live with…
Video Reaction: Tourette’s Syndrome
Tourette’s syndrome is a neurological condition, but it can have profound social effects upon a child’s life. People who are unaware of the cause of the child’s uncontrollable motions and verbal tics may assume the child has a developmental disability, ADHD, or a dissociative disorder. The video highlights how children with the disorder are often extremely bright and self-aware of the social effects of their disorder. The children understand that people are going to stare at them, because they are acting in a way that defies social norms. Even some of their teachers do not understand why the children cannot control their tics. One of the children was homeschooled for a period of time.
The most heartening aspect of the video is how the children have found that physical activities like surfing or music have provided them with a source of self-esteem and a way to…
However, integrated continuum of care networks presents a viable solution to mental health care delivery that properly allocates resources a collaborative and cooperative service delivery system.
Needed, according to Mohatt (1997) is "vertical integration' in the "approaches to managed care" in networking a group of healthcare providers, at various levels of primary care and behavioral health, to form an integrated service network. They seek to develop, via cooperation, a coordinated, consumer focused, seamless continuum of care designed to improve access and availability through efficiencies gained by the elimination of redundant services or systems."
Mohatt reports just such as system being in existence and specifically the Laurel Health System in northeastern Pennsylvania "founded in 1989 with the merger of five not-for-profit organizations..." This network spans the human service gamut inclusive of primary care, nursing homes, senior housing, ambulance service, and hospital." (1997) Mohatt reports another example stating:
recent example of such…
Behar, Lenore B., Macbeth, Gary, and Holland, Joan M. (1993) Distribution and Costs of Mental Health Services Within a System of Care for Children and Adolescents. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. Vol. 20, No. 4, March 1993. Abstract online available at Springerlink online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q73873hn78112345/
Hamner, Karl M., Lambert, E. Warren, and Bickman, Leonard (1996) Children's Mental Health in a Continuum of Care: Clinical Outcomes at 18 Months for the Fort Bragg Demonstration. ERIC Digest. 28 Feb 1996. Online available at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED460476&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED460476
Yager, J. (1996) Do Full Continuum of Care Services Yield Better Results? Am Psychol 1996 July. Journal Watch. Online available at http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/citation/1996/1001/14
Mohatt, Dennis F. (1997) Access To Mental Health Services In Frontier America
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.
To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…
Brown, Francesca, and Mark R. Kebbell. "Policing Indecent Images of Children. What Are the Critical Issues Surrounding Police Risk Assessment?." Sexual Abuse in
Australia & New Zealand 5.1 (2013): 52-59. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 5
DeYoung, Mary. "The World According to NAMBLA: Accounting for Deviance." Journal
Hughes proceeded to institute a system of "Confusing Military Structures," the www.CDNMilitary.casitecontinues. Battlefront unites were "constantly formed, disbanded, reformed and disbanded again"; and as though that wasn't enough, the Ross Rifle issue was another problem that Hughes' legacy is left with, according to the site. One army driver is quoted as saying, "To hell with the [Ross Rifle]. I'll take a club." In fact, Ross did not fully understand why soldiers objected to the use of the Ross Rifle, the military eb site claims, because even though Hughes "dressed up like a military officer while being Minister of the Militia," he was "nothing more than a civilian...and never did have to use the rifle in combat" (www.CDNMilitary.ca).
And the Ross Rifle wasn't the only snag in Hughes' pursuit of innovative wartime materials and technologies, the CNDMilitary site claims. Indeed, the "MacAdam shield-shovel" - termed a "Canadian-designed miracle" by Hughes, who…
CDNMilitary.CA. 2002. "The Canadian World War One Mobilization: A Complicated
Matter." Retrieved March 15, 2009, at http://www.cdnmilitary.ca/index.php?p=20.
Cook, Tim. 2004. "The Madman and the Butcher: Sir Sam Hughes, Sir Arthur Currie,
And Their War of Reputations." The Canadian Historical Review 85 no. 4, 695-719.
Mental Health with Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study" published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry written by Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011).
Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011) report a study with the goals of comparing the health costs of two groups: (1) those with psychiatric diagnoses; and (2) those without psychiatric diagnoses. Nine years of billing data from physicians was used in the study. The methodology reported is that the dataset that contained registration data for the patients who were in receipt of public mental health service was "constructed and subsequently matched" according to sex and age. (p.490)
Sampling in the Study
It is reported that three groups emerged: (1) a comparison patient PD group; (2) comparison patients with psychiatric disorders in physicians only; and (3) patients without PDs treated in specialized care that was publicly funded or by their physicians. (Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and…
Cawthorpe, D., Wilkes, T.C.R., Guyn, L., Li, B., & Lu, M. (2011). Association of Mental Health With Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Aug2011, Vol. 56 Issue 8, 490-494.
Curry, LA, Nembhard, IM, and Bradley, EH (2009) Key Issues in Outcomes Research. Circulation. 2009; 119:1442-1452. Retrieved from: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/10/1442.full?viewType=Print&viewClass=Print
Mental Health Counseling
Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.
Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).
The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…
Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .
Mental Health in the American Prison System
There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…
Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.
Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.
Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.
The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."
The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.
Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).
Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).
Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
mental health and poor mental health. Explain two ways your own culture influences your definitions of mental health. Then explain how your definition of mental health might differ from that of your selected culture. Finally, describe a behavior that is considered normal in your culture but would be considered abnormal in the culture you selected.
Defining mental health: Japan vs. The United States
Even within a culture, the definition of what constitutes 'sanity' or 'insanity' can be extremely controversial. Where to draw the line between eccentricity and quirkiness vs. full-blown mental illness? In Western culture, definitions of mental illness have changed over time. For example, during the 19th century, a woman who did not want to get married and have sex outside of marriage might be considered deranged. Today, being gay is not considered a mental illness, but less than 50 years ago homosexuality was officially classified as an abnormality.…
Given the subjective nature of mental illness, it is not surprising that every culture has a different definition of what constitutes deviancy. In Japan, for example, a new mental disorder has been identified called "hikikomori," meaning "pulling in" or "withdrawal" (Grisafe 2012) Hikikomori usually affects young men who "withdraw entirely from society and stay in their own homes for more than six months, with onset by the latter half of their twenties, and for whom other psychiatric disorders do not better explain the primary causes of this condition" (Grisafe 2012). Most of these young men are middle-class and come from households able to support them financially. The young men spend their days watching television, playing video games, and pursing other activities that do not require social interaction. While some have reported self-destructive behavior like 'cutting' or obsessive-compulsive cleaning, their most distinguishing feature is their complete social isolation.
One of the causes of hikikomori is thought to be the famously rigid Japanese social system. If a young person does not get into a good school and find a good job immediately upon graduation, few opportunities are available for him or for her. While women have the possibility of marriage, men have little else to look forward to, given that society regards them as a 'failure.' The condition was first identified during Japan's great recession in the 1990s, when the formerly stable, booming economy began to unravel.
Of course, the phenomenon of young people struggling to find work after graduation is not confined to Japan. In the wake of the recession of 2008, many young American graduates were forced to return home. "The number of young adults ages 20 to 34 who lived with their parents jumped from 17% in 1980 to 24% in 2007-09" (Nasser 2012). Young male returnees are also reported to have fewer domestic demands placed upon them by their parents, such as cooking and cleaning (Nasser 2012). However, the sense of complete emotional stasis and failure that afflicted the Japanese men is not characteristic of American graduates enough to be regarded as a mental illness. Although some graduates undeniably experience depression and frustration, the fact that society in America takes a more permissive view of taking time to 'find one's feet' after graduation likely has a more positive emotional impact upon graduates unable to be financially independent. Also, in contrast to Japan, American colleges tend to be prohibitively expensive, and the need to alleviate their debt burden forces many young graduates to take some kind of a job (and therefore, to leave the house), in contrast
mental health professionals, understanding what is impacting patients and their employees requires careful observation. This occurs through seeing if there is anything that is out of the ordinary. The situation with Eileen; is classic example of using these tools to realize when something more severe is happening. (Palmo, 2006)
In this particular case, Eileen is known as someone who is stable and reliable in organizing / managing the office. However, once she starts crying, is when she is dealing with more unusual challenges. Mental health professionals have a duty to identify the root causes of these problems and helping her to address them. (Palmo, 2006)
For Cora, she has unique responsibilities as a counselor and her employer. This is because she has to make certain that Eileen is able to work through these problems in order to perform her job efficiently. At the same time, she has an obligation to…
Palmo, A. (2006). Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
National Council for Behavioral Health (n.d.) points out, at least thirty percent of active duty military personnel suffer from a serious mental health disorder that requires treatment, but less than half of these individuals receive treatment. However, there are a variety of state and national mental health services specifically for individuals and families affiliated with the military. The state of Washington maintains a list of mental health resources including family resources for military and veteran families (Washington Mental Health Care esources, n.d.). The state of California's Department of Health Care Services (n.d.) offers a similar set of resources including suicide prevention hotlines for homeless veterans. The California Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.) draws attention to the range of state and federal resources available, including those that are funded under the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), Proposition 63. The primary resource for service members and their families is the Department of…
Inequalities in Mental Health
Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)
The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…
Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
The deinstitutionalization trend that began during the 1960s was based on the notion that people suffering from mental illness would be able to receive better treatment for their disorder in community-based facilities while also saving the state and federal governmental tens of millions of dollars in the process (Lamb & Weinberger, 2019). This movement, however, ultimately backfired and the incidence of individuals with mental illness that become involved with the criminal justice system remains a serious problem for American policymakers and citizens alike today. The purpose of this paper is to review the relevant literature to determine the types of problems that are typically experienced by the criminal justice system in the provision of timely and effective treatment for incarcerated mentally ill offenders and what moral dilemmas arise as a result. In addition, an analysis concerning the costs that are associated with treating mentally ill prisoners is followed by a…
Addressing mental illness in the criminal justice system. (2009). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/archives/opa/blog/addressing-mental-illness-criminal-justice-system .
Gilbert, M. (2015, May 5). Treatment, not jail: It’s time to step up. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/ .
Interventions for adults with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system. (2012, September 13). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/mental-illness-adults-prisons/research-protocol .
Ireland, J. L. & Ireland, C. A. (2011). Personality structure among prisoners: How valid is the five-factor model, and can it offer support for Eysenck’s theory of criminality? Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 21, 35–50.
Lamb, R. & Weinberger, L. E. (2019, October 10). Deinstitutionalization and other factors in the criminalization of persons with serious mental illness and how it is being addressed. CNS Spectrums, 25(2), 173-180.
ecovery can be a difficult journey for many. The reality of having to change old habits for new ones can take a lifetime. The recovery approach/model realizes the struggle of change and transformation and makes it so that way emphasis is not placed on the destination, but rather the journey. Although other approaches like the disease/medical model aim to treat one aspect of recovery from addiction, the recovery model encompasses all aspects making it one of the most advantageous models to adopt to fight addiction.
The recovery approach/model to addiction and/or mental disorder places a strong emphasis on a support for an individual's potential for recovery. ecovery means a person undergoing a personal journey instead of determining and setting an outcome. This personal journey involves the development of hope, a sense of self, a secure base, social inclusion, meaning, empowerment, and coping skills that will take that person past the…
Barker, P. & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2012). Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing. Currentnursing.com. Retrieved 24 July 2016, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Tidal_Model.html
Best, D. & Lubman, D. (2012). The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction. Aust Fam Physician., 41(8), 593.
Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises?. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366 (14)00126-6
Hammer, R., Dingel, M., Ostergren, J., Partridge, B., McCormick, J., & Koenig, B. (2013). Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(3), 27-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2013.796328
Mental Health, Prisons and Hospitals
The two videos -- the news piece on Connecticut's "purple pods" used in Hartford hospital and the Frontline special on prisons and mental health -- both indicate a problem in how society copes with and treats individuals with mental health. They also portray the two extremes of society's response to mental health issues. The Hartford hospital is on the one extreme -- in which the patient's comfort and security are top priorities (to the extent that mental health patients are given their own specially constructed rooms where safety mechanisms and soothing features have been built into the room). The prison system in Ohio described in Frontline is on the other extreme -- where prisons essentially act as mental health hospitals because the mental health facilities in Columbus are no longer able to tend to the needs of mental health patients: the patients end up being…
Gonzalez, M., Connell, N. (2014). Mental health of prisoners: identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12): 2328-2333.
Harner, H., Riley, S. (2013). The impact of incarceration on women's mental health.
Qualitative Health Research, 23(1); 26-42.
Mental Health and Stigma
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in many ways, including via the experience of self-stigma, whereby a person gives intense focus to what others might think about one’s own mental illness, internalizing their conception of the illness (Link, Wells, Phelan & Yang, 2015). Stigma can also come from society, from the workplace, from one’s own family or set of peers, and even from strangers. When an illness is stigmatized in the media, a person who suffers from that illness may feel taboo, ostracized from society, isolated from the “normal” group of people who have normal lives and can function without problem (Corrigan, Druss & Perlick, 2014).
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in other ways too. They become afraid to seek medical help because of the fear of being labeled as a person with a…