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Using tools like SHELL, the predictive nature of emergent literacy skills can help teacher's better understand new techniques and performance standards at the elementary level (Snow). Finally, all the articles under review seem to stress that formative assessments are vital and should be regular. This does not need to become complicated, but instead, should just be a regular part of the day's activities. With this, the authors all seem to agree that younger children need writing to help them learn more about reading; and reading to help them learn about writing; thus, oral language training to help them learn about both.
Havie, P. (2004). "eview of Diane McGuinness: What Science eally Tells Us About
How to Teach eading." eading in a Foreign Language. 17 (1). etrieved from: http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/FL/April2005/reviews/harvey.pdf
Lonigan, C., Shanahan, T. (2010). Developing Early Literacy Skills. Educational esearcher. 39 (4): 340-6.
Many, J., ed. (2009). Handbook of Instructional…… [Read More]
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex medical condition that affects about 5 million American people. The condition is characterized by "chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, stiffness, impaired memory and concentration, anxiety and depression." (Facts of Life, 2001). Sleep disturbance and an increased sensitivity to pain follow a cyclic pattern in individuals having FMS, the result of which is a positive feedback loop. (Etiology of Fibromyalgia, 2003).
Typically, fibromyalgia affects women, especially those between the ages of 20 and 55. (Who gets fibromyalgia? 2003). Women in this age group, as also people with rheumatologic or endocrine problems (such as thyroid disease), are at greatest risk for developing fibromyalgia syndrome. Fibromyalgia can also manifest at the time of menopause, and the malaise has also been seen to exist among members of the same family in successive generations. This syndrome also sometimes affects men and children.
The cause of fibromyalgia is yet…… [Read More]
meta-analysis on the literature related to nonpharamcological interventions for agitation in older adults with dementia. The authors intended to investigate which, if any, of the interventions used were the most effective.
Since the results of the effects of nonpharmacological interventions on decreasing agitation in dementia have varied, with some of these studies showing contradictory results, and since nursing staff need to know which particular intervention(s) to employ, a meta-analysis (which investigates and analyses the reliability of the various studies, comparing one against the other) is in order.
The procedures for this review were based on the eight steps suggested by Egger and Smith (2001). These are to: (1) formulate review question; (2) define inclusion and exclusion criteria; (3) locate studies; (4) select studies; (5) assess study quality; (6) extract data; (7) analyze and present results; and (8) interpret results.
Being that this is non-experimental study, no issues of control were…… [Read More]
Management STATEGIES IN UTILIZATION OF NUCLEA ENEGY AND WASTE DISPOSALSFO SUSTAINABILITY" Comment by Owner: You are still not getting it Komi.In chapter three you need to tell your readers exactly how you will conduct the research.Apply the method to the studies you plan to research.Please address all of my comments in your chapter three
A Dissertation Presented using the Meta-Analysis Technique
Komi E Fiagbe
Christina Anastasia PH-D Chair
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear…… [Read More]
Meta-Analysis and Procedures for Synthesizing esults
Key aspects of meta-analysis
Meta-analysis is the process of integrating the qualitative findings of separate studies through formal statistical approaches (Swanson & Holton III (eds). 2005). The aim of meta-analysis is to increase the precision of estimating the treatment effect of any intervention used. In other words, a meta-analysis combines the outcomes of various studies with the purpose of answering a set of related research hypotheses. The collection of studies can be in the form of raw data from clinical studies, summary statistics in abstracts or report and even published literature. In a broader sense, a meta-analysis is the product of a systematic review.
Integrating data from a pool of appropriately conducted primary studies could offer a precise estimate of the underlying effect unlike any individual research (Swanson & Holton III (eds). 2005). This means that by synthesizing the samples of the separate…… [Read More]
Meta- Analysis and Evidence-Based esearch on Children Feeding Disorders
The eating disorders are among pediatric clinical problems in the United States that can cause distress to clinicians and parents. Typically, eating disorders are affecting more than 40% of children of pre-school and school ages, and the associated psychology and health problems of the eating disorders include a mental retardation, behavioral problems, growth retardation, and poor academic records in schools. This study carries out the critical appraisal of a quantitative research article written by Williams et al. (2012) to demonstrate children eating disorders, and behavioral intervention in treating the problems. The study evaluates the credibility and reliability of the study by evaluating its research design, research findings, qualifications of the authors and its relevance to the clinical outcomes.
The objective of this paper is to carry out the critical appraisal of evidence-based research of the article titled "Pediatric Feeding Disorders:…… [Read More]
Program Utilizing Meta Analysis
Qualitative research evaluation technique is primarily inductive. The hypothesis is developed as the study progresses so that it can capture the setting of the study. Qualitative research evaluation technique involves systematic and detailed study of population in natural setting and is not contrived by the person conducting the study. This technique involves the interviewer using open-ended questions intended to explore detailed accounts of the interviewee's perspectives on research issues, situations, or events. This technique employs data as words including open-ended questions, written observational descriptions of activities and conversations. The objective of qualitative research evaluation is to understand a phenomenon from the points-of-view of the study population. The advantage of this qualitative method is data accuracy, making the data authentic without misleading outcomes. In addition, the method uses techniques with accuracy level that minimize data redundancy and incorrectness. On the other hand, the major disadvantage is that…… [Read More]
A meta-analysis is defined by Cochrane as "the use of statistical techniques in a systematic review to integrate the results of included studies." What this means is that the scholar will gather a number of studies on the same subject, and then seek to find commonalities in the results, and differences in the results. The objective of gathering together the different studies is to highlight patterns that hold across the different studies, and identify those that do not. Particularly in medical research, the studies will often be specific to certain demographics, particularly geographies. So a meta-analysis will pull together a study from Australia, one of Germany, another from Japan, a few from the U.S., and then add in others that focus on different age or ethnic groups, or genders. Individually, none of these studies can be extrapolated to the public at large, but any trends that are affirmed…… [Read More]
managers and the employees play an important role. In the present day, organizations incessantly experience and go through rapid technological changes, decreasing product life cycles, globalization, international global economic setting and also the extensive accessibility to information. As a result, in order for these organizations to continue surviving and being relevant in the market, style of management becomes a significant element in the success of the organization. The role of a manager as a leader within an organization can result in different styles of management chosen. The different styles selected by the managers have an influence on the behavior patterns within the organization, which in turn impacts the morale and motivation of the employee. In the end, the managerial style influences the level of satisfaction of the employee, which directly influences the level of productivity. According to Olmedo-Cifuentes and Martinez-Leon, Managers utilizing the fitting style of leadership can increase employee…… [Read More]
This research paper examines the organizational design of the Coca Cola Company and describes its structure of organization. The organizational structure of the Coca Cola Company is clearly unique. Regional managers employed by the company are given powers to make decisions. The company has ensured that it responds quickly to the changes in market demands by allowing localized decision making. The management at higher level is, consequently, given the time they need to think through long term strategies and plans. Although Coca Cola has made significant efforts to reinvent its brand and products on the market, its growth has slacked in recent day. There is an indication that the company should rethink its strategy for products if it is to remain relevant and competitive on the market. This study sums up by pointing out the changes recommended to keep the company growing fast.
It is evident that…… [Read More]
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
II.…… [Read More]
IV. VISION and PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Greene, Forster, and Winters (2003) report that charter schools typically serve disadvantaged populations. "The targeting of charter schools to disadvantaged populations I so common that many people have come to believe, incorrectly, that all charter schools serve disadvantaged students." (2003) One reason for this is that the "procedures by which new charter schools are created often encourage such targeting." (Greene, Forster, and Winters, 2003) Greene, Forster, and Winters reports case studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Education, one of which included 91 schools and states conclusions that "charter schools are held accountable for their performance...resource limitations are the biggest obstacles facing charter schools." (2003) in another study involving 150 schools and 60 authorizing agencies the U.S. Department of Education states findings that: "...charters learn quickly the best way to satisfy their various constituents is to focus on quality instruction." (Greene, Forster, and…… [Read More]
This case involved a white woman and a black man who had an encounter in a parking lot and there was controversy if discriminatory action ensued. The two, Hope and Dillon, gave two different versions of the encounter.
At its very core, the conflict in the case is about racial discrimination. Legal advocates and scholars have given various definitions to racism and have focused on disparate impact and differential treatment. Their definitions can be crystallized into differential treatment occurring when individuals are accorded unequal treatment because of their race and disparate impact occurring when individuals are subject to the same treatment based on specific predefined procedures and rules, but where the procedures and rules are structured in favor of one group (Devah Pager & Hana Shepherd, 2008).
Issues to Resolve
Where there is a history of discriminative practices, an exchange like the one between Dillon and Hope is…… [Read More]
Genome-Wide Association Study for OCD Complications
The OCD (Obsessive -- compulsive disorder) is referred as repetitive behaviors and thoughts experienced by individuals. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy, et al. (2012). Typically, the genes' characteristics of twins and families have revealed that the OCD has the feature of multifactorial familial condition involving both environmental and polygenic factors. (Moran, 2013). Genetic studies have revealed that the interaction of the glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic systems and genes affecting them play a crucial role in functioning of the circuit. (Yang, Lee, Goddard, Mand et al. 2011). Meanwhile, the environmental factors that include psychological trauma, adverse perinatal effects and neurological trauma may modify the risk genes, which can consequently manifest the compulsive-obsessive behaviors. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy et al. 2012). The OCD is a frequent and, relative common debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 2% of the U.S. population. (Arnold, Sicard, Burroughs, et al. (2006). Typically, the OCD is obsessions…… [Read More]
Janove (2001) does point out that there are many victims of sexual harassment in the workplace, but that often those most affected tend to keep quite, or attempt to avoid their harassers altogether when possible.
In a case study the author points out that some managers still fail to take action against supervisors or managers that may be engaging in sexually harassing behaviors, in part because they may be engaging in similar behaviors themselves. This was shown to be more often the case in a male dominated work environment that one that was more gender neutral.
Silence according to the author does not indicate a lack of knowledge regarding H law or sexual harassment issues, but rather suggests that many employees have expressed a desire to avoid conflict rather than face the consequences of coming forth against harassers.
The author cites a study reported by Joan Kennedy Taylor in "What…… [Read More]
performed by a group of professionals that included: Dr. Xiao-Mei Li (Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, egistered Nurse), dean and associate professor of the nursing department of Chinese university, Jiao tong University's College of Medicine; Kai-Na Zhou (Master of Science in Nursing, N), assistant researcher in the same department; Professor Dr. Hong Yan (PhD), public health department of same university's College of Medicine; Yin-Ping Zhang (PhD N), Associate Professor at the same department; and Professor Dr. Duo-Lao Wang (PhD) from Medical Statistics department, Faculty of Population Health and Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. The randomized clinical study was titled "Effects of music therapy on anxiety of patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy." The Care, Cure and Core model of Hall was used. A clinical trial of 120 women suffering from breast cancer was conducted between March and November 2009, using randomized controlled research design. Half…… [Read More]
Chen, X., Huang, R., Huang, Q., Chu, Y., and Yao, J. (2015). Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of ZhengqingFengtongning Combined with Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2015.
By definition, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a protracted general inflammatory ailment, categorized by infammation of the synovial soft tissue and mutilation to articular tendons and bone, which in turn brings about extreme incapacity, practical deterioration, and enhanced death. This ailment is the most prevalent one with rheumatism having a pervasiveness of about one percent in North America and Europe, while that of Southeast Asia is lower to some extent as it has about 0.3%. The disease is an area of major concern as it is estimated that at the present moment, about five million individuals suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. This in turn has come to be both a social and economic…… [Read More]
Management: Tesco Supermarket
Tesco's Goals and Targets
Functions of Management
Internal Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses
Creating more Innovative Organizational Cultures
Benefits of Effective Communication
Understanding Management: Tesco Supermarket
Tesco supermarket is a British multinational grocery and general merchandise retailer. Tesco is headquartered in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England in the United Kingdom. Tesco deals with a wide range of products, which has high demand in the market aiming at full customer satisfaction. Tesco was founded in the East End of London, London in 1919. The fist chief executive officer was Dave Lewis. Tesco was originally dealing only with grocery, but it later diversified to various products in various geographical regions.
Tesco has opened many branches in different countries, and it is aiming to reach even people in rural areas. Tesco has stores in 12 countries all over Europe and Asia, and it is the leading grocery…… [Read More]
Leadership Crucible Experience
Leadership is a practice that is learnt from the experiences of the leaders. According to Bennis and Thomas (2002), a crucible is delineated as a changing experience through which a person ends up having a new sense of self and character. In particular, the capacity to mine knowledge from such challenging and difficult experiences is what differentiates and tells apart successful leaders from their counterparts (Bennis and Thomas, 2002). The purpose of this essay is to ascertain, define and justify a crucible experience that one can have in life and delineate how that experience can have an effect on the personal style of leadership, behaviors, outlooks and viewpoint and shed light on how it will impact one as a leader in the organization.
So what can happen to make an individual go through a crucible experience? Leadership ability can be tested when one is abruptly and quickly…… [Read More]
meta-notation design theory has underlying meta-requirements based on theories and designed as guide to enable the designing of information systems that are organizational specific. (Siponen, 2006). This theory can help organizations design information systems based on the needs of the organization. The theory is based on theories of it is illogical to state what an organization should do in terms of security, establish identity of methods where subjects and objects can be added to notational patterns, shows ISO modeling can be divided into 3 levels of abstraction, SIS and ISD must operate together, give proper respect to humans, and be quick and effective.
Most of the damage of the IT security stems from simple mistakes unintended or unauthorized actions of legitimate users and IT engineers who are either untrained in security and/or who misunderstood instructions from management. (The Security Framework for Information Technology). y following the meta-requirements as a guide,…… [Read More]
Based on the method the researcher use to conduct analysis, the data analysis presented is appropriate because the researcher use combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods in the data analysis.
Interpretation of esults
The interpretation of results is critical in the research studies. Based on the objective of the study, the researchers have been able to draw a significant correlation between research results and research aim and objectives. esearchers emerge the total combination of 2,991 themes to evaluate the opinion of students towards their tutors. The findings are presented in meta-theme and four meta-themes as being revealed in table 2.
Table 2: Findings in Meta-theme and four Meta-Themes combined
Endorsement ate (%)
Four Meta-themes Combine
Based on the effectiveness of TEF as a strategy to evaluate students perception on their tutors, the…… [Read More]
Vose, D. (2008). Risk Analysis: A quantitative guide. (3rd ed.). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
he book is written on risk analysis using quantitative methodologies. he book has two parts and chapters are divided into these two parts. he first part is intended to help managers realize the rationale for conducting risk analysiswhereas the second part explains the modeling techniques of risk analysis. First part describes in detail the rationale for risk analysis, how to assess quality of risk analysis, and how to understand and use risks analysis results. Part two is based on use of statistical and mathematical processes to build risk analysis models. Correlation, dependencies, optimization in risk analysis, and checking as well as validating risk analysis model are the main important themes discussed in part two. he book adequately describes the risk analysis models and how best to use them, both in perspective of…… [Read More]
These core competencies are the focus of the recommendations given to McDonald's for the resolution of the described problems. By striving to improve their core competencies, McDonald's will be able to improve the customer service they offer to customers considerably as well as to satisfy their customers better Hammer & Stanton, 1999()
Improving production consistency
The big secret behind the success of McDonald's is that the company has long strived to embrace innovation and striving to achieve consistency in the operations of its outlets. Since the "Made for you" production process has been tested and assured to be a workable process for McDonald's this should be implemented on a storewide basis despite the huge upfront expenses to be incurred by the company. These upfront expenses will be compensated by the huge returns and improvements in quality of customer service that come from the company's use of this new production system…… [Read More]
For instance, according to Slaatte (1968), the "paradox of the paradox per se refers to two opposite properties of the paradox itself: its sheer impertinence to reason, on the one hand, and its profounder pertinence to reason, on the other" (p. 6). From Slaatte's perspective, "Truth is seen in vital relation to the self in his existence-as-he-experiences-it; it is not related as though one object is thrust upon another. If truth is to be known, it must be something in which we are perennially involved as knowing subjects and from which, as persons, we are never exempt" (p. 33). This means that companies today must ensure that mechanisms are in place to ensure that any analysis of their environment takes into account the potential for such bias and constraints, and identify appropriate ways of overcoming these limitations.
Although there are a wide range of tools and techniques available for accomplishing…… [Read More]
More especially, neither observation nor reason can be described as a source of knowledge, in the sense in which they have been claimed to be sources of knowledge, down to the present day. (1962, p. 4).
Clearly, discerning "the truth" is a complicated endeavor in any setting, and applying rigid rules of analyses will not always succeed. This point is made by Thomas Kuhn (2000), who advises, "Does it really help to imagine that there is some one full, objective, true account of nature and that the proper measure of scientific achievement is the extent to which it brings us closer to that ultimate goal?"; according to Larmore (2004), Kuhn's answer was no, since "no Archimedean platform is available for the pursuit of science other than the historically situated one already in place" (p. 47).
The research showed that the search for what is true and knowable has received…… [Read More]
Leadership Analysis of OSIM
High growth technology companies are fertile organizations for the conflicts of leadership styles. The incessant need for accelerating new product development and staying in step with customer needs on the one hand and the pressure to reduce costs often lead high tech firms to adopt transactional leadership mindsets (Eppard, 2004). This gets amplified in Asian cultures where time is a very limited resource and large-scale organizations including OSIM International have a myriad of conflicting priorities (Beugr, Acar, Braun, 2006). Defining a management style that is agile enough to respond to these many challenges while at the same time concentrating on attaining cost targets is essential for survival in highly competitive industries (Pieterse, van Knippenberg, Schippers, Stam, 2010). on Sim, CEO of OSIM, must balance these many requirements while engraining a high level of accountability and ownership throughout the global operations of OSIM International. Balancing transactional and…… [Read More]
Illegal Corporate Activities
Clinard's publication concerns corporate violations of stipulated laws by 582 public corporations in the United States of America. In addition, the extent and nature as well as the economic settings the violations occurred are also looked at. The study used data from the firms' sales to calculate their levels of diversification and levels of concentration among other variables. In this paper, the publication in scrutiny used sources of data though they never gave in-depth information on all violations; this makes this analysis lean on one side and may not give the actual results.
Descriptive statistics is used here to summarize the study sample as well as the observations that have been made. The main summary used is quantitative form of the data. From the data outlined in the first codebook, the five-year mean for corporate sales is 99. This is the logged value for the…… [Read More]
Public Administration and its Analysis
This is a paper on the concept and basis of Public Administration and the importance it holds in the field of management.
Defining the Breadth and Scope of Public Administration
In the early years of public administration was hailed as a strong and positive as a professional force for studying and putting into practice for the improvement and revamping of the administration of the federal, state and legislative government but also sure of the political and ethical authenticity of the field of public administration in performing that role.
In what is now known as the Classical period, the mind set of the people that were in the field of public administration were based on the resulting derivative of the theory and principles of values from the intellectual side of political science and, in the main part, from constitutional democratic theory. Woodrow Wilson is considered to…… [Read More]
Exegetical Analysis of 1st Peter 2:1-10
The New Testament's two documents, ascribed to Peter, represent a work in contrasts. Peter's first letter depicts a writing style, which reflects most of his letters. A reason behind this statement appears in 1 Pet. 5:12, where it is stated that the brief letter is written through Silvanus, who is regarded as a devoted brother, for encouraging readers and testifying that this truly is God's grace. This implies that the letter was not written by Peter himself, but by Silvanus (Latin name for Silas), who wrote it as directed by Peter. An ancient universal system for writing formal letters was through an amanuensis (Latin for writing secretary). Predictably, an individual who spent the major part of his adulthood traveling with Paul, the apostle, and had most probably also written some letters of Paul, would write Peter's ideas with a distinct Pauline quality to them.…… [Read More]
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]
isk, isk Management Strategies, and Benefits in Cloud Computing
SEVICE AND DEPLOYMENT MODELS
BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
CLOUD COMPUTING ISKS
ISK Management STATEGIES
Centralized Information Governance
Other Organization-Level Measures
Individual-Level Security Measures
Cloud computing model
Cloud computing service and deployment models
ISO/IEC broad categories
The emergence of cloud computing has tremendously transformed the world of computing. Today, individuals, organizations, and government agencies can access computing resources provided by a vendor on an on-demand basis. This provides convenience, flexibility, and substantial cost savings. It also provides a more efficient way of planning disaster recovery and overcoming fluctuations in the demand for computing resources. In spite of the benefits it offers, cloud computing presents significant security concerns, which users must clearly understand and put strong measures in place to address them. Users are particularly…… [Read More]
Meta-Analysis Stages and Practices
(based on Figure 1, p. 307, Kirca & Yaprak, 2010)
The Causal Relation Between Job Attitudes and Performance:
A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies
How Important Are Job Attitudes? Meta-Analytic Comparisons Of Integrative Behavioral Outcomes And Time Sequences
Identify and read relevant theoretical and empirical articles
studies were utilized.
Contextual performance and focal performance were the two main factors on which the studies were based
Identify important, common variables, study, and measurement characteristics to assess
The two variables being studied were job attitudes and job performance
Job attitudes were linked to different factors that came under the category of contextual and focal performance
Identify contradictory findings
Decide on meta-analysis objectives
To fill the gap between the relationship of these two factors.
To fill the gap between the relationships of these two factors.
Develop preliminary theoretical framework
Job attitudes were defined as a person's affective and…… [Read More]
Technological Globalization Methodology
IT as it Links to Corporate Strategy
IT is essentially at the very heart of new and innovative business strategy. With such rapid advancements in technology continuing to unfold, it is crucial that IT be at the center of development and design for any organization, especially ones entering new global market environments as businesses continue to expand internationally. IT departments help keep organizations at the forefront of corporate strategy (Arora et al., 2004). As such, "information technology is playing its significant role in the betterment of organizations" (Ahmed et al., 2012). It is strengthening corporate strategy on a global scale. Technology is thus helping drive new and innovative strategies for expanding market environments. In their research, Ahmed et al. (2012) found that "global vision is positively correlated with IT" and "IT and global corporate strategy are positively correlated" as well. This ultimately suggests that innovative IT departments…… [Read More]
There needed to be a much greater level of coordination, communication and collaboration for the full benefits of project management initiatives and strategies to succeed. One of the best practices that emerged from the shift to a leadership and organizational basis of project management is the essential role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a galvanizing factor of making projects more relevant and accomplished in complex organizations (Clarke, 2010).
Where authoritarian and transactional management leadership had been sufficient for managing projects during the systems perspective era (Kioppenborg, Opfer, 2002) those leadership skill sets were not sufficient for the era of leadership and organizational behavior (Keegan, Hartog, 2004). This fundamental shift in project management perspective also corresponded to a shift in the expectations, need and requirements of a subsequent generation of knowledge workers as well (Keller, 2006). No longer would be authoritarian and transactional work. The entire culture of how projects were…… [Read More]
country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…… [Read More]
The author of this report is asked to compare and contrast three articles relating to organizational commitment. The three articles in question are all heavy-hitters on the topic and all emanate from the academic and peer-reviewed scholarly spheres. The first was the 2002 treatise offered by Swailes. This more dominant offering relating to organizational commitment will be compared to the 2008 work or ikettta and the 2006 work of Harrison et al. While there are definitely differences in the options and conclusions made by the three studies, they also share very strong corollaries.
Swailes started off by covering the early viewpoints of organizational commitment dating back to the work of Fayol in the 1940's. He also covered Weber's work in 1947 as well as other works through the 1970's, 1980's and 1990's. The earlier work that Swailes seized on and identified as pivotal when speaking of…… [Read More]
Pretesting a problem for generalization is helpful because the researcher can check to see if the groups are equivalent. Researchers can also assess mortality effects and determine if the people who withdrew are different from those individuals who finished the study. Pretesting may affect the ability to generalize results because the results can not be generalized to people who were not given a pretest, and pretests are rarely conducted in day-to-day living (Cozby, 274).
4. Distinguish between an exact replication and a conceptual replication. What is the value of a conceptual replication?
n exact replication is a researcher's attempt to exactly duplicate a study's procedures to determine if similar findings can be obtained. conceptual representation tries to replicate the findings of a research study by manipulating the variables in a different way. conceptual replication is valuable because the researcher can determine whether or not the results of the study are…… [Read More]
Other signs of manifestation may include irregular bleeding not associated with a woman's normal menstrual cycle, pressure or pain during or after intercourse and abdominal pain of unknown origin (NIC, 2003).
Ultrasound, endovaginal ultrasound and transvaginal sonography have all been used to help identify malignancies within the reproductive organs including the uterus. Of these, the more effective of tools is Color Doppler Sonography, because it allows physicians to distinguish benign masses from malignant masses more easily than do traditional U/S, EVU and TVS techniques. The advantages of U/S, EVU and TVS include the relatively low risk of complications and exposure to radiation which may prove more dangerous than beneficial. In times of old CT scans were often used in an attempt to try to identify malignancies of the uterus and endometrium (oss & Goplerud, 1982). Today, by combining techniques, many doctors find it is much easier to exclude cancer…… [Read More]
This means that the Korean model is difficult to implement in countries where performance and advancement are so interconnected.
2. The main theme of the analyzed article is the difference between an individualistic approach towards reward allocation and a team-based one.
The theme of the article relates to the article on "Reward Allocation and Culture: A Meta-Analysis," whose theme is reward allocation, in particular the way the reward allocation behavior varies across different cultures. Based on an ample theoretical research, the article initially presents the way that theory on this subject has developed during the last decade and moves. As such, the premise of reward allocation has gradually shifted from reward allocated based on equity and equality to reward being allocated in a framework that factors in more and more additional issues such as social skills or tenure. The degree to which some of these factors are considered varies from…… [Read More]
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]
CRISS- Annotated Bibliography
Annotated… [Read More]
Part II. Meta-Analysis: Critiquing hat You Have Done
Data thus far on negative campaigning has been mixed, with some research suggesting that it can be profoundly mobilizing to the party faithful of a generally dispirited American electorate (Jackson & Carsey 2006; Martin 2004), while other anecdotal studies suggest it can alienate the public. Polling individuals from a cross-section of elections allows for a wider array of demographic data, and reduces the possibility of independent variables affecting the results. For example, the area selected for the case study might have a generally low level of civic engagement, which could create low voter turnout that was correlated to a negative campaign by both candidates, but not caused by the candidate's advertisements. Examining different districts, with different kinds of hotly contested or lukewarm races, is more representational. However, a case study allows for greater specificity in conducting the research. The interviewers are able…… [Read More]
This amount of flexibility helps to give them an edge, in adjusting with a host of challenges they are facing over the long-term. (Hanna, 2009, pp. 30 -- 53)
The article that was written by Gruber (2011) is showing how frontline employees play a vital role in addressing the needs of stakeholders. This is because they are directly working with customers, suppliers and third parties on a regular basis. Those firms that understand how to: address these requirements and motivate them will see an improvement in the way they are interacting with everyone. This is point that there will be a transformation in the operating environment of the firm (by addressing the specific needs of stakeholders). Over the course of time, this will have a positive impact on how they are interacting with everybody in achieving a host of objectives. The information from this source is useful, in highlighting how…… [Read More]
Creswell, 2009). Given the range of resources that will come under study in this research, a meta-analysis is not readily applicable. Typically, with a retrospective study of this scale, more research is discarded than retained for analysis. Further, a number of large studies have been conducted on this general topic, including research commissioned by Congress ("CNSTAT," 2003; OTA," 1983). Using a descriptive research approach, the researcher will utilize primary and secondary data sources (Creswell, 2009). Document review will constitute a large proportion of the secondary research data. Primary research will consist of interviews with select Individuals in professional positions who are privy to agency information about the use and outcomes of polygraphs.
The corpus of literature will provide a substantive amount of secondary data for analysis and will inform the direction of further efforts at primary research. A comprehensive literature review will be employed to identify pertinent documents for…… [Read More]
Promoting community awareness of the need for colorectal cancer prevention and screening," which was written by Causey and Greenwauld, is appropriate. It clarifies the purpose of the research study on which this article is based and provides an effective summary of the particular area of nursing and science that the authors are writing about. Nonetheless, it does not allude to the key variables that influence the study, its results, nor the particular model it utilizes, which is reflective of the principle area in which a sufficient title could be improved.
he abstract for the aforementioned paper is extremely effective. In a paragraph of just a few sentences, the authors are able to identify the key factors related to this study: the problem, the methods and the model used to gather data, the results and the conclusion gathered from those results. he writing is relatively terse and straightforward, and is bolstered…… [Read More]
Fields such as human interaction are too unpredictable to be manipulated under laboratory settings. Human behavior, too, varies from place to place, and, therefore, results of one study that is conducted in one situation to one specific sample of people may not (and rarely do) have the same carryover effects to a different group of individuals conducted in a different spot or time. In other words, experimental, or quantitative, experiments necessitate that variables be closely matched and more, rather than less, homogenous. Therefore, they are best used in the hard sciences where they more often and most likely show consistent and repetitious results. The field of people is, however, more unpredictable and 'messy'. To that end, therefore, I find qualitative experiments more useful here.
This is particularly so in this specific case where we seek to zone in on difficult patients and seek to understand their motives. The characteristics of…… [Read More]
curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. egardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of…… [Read More]
That is, though overall job satisfaction is rated significantly higher than the itemized individual aspects, most items were rated a point or two above the median level of satisfaction, not exactly demonstrating strong support for the environment as it currently stands but demonstrating a great enough degree of satisfaction to make effective work possible. Further analysis based on the more meaningful findings in this study, such as the impact of administrative stressors on overall job stress and job satisfaction and a determination of how self-perceptions of performance impact perceptions of environment, would help to inform and clarify the findings in relation to these other items.
Series 1: Mean
Series 2: Variance
1. Overall job satisfaction
2. The quality of patient care I perform
3. The help I receive from my co-workers
4. The help I receive from Administration (above charge nurse)
5. My time management skills
6. How…… [Read More]
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…… [Read More]
Co-Occurrence of Substance Use-Behaviors in Youth
Co-occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth
Author Biographies: Biographical information of the authors is not made available in the research bulletin. A search online indicates that Carl McCurley shares a passion for analyzing and improving outcomes for court-involved children, youth and families that he was able to apply in the Models for Change program at the National Center for Juvenile Justice. McCurley, Director Administrative Office of the Courts/Washington State Center for Court esearch (WSCC). McCurley joined the Administrative Office of the Courts in 2007As the newly hired WSCC director, he sought to broaden the Center's work, expanding beyond the customary focus of court operations to analyze the courts' impact on the lives of those they served.
Howard N. Snyder is considered to be the foremost expert on juvenile justice data, policy, and is now employed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics,…… [Read More]
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…… [Read More]
eduction of Prejudice
The Contact Hypothesis of Gordon Allport and the eduction of Prejudice
The literature covering the nature of prejudice, its scope, the effects of prejudice, and methods to reduce on prejudice is among the most extraordinary body of literature in all of social science. The total volume of research on the topic of prejudice is quite extraordinary and this body of work reflects several decades of scholarly investigation of the meaning of prejudice, its assessment, its etiology, its consequences, and methods to reduce prejudice. There are very few areas of study that have attracted a greater range of theoretical perspectives than the area of prejudice. Theorizing about the nature and manifestation of prejudice has also been accompanied by many spirited debates about the appropriate way to conceptualize methods to reduce prejudice in people. The result has been a rich body of measurement instruments and reduction strategies. The most…… [Read More]
dosage levels of Cholestease on Serum Cholesterol levels and the side effects associated with them in human beings.
Cholesterol has been a major media issue in recent years, especially the negative effects on the heart and its role in the development of heart disease. There have been many studies that indicate a connection between serum cholesterol heart disease and depression (1-3). Developing new methods to lower serum cholesterol has become a major industry in recent years. Currently the leaders in the industry are American Pharmaceutical giants, Pfizer, Merck, and Warner-Lambert (1), who have developed medications that lower cholesterol.
The Endicon corporation recognizes the potential market in developing a drug that will significantly lower serum cholesterol without the side effects associated with long-term use of the drugs currently on the market. In addition, we recognize the potential of developing a ritish Product, primarily marketed in Great ritain. Endicon has been conducting…… [Read More]
Colic's (2005) argument is that there is a very strong correlation between porr housing and an individual's physical ill health. He goes further to point out that six out of every ten homeless individuals do suffer from a certain form of mental distress. About 20% of this lot have severe mental illness. In a nutshell, social exclusion gives rise to a direct form of social and economic consequences that include poor housing and limited financial resources.
Dunn (1999) studied the link between social exclusion and mental health. His concluded that the correlation was rather strong and was in congruence with what other authors have documented. It has been acknowledged that unemployment affects persons who have long-term mental disorders in a way that is far greater as compared to the other persons with disability. A total of only 13% are employed as opposed to the more than a third of individuals…… [Read More]
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]
It follows that if the most effective types of parental involvement in education can be identified, then the lack of these measures would be strong indicators of low achievement in many students. Essentially, this is a positivistic approach to addressing the issue of low achievement in the context of parental involvement; it is easier to diagnose in cases where the favorable factors are absent. In other words, one of the most informative uses of finding the styles of parenting that aid in student achievement would be to determine instances in which low levels of parental involvement can be recognized as the leading component in low academic achievement. In order to isolate these factors, however, studies need to be conducted that control for social status -- of both the student and their parents -- sex, race, and the structure of the household -- whether there is one or two parents. Additionally,…… [Read More]
Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).
Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…… [Read More]
" (Meade, nd) The studies were conducted in various medical settings and with various patient-types and as well some were "very scientific designs assigning patients to control and intervention study groups, while others were less scientific and more qualitative." (Meade, nd)
The report of Meade states that: "it is clear the findings reveal that discharge follow-up phone calls provide an invaluable opportunity to evaluate patient education, identify trends that may require improvements in practice, improve patient quality of care, determine patient's compliance with discharge instructions and access overall impressions of hospital performance." (Meade, nd) In fact many of the studies show that discharge phone calls."..significantly increase patient satisfaction when compared to those not receiving discharge phone calls." (Ibid)
In the study of Ahrens, et al. (2003 in the work entitled: "Improving Family Communication at the End of Life: Implication for Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit and Resources…… [Read More]
Time-Outs in the Classroom
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
On the second page of a 2010 report published by the National Disabilities ights Network (NDN) called School is Not Supposed to Hurt is a picture of a 7-year-old girl who died while being restrained and secluded in a Wisconsin school. This report went on to describe the wide-spread used of restraints and seclusion by schools in the United States and its publication triggered a congressional investigation. The Government Accountability Office (GAO, 2009) published its own report a few months later, which examined 10 court cases resulting in criminal convictions, civil adjudications, or settlements. These 10 cases formed the basis for judging the veracity of hundreds of allegations of mistreatment, injuries, and death resulting from children being restrained or secluded by school personnel. Even more troubling was the…… [Read More]
The client is a 19-year-old single male who was referred for treatment by his parents who are concerned that his use of alcohol is interfering with his grades in college. The client reportedly had all A grades in high school and had been placed in a program for gifted students. However, he has reportedly flunked out of college in his first year. Following this he was also recently arrested for his second DUI offense, the first offense occurring when he was a senior in high school.
According to his parents, the client was born at full term with no complications occurring in the pregnancy and delivery of the baby. He met all of his developmental milestones ahead of expectation and has experienced no major health issues although his last physical examination was several years ago. He excelled in school and was placed in a program for gifted and…… [Read More]