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Foucault sharply contrasts the disciplinary prison system with the initial transformative ideal.
y becoming a prisoner, the offender relinquishes not only his or her right to freedom, but also to privacy, as stated above. Observation is used to assess the individual with all the influences that contributed to the crime. According to Foucault however, this system is defective, as it merely functions to objectify along with its individualizing function. Observation then becomes a power relation rather than a rehabilitative function. Prisoners learn only apprehension towards the observing party, rather than strategies for living a more functional life within society, or indeed the "self-correcting" thoughts and reading intended by judges.
As rehabilitative institutions, prisons therefore leave much to be desired during Foucault's time. He makes several suggestions towards improvement, the first of which is that the central function of a prison is to be the transformation of behavior. This occurs by…… [Read More]
Foucault and Freud Summaries
Michel Foucault's a History of Sexuality
In writing this critique of the modern era, Foucault challenges the conventional wisdom that the many forms of knowledge gained by humans during the 18th and 19th centuries have given people more freedom. Instead, Foucault points out that new forms of domination that have emerged during the supposedly more progressive times.
Modernization has brought about new forms of knowledge, which positivist theorists viewed as neutral and Marxist theorists viewed as potentially emancipatory. Foucault, however, believed that knowledge itself cannot be disassociated from the regimes of power. While competing theories thus viewed power as repressive and anchored in social structures and the ruling class, Foucault believed that power is dispersed, operating through hegemony of norms, political systems and ideas regarding the body and the soul.
In The History of Sexuality, Foucault focuses on how the dispersed nature of power operates to…… [Read More]
Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization (mentioned on page 5 of 11, "the reading list")
Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization is a complex work with so many different themes that it requires strenuous and concentrated reading to understand and retain Foucault's argument. The material then needs a review in order to reflect and critically engage with the reading. This kind of book is no light reading nor can it be done within a few hours. It needs a pen in hand or a luminescent marker to wade through the lines. The reader, too, needs to know that best results demand that he absorb this book in small bites in order to read, reflect, and reread before continuing with other sectors of the book. Foucault, too, can disturb people with his revolutionary insights, but for those who are philosophically attuned and who are post-modernist by inclination and by cognitive tendency, Foucault's book…… [Read More]
As such, it is interesting to note that the role of the individual helps to shape the role of the government of collective individuals, which ideally function in a co-existence that expresses a level of dependence upon one another.
Further examination of that relationship elucidates in what regards the individual can actually influence the overall conception of government used in the traditional sense to rule the forms of actions of a particular nation-state or city. The additional responsibility placed upon a single subject in the form of "self-care," should ideally lead to a reduction of governmental programs (such as welfare or municipal and state systems of security) that regulate or augment such processes for individuals. On a basic level, however, Foucalt has determined that the roles in which people play throughout their lives are largely determined by a number of key influential factors, two of the foremost of which are…… [Read More]
Michel Foucault used the term Panoptism (all-seeing) to describe the methods of control and surveillance used by industrial society to discipline and control the lower classes, whether in factories, schools, hospitals, mental institutions or other bureaucratic institutions. In these, everyone is under constant observation and surveillance, being analyzed, evaluated and regulated, and the most extreme versions of this system would be found in police states like Nazi Germany or Stalin's Soviet Union. He began his chapter of Panopticism with a description of a 17th Century town under quarantine for the plague. This was not yet the full-fledged machine of control that would emerge in the 19th and 20th Centuries but only a hint of things to come. Of course, the quarantine was only a temporary measure while the system of Panopticon is permanent, and the methods of control and surveillance were still primitive and crude in a preindustrial society.…… [Read More]
Power and Facebook (Michel Foucault)
Throughout the course of his literary career, French philosopher Michael Foucault provided and considered several definitions for the term power, most of which were posited in view of the broader social implications of the word. Of particular note to this assignment is his conception of disciplinary power, which was engendered as a scion of traditional sovereign power, that in which its "form is the law of transgression and punishment…confronted by a power that is law…is he who obeys (History of Sexuality Volume 1, part 4, chapter 1, p.85)." Whereas sovereign power is generally employed as a negative effect of power in which individuals are restrained by litigation to keep from traversing society's laws and norms, disciplinary power is a more beneficial application of power which attempts to make people useful through a subtler means of curtailing their rights (Discipline and Punish, part 1, chapter 1,…… [Read More]
Paul Patton (1998) maintains, "in this manner, the ways in which certain human capacities become identified and finalized within particular forms of subjectivity the ways in which power creates subjects may also become systems of domination (71).
Foucault contends that discourses on sex positioned at the end of the 18th century were not designed nor used in such a way to regulate or repress the people. Instead, these conversations, dialogues or conventions were designed by the emerging bourgeoisie as a strategy for self-affirmation. Through discourses on sexual relationships and sexuality, these groups slowly established itself as a class distinguished from the "ignorant masses and decadent aristocracy" (1980: 121).
It seems to me that the deployment of sexuality was not established as a principle of limitation of the pleasures to others by what have traditionally been called the 'ruling classes'. Rather it appears to me that they first tried it on…… [Read More]
This is important to note because it demonstrates how Foucault is seemingly predicting now more-common method of discussing ideologies and their tactics in positively biological terms.
Secondly, recognizing that the discourses surrounding sex that developed and in some cases were deployed over the course of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries helps one to understand why "what is said about sex must not be analyzed simply as the surface of projection of these power mechanisms," because it is the actual discursive deployment themselves which embody the power mechanisms under discussion (Foucault 100). These discourses cannot help but to legitimize and reiterate the reigning power structure. The discourses of morality, science, and criticism utilized by the "family organization" in order to constrain and control an individual's sexuality simultaneously serve to define and support the family organization in the first place. This is a crucial contribution to the study of rhetoric and…… [Read More]
e., underlying meaning, in terms of power relationships) of a human discourse or discourses [a text may be a poem, song, mission statement, law or other spoken, read, sung, written, or reported language entity conveyed and/or absorbed as written and/or read; sung and/or spoken; quoted and/or paraphrased, etc.] may be interpreted distinctly by separate individuals, nations, religious groups, political parties etc., in ways reflecting various power/knowledge relationships. About science/power (meaning either science as power or science in relationship to power) relationships in particular (abortion law, internationally and comparatively, fits that category, because abortion is, first a procedure only made possible by science; and science, as embodied by exclusively-educated and trained medical clinicians in particular, is the abstract entity that makes possible abortion in general); a doctor, based on the doctor's medical knowledge, possesses power to accept or reject a patient for an abortion for scientific reasons (e.g., length of pregnancy;…… [Read More]
Michel Foucault: Discipline and Punish
Michel Foucault stated "We must cease once and for all to describe the effects of power in negative terms: it excludes, it represses, it censors, it abstracts, it masks, it conceals. In fact, power produces; it produces reality; it produces domains of objects and rituals of truth. The individual and the knowledge that may be gained of him belong to this production." The objective of this study is to answer as to what Foucault means by that and how it relates to the rest of the book and how it might relate to Freud's 'Civilization and it's Discontents" Finally, this study will provide a reaction to the quote either in agreement or disagreement.
The claims of Foucault in the statement of " We must cease once and for all to describe the effects of power in negative terms: it excludes, it represses, it censors, it…… [Read More]
The panopticon centralizes the space of the observer while simultaneously mystifying the act of observation, such that the threat may be ever-present even if an actual prison guard is not. In the same way, Foucault's conception of the societal panopticon imposes its standards on the individual, who must conform to the standards of society due to a fear of the possibility of discovery and punishment. According to Foucault, "the Panopticon is a privileged place for experiments on men, and for analyzing with complete certainty the transformations that may be obtained from them" (Foucault 204). The space the narrator finds himself in at the beginning of The Unnamable functions in this same way, except that in this case the object of the panopticon's gaze has not undergone the process of subjectification prior to finding itself there.
The narrator simply exists upon the reading of the novel, and is subsequently unable to…… [Read More]
Many are also embedded in politics, indicating the power links between business and government. This is a primary example of Foucault's strategies of power: the way government and business and intimately tied with few checks or balances between them.
The techniques of power are more overt. These relate to what we can or cannot do as law-abiding citizens. For example, drug laws in the United States are notoriously strident. The possession of small amounts of marijuana are punishable by imprisonment. hereas Americans have the liberty to drink themselves to death or eat fried foods until their arteries burst, they do not have the freedom to smoke. Prohibition of drugs is an example of how power techniques (in this case laws) are used to control the behavior of the public. In fact, the drug laws are a perfect example of how power strategies and the penal system work hand in hand.…… [Read More]
Foucault and Davis
The idea of the panopticon came from English philosopher and thinker Jeremy Bentham, after he helped to design a building in which one supervisor could observe all of the workers within. Eventually, Bentham's panopticon was converted into prison design, as people realized the benefits of a building which contains a point from where all of the prisoners inside could be watched by a single guard. While the architectural theory of the panopticon failed to catch on during Bentham's lifetime, many philosophers have since examined the idea from a variety of angles, discussing ideas like social control and authoritarianism. One of those philosophers was the Frenchman Michel Foucault, who wrote a book called Discipline and Punish in 1975 which contained many references to the panopticon as becoming the model for social structures. According to Foucault's view, the panopticon as imagined by Bentham has become more than just a…… [Read More]
Foucault's Birth of the Clinic
Initially, in order to provide a stable framework on this study, we would try to clearly define, identify and learn both the visible and literary meaning on the work of Michel Foucault's work, The Birth of the Clinic. We will intend to scrutinize each of the underlying detail of this literary masterpiece and retrieve its modern influences in the field of medical and health studies.
In the modern era of rational thinking and ideas, the concept of which Michel Foucault is trying to convey in his literary work, The Birth of the Clinic is the postmodern influence of medical attribute to the social and political structure of our society. The concept of which Foucault considers as a myth of which he notes:
"...the first task of the doctor is ... political: the struggle against disease must begin with a war against bad government." Man will…… [Read More]
Gaze and the Culturally Determined Body
Michel Foucault first developed his theory of the panopticon as a means of describing the ways in which a society may dominate the thought processes and behavior of the individual by "convincing" that individual to implicitly engage in their own surveillance, in the same way that a literal, brick-and-mortar panopticon relies on the self-regulation of prisoner behavior due to the fear of possible surveillance and punishment. In formulating this theory, Foucault uncovered important details regarding the way in the body is created, regulated, and sometimes even decimated by societal standards, something which Susan Bordo expands upon in her essay "Beauty (re)Discovers the Male Body." Bordo analyzes the way in which bodies (and in this case, male bodies) and the meanings gained from them are culturally determined, to the extent that the human body as it is commonly considered has almost nothing to do with…… [Read More]
On page 261-262 Alberto raises the issue of "rationalism" (in the 17th Century Descartes believed reason is the essential source of knowledge and that man has "certain innate" ideas in his mind prior to any experience). Alberto, as part of the novel's didactic (teaching) theme, then contrasts Descartes' rationalism with 18th Century philosophers including Locke, Hume, and Berkeley who were "empiricists."
The empiricist (including the original empiricist thinker Aristotle) believed that "all knowledge of the world" is derived from what our senses tell us. Englishman John Locke, Alberto explains (263), believed that prior to any experience, the human mind is "bare and empty as a blackboard before the teacher arrives." But when we begin having experiences, the truth comes clear because now we have knowledge of those experiences, and the blackboard begins to have writing on it, and knowledge conveyed through it, Locke believed. "Each society has its regime of…… [Read More]
Freud & Foucault: Comparing Two Theories of Human Behavior
Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and linguistic anthropologist Michel Foucault (1926-1984), came from two different European cities (Freud from Vienna; Foucault from Paris) lived at different times, and developed entirely different theories of human behavior. Freud believed human drives and impulses originate from the unconscious; and external social repression of unconscious impulses (early messages about "right" and "wrong" from parents, teachers, other authority figures, and from society) give way to internal formation of the id (unconscious desire); the ego (a person's sense of who he or she is); and the superego (an internalized parent constantly reminding the individual, based on early socialization, of what is the "right" thing to do, instead of the "wrong" thing, in terms of society's expectations of the individual). It is in fact the id/ego/superego theory for which Freud is best known.
Freud also believed, in…… [Read More]
Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).
Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]
Discipline and Punish
In the novel Discipline and Punish, Michel Foucault, have studied the birth of prison in France. The author illustrates that the techniques of punishment, supervision and discipline stretch out well beyond the boundaries of the prison. The novel primarily concentrates on the growth and change of punishment from the seventeenth century to the modern era. Foucault emphasizes on the belief that the concept of discipline, which originally sprung from military eventually, spread out into organizations such as schools, factories, hospitals and prison. Through Foucault's novel, the reader learns that with time prisons have changed its outlook from dark and dingy dungeons into organizations which work towards educating, reforming and surveillance. By making use of the model system of Panopticon, the author elucidates on the notion of discipline and reform via indicated inspection and individualization.
Michel Foucault analyzes the relationship between power and knowledge and explains how both…… [Read More]
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]
philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.
Rousseau and Nature"
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].
According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit." Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…… [Read More]
Literature is allowed to expand across class lines because it is constantly seeking out new forms of expressing the human experience. Even the most elite of the bourgeoisie are allowed to enjoy the latest experimental or ethnic literature, which serve as pure representations of the proletariat human experience, "it is common to see 'literature' defined as 'full, central, immediate human experience,' usually an associated reference to 'minute particulars,'" (illiams 45). These "minute particulars" are what make literature so interesting and entertaining, thus successful. It is with this understanding of literature as an ideology that the concept of ideology can take on duel roles, "A common culture is thus entirely compatible with a hierarchical one," (Eagleton The Idea of Culture 115). Much unlike the theories which state that a true ideology cannot live up to a duel existence, literature as an ideology proves to do just that.
It is in this…… [Read More]
Jewish Faith in Life and Death
Of the main components of the human life cycle, dying is probably the one most people prefer to avoid or at least ignore until the last possible moment. Nevertheless, even though many of us prefer not to think about it, death is as much part of humanity as birth and life. Hence, every religion has its particular views on death and rituals to help those who have passed on their way to whatever concept of the afterlife exists in that religion. In this, the Jewish religion is not unique. Centuries of tradition still survive today as modern Jews practice the ancient art of their religion, both in life and when death occurs. When considered in terms of Foucault's "Technologies of the Self," one might say the elaborate Jewish rituals surrounding dying and death can be seen from the viewpoint of both self-care and self-renunciation.…… [Read More]
Jacques Derrida has been accused of writing in a deliberately obtuse and obfuscated manner, so the relationship between his work and that of Plato's might not be immediately discernible. Perhaps the clearest connection between the two can be derived from Derrida's of Grammatology, especially as it compares to Plato's aesthetics and view of reality. In this rather dense treatise, Derrida first outlines the phenomenon of what he calls logocentrism -- the attitude that speech (logos in Greek) is the most basic and essential form of language, while writing is secondary in development and its ability to reflect meaning. Derrida claims that logocentrism has long been a silent and foundational part of Western thought, even from the time of Plato.
Plato believed that truth and meaning existed in a pure state somewhere, with the shadows of meanings existing in our own world. Derrida sees this as a flawed worldview, though not…… [Read More]
The creation and development of new knowledge is an important indicator that society is progressing towards social development. However, Foucault observed how society ceased to produce 'new knowledge' as it moved towards 20th century. The emergence of "-isms" are based on extant philosophies and knowledge; therefore, they are just products of these knowledge, rendering them not original, new, and influential to induce to social development.
Though individualism is a belief that had existed and was discussed upon for many years, it was noticeable that people have yet to actually believe and practice this philosophy. Putting into practice individualism can have remarkable results to the progression of social development. Eradicating the concept of power is one of these progressions that individualism can induce. The philosopher asserted that changing the perception that knowledge should have "congruence, love, unity, and pacification" and that it is inherently 'hateful and hostile' would help humanity redefine…… [Read More]
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…… [Read More]
Overall, Foucault uses a blend of historical analysis and philosophy as his primary method to answer questions about modern societies.
The primary evidence Foucault uses to justify his comments about human society is how sexuality was viewed in classical times compared to how it is viewed today. He says that governments now regulate sexuality because they have to ensure the longevity and health of their population. Because society now values life more than it did in the past, power is more widespread across the population because of wider sovereignty. Foucault's evidence for this point is not always direct, maybe because his research methods are also not always direct. He says that racism and Nazism are proof that biopolitics now exist. "Nazism was doubtless the most cunning and the most naive (and the former because of the latter) combination of the fantasies of blood and the paraoxysms of a disciplinary power"…… [Read More]
Malone dies just as he finally does away with the alternate identities of his storytelling, such that he can be seen as 'becoming Malone' at the same moment of Malone's death, so that his death forces the reader to recall the beginning of the story and the Malone already in existence there, restarting the narrative loop.
In effect, Malone's storytelling creates an infinitely looping continuity that diminishes the finality of his death, because 'although the physical body will eventually die, we cannot be sure that consciousness discontinues,' and in fact, the novel seems to suggest that Malone's consciousness never ultimately discontinues, but rather briefly goes dark before being reactivated once again at the beginning of the novel (hite, 2009, 45). The tragedy, of course, is that Malone is entirely unequipped to deal with this kind of torturous immortality, so his mind is frayed and confused, with different characters and moments…… [Read More]
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…… [Read More]
In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. he outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.
Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is…… [Read More]
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]
Following on the heels of Michel Foucault, Butler situates the dichotomous conceptualization of gender as a product of discourse, just as Foucault (1990) realized that homo- and heterosexuality were both discursive products. The maintenance of coherent norms in the realm of gender through cultural discourse is intertwined with the positing of heterosexuality as the norm. This is why, for example, when a young boy "dresses up" as a girl and/or plays with dolls, his parents frequently express concern that this is a sign of burgeoning homosexuality and punish the child.
Butler would interpret the child's act as a "performance" and the parents' intervention as a means of correcting that performance in order to condition the child towards "acting the right way" - that is, enacting the role of maleness as it is rigidly codified by the heterosexual norms upon which our society is based:
The notion that there might…… [Read More]
sexual relationships figure in the construction of a transgendered person?
Sexual relationships or sexual preferences tend to be the elements that are usually accepted as defining factors in the sexual and social identity of an individual. This means that sexual relationships are often seen to be the determining factors that constitute the very psychological and social identity of the person. This view of sexuality presents a number of problems -- particularly with regard to the transgendered person. Firstly, as the following definitions of transgender will make clear, there are many variations and ambiguities to the term transgendered, which can be confusing. Secondly and more importantly, there is an ongoing debate which revolves around opposing views of what constitutes sexual identity. One point-of-view sees sexual relationships and identity as innate or "naturally" constituted. This view is opposed by the social construction theory which sees sexual identity as a "construction" engineered by…… [Read More]
An individual's behavior is labeled as "deviant" when the behavior goes against the prevailing norms that govern social life. These norms are generally unspoken rules designed to promote patterns in the social interactions between people. This gives rise to expectations about how people must act and behave. Those who do not conform to these expectations are therefore considered "deviant."
Generally, there are three main areas covered by unspoken social norms. The first area concerns appearance - one's clothing, hairstyle, personal grooming. This also extends to material possessions. In Western society, in particular, people reveal much about themselves by their choice of cars, houses and jewelry.
The second area of social norms concern manners. These include how we relate to others on an interpersonal as well as a group level. Personal manner norms concern areas like proxemics, the typical distances people maintain during face-to-face interactions. Group style norms are…… [Read More]
Evidence, Truth, and Order
Tagg, John. "Evidence, Truth and Order: A Means of Surveillance" From Visual Culture: The Reader. Edited by Jessica Evans and Stuart Hall. New York: Sage, 1999, pp. 244-273. Originally published as Tagg, John. "A Means of Surveillance: Photograph as Evidence in Law," in John Tagg, The Burden of Representation: Evidence, Truth, and Order. London: Macmillan, 1988, pp. 66-102.
State author's biographical notes
ho is John Tagg?
Tagg is an author, photographer, and post-modern theorist. All of these many identities of the author coalesce into his ideological essay upon the nature of photography, the legal system, and photographs of prisoners. Currently, he is professor of art history at SUNY Binghamton in New York State. He is also the author of Grounds of Dispute: Art History, Cultural Politics and the Discursive Field (1982) and The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories (1988).
hat are the terms…… [Read More]
Wall, Tapies, and Goldin: Photography and Painting From the Theoretical Perspective of Susan Sontag
The relationship between photography and painting, according to Susan Sontag, is that neither is really "capturing" the world that each attempts to depict. Rather they are capturing or depicting a perspective and the reality remains elusive. They are, in other words, projections of the artist's viewpoint; they are filtered through a particular zeitgeist -- and it is the zeitgeist that needs to be interpreted at root, not the painting or the picture. Painting and photography are merely means of identifying the spirit or ideology of a particular culture in a particular time and place. [footnoteRef:1] This paper will use Sontag's theoretical framework to analyze the relationship between photography and painting by examining three different works: A Sudden Gust of Wind (1993), photographed by Jeff Wall, Composition with Figures (1945), painted by Antoni Tapies, and Misty and…… [Read More]
To Gatsby, this was the biggest failure and he was not willing to accept defeat. Though he finally realizes that Daisy's enticing voice-that "low, thrilling" siren's voice with its "singing compulsion" (p.14) that "couldn't be over dreamed" (p. 101) was actually nothing "full of money." (p. 127). The dreams of his future were the dreams that sustained Gatsby. "For a while these reveries provided an outlet for his imagination; they were a satisfactory hint of the unreality of reality, a promise that the rock of the world was founded securely on a fairy's wing." (P. 105)
The story is simple to read and follow. But underlying themes are more important than the obvious plot. The story reveals the tension of social class and capitalism that had started with the accumulation of wealth by industrialists in 1920s America. This was a massive time of dramatic changes for the United States and…… [Read More]
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…… [Read More]
His stance is also one of superiority as he presents himself as the victim of his own vision and artistic expression. In this context, the generic pronoun "they" symbolizes Craig's detachment from the world around him as he feels superior which he believes, is what causes his isolation.
Craig's wife, Lotte, is perhaps the most radically changed as a result of traveling through the portal. She becomes convinced that she is a transsexual, and consequently, feels the only way she can be true to herself is to assume a new sexual identity, i.e. that of a man. However Lotte abandons her desire of sexual reassignment when she becomes aware that by starting a relationship with Maxine, she can in fact assume a different gender role simply by falling in love with Maxine. Maxine, on the other hand, embarks on a sexual relationship with Malkovich so she can be with Lotte.…… [Read More]
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…… [Read More]
Defense of Globalization
Jagdish Bhagwati and the Defense of Globalization
It has lately become fashionable to talk about the evil face of globalization as a parasitic force that devours small nations and economies for the benefit of the rich and powerful countries. The anti-globalization movement today has a wide range of supporters, in the West and developing countries, among politicians, scholars, students, environmentalists, human rights activists, and many others. Globalization, these critics contend, further enriches the rich and impoverishes the poor, by using international trade and financial institutions and imposing Western forms of economics on the rest of the world. But in this paper I argue, using insights and arguments from the works of Columbia law and economics professor Jagdish Bhagwati, that the attacks on globalization are contradictory, misguided, and unjustified. Globalization, I argue, has been a force for good in the West and the rest of the world.
One…… [Read More]
Path to the Enlightenment
What with the ideological turmoil occurring prior to most of 18th century Western Europe, the Age of Enlightenment was but an inevitable outcome. eligious and political thoughts littered Europe by the spades, and with the foreign revolutions and tensions that led up to questioning both divine right and religious authority. The eformation, along with the discordant feelings toward the monarchy, became important turning points in history. Instead of blind faith, the Enlightened man turned to reason and science and believed in the utopian harmonic ideal. But exactly how did this Enlightenment come about?
Enlightenment was a movement that "strove scientifically to uncover religious truths rising above individual sectarian disputes" (Zhivov). Also simultaneously known as the "Age of eason," the Enlightenment culminated in a set of values that sought to question the traditions, customs, and moral beliefs of the cultural environment. While the schools of thought differ…… [Read More]
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…… [Read More]
While it may explain the violence against the witches, it really does not do a good job of explaining how a society that had moved away from a belief in sorcery changes and begins to believe in sorcery once again. It certainly does not adequately explain how such a transformation can occur within the span of a generation. Even if an underlying belief in the power of sorcery was always part of the culture, how does that transform into violence. Siegel does explain that fear is a tremendous motivator, causing people to lash out against perceived problems in society, hoping to eliminate perceived threats. However, it still feels like there is an unexplained logic leap between a belief that there are witches in existence and that they are relatively harmless to the killing of people because they are practicing witchcraft. However, maybe the fact that this logical step appears to…… [Read More]
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]
Anderson, M.Z., Croteau, J.M., Chung, Y.B., & DiStefano, T.M. (2001). Developing an assessment of sexual identity management for lesbian and gay workers. Journal of Career Assessment, 9(1), 243 -- 260.
As a sexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers specialized in these studies, claim that this is a social and historical construct. In 1976 the historian Michel Foucault argued that homosexuality is not intended as an identity existed in the eighteenth century, people then spoke of "sodomy," referring to the mere act of sex. Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored but sometimes severely punished. The term homosexual is often used by European and American cultures to envelop the entire social identity of a person, including themselves and their personality.
The above reading implies that sexual orientation is an integral part of one's personality and may vary from person to person. According to the article, sexual…… [Read More]
1970s, streamlining American healthcare is a subject that appears significantly in the news. If this revitalized political concern mirrors a rising consent that the present structure has touched its ceiling of difficulty and expenditure, simultaneously that it eliminates so many citizens in order to create the circumstances politically hazardous, something essentially might change. This might be the conclusion of the political, as well as, ideological efforts to identify our general health care principles and objectives that has been uncontrolled for more than two decades. Otherwise, if all the hoopla is merely the "sound and anger" that usually escorts a political disappointment such as our previous presidential election, it might indicate nothing (Patricia, 1993).
Simply one thing is clear. Even though some corporate managers now support a single financier, socialized structure such as the Canadians maintain, they are nonetheless in the underground. Robert Evans, a Canadian health commentator, has plainly associated…… [Read More]
This fear is intensified in the close quarters of prisons. Also, as noted in "Police Control of Juveniles" of Donald J. Black and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. both groups use techniques of fear and intimidation to deal with such a hostile environment. The police use their authority to intimidate prisoners or potential convicts on the street, while convicts use their potential menace and the real or threatened use of violence to assert authority against one another.
The process of "prisonization" and "policization" thus both involve the entry of the individual into a unique subculture, different from those ordinary persons inhabit. Like all human beings, there is a desire for survival, group approval, and esteem, all of which are met, according to the dictates of prison life, by obeying the rules of the social hierarchy. Prisoners are continually watched and monitored for deviant behavior, and these prisoners watch the police to…… [Read More]
This is a natural development, and is part of a general process of change. This process can be seen in historical context, just as the modern world built in and changes the ideas of the period known as the enlightenment, which in turn built in the period known as the renaissance.
In the past there has been the creation of ideas on the way that people should view and interpret the world. The post modernist approach is different, arguing that reality will be subjective. In other words, there is no single correct model reality; it will vary between different people and reality will always be subjective. There are many post modern philosophers that put forward the idea that the universe is not seen in the same way by everyone, these philosophers include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and ichard orty.
In the past, especially following the enlightenment, it was assumed that…… [Read More]
Suddenly I receive a Titian to hang on my wall -- a Greek bas-relief to stick over my chimney-piece." (James in: Phelan-Cox, 2004)
Through the analogies of alph, the reader is able to view the manner in which "male pleasure in spectatorship with interconnected with Western aesthetics generally." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) it is the argument of Laura Mulvey that the film of Hollywood is structured around "the voyeurism and scopopophilia of the male gaze by denying the existence of other viewing positions." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) James veritably denied other ways to view through his description of the scene "by consciously omitting Isabel's own perception of herself in that setting or any objective description of the scene that might include observations about alph." (Phelan-Cox, 2004)
VII. Portrait and the Implications
The title of this story is even misleading as noted by Phelan-Cox the word 'portrait' "implies that the novel is to be a…… [Read More]
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…… [Read More]
Sociology -- Medical Dominance on the Profession of Nursing and How is the Profession of Nursing Challenging Medical Dominance in Australia
In the context of medical practice, the contemporary medical society is representing a change in the increasing issues of domination between medical professions. The focus of each practice's attention is on exploring its goals in providing integral contributions and impact to the framework of health care services. Each dimension of medical interest, specifically the doctors and nurses, are developing their respective paradigm and uniqueness to establish skills and authority in the field of health service.
This paper aims to do an informative research on medical dominance over the profession of nursing in Australia. As the industry of medicine progresses, the issue of domination among medical doctors and nurses in health care institutions are associated with competencies and authority over the other. The power and privileges of the profession is…… [Read More]
Ma Pastoral Theology -- Spiritual Abuse
HEN THE SYSTEM BECOMES THE PERSECUTOR
Veenhuizen's dissertation explores spiritual abuse, using Relational Theology to understand a healthy spiritual relationship vs. spiritual abuse. In Relational Theology, God offers a bilateral covenant with Him and with others of unreserved love and commitment with the gifts of blessing to anyone accepting His offer. Spiritual abuse sharply contrasts with God's covenant. Spiritual abuse has existed for quite some time; consequently, theological writers such as Veenhuizen and mental health professionals have all addressed the causes, discernment and treatment of spiritual abuse.
Foundation of Relational Theology
Veenhuizen's dissertation correctly shows that there are various definitions of Spiritual Abuse (Veenhuizen, 2011). The most inclusive one found in my research is from Lisa Oakley's "Developing safeguarding policy and practice for Spiritual Abuse" (Oakley & Kinmond, 2014). After studies and interviews with numerous survivors of Spiritual Abuse, Oakley and her team concluded…… [Read More]
.....female agency in Wang Anyi's "Granny" and Eileen Chang's "Shame Amah"
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast the work of Eileen Chang's with reference to her theme "Shame Amah" and the work of Wang Anyi focusing on her theme "Granny". The study uses their works of the two writers to analyze their differences and similarities in the writing styles focusing on the themes Shame of Amah and Granny. Remarkably, Zhang was in her early twenties when she had been identified as a discriminating and precious writer. She benefited from both classical Western and Chinese literature making her being one of the most renown Chinese writers in the literary world.
Similarly, Eileen Chang is one of the most talented Chinese writers born in 1921 and has published several collections of English stories as well publishing two English novels. Eileen Chang was born in Shanghai and attended the…… [Read More]
The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…… [Read More]
Carnal teachings: raunch aesthetics as queer feminist pedagogies in Yo! Majesty's hip hop practice" by Jilian Hernandez, the essay explores the concept of 'raunch aesthetics' in the video for the song, "Don't Let Go." Hernandez also explore the notions of community cultural capital, color blind/new racism, and postfeminism through the performance of the women in the video. Hernandez's interpretation of queer and feminist teachings via these four concepts and through the music video provides a unique look, into analysis of text and visuals to gather and form ideas and theory.
The first concept to analyze is 'raunch aesthetics'. A term see in feminist theory, 'raunch aesthetics' describes the women in hip hop and the various ways they express sexuality via staging, choreography, and performance of lyrics. Women in hip hop that participate in 'raunch aesthetics' are thought to attempt to own their sexual identities as well as their bodies by…… [Read More]
There are numerous reasons why so many movies fail the Bechdel test. Most of these reasons directly correspond to the exact nature of this assessment, and what it reveals about society. Still others of these reasons pertain to the function of films within society. For the most part, they are used to reinforce societal values and mores. To a lesser extent, this medium is also widely deployed as a means of introducing new societal norms which will one day become part of the social establishment. Finally, still other reasons directly correlate to the notion of gender and gender constructs in Westernization today. A thorough examination of these different reasons reveals so many movies fail the Bechdel test because they reflect the values of a male-dominated society.
In examining the specific way in which this this thesis applies to some of the theorists analyzed within this class, it is first necessary…… [Read More]
In the final analysis the film under discussion can be deconstructed and critiqued from a postmodern perspective. This refers to the underlying ideologies and metanarratives that inform the narrative and imagery of the film.
From a postmodern point-of-view truth is never static or fixed and is always relative to a certain context or stance. The film in question makes use of a number of rhetorical devices to put forward its central argument. These include aspects such as the metanarratives of science as well as environmental nostalgia. There are many other ways in which this film could be deconstructed to reveal fissures in the apparent logic and coherence of the documentary. hat is clear is that even a discursive postmodern reading of the film indicates that Gore unconsciously or consciously makes use of various cultural predilections and ideologies in estern culture to support his stance in this film.
orks Cited…… [Read More]
Vision for Society: A Just Society
The Vision: A Just Society
It is a moral duty for those in immigration department to ensure that immigrants get free English classes to help them promote their own life. In AACA, there are rules that do not allow employees to help immigrants. For instance, reading letters for immigrants who cannot read and understand English is not a responsibility of AACA staff. In this regard, clients end up going back with unsolved problems because AACA staffs are not obliged to assist them. Although such acts do not form part of the organization's duty, helping these immigrants read bills and solve their problems is a moral duty that calls for commonsense. Commonsensical thoughts from Kant's point-of-view begin with the idea that what is good; is a good will. The thought of good will is a noteworthy reasonable decisive factor that Kant employs all through his…… [Read More]
feeling overwhelmed. The required reading felt daunting and it seemed like the expectations put upon students were rather high. I remember having the impression that a lot of my learning would entail simply memorizing and regurgitating facts and ideas. I had concerns about the amount of writing expected of us. As I explained in my "Guided Self-Placement" essay, I started this course without having had a great deal of reading and writing experience.
I feel that this course has enabled me to write and think more critically and formally. Previously, I was not aware of the necessary tone that academic essays had to take and that it's appropriate to omit colloquial phrases and words such as "like." In fact, I would still say that I sometimes have a tendency to write in too much of a conversational tone, and have to be particularly watchful of that in my writing.
I…… [Read More]