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Minimalist Musical Culture Techniques and Composers Minimalist

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48752925

Minimalist Musical Culture, Techniques, And Composers

Minimalist music has its roots in the experimental decade of the 1960's. The musical culture of that time was a relatively avant-garde one. Artistic experimentation and exploring new methods of composition were encouraged, and fashionable. Popular music included much Rock 'n Roll (this was the decade of the "British Invasion," and the heyday of the Beatles; the Rolling Stones, and others). Classical minimalist composers, during the 1960's, included La Monte Young; Steve Reich; Philip Glass; Terry Riley; John Cage, and others. Young first pioneered minimalist composition. The first American minimalist composers were mostly "born between 1935 and 1937" ("Minimalism in Music and Painting").

Minimalism itself "is largely based on repetition and/or the use of very spare elements (tones held for a long time, etc.). The term was first used by Michael Nyman in 1968" ("Minimalism"). Minimalist composers were essentially rebelling against modernist compositional techniques…… [Read More]

Works Cited.

'Minimalism." S21 New Music Wiki. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from:


'Minimalism in Music and Painting." Making Music. Retrieved October 7, 2005,

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Two Minimalist Short Stories

Words: 1470 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95618433

English Literature - Introduction

Minimalism -- John Barth's Description

Minimalism certainly means using fewer words to express thoughts, plots, ideas, quotes and action, but there is more to it than that, according to John Barth. By using Henry James' mantra of "show, don't tell," Barth covers the subject very well. Barth also quotes Edgar Allen Poe, who wrote that "…undue length is…to be avoided." The short story itself is an example of minimalism, simply because it condenses the components of a novel into a much shorter space. There are writers who specialize in what Barth calls "luxuriant abundance" and in "extended analysis," which clearly is the opposite of minimalism; he mentions Guy de Maupassant and Anton Chekov as "masters of terseness" (Barth, 1986).

And because Barth uses examples of well-known writers, he certainly couldn't omit Ernest Hemingway, whose short stories were very tight and yet very expressive with fewer, well-chosen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barth, John. "A Few Words about Minimalism." The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from . 1986.

Meinke, Peter. "The Cranes." In Literature to Go. New York: Macmillan. 192-194. 2010.

Proulx, Annie. "55 Miles to the Gas Pump." In Literature to Go. New York: Macmillan
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Qualitative Analysis of a Ted Talk

Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50194115


In the Ted Talk, "A ich Life with Less Stuff," yan Nicodemus and Joshua Fields Millburn, a duo with a YouTube and web following who are also known as the Minimalists, discuss the basic principles of their take on the minimalist approach to life, which differs from the traditional minimalist approach. yan begins the discussion by talking about how he used to define rich, and how that definition, which was based on earnings, had to continue to expand because it could never be enough. He discussed how he had material success but that he was still essentially unhappy and mentioned having just experienced a divorce. Then he moved into a comparison with friend Joshua Fields, who, like him, had recently gone through a divorce and had also experienced a death in his family, and credited his transition to a minimalist lifestyle with his ability to find inner peace.

Of…… [Read More]


Millburn, J.F. & Nicodemus, R. (2014). A rich life with less stuff. Tedx Whitefish.

March 6, 2015 from Yahoo website:;_ylt=A0LEV7oLiJlU.QwArX0PxQt.;_ylu=X3oDMTBsa3ZzMnBvBHNlYwNzYwRjb2xvA2JmMQR2dGlkAw  -- ?p=ted+talks+the+minimalist&tnr=21&vid=148E8D8C185383788AF1148E8D8C185383788AF1&l=898&
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Raymond Carver's Cathedral and Careful

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25214006

"I can hear you...I'm alright," he says, but at the end of the story he resumes his drinking again (Carver, 1989, p.274).

The significance of physicality in both stories is noteworthy, as it seems to reflect a distrust of language, rather than an embrace of language, as the characters communicate primarily though touching. Carver's prose has often been called minimalistic, a charge that he resisted. Yet Inez and Lloyd do not connect when they go for marital counseling, they do connect, if only briefly, when Inez must clean Lloyd's ears. The only time Lloyd can really hear is when his wife tries to reach him through physical rather than verbal gestures. The husband of "Cathedral" rages against blindness, but enters the blind man's world through the medium of touch, even after he has tried to exclude the blind man by turning on the TV.

hat is particularly important for an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carver, Raymond. "Cathedral." From Where I'm Calling From. New York: Vintage,

Carver, Raymond. "Careful." From Where I'm Calling From. New York: Vintage, 1989.

Champion, Laurie. "What's to Say': Silence in Raymond Carver." Studies in Short Fiction. Spring 1997. New York: Thompson & Gale pp.1-6

Trussler, Michael. "The narrowed voice: minimalism and Raymond Carver." Studies in Short Fiction. Winter 1994. New York: Thompson & Gale, p1-12
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Bauhaus Movement Refers to the

Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14816830

" (Nora FitzGerald, 2002)

Bauhaus popularized functional design, a technique that focused specifically on the major functions of everything including buildings, textiles, tables, lamps etc. To make them more easily accessible and usable. Bauhaus artists were the first to understand the needs of the new urban breed of workers who were looking for cleaner and sleeker design in everything in order to make better use of space without feeling cramped. Gropius decided to combine Academy with the Weimar Arts and Crafts School to provide new and more comprehensive training in design. Two persons trained each student: an artist and an expert craftsman to develop "creative ambidexterity." (2)

While cubism, expressionism and Dadaism inspired early Bauhaus designs, the later designs rarely ever bore any resemblance to these art movements. The reason being that Bauhaus took birth in highly chaotic times and it took some time for the movement to gain momentum…… [Read More]


Frank Whitford, Bauhaus -- the world of Art, Thames & Hudson; (April 1984)

G. Naylor, the Bauhaus (London: Studio Vista, 1968), p. 50.

Gerhard H. ndler. German Painting in Our Time. Rembrandt-Verlag. Berlin: 1956

Herbert Bayer, Ise Gropius, Walter Gropius. Bauhaus, 1919-1928: Museum of Modern Art. New York. 1938.
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Lover by Marguerite Duras Though

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68339953

The girl, who was old by the time she was eighteen, has completed her journey by then; she has taken the phallic leadership of her elder brother from him and is proprietor of it, and of her own pleasure. This is the denouement, but to pinpoint the climax -- the final moment when the transfer of power can be said to have happened -- is difficult; perhaps at the time when, looking at her mother sitting in a chair, the girl is startled by what seems to be a body-snatcher. The mother she knew is suddenly gone, replaced. "My terror & #8230; [came from the fact] that that identity irreplaceable by any other had disappeared and I was powerless to make it come back," (Duras, p.85). The authority of the mother has been completely deflated, and what's left is a husk. Certainly by this point in the novel the girl…… [Read More]


1. Duras, Marguerite. The Lover. New York: Random House, 1985. Print
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Town by Thornton Wilder Uses

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4856372

By capturing the these seemingly simple values in the life of a "typical" American small town, ilder was telling a profound story that exploded the accepted norms of drama and in one explosion catapulted the American play from the nineteenth century to the twentieth via the chautauqua esque visage. This is why it is a mistake to typecast ilder as a traditionalist. Rather he was a modernist that translated Asian and European ideas into the American idiom via drama (ibid, xv).

ilder's experience of this style of drama came about as he was influenced by the economy of the storytelling of Noh drama. This drama style boldly compressed a huge time span into a short period of time with a minimum of scenery (ibid, xvi). This gives it an appeal that is beyond just the American experience. The popularity of the play around the world attests to the play having…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wilder, Thornton. The Collected Short Plays of Thornton Wilder Volume II. II. New

York, NY: Theater Communications Group, 1998.

Wilder, Thornton. Our Town. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers Inc., 2003
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Barthelme's Short Stories Donald Barthelme

Words: 2582 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96089191

This is a well planned and conceived event, invitations, limousines for transportation of guests to the hanging tree and all the necessary accoutrement's including drinks (Some of Us). It becomes ghoulish and obscene when one reflects that these people are Colby's friends! hat could he have possibly done to deserve such animosity from his own friends? One is left to dangle precariously since no answer to that question is revealed. But the narrator does point out that no one ever went too far again.

The most egregious part of the discussion occurs in contemplating whether rope or wire should be used for the hanging. One friend who has been quiet all along suddenly advocates the wire. A wire? Surely not, Colby would assuredly suffer to excess by choking and likely decapitation. His friends cannot be serious and Colby's luck at last wins him some solace as he is granted a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agresta, Michael "City of Surfaces" The Texas Observer, Mar 5, 2010 Web. 19 July 2010.


Barthelme, Donald. "A City of Churches" Web.

Barthelme, Donald. "Some of Us Have Been Threatening Our Friend Colby." Web.
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Eric Fischl it Comes as

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80892474

Fischl displays himself comically strutting, his stomach strangely stuck out, as if to say that his own portraits are just as bizarre; that he nor his paintings are to be taken seriously. The artist presents himself as a clown, preparing for those who say something against his art, preparing himself from the negative. His mask hides him from any critiques. "I think that we, and again I'm saying the generation as we, had a profound degree of self-consciousness. The self-consciousness came from a feeling that everything was a cliche, that everything had such a strong predecessor to it -- that basically you were in pantomime" (Tillim).

In Chicago, when he was going to school, Fischl was also exposed to the non-mainstream art of the Hairy Who. "The underbelly, carnie world of Ed Paschke and the hilarious sexual vulgarity of Jim Nutt were revelatory experiences for me" (Eric Fischl Web site).…… [Read More]

References Cited: Rooms for the Misbegotten: A Conversation between Erick Fischl and Cheryl Kaplan.5 December 2009 

Fischl, Eric. Web site. 5 December, 2009

Homes, A.M. Eric Fischl. Bomb (1994-95). No. L., pp. 24-29

Tillim, Sidney. Eric Fischl at Mary Boone, Art in America. (1987), pp. 214-215.
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Pop Subdivisions of Popular Music

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51376505

Today sometimes also referred to as 'urban' music, R&B was originally a euphemistic way of referring to the boogie woogie blues-based music of African-Americans in the 40s and 50s. In some circles, these would be referred to as 'race records.' When white musicians like Elvis Presley began recording these songs, the term Rock and Roll was coined. This transition would not render the R&B genre moot, but would instead apply it to most music made by African-Americans. Over the years, this would come to serve as a Billboard Chart classification for forms such as Soul, Funk, Disco and many modes of Hip Hop.

Quite in fact, today, R&B may be said to be the dominant form in popular music once again, with its permeation of the variant of popular forms impacting the sound of music today in the same way that rock would for decades. Particularly in the type of…… [Read More]

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Louise Bourgeois Sculptor Louise Bourgeois

Words: 364 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61103428

It features an effigy of the home outside of Paris where she grew up, rendered in pale pink marble. But something is terribly wrong - the house has been enclosed behind an imposing mesh iron cage, clearly meant to ward off visitors. Above the entrance to the house is a guillotine blade, which the door to the cage threatens to trip should anyone enter. The overall effect is one of loneliness and the macabre.

By trying to revive the past through our memories, Bourgeois seems to imply, we put ourselves in great danger. This eerie piece seems to speak to our culture's obsession with the traumas of the past and how we allow them to condition our lives. Bourgeois presents us with a vivid emblem of her own childhood - the house she grew up in - but refuses to allow herself (or anyone else, for that matter) entry. No…… [Read More]


Hughes, R. (1997). American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America. New York: Knopf.

See Hughes (1997), p. 615.
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Post Modernism Judy Chicago Is

Words: 376 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79449664

" (LewAllen). The purpose was to get the viewer to see the Holocaust as a point of reference in evaluating our current society. The actual work is a collaboration between her and her husband, a world renowned photographer. It is composed of a collection of sculpture, photographs and paintings.

Judy Chicago's works encompass several post-modern ideas. First, her works often focus on feminist themes and ideals, an idea that has grown out of the post-modern era. Further, her work is primarily comprised of installation art in that it is large and not able to be hung on a wall. This being the case, Chicago's work is the essence of post modern's focus on the real and the current, making her a true and unique postmodern artist.

For More Information:

Judy Chicago's Home page:

The Holocaust Project:


Chicago, Judy. The Dinner Party. New York: Penguin, 1996.

Judy Chicago:…… [Read More]


Chicago, Judy. The Dinner Party. New York: Penguin, 1996.

Judy Chicago: Holocaust Project: From Darkness into Light. LewAllen Contemporary.
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Government Intervention When Seeking to

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57962575

It has even created a new network of medical clinics that provide easy access to medical treatment at affordable prices at an efficient pace for such routine treatments as strep throat cultures, physicals for jobs or athletics, flu shots, and other procedures that enable people to pay a reasonable rate for timely care, which would not be given to them in a system of national coverage, and which would cost them more at a doctor's office that accepted their insurance (if they have insurance) because of the extra bureaucracy and paperwork necessary to validate insurance coverage ("al-Mart Medical Clinics," 2006, Healthcare NBIC).

The example of al-Mart illustrates how the marketplace is infinitely more responsive to the needs of the public out of its own self-interests. Necessity is the mother of invention and also the kind of personal initiative that pulls people out of desperate circumstances. Less government regulation would enable…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rivlin, Alice. "Why Can't We Get things Done?" Chapter 66.

From The Brookings Bulletin. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institute.

A pp.366-371.

Wal-Mart Medical Clinics." (Feb 2006). Healthcare NBIC. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007 at
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James Surowiecki The Dating Game

Words: 468 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22692163

It is due to inadequate "civilized amenities," meaning, that people are subjected to drinking water that is contaminated by feces. It can also be treated with lots of fluids and electrolytes, but these countries do not have the knowledge or resources to save people from dying from cholera.

8. John Updike Down the River In what respectis Uncle Tom's Cabin superior to Huckleberry Finn?

Because the black man, Jim, in Twain's story, is a more realistic person. He is responsible, and has dreams of buying his deaf daughter's freedom, while experiencing his freedom on the raft. Uncle Tom is not a genuine character.

9. Elizabeth Kolbert Dead Reckoning Why have the Turks refused to acknowledge the Armenian genocide?

The Turks are afraid of losing their identity as a nation. They do not want to admit that their existence as a nation is the result of war crimes.

They want the…… [Read More]

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Codeswitching Code Switching -- How

Words: 3716 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45990159

The most proficient language users, namely bilinguals, favor inter- and intrasentential CS which "require most knowledge of both languages" (Poplack 1980:606) whereas tag-switched sentences are preferred by less proficient and non-bilingual speakers who, in comparison to their first language, are less competent in their second language.

3. Grammar of Intrasentential Code Switching

As already mentioned in chapter 2.2.1 the switching of languages within a single sentence is no random occurrence. As many researchers observed that "bilinguals tend to switch intra-sententially at certain (morpho) syntactic boundaries and not at others" (Poplack 2004:1). According to Poplack (2004:1) the government of grammatical constraints on CS has become a largely accepted fact. "Though, there is little consensus on what they are or how they should be represented" (Poplack 2004:1). The question arises in which way two separate grammars merge to one grammatically correct sentence and which grammar governs the switching. The following chapter gives…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cantone, Katja Francesca (2005). Evidence against a Third Grammar: Code-switching in Italian-German Bilingual Children. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism edited by James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan. Cascadilla Press, Somerville, MA.

MacSwan, Jeff (2000). The Architecture of the Bilingual Language Faculty: Evidence from Intrasentential Code Switching. Bilingualism Language and Cognition 3(1), 37-54.

Myers-Scotton, Carol (2006). Codeswitching as a Social and Grammatical Phenomenon. An Encyclopedia of the Arts. 4:8 (800-805). Web 16 May 2011.
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Art Now Series Deals With

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2858581

Although these three artists come from different backgrounds and focus on creating works of art that address particular publics, they provide an overall contribution to students' experience while in the Art Now course.

Espezel's discussion regarding art extended to the relationship between a series of elements that the artist disposes of at the moment when he or she creates. An individual needs to focus on successfully combining his or her experience, the materials that he or she uses, and innovative concepts that he or she is interested in expressing through his or her artwork. She speaks about how it is important for the individual to focus on his or her background and on his or her personal experiences in creating art that is as unique and as intriguing as possible.

Faye HeavyShield's is probable to have influenced her overall style and her position in regard to art. Even with that,…… [Read More]

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Pantone -- Pantone Is Actually a U S

Words: 2321 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89917792

Pantone -- Pantone is actually a U.S. corporation headquartered in New Jersey. They are best known for PMS, or a Pantone Matching System, which is a proprietary color space used in printing, paint, fabric and plastics. Pantone is all about the use of shading, tone, and timbre of color -- hundreds of versions of each primary color so that the end user can accomplish just what it is they need. However, Pantone is more than just a color database; it is a driver of style and color for numerous industries. For instance, in 2008, Pantone picked #18-3943, or Blue Iris as the color of the year. Almost instantly, designers in furniture, fabric, carpeting, and home decor picked up that this shade of blue and its compatible colors would be "the" color to use (Horyn).

One example of the use of a one-color Pantone job would be the exact look of…… [Read More]

Works Cited Page

"Bathers by the River." June 2004. All About Matisse. October 2010 .

"Color Temperature, Daylight, and Light Bulbs." March 2009. October 2010 .

"Color Theory - Color Temperatures." 19 April 2009. October 2010 .

"Elizabeth Murray Exhibitions." 23 October 2005. October 2010 .
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Symbols of Hot and Cold

Words: 2299 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62639843

Symbols of Hot and Cold

Symbolism: Hot and Cold

The feelings of hot and cold are ones that we often consider simple. We either are hot, or we either are cold and the state of being definitely impacts is capabilities for behavior in for action. Yet, literature often takes every day concept and in powers them with an additional sense of meaning that signifies deeper concepts and emotions. This is exactly what several short stories do, including "1/3, 1/3, 1/3" by ichard Brautigan, "The Amish Farmer" by Vance Bourjaily, "The Ledge" by Lawrence Sargent Hall, and finally "Weekend" by Ann Beattie. Each of the short stories creates an additional layer of meaning behind the connotations of hot and cold; often the heat represents a sense of livelihood and vivaciousness, while the image of cold represent misery and death.

The contemporary short story is often extremely realistic in its structure and…… [Read More]


Beattie, Ann. The New Yorker Stories. Simon and Schuster. 2011.

Bloom, Harold. The Anatomy of Influence: Literature as a Way of Life. Yale University Press, 2011.

Brautigan, Richard. Revenge of the Lawn. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 1995.

Gerke, Jeff. Plot vs. Character: A Balanced Approach to Writing Great Fiction. Writer's Digest Books. 2010.
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Fashion of the 20th Century

Words: 1392 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37098077

The only image from the time that we have of the original dress is in the film poster (Image 5), where one can see that the dress showed quite a big of leg, which was considered improper and that is why the film commissioned a tailor to sew up Givenchy's original design, as to not offend anybody in the audience. hat a pity, for today, the dress would perhaps be ever-more popular.

In the third image, however, which is the picture of the dress as seen at Christie's, one can see that one of the photos shows the dress with the slit. Yet this discussion of without or without the cut prompts the thought of the fact that these are two dresses, one created by Givenchy, and one a copy created by another designer, a 'knock-off' almost, that together with the original created a phenomenon of epic proportions. Could it…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"The Audrey Hepburn Treasures." Google Books. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. .

"Cinemode: Breakfast at Tiffany's: The LBD That Dethroned Edith Head." Fashion in Film: Breakfast at Tiffany's. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. .

Duffy, Martha, and Dorie Denbigh/Paris. "THE MUSE and the MASTER." Time. Time, 17 Apr. 1995. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. .

"Growing Up With Audrey Hepburn:." Google Books. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. .
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Zionism on the Peace Process

Words: 3968 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89525035

Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.

1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Slater, Jerome Can Zionism be Reconciled with Justice for the Palestinians Article Tikkun July 2003

2. Zuncs, Stephen Defending Zionism in a Time of Occupation and Oppression Article Tikkun p.54 April 2004

3. Starobin, Paul Rethinking Zionism Article National Journal p.1240 April 24, 2004

4. Hazony, Yoram the Zionism Idea and its Enemies Article Commentary may 96, Vol. 101, Issue 5 p.30
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Nostromo Within the Pages of

Words: 2456 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66304042

" (Conrad 1993).

There are additional moral conflicts that permeate Nostromo's life. Although he has been betrothed to Linda, he falls in love with Giorgio Viola's younger daughter Giselle. Conrad writes, "She had come upon him unawares. She was a danger. A frightful danger." (Conrad 1993). There are two secrets involved in their relationship: first, the secret they keep from Linda; and second, the secret of the hidden silver. So, on two fronts their love is surrounded by a sense of apprehension and guilt. "His moral condition is now in a climactic state of degeneration, as Nostromo moves irrevocably towards his execution for his moral outrages, in short, for his moral infidelity. Nostromo here exemplifies the man of pride in sight of his fall." (Panichas 2002).

The human circumstances that Conrad portrays lack the unwavering moral compasses of many other tales both past and present. In Nostromo there is no…… [Read More]


Conrad, Joseph. Nostromo. New York: Modern Library, 1993.

Jeffers, Thomas L. "The Logic of Material Interests in Conrad's Nostromo." Raritan 23 no2 80-111, fall 2003.

Panichas, George A. "Joseph Conrad's Nostromo." Modern Age 129-149, spring 2002.

Ramirez, Luz Elena. "The rhetoric of development in Joseph Conrad's Nostromo." Texas Studies in Literature and Language v42 i2 p93(25), summer 2004.
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Thames Tunnel Was Originally Created

Words: 6088 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48745324

As such, the original construction for the building was completed between 1911 and 1913, after which point the factory underwent significant reconstruction resulting in an expansion that was largely different than its original design. The construction effort was largely financed by enscheidt, who worked in conjunction with foreign investors raise the necessary funding. The building's foundation was achieved by mixing compressed concrete and pebble dashing. While the majority of the rising structure was erected with brick, the floors were laid down with reinforced wood planks. The ceilings were constructed with a formwork shell (Gotz 138).

The glass windows that the Fagus Factory is noted for were erected upon steel frames and cover the building's entire exterior. What is of interest about this fact is that the corners of the building were constructed without supports, in much the same way that the Turbine factory was (Jaeggi 43-44). The glass was placed…… [Read More]


Driscoll, Molly. "Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Father of 'less is more' architecture." The Christian Science Monitor. 2012. Web. 

Filler, Martin. "Mies and the Mastodon." The New Republic. 2001. Web. 

Harris, Neil. "Mies on Lake Shore Drive." Architecture Week. 2004. Web. 

Puente, Moises. Conversations with Mies van der Rohe. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2008. Print.
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History of the Modern Era

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28715355

The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.

In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…… [Read More]

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Carver's Cathedral an Analysis of Theme and

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7133761

Carver's "Cathedral"

An Analysis of Theme and Plot in Carver's "Cathedral"

Raymond Carver states that by the mid-1960s he had tired of reading and writing "long narrative fiction" ("On riting" 46). Shorter fiction, he found, was more immediate. Flannery O'Connor states a similar idea in The Habit of Being: for her, the novel was a literary medium that could bog down all of one's creative powers. Turning to a short story was a way of escape: "My novel is at an impasse. In fact it has been at one for as long as I can remember. Before Christmas I couldn't stand it any longer so I began a short story. It's like escaping from the penitentiary" (O'Connor 127). This mode of thought may help us to understand why Carver turned to composing shorter works of fiction like "Cathedral," a work that acts as a brief glimpse into how one man's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carver, Raymond. "Cathedral." 1983. Web. 25 Sept 2012.

Carver, Raymond. "On Writing." Mississippi Review, vol. 14, no. 1/2 (Winter, 1985), pp.

46-51). Print.

O'Connor, Flannery. The Habit of Being. NY, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979.
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Choreographers I Would Present Together

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31662547

oreover, they work well with solo dance moves (which is why they worked out so well for Beyonce. Thus I would describe De Keersmacker's work as timeless, "avant-garde" (Gardner, 2011) ballet that pushes the envelope.

A.3. It is difficult to pinpoint specific themes in the choreography of De Keersmaker. The Choreographer herself admitted that she dislikes themes and tries to eschew them from her work (Jenkinson, 2009). Therefore, if one were to explore the lack of themes in the choreographer's work, they would revolve around innovation and novelty. She incorporates a wide variety of media within her choreographed pieces, such as varying elements of sound (both musical and otherwise), text and different varieties of light. She also sings along to her songs (Williams, 2003).

A.4. The main way that this choreographer's work is influencing larger society is through the form of flattery known as imitation. Beyonce's lifting of several of…… [Read More]

Macaulay, Alastair. "In Dance, Borrowing is a Tradition." The New York Times. 2011. Web. /2011/11/22/arts/dance/is-beyonce-a-choreography-thief-in-countdown.html?ref=anneteresadekeersmaeker&_r=0

Williams, Ann. "Rosas - Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker'Once'." Ballet Magazine. 2003. Web.

Rosas Danst Rosas Anne Teresa de Keersmaeker 3. 2010.
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Greek Civilization Compare Greek Religion in the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63638750

Greek Civilization:

Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:

The different ways they believed their gods intervened.

During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.

Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.

In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…… [Read More]

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Argumentation Providence and the Simple Life Based on Literary Ethnography

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18058340


There is no such thing as a time machine. Ancient history can only be understood by modern peoples through the cultural documentation that was left behind. ritings from the period of the New Testament exist but they do not provide information into every aspect of everyday life. Consequently, historians and scholars must analyze the documents that are in existence in order to gain a greater understanding into the world's past. One technique that makes it possible for current populations to understand ancient texts is the use of literary ethnography. This procedure is the endeavor to use qualitative means to learn about and to better understand various cultural documentation and ideology which mirror that culture's society. Particularly of importance to ethnography is the ways and means of knowledge acquisition of a culture and also the system of meanings and which dictate that culture, such as language and the roles of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aphthonius of Antioch. "Progymnasmata."

Diogenes and Crates. "Principal Representatives of Cynic Philosophy."

Epictetus. "A Stoic View of Divine Providence."

Lucien of Samosata. "The Dream, or the Rooster."
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Viderunt Omnes by Protin

Words: 1850 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43658983

Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes"

My fascination with Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes" -- the aspect of the piece which intrigued me enough to select it for this exercise -- begins and ends with one name -- not that of Perotinus Magnus (as you might suspect) but that of contemporary composer Steve Reich.[footnoteRef:0] My own interest in musical analysis very often involves the question of what composers are doing now. If we approach the aesthetics of music from a perspective that is informed by Harold Bloom's approach to the aesthetics of literature, a critical approach that has been exemplified by (for example) John Fallas suggesting that the creation of Schoenberg's Serial Technique was a sort of Modernist revolutionary break with past aesthetics[footnoteRef:1], on the order of Bloom's description of the invention of "Romanticism" in literature, whereby we analyze any composer by means of his sense of "the burden of the past" and his own…… [Read More]

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Life in the Renaissance Do You See

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16526913

life in the enaissance? Do you see different types of style, for example: style that you would definitely connect with Louis XIV and Versailles and other types of style that are very different to Louis XIV's style? You might like to think about prom attire vs. what you wear on an everyday at school for instance, or what you'd wear to an interview vs. what you wear to go over to a friend's to watch TV or a movie.

Life in the enaissance era and the clips are illustrating, how style was a way for the socially elite to express themselves. This occurred with them wearing outfits that highlight the different types of tastes with opulence. A connection occurs through illustrating how Louis the XIV lived and this desire to show off his wealth / power. (Bayard, 2012) ("enaissance," 2005)

There are clearly styles which influenced and are directly associated…… [Read More]


Renaissance. (2005). Encarta. Retrieved from:

Bayard, E. (2012). The ABCs of Style. New York, NY: Parkstone.
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Flapper Movement the Effect of the Flappers

Words: 8916 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71316040

Flapper Movement

The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women

The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.

Evolution of the Flapper

Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…… [Read More]


Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:

Harper and Row.

Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.

Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
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Sixties and the Early Seventies Were Dominated

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47928974

sixties and the early seventies were dominated by bands that were heavily promoted by the music industry. The music was very commercial and user friendly. This trend was responsible for another trend, a backlash against consumer music, a new type of rock which some have called "alternative-bohemian."

y 1977 punk rock had a solid foothold in the music industry. Time and Newsweek both announced the new subculture of music to the general public as being "punk." ands like the Clash, Dead oys, the Ramones, the Sex Pistols, and the Talking Heads were all an iatrical part of this new movement.

The music and the subculture revolved around one another and lived a symbiotic relationship. The music was dominated by loud and fast rhythms and the dancing to this music was spasmodic. Punk enthusiasts cut their hair short and dyed it, black leather and combat boots were common, and the most…… [Read More]


Oh, Charles. "The History of Punk Rock: Origins and Significance." Writing Assortment. February 25, 2003.

McLemee, Scott. "Safety Pin as Signifier." The Chronicle. August 2, 2002.
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Great Artists of the Late 20th and Early 21st Century

Words: 1922 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73078792

women artists," feminists have reflexively responded by trying to find great women artists from the past who were undiscovered or to emphasize little-regarded female artists from past artistic movements dominated by men. However, this can create the impression of feminists being 'desperate' to find examples of female greatness and over-inflating the reputation of relatively minor artists. Other feminist art historians have criticized the notion of what constitutes 'greatness' as overly masculine in quality and tried to create a new, specifically female-centric notions of artistic greatness. Feminist critic Linda Nochlin sees this as problematic given that there is no clear feminine principle uniting women artists through the ages: in fact, women artists and writers are more apt to resemble males of their respective periods than they are of all women throughout the ages.

Instead, Nochlin asserts that the absence of great female artists is similar to the reason why there are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hoffman, Lewis. "Premodernism, modernism, and postmodernism." Postmodern Psychology.

2008. 24 May 2014.

"Postmodernist art." Art Encyclopedia. 24 May 2014.
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Lee Somers

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 72152499

Exhibition Review

When visiting an art exhibit, one does so with certain expectations; one of these might be that there will be numerous works by a single artist or similar works by several artists. The Greenwich Pottery House exhibit in New York City was somewhat unusual because it was not only very focused, but also very minimal. The exhibit included only about six works. However, when I took the time to truly look at the works being presented, I realized that there was a good reason behind this minimalism. The work was so intricate and meaningful that there could not have been a better way to present it. Each individual work had its own individual message, but it also integrated with the other works to present a central message. Indeed, Lee Somers' work presents a significant integration of the eternal and the instantaneous. His works attempt, I think to provide…… [Read More]

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Organizational Culture of Sony

Words: 5456 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 7930414

Cultural Analysis of Sony

Defining Organizational Culture:

Organizational culture can be defined in several ways. The definitions that apply to this essay are discussed below. Morgan (1986) defined organizational culture as the development patterns as mirrored by the society's ideology, laws, knowledge system, daily rituals and laws. Schein (1985) says that organizational culture has relations with observed norms, behavioral regularities, policies, philosophies or values, the acceptable behavior and the sense of belonging that an individual has by being part of an organization (p.6,9). An organization's culture is essentially a product of the organization's members. The members are driven to achieve the goals of the organization which in turn has an effect on the organization's life. The data used in this essay has been sourced from secondary electronic and print sources.

The Nature of Sony's Business

Sony is a leading brand in a wide range of electronic products like home entertainment…… [Read More]


Nilay Patel, (2009), 'Sony Posts 1b loss', Engaget. Also available at:  Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.

Sony Corporation, (2002), Sony and the People, Also available at:  Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.

Sony Corporation, (2003), CSR Report, Also available at:  Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.

Richard Gershon and Tsutomu Kanayama, (2002), "The SONY Corporation: A Case Study in Transnational Media Management," The International Journal on Media Management
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Benihana Restaurant Simulation Analysis

Words: 2164 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 19118832

Benihana Case Study

The simulation makes a substantial contribution to the manner in which the case study can be analyzed and understood. In particular, by making use of simulation, it was possible to understand the details of the profitability of Benihana and also offer several insights on the management of operations. The main objective of this simulation was to maximize utilization, throughput time as well as the nightly profit generated for the evening hours of operation, that is, from 6pm to 10:30pm. This was achieved by employing different strategies such as bar sizing, batching, hours of operation and also advertising (Dhamdere, 2002).

The initial five challenges are specific challenges in this case where only one or two factors can be altered to achieve maximum nightly profit. The ultimate challenge encompasses (1) designing and coming up with the best strategy and (2) making use of factors from the challenges previously tackled,…… [Read More]


Dhamdere, D. M. (2002). Operating Systems: A Concept-based Approach. India: Tata McGraw-Hill Publications.

Institute of Management Accountants. (1999).Theory of Constraints (TOC): Management System Fundamentals. Statements on Management Accounting.

Khan, K. (2015). Applying Theory of Constraints to Manage Bottlenecks. Six Sigma. Retrieved from: 

Nafees, A. (2007). Queuing theory and its application: Analysis of the sales checkout operation in ICA supermarket. Department of Economics and Society University of Dalarna.
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Review of Annie Dillard S Living Like Weasels

Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73154035

Annie Dillard's "Living Like easels"

During the height of the Great Depression in 1931, James Truslow Adams coined the term, "the American Dream" in his book, Epic of America, to describe the growing expectations of a better life for all Americans, a life characterized by the pursuit of happiness, significant material rewards and individual security in exchange for hard work and honesty (Lallas 162). In her essay, "Living Like easels," Annie Dillard makes the point that people, who are logical and live by choice, can learn from animals, who are illogical and live only by necessity. This paper provides a review and analysis of Dillard's essay to identify what choices are involved in attempting to live out the typical American Dream and how those choices differ from living according to necessity. The review and analysis concerning the differences between the lifestyles defined by the American Dream as opposed to those…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benesch, Klaus and Kerstin Schmidt. Space in America: Theory, History, Culture. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2005. Print.

Dillard, Annie. "Living Like Weasels." Print.

Lallas, Demetri. "From the People, by the People, to the People: The American Dream(s) Debut." Journal of American Culture 37(2) (June 2014): 162-165. Print.

Loewen, James W. (1995). Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: The New Press. Print.
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Collaborative Consumption and Architecture

Words: 8536 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 88518479

architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.

Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]


About SsD. (2016). SsDArchitecture. Retrieved from 

Botsman, R. (2010). What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption.

NY: HarperCollins.

Bovill, C. (2014). Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Design. NY: Routledge.
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Psychological Testing

Words: 1536 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64787182

Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are commonly used to establish individual capabilities and characteristics. Such inference is derived as a result of collecting, integrating and interpreting information about a person (Marnat, 2009). It constitutes measuring variables through the use of procedures and devices crafted to demonstrate a person's behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Assessment of personality is, ideally, the measuring and evaluating of psychological aspects such as one's values, states, world view, personal identity, acculturation, behavior styles, sense of humor and the related characteristics of an individual (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Personality tests are designed to determine the character of a human being or their disposition. The initial personality tests were designed to examine and predict disorders of clinical nature. The tests are still useful today and are applied to determine cases in need of counseling. The latest personality tests are used to measure normal characteristics (Miller, Mclntire, & Lovler, 2011).…… [Read More]


Cattell, H. E., & Mead, A. D. (2008). The sixteen-personality factor questionnaire (16PF). The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, 2, 135-178.

Cohen, R. & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Friedman, M. (1996). Type A Behavior: Its Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press (Kluwer Academic Press)

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
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Letter from a Birmingham Jail Analysis Essay

Words: 5159 Length: Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array


Writing a Letter from Birmingham Jail analysis essay offers the student the gift of going back in time to the courage and ferocity of the Civil Rights Movement to examine one of the most eloquent documents of that era. The Civil Rights Era was one of the uglier periods in American history—and one of the most triumphant and inspiring. No document embodies this dichotomy as fully as King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail. In it, King details many of the horrors that black Americans have suffered at the hands of white hatred and complacency. Yet, the letter is without a doubt, a document of hope and conviction, inspiration and profundity. This paper details the background circumstances that provoked King in writing the letter and examines closely the brilliance contained in the words, ultimately discussing why it remains such a lauded document even today.


Letter from Birmingham Jail is often…… [Read More]

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Nthe Effectiveness of Human Rights

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48702959

Also, the death penalty still in use in a great deal of countries might provide another subject for debate from the point-of-view of human rights.

A minimalist set of human rights, meant only to keep people safe from humiliation and pain cannot be effective. This is mainly because while certain human rights seem to be of little necessity, they are actually indispensable. Economic, civil, and political rights are of great importance because they assist society's interests.

Human rights are not likely to have any decisive effect in international relationships, and they are also not expected to be of any use when it comes to the stopping perpetrators from breaking the law. The best thing to do in order to make the world a better place would be to promote the concept of good, so as to influence the masses into contributing to preserve human rights.

orks cited:

1. Forsythe D.P.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Forsythe D.P. (2004). 3 U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights in an Era of Insecurity," Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy, ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering. New York: Routledge.

2. Ignatieff M. Appiah K.A. Gutmann a. (2003). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton University Press.

3. Ramcharan B. (2005). A UN High Commissioner in Defence of Human Rights: "No License to Kill or Torture." Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
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Art Now What Is Art

Words: 1440 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12476282

For example, most (if not all) of the ancient Greek and Egyptian pottery that we find in museums was not considered art in its time of creation. They were made as practical pieces that were used for practical purposes. It was later when humans defined the word art that these relics were collected and renamed as art.

Another example of why art is hard to define and why it really depends on the time in history that makes a piece a work of art or not can be seen in the way in which many artists do not achieve success until after their deaths. It can be argued that true artists are often very in tune with what is going on in the culture and very aware of ways in which culture oppresses people or glorifies them. They are sensitive to what is going on in the world and perhaps…… [Read More]


Billio, Bruno. (2011). About. Bruno Billio. Accessed on 11 December 2011:
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John Adams & Philip Glass Defining Modern

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58942148

John Adams & Philip Glass: Defining modern music

The 20th century has certainly seen two of the most genius composers of modern classical music: John Adams and Philip Glass. Both composers are innovators and have gone where other composers never would've gone first. Their music is unique, sometime simple but sometime overwhelming, providing the listener with new sounds and new rhythms that only a highly intelligent musical mind could have brought together on a piece. The following will shed the light on the life and work of American composers John Adams and Philip Glass, all the while providing insight on certain pieces of music that have marked their careers.

John Adams

Originally from Massachusetts, John Adams is born on February 15th, 1947. His first instrument was the clarinet -- he was taught to play by his father and later on studied the instrument with Felix Viscuglia, from the Boston Symphony…… [Read More]


Einstein on the Beach: Glass: Einstein on the Beach (1993 Recording)

Hallelujah Junction: Hallelujah Junction: A Nonesuch Retrospective (2008 Recording)

Metamorphosis: Philip Glass: Solo Piano (1989 Recording)

Tromba Lontana: John Adams: Tromba Lontana; Violin Concerto; The Wound-Dresser (2002 Recording)
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Modernism in Art Triumphed From the 19th

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85593257

Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…… [Read More]


Dali, Salvador. "The Persistence of Memory." Wikipaintings. Web. 14 Feb 2013.

Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Web. 14 Feb 2013.

Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,

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Art History Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out

Words: 1976 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51221720

Art History

Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out is a painting done in oil and magna on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. (Magna is a plastic painting product made of permanent pigment ground in acrylic resen with solvents and plasticizer. This material mixes with turpentine and mineral spirits and dries rapidly with a mat finish) ( in 1978, this work is 85 inches in heighth and 70 inches in width, 218.4 cm by 177.8 cm. This work of art, accession number 1980,420, is located at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (5th Avenue and 82nd Street). It was purchased in 1980 as a Lila Acheson Wallace Gift with additional funding through the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, the Arthur Lejwa Fund, in honor of Jean Arp; the ernhill Fund, the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Inc., the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc., and gifts fromWalter areiss, Marie annon McHenry, Louise Smith, and…… [Read More]


Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. 2nd Edition. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2000.

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Post World War II Art

Words: 2450 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79520631

Artists Since 1945

hat are the influences and events that caused Abstract Expressionism to develop? hat are the two modes of Abstract Expressionism? Compare and contrast these two modes and specially discuss the work of two artists from each mode. Share why you chose these four artist.

During and after orld ar II, artistic expression was destroyed in Europe. This is because, the onslaught of the Nazis created an environment of persecution. In some cases, these activities were based upon artists using their expressionism as a form of criticisms and social critiques. hile at other times; a host of individuals were persecuted because of their race or nationality. The result is that they fled to locations such as New York to be able to continue with their work. This played a major role in determining how Abstract Expressionism developed by taking a different approach that questioned and challenged the status…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Ellen. After the Rain. Ann Arbor: Proquest, 2007. Print.
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Four Periods in Art History Journey Through Time

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99566474

Art History ime ravel

Our first stop will be the eighteenth century, where we will investigate Neoclassical painting. We will be visiting Sir Joshua Reynolds, as he works on his 1770 oil on canvas "Portrait of a Black Man" -- and we will be asking if the heroic structure of the painting is meant to contain some sort of ideological message, for example asserting the humanity of his subject against the evils of slavery (which was then still common). We should also find out if indeed the portrait is of Dr. Samuel Johnson's servant Francis Barber, as Johnson's progressive attitude in opposing slavery (and his generous treatment of Barber, to whom he left his estate) might explain why this figure is treated heroically in the painting. hen we will visit Jacques-Louis David, as he works on his stark 1793 Neoclassical oil on canvas depiction of "he Death of Marat." We…… [Read More]

The time machine will stop next in the later nineteenth century, when we will investigate some Impressionist painting. Our first stop will be in London in 1875, to interrogate the American painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler about his oil on canvas study "Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket." We will want to interrogate him about the lawsuit that he filed against the art critic John Ruskin, who accused him of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face" with this daring painting. We will also interrogate Whistler as to whether he would consider the painting to be Impressionist or not -- it seems like he may have considered it to be straightforward realism (fading fireworks in the night sky do look like this painting) but chose the obscure subject to illustrate a Wildean idea of art for art's sake. We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style.

In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations of the piece (is it intended to be strongly vaginal? does it relate to her status as a woman artist?) were intentional on her part, or whether she was merely giving free rein to her subconscious as Surrealists frequently attempted. Then we will find Salvador Dali in 1954, as he completes his large and disturbing oil on canvas painting "Young Virgin Auto-Sodomized By The Horns Of Her Own Chastity." We can interrogate Dali as to the meaning of the symbolism of the painting: why would the chastity of a virgin take the form of a rhinoceros horn about to penetrate her own anus? Is Dali suggesting that sexual repression is self-destructive?

Finally in the latter half of the