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Review of Cummins' "Empowering Minority Students"
Jim Cummins, professor at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, considers that the personal and institutional methods of providing instruction to minority students must be redefined to improve their educational performance outcomes. He theorizes that past failures in compensatory and bilingual education has been a result of "bicultural ambivalence" and the current methodology must be reformed to empower minority students by encouraging them to embrace their native language and culture. He believes that this requires improved interactions at three levels: between teacher and student, schools and minority communities, and the cultural groups to the larger society. The framework Cummins proposes to rework the educational institution for the benefit of the minority student involves incorporating the student's language into the school program, encouraging the participation of the minority community with the school, promoting the student's use of language to improve his learning…
empowering minority students with first language different from the language of instruction. The author maintains that despite the development or incorporation of various programs for minority students, it appears that there exists a significant achievement gap between majority and minority students indicating something inherently wrong with the measures adopted so far. The author rejects both the "inadequate exposure" and "linguistic mismatch" arguments because it appears that both have their fair share of merits and demerits. Cummins suggests that we incorporate his theoretical framework in educational programs and instruction methods so minority students can be empowered. His framework consists of four essential steps that he believes "contribute to the extent to which minority students, are empowered or disabled." Cummins suggests adoption of an additive approach rather than a subtractive approach. "Educators who see their role as adding a second language and cultural affiliation to their students' repertoire are likely to empower…
This encouragement and the ability to have opportunities are at the heart of what Conchas (2006) is trying to say.
There are many individuals who are for the tracking system, and many who are against it. They all have their reasons, and while most of them are good ones, both sides cannot always be correct. One case raised in favor of tracking is based on the research information that students who are low achievers or have low abilities often benefit from being in a class where other individuals are of the same ability level. While some opponents argue that this does not allow children who are doing poorly to have meaningful interaction with those that are doing well, the research findings state that children who are doing poorly often improve when they are placed in classes that are designed for remedial students. In other words, they need to be involved…
Chaddock, G.R. (2000). Mixed messages on math as 12th graders falter. Christian Science Monitor. http://csmweb2.emcweb.com/durable/2001/08/03/text/p2s1.html.
Conchas, G. (2006). The Color of Success: Race and High-Achieving Urban Youth. Teacher College Press.
Denevi, E. (2003). Helping White Students and Educators Understand Their Role in a Multicultural Society. National Association of Independent Schools. http://nais.org/pubs/ismag.cfm?file_id=933&ismag _id=1.
Gorman, L. (2003). School style can raise achievement. National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/digest/jul01/w7985.html .
This study has noted that educators are noting better methods to assist these students rather than placing them in special education classes which fail to assist these students in school or across the span of their lifetime endeavors.
Recommendations arising from this review of literature in this study include the recommendation that different methods be utilized in assisting culturally and linguistically diverse students in the school setting. Among these methods are those noted by Knotek (2003) and Craig, Hull, Haggart and Perez-Selle (2000) which involves educators and school counselors assisting in addressing the difficulties faced by these students in the school environment and which may include but are not limited to addressing the needs of students as well as their strengths through strategies of individualized behavior contracts, specialized counseling techniques and culturally appropriate reinforcements that serve to encourage positive behavior on the part of the culturally and linguistically diverse…
Coutinho, M.J. & Oswald, D.P. (1999). Ethnicity and special education research: Identifying questions and methods. Behavioral Disorders, 24, 66-73.
Oswald, D.P., Coutinho, M.J., Best, A.M & Singh, N. (1999). Ethnic representation in special education: The influence of economic demographic variables. Journal of Special Education, 32, 194-196.
Murtagh, Damien (2003) Investigating the Overrepresentation of Ethnic Minorities in Special Education. Graduate Studies. Online available at: www.lynchburg.edu/documents/GraduateStudies/Journal/MurtaghD.doc
U.S. Department of Education. (2000). Twenty-second annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Washington, DC: Author.
Minority Transfers to Four-Year Universities
In California today, over 70% of public school students and 50% of those in community colleges are black and Hispanic and the entire education system suffered greatly because of budget shortfalls in the last three years. Community colleges have an open admissions policy, unlike four-year universities, but also have a high drop-out rate for poor and minority students. According to the UCLA Civil Rights Project, in California, over 70% of minority students in community colleges failed to transfer to four-year universities in six years (Tlatenchi 2012). Most of these students are also low income and from schools that perform poorly at preparing students for university level work, and the education cutbacks have affected them the most, limiting their access to higher education even further. Old affirmative action policies always had the reputation of admitted unqualified students to universities, but new federal rules that still permit…
Tlatenchi, Fredy. "UCLA's Civil Rights Project Reports how Minorities can Transfer to Four-year Universities Quicker." Daily Sundial, March 7th, 2012.
Wong, Linda. "Rule Changes That Could Boost Minority College-Going," January 15, 2012. Think USC.
Minorities in the Field of Library & information science
Crossing the language barrier requires more then moving towards the learning stage. Many of the Native Americans, Asian-Americans and African-Americans may have had the urge to adopt quick learning skills. ALA (American Librarian Association) and many such organizations have provided an identity for the minority librarians, giving them a space to overcome their past struggles, which is why a number of people are being enrolled in this program and enlarging their success rate. Opening new doors to recruit minor graduates in the field of Information Science and giving them an insight of new technologies. hile new graduates seek their opportunity and enroll themselves in the freshmen program and prove their credentials.
Minorities in the Field of Library
There are millions of Native American Indians, African-Americans, Latin
Americans and Asian-American currently residing in the United States, and the number of…
ALA "60.Minority Concerns," last modified on 9 (Dec 2002), Available at http://archive.ala.org/alaorg/policymanual/minority.html
Jones, F. Reinette, African-American Librarians in Kentucky (University of Kentucky). Available at http://www.uky.edu/Subject/aalibky.html
Moritomo, Toyotomi and Nakanishi, Don, Japanese-Americans And Cultural
Continuity: Maintaining Language Through Heritage (Studies in the History of Education), Garland Publishing (March 1997)
There are, for example, many ways for a student to present an understanding of the causes of the U.S. Civil War" (1999, p. 35).
The research showed high stakes standardized testing approaches are becoming increasingly commonplace in the nation's schools, and the outcome of these testing regimens has enormous implications for the students involved, as well as for their teachers and schools. The research also showed that by formulating standards to match these standardized tests, teachers run the risk of "teaching to the test" rather than providing their students with the type of education that is needed in the 21st century. While they are more complex and difficult to administer, the research also showed that portfolios and other assessment techniques such as capstone projects provide a more comprehensive and accurate way to determine how well students are learning and where they may need help.
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized…
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized tests: A teacher's perspective. Childhood Education, 81(4), 242-
Garcia, N. & Fleming, J. (1999). Are standardized tests fair to African-Americans? Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 471-472.
Neill, D.M. (1999). Transforming student assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(1), 34-35.
Sacks, P. (2000). Standardized minds: The high price of America's testing culture and what we can do to change it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Minority Healthcare Issues in the United States
Minority racial and ethnic groups in the United States have long been subject to disparities in access and deliver of healthcare services (Graham & Dietz, 2011). According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, approximately 33% of Americans self-identify themselves as being African-American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific American, or Latino (Minority health, 2013). The Kaiser Family Foundation also emphasizes that, "acial/ethnic background is associated with health status, health insurance coverage, and health care access and quality, with people of color consistently faring poorer on many health outcomes" (Minority health, 2013, para. 2).
Although steps have been taken to address these disparities in healthcare outcomes (Smedley, 2006), there remains a lack of consensus among policymakers concerning optimal courses of action (Minority health, 2013). Moreover, many minority members who live in rural American communities remain underserved by the medical profession (Holley, 2013). According to Holley (2013), "This…
Graham, G.N. & Dietz, D. (2011, November/December). And quality healthcare for all:
Reducing health disparities in America. Aging Today, 32(6), 5.
Holley, K.A. (2013, February 15). Rural minority student engagement with a healthcare pipeline program. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 28(4), 1-3.
Komen, S.G. (2003, May). Minority women are less likely than Caucasian women to get mammograms. Marketing to Women, 16(5), 10.
Many of the students at the school are intelligent, but they do not know how to put that intelligence to good use, because no one has ever taught them that they are capable of doing many things that they may want to do. Since this is the case, the teachers at the school must be given tools that are practical and can be easily incorporated into what they already do, which will help to stimulate the minds of the students that they work with when it comes to teaching them language literacy. While not an easy task, it is a worthwhile one that should be considered. Children are the future of this country and it seems wrong to neglect any of them, regardless of their race, ethnicity, background, language ability, or mental capabilities.
Those that can be educated should be educated, and ways must be found to ensure that this…
The variations in levels of success of the students that the researcher did find were far more likely to be related to the other variables (i.e. emotional status, peer relationships, preparation for the N program, student/teacher relationships and attitudes of co-workers.). In fact the researcher found that all of the students were able to integrate well into the program as well as the social setting of the school, regardless of their minority status.
Those students who did struggle blamed their problems on a lack of emotional support, time management problems other non-race related variables. In addition, both minority and non-minority students experienced feelings of jealousy from their co-workers who were envious of the fact that the student was advancing his or her career. There were also some difficulties found relating to the nursing skills lab, and certain writing assignments, however these did not appear to be racially influenced either.
Henle, S.A. (2007) the barriers encountered and the factors that contribute to the success of the minority and non-minority licensed practical nurses in a two-year associate degree registered nursing program, (Doctoral Dissertation) Dowling College, Oakdale, NY. UMI Number: 3295361
Diversity in employment within community colleges seems higher than that of four-year colleges and universities on the national level. Research indicates community colleges engage more actively in recruiting and retaining more women and minorities than that of four-year colleges. Recent literature (within the last five years) explains some of the steps communities and community colleges have taken to become more inclusive. This shows not only that community colleges are willing to hire more minorities and women, but that there is also a climate more accepting of hiring minorities and women.
Community colleges undertake a variety of tasks for the satisfaction and success of their students. That is why diversity in faculty may help community colleges achieve their goals. In an article by Hughes, the author explains the need for community colleges to adapt strategies to not only recruit diverse faculty, but also retain them. He also states the inherent challenge…
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…
Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/
Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.
Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.
Moreover, if a student asked to be transferred to a mainstream class he or she did not receive approval. Errors in the U.S. school system have made it possible for African-American students to be involved in bilingual classes. So far, nothing seems to be out of the ordinary, but the strange thing is that they've been put to learn alongside Chinese speaking students also involved in bilingual programs. The motive for this is that the only available places that the black students could fill had been in the Chinese bilingual classes. (Chavez & Lyons)
Parents are not willing to accept having their English-speaking children being sent to bilingual classes any more. Students that aren't literate in English or Spanish are being prevented from learning English and from fitting in the American society.
The people that are not fond of bilingual education programs claim that the theory that children have to…
Krashen, Stephen. "Why Bilingual Education?," Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Ericdigests Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-3/bilingual.html
Linda Chavez, and James J. Lyons, "Q: Is Bilingual Education Failing to Help America's Schoolchildren?," Insight on the News 3 June 1996, Questia, 23 Feb. 2009
545). By allowing students to speak in the classroom, rather than lecturing students about how intercultural interactions should take place, students from other cultures can bring their own cultural understandings and conceptions to the forefront, rather than passively receive teaching from a professor, or accept a university party line that their university is diverse. "The discourse of multiculturalism is not the voice of ethnic and racial minorities speaking for themselves. It is, rather, the voice of white middle-class education professionals speaking about 'problem' groups," one academic alleges, but through more open-ended discussion and generating student feedback that allows them to infuse their personal cultural and intercultural experiences into the classroom, a more positive conception of intercultural communication can occur (Olneck, 1990, p. 163).
A university setting can be uniquely beneficial to establishing intercultural dialogue simply because it is designed to have structured listening experiences that are then reinforced by outside…
Banks, James a. (1993, June-July). The canon debate, knowledge construction, and multicultural education. Educational Researcher. 22. 5: 4-14.
Flower, Linda. (2003, September). Talking across difference: Intercultural rhetoric and the search for situated knowledge. College Composition and Communication. 55. 1: 38-68
Hoffman, Diane M. (1996, Autumn). Culture and self in multicultural education: Reflections on discourse, text, and practice American Educational Research Journal. 33 (3): 545-569.
Moreman, Robin (1997, April). Multicultural framework: Transforming curriculum, transforming students. Teaching Sociology. 25(2): 107-119.
Students Will Select a Construct of Interest
My construct of interest is whether there are any prejudice tests that can accurately measure prejudice to races other than Blacks.
Do the currently available standardized tests on prejudice measure prejudice to individuals other than Black people?
Conduct research on other assessments used to measure the same or similar construct,
The Modern acism Scale
According to the SAGE Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination (Dovidio, 2010), the scale of modern racism is popular because of high construct validity and predicting relevant criteria, states critics Sniderman & Tetlock, (1986). Prejudice and politics cause individuals who are not prejudice to appear so since their views are conservative (Sniderman & Tetlock, 1986). One might argue that the MS is outdated (e.g. Kunda, 1999) as well as that it deals exclusively with a specific population (i.e. Black), however this test has been used in recent studies and…
Dovidio, J.F. (2010). Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. SAGE: NY.
Dunton, B.C., & Fazio, R.H. (1997). An Individual Difference Measure of Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions. Personal Social Psychology Bull, 23(3), 316-326.
Gordijn, E.H.,Koomen, W., & Stapel, D.A. (2000) Level of Prejudice in Relation to Knowledge of Cultural Stereotypes, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 150 -- 157.
Kline, P (1999). Handbook of Psychological Testing Psychology Press
Minority Woman as School Principals and Leadership Challenges Faced by Minority Principals
When compared with corporate America, both the public and private American school systems may have more blatant glass ceiling settings because there are very obvious resistance movements towards gender and minority integration into administrative roles such as principals especially for positions in better schools or systems. The numbers do not lie -- consider the fact that women have traditionally comprised the majority of both the public and private school teaching forces yet, the majority of school administrators for these systems continue to be white males. This report therefore aims to discuss the roles of minority women as school principals, the inherent leadership and administrative challenges they may face as minority principals and what may or may not work for them and why.
Although this report happened to use some examples from the California school system to demonstrate some…
Feistritzer, C.E. (1988). Profile of teachers in the U.S.-1990. Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Information.
Shakeshaft, C. (1989). Women in educational administration (updated edition). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sutherland, Billie. (1995). "Recovering illiterates ... 'reconnecting with life' (functional illiteracy)" San Diego Business Journal.
Unknown. (1999). "As California overhauls schools, America watches for lessons" The Christian Science Monitor.
Student Social Identity Development
How and hy Students Develop a Social Identity
hat is meant by Student Development?
Author Nancy J. Evans notes that the phrase "Student Development" too often becomes simply a vague catchphrase that has little application to college students' lives and learning. Student Development embraces the psychosocial, cognitive-structural, and social identity of students in postsecondary settings (Evans, et al., 2009).
In the quest for self-direction, students universally seek a social identity as well as an education that can propel them into meaningful, successful careers.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., and Renn, K.A. (2009). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice.
Introduction to Training Session
Clearly college and university students already have an identity when they enroll in classes, although their more mature individual identity in the social milieu will evolve with time. This training session embraces the question of how and why a…
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., and Renn, K.A. (2009). Student
Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Hanson, C. (2014). In Search of Self: Exploring Student Identity Development: New
Directions for Higher Education, Number 166. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Student Affairs as Both A Field of Study and a Profession
What is Student Affairs?
Tyrell (2014) believes student affairs professionals have a continually expanding and evolving role in community colleges, with recognition of increasingly complex student experiences and with broadening of community colleges' role in the way students are engaged outside of and within formal, institutional settings.
The student affairs domain is an extensive and complex part of college campus operations, covering several departments and involving professionals hailing from a broad range of academic backgrounds. Student learning does not occur only in classrooms; rather, it is interwoven all through students' experiences in college, right from their freshmen days to the time they leave its doors after earning their college diploma. College students are molded by these experiences, conflict management lessons learnt from sharing dorms with fellow students, critical thinking skills perfected through challenging coursework, leadership skills attained through leadership…
Hoffman, J. L., & Bresciani, M. (2012). Identifying What Student Affairs Professionals Value: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Professional Competencies Listed in Job Descriptions. Research & Practice In Assessment, Vol 7, 26-40. Retrieved from http://www.rpajournal.com/
Long, D. (2012). The Foundations of Student Affairs: A Guide to the Profession. In L. J. Wong, Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 1-39). Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries. Retrieved from http://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu
Long, D. (2012). Theories and Models of Student Development. In L. J. Wong, Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 41-55). Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries. Retrieved from
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280
Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.
Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
achievement of African-American students in civilian public schools vs. African-American students in the Depart of Defense (DOD) school system
The methods section of this dissertation provides the rationale for the proposed study based on my hypothesis comparing African-American students in the DOD school system with African-American students in civilian school systems.
It also highlights the key questions that were examined, how the study was conducted and the measuring criteria for analysis. The paper will provide detailed information that should be a sufficient foundation for anyone who wishes to conduct a parallel study.
This portion of the paper will provide an outline of the following:
Purpose - which will define my reason for doing this study
Background Information - will provide information on the level of measurement I have selected, i.e. The SAT scores and information on the Department of Defense (DOD) school system itself
Procedure - outlines the steps that…
Fact Sheet. The National Center for Fair and Open Testing. Cambridge, MA. August 2001.
George A. Clowes. "Defense Dept. Knows How to Operate Good Schools, Too." School Reform News. January 2002.
Defense Department Taps Distance Learning Tools. www.wtonline.com.Volume13, No.22. February
Federal legislation requires students with disabilities to participate in state assessments, partly because such assessments are important components of educational accountability. These assessments are used to classify students according to their educational needs, provide information regarding the progress of students with disabilities, and identify the extent to which students are attaining state academic standards. The large majority of classified students are classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). But classification is highly inconsistent, which should raise concerns about over-, under-, and misclassifying certain types of disabilities. Misclassification can result from failing to identify students with disabilities, from classifying students with disabilities they do not have, and from delaying classifying disabilities in students. Some of this inconsistency is accounted for by teachers and schools (McDonnell, McLaughlin, & Morison, 1997); however, when contrasting state classification data there are striking differences that indicate that state guidelines vary and lead to the…
Data Accountability Center (2009). Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data, table 1-13, https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc6.asp. May, 9, 2011.
Jimerson, S.R., Burns, M.K., & VanDerHeyden, AM. (2007). Response to intervention at school: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. In S.R. Jimerson, M.K. Burns, & A.M. VanDerHeyden, Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Assessment and Intervention. New York: Springer.
Harry B. & Klinger, J.K. (2006). Why are so many minority students in special education?: Understanding race & disability in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
McDonnell, L., McLaughlin, M., & Morison, P. (Eds.). (1997). Educating one and all:
Flexibility in instruction is a principle that uses instructional design to accommodate a wide range of abilities among students. Simple and intuitive instruction is a "straightforward and predictable manner" (Shaw, Scott, and McGuire, 2001) of instruction. Perceptible information instruction is an instruction design principle that ensures all information necessary is effectively communicated. Finally, tolerance for error instruction "anticipates variation in individual student learning pace and requisite skills." (Shaw, Scott, and McGuire, 2001)
STRATEGIES to SUPPORT TEACHING DIVERSE LEARNERS in COLLEGE
Strategies to support teaching diverse learners in college that are inclusive of Hispanic students include the following strategies:
Use technology to assist and aid instruction;
Group students into smaller groups to facilitate discussion and communication among students;
Use summarization, self-questioning, clarification and prediction in classroom instruction;
Keep the instruction simple;
Allow instruction to be flexible;
Use the technique of instructional conversation;
Keep instruction 'equitable;
Use perception in the instructional practice;…
Bermudez, a.B., & Palumbo, D. (1994). Bridging the gap between literacy and technology: Hypermedia as a learning tool for limited English proficient students. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 14, 165-84.
Christian, D. (1995). Two-way bilingual education. In C.L. Montone (Ed.), Teaching linguistically and culturally diverse learners: Effective programs and practices (pp. 8-11). Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Duran, B.J., Dugan, T., & Weffer, R.E. (1997). Increasing teacher effectiveness with language minority students. The High School Journal, 84, 238-46.
Padr n, Y.N., & Waxman, H.C. (1999). Effective instructional practices for English language learners. In H.C. Waxman & H.J. Walberg (Eds.), New directions for teaching practice and research (pp. 171-203). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
It also lists goals and objectives, which are used to measure a student's progress and determine whether the program and placement are appropriate" ("The IEP Cycle," DREF, 2007). Each student's IEP must be developed by a team of people who are knowledgeable and concerned about the student and must be at least reviewed annually. The team may include the child's teacher, the parents, the child, and agency representatives. "If parents disagree with the proposed IEP, they can request a due process hearing and a review from the State educational agency if applicable in that state" ("Guide to Disability Rights Laws," U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2005).
IDEA lists 13 categories under which a student can qualify for special education services, including autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or, language impairment, traumatic brain Injury and visual impairment,…
Guide to Disability Rights Laws." U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (Sept 2005). Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm#anchor65310
The IEP Cycle." DREF: Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.dredf.org/special_education/iep_cycle.shtml
each Group of Students Who Have Never Learned
English before, what would you do during the first three weeks? What would be the characteristics of the things you intended to teach? If your students made mistakes, what would you do? If they refused to talk, what would you do?
First impressions are important in establishing a good relationship between teachers and students. Foreign students often come to the classroom with many fears. (Cary, 2000) herefore, it is very important that the teacher establish a friendly, enthusiastic atmosphere free of any negative vibes. (Samway, 1999) Even though the students are afraid, this can be eased by a friendly smile and pleasant small talk. his is especially important before giving any sort of assessment test, which should be given during the first class of the term as part of class orientation.
During the first three weeks, I would make an effort to…
This shows that a second language learner will have low motivation, high anxiety, and low achievement if he has low self-confidence. I do not have low self-confidence so I would probably be more open to learning Spanish.
Cary, Stephen. Working with Second Language Learners. Heinemann, 2000.
Samway, Katherine. Myths and Realities: Best Practices for Language Minority Students. Heinemann, 1999.
Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.
The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…
Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/assessment/Pres_Rep.pdf
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
Nurse Practitioners and Strategies the Students Can Adopt to Succeed in School
Nursing students worldwide face quite a number of challenges in the course of undertaking their highly engaging and mind-intensive nursing practitioner programs. Non-completion of the practitioner program means that the student is not adequately prepared to practice as a nurse. This paper looks into the various challenges nursing practitioners undergo, and the ways or strategies to overcome them (Curtis, 2013).
Nursing Practitioner Challenges
One of the main challenges identified by nursing students is lack of sufficient money; many of the students reveal that they have to work part time to make ends meet, apart from studying. For some of them, the work means that they cannot attend class, and thus have to extend their programs (Loftin, Newman, Dumas, Gilden, & Bond, 2012).
Lack of Moral and Emotional Support
Lack of moral and emotional support has also…
Curtis, K. (2013). 21st Century challenges faced by nursing faculty in educating for compassionate practice: Embodied interpretation of phenomenological data, Nurse Education Today, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 746-750, ISSN 0260-6917, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.05.007 .
Aiken, L. H., Cheung, R. B., & Olds, D. M. (2009). Education policy initiatives to address the nurse shortage in the United States. Health Affairs, 28(4), w646-w656.
Bellfield, S. (2010). Factors influencing the Advancement of Professional Education of Nurses at a Magnet Hospital (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University).
Clarin, O. A. (2007). Strategies to overcome barriers to effective nurse practitioner and physician collaboration. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 3(8), 538-548.
How Racism and Discrimination Affects ‘Civil Rights’ and Student Rights
Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. It can result in prejudice and discrimination towards people based on their ethnicity and color. Discrimination is the treatment of people in an unfair manner based on their characteristics such as sexual orientation, age, race and gender. Racism is a type of prejudice that most countries fight, do not tolerate and hotly discuss. Countries such as Brazil had once categorized themselves as racial democracies. They allowed people who were racially indifferent to live side-by-side. Such countries are now experiencing the harsh reality of historic and entrenched racism. Some people argue that class and not race is the main cause of social distinction. This is because racism has become illegal officially from forms of overt racism such as abuse on social media and killing of unarmed blacks by police, especially…
Expectations of Advisory Program
Foundation supporting this study design
Explain How Statement Meets the Criteria
Greenlee, B. J. (2010). School advisory council demography: Birds of a feather. Planning and changing, 41(1/2), 3-17
Adolescence is believed to be a stage in which people form their identity as well as develop the skills required for one to be academically successful. Benson &Poliner (2013) state that the failure of schools in involving most students due to their failure to meet 4 fundamental students needs: to love and belong, to enjoy themselves, have freedom and gain power. Thus, advisory programs are important for ensuring every student has a close relationship with a trustworthy adult that they can run to when they are having personal and academic issues (Knowles & Brown, 2000). This research is about advisory programs, how they enhance and analyze the association with academic improvement as well as the positive…
Arnold, J. (1991). The revolution in middle school organization.Momentum, 22(2), 20-25.
Barker, H. B., Basile, C. G., & Olson, F. J. (2005). Teachers as advisors: Fostering active citizens in schools. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 41(4), 167-171.
Beane, J., &Lipka, R. (1987).When kids come first: Enhancing self-esteem. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.
Benson, J., &Poliner, R. E. (2013).Designing advisories.Educational Leardership, 50-55. Retrieved from http://www.educationalleadership
When it comes to children and how well they do (or do not do) in schools, a lot of the invective and scrutiny is directed towards the teachers at the school and the administrators that govern the same. Whether it be parents showing disdain for how well the students are not doing or whether it be national laws such as No Child Left Behind, the teachers seem to shoulder a lot of the blame when students do not perform as expected or desired. However, to just blame the teachers would be unwise because they are only part of equation and some would argue that teachers are not even the biggest part of the equation. While having adept teachers imparting knowledge to students is important, having parents or guardians of those children that are involved and engaged is even more important.
One of the linchpins of student success…
Harji, M. B., Balakrishnan, K., & Letchumanan, K. (2016). SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement
in Young Children's ESL Reading Development. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 1-
Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2017). The relationship between parental
Tokenism: The ole and Experiences of Minority Teachers in Predominantly White Schools
The Problem and Its Setting
The past generation has seen the integration of America's public schools. Such integration has presented challenges and opportunities not only for the Minority students now enrolled in predominantly White schools, but also for the Minority teachers who find themselves assigned to those same schools. While opening up new horizons for many Minority educators, the purposeful placing of Minorities in majority White schools has also raised the issue of tokenism. The question remains as to whether these Minority teachers are being treated equally with their White counterparts, and whether their assignment to mostly White schools is based upon real ability and genuine need, or whether such assignments are merely reflective of well-meaning social policy gone awry. Many capable Minority teachers find themselves to be victims of the same sort of discrimination that…
1. Bush, Laura. (2002). "Troops to Teachers Available to Reserve Components: America Needs You!" URL:
2. Donaldson, K.B. (1996). Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Gibson, Rich. (1992). "Let's Create Schools for Real Change." Partisan Education: Taking Sides in the Schools. Alexandria, Va. 1997: Renaissance Community Press. URL: http://www.pipeline.com/~rgibson/partisan/section2.html.
Education - Theory
Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory
Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.
The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…
Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.
But most people he socialized with were for him members of a secondary group. My friend socialized with them for the purpose of getting used to a new social environment, practice his English, and find new friends. But his relationship with most people in the neighborhood and at school was not based on the kind of social intimacy that characterized his relationship with other Kurdish refugees in the neighborhood. My friend told me often that he was thankful to the United States for welcoming him in this country and that people were generally very friendly. But he also told stories about his school life and some people's treatment which were based on ethnocentrism. Some of his peers looked down upon him because of his foreignness, Kurdish accent while speaking English, and his inability to fully practice dominant American culture. For example, his peers at school sometimes would not allow him…
Minority epresentation in U.S. Politics
On one hand, some have made the argument that the historic election of the nation's first African-American President indicates that we now live in a so-called "post-racial" America. On the other hand, there is a good argument that the election of Barack Obama in 2008 rekindled the antagonism toward minorities in general and African-Americans in particular in those states that were formerly part of the Civil-War-era Confederacy. Immediately after the Obama victory and even before the inauguration of the new President, a contingent of epublican Senators, lead by Kentucky's Mitch McConnell, pledged to make sure that they used their votes in the Senate to block anything the newly-elected President tried to do.
The efforts of those legislators to undermine the presidency of the first black president before he even took office was matched throughout the former Confederate states by a concerted effort by epublican governors…
Bouie, J. "Virginia Republicans move forward with mass disenfranchisement
A Senate subcommittee has recommended a bill to rig the state's electoral vote allocation." The American Prospect (January 23, 2013).
Systems and Success of Students
American higher education is unique in its construction of student body as it is highly diverse today with students from various ethnic, social and racial backgrounds forming an integral part of the college environment. But apart from ethnicity and race, what makes higher education student body even more diverse is the presence of older students, students with disabilities and greater participation of women in educational pursuit. This has given a unique flavor and color to student body in American higher education institutions and hence also rendered it a complex mix of challenges, opportunities and excitement. This complexity also spurred the growth of support units on college campuses that would help students make an easy transition to the college life. With the passage of time, a new department of student affairs or student services emerged to handle all problems, opportunities and challenges related to a student's…
Biscaro, M. (2004, December). Self-efficacy, alcohol expectancy and problem solving appraisal as predictors of alcohol use in college students. College Student Journal, 38 (4), 541 -- 551.
Fisher, S. (1992). From margin to mainstream: the social progress of Black Americans (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield.
Luquis, R.R., Garcia, E., & Ashford, D. (2003, Spring/Summer). A qualitative assessment of college students' perceptions of health behaviors. American Journal of Health Studies, 18 (2/3), 156 -- 164.
National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. (1989).
The study used student projects as the main vehicle for integrating active learning methods into the lecture. The study took place during a 10-week class, with four projects being assigned to groups of size four to six. Projects centered on (1) statistical tests of goodness-of-fit; (2) design of a simple experiment and analysis of variance using two factors; (3) factorial design experiment and analysis; and (4) regression analysis. In each project, there was emphasis placed on the purposefulness of the experiment, the design, and the ensuing collection of data. Each project lasted about two weeks, including around 90 minutes of in-class work used for project instruction, questions, and discussion. A primary weakness of the research was insufficient time in which to conduct classroom presentations by the students themselves concerning their projects and the learning processes that took place.
Extent to Which Findings Can Be Generalized to Student Population. While the…
Heron, Alison H. (2003). A Study of Agency: Multiple Constructions of Choice and Decision
Making in an Inquiry-Based Summer School Program for Struggling Readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(7), 568.
Kvam, P.H. (2000). The Effect of Active Learning Methods on Student Retention in Engineering Statistics. The American Statistician, 54(2), 136.
Lewis, V.K. & Shaha, S.H. (Spring 2003). Maximizing learning and attitudinal gains through integrated curricula. Education, 123(3), 537.
The student is a 29-year-old French speaking accountant whose employer is sponsoring him to come to the UK for a four-week intensive English course.
This student should be able to deliver dynamic presentations, about twenty to thirty minutes in length, and engage in discussions about accounting and business practices. He should also be able to attend to lengthy presentations and phone calls on the same subjects. He will need to read and write quick emails, professional memos, and formal reports. In addition to what is specifically related to the fields of business and accounting, he will need a good handle on the vocabulary of Information Technology in the inevitable event that something goes wrong with his computer, the email server, his slideshow, etc.
The student currently demonstrates an adequate mastery of basic interpersonal communications skills to make new acquaintances using greetings, questions about the…
Lauren Background: A Case Study
The rights and wrongs of the general and/or special education teacher and esponsiveness to Intervention (TI) is demonstrated in case studies, which can be effective tools for learning. Interventions that address the development of students can be a delicate process because of the many different factors, both external and internal (from social to economic environment to biological/psychological disabilities) that need to be considered before the right intervention can be performed. This paper will use the case study of Lauren Background in order to better understand how interventions can help and/or hurt a student's progress.
Lauren is a young student, 10 years old and in the 3rd grade, whose reading level has consistently declined over the past year. In 2004, her reading level using the Idaho eading Indicator was at or near grade level. Four months later at the start of 2005 and midway through the…
Farmer, T. W., Price, L. N., O'Neal, K.,K., Man-Chi Leung, Goforth, J. B., Cairns, B. D., &Reese, L. E. (2004). Exploring risk in early adolescent African-American youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(1-2): 51-9.
Goldstein, D. (2014). The Teacher Wars: A History of Americas Most Embattled
Profession. New York: Doubleday
Hawkins, B. (2010). Economic Recession, College Athletics, and Issues of Diversity and Inclusion: When White America Sneezes, Black America Catches Pneumonia. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 3(1): 96-100.
Does Having a New Black President
Make it Easier for Minorities to Advance to Leadership Roles in Business?
"Excuse me, sir. I'm looking for the Color Line. ould you know where I can find it?" (Miller)
The United States has made great strides in regard to minority relations by electing its first black president. By today's standard, minority entails many different things such as classifying by nationality, race, religious preference, physical disability, gender or sexual preference. Throughout history, there have been many great leaders who came from their respective minority groups. For example, few people are aware of the fact that the Roman Empire had black emperors and even less know that one of them, Septimius Severus, through his legislative changes to military pay scales and community control laws, may not only have been the greatest black emperor, he may actually have been the most influential Roman emperor…
Works Cited, cont.
Rawls, John (1955). "Two Concepts of Rules." The Philosophical Review. Vol. 64, pp. 3-13.
Smith, Virginia Whatley. (1995). "Minorstreaming: Resolving Problems of the Color Line in the 21st." Black Issues In Higher Education 15 June.
Toronto Star. (2009). "Good News On Diversity." Toronto Star (Canada). Section: Editorial, pg. A26, 03190781, November 17, 2009.
U.S. Small Business Administration. (1999). "Minorities In Business." Retrieved on November 20, 2009 from http://www.sba.gov/ADVO/stats/min.pdf .
African-Americans males currently comprise half of the prison inmate population in the U.S., Hispanic youths (18-34) adding another twenty percent to that number.
Unfortunately, many of these inmates are in prison for random or gang-related violence, often between members of the Latino and African-American community. Recently, and especially in California, the number of hate crimes between the Hispanic and African-American communities has been on the rise.
For instance, in early October 2009, Madison WI, a 51-year-old Hispanic man was attacked and mugged by four young black males, in what was a continuing pattern of violent crimes against Hispanics in the area.
In the weeks leading up to this attack, the Madison police had received several reports of groups of young black men attacking and mugging their Latino neighbors.
Part of this racial tension comes from a right of ownership, and the need to assert one's community and culture into a…
BILL NOVAK. (2009, October 1). HISPANIC MAN MUGGED by FOUR YOUNG BLACK MEN. Madison Capital Times, WEB. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 1870939341).
CHUCK RAASCH. (18 November). Obama's challenges are personal, too. Gannett News Service,***[insert pages]***. Retrieved December 3, 2010, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 2192583121).
Edmund Tijerina. (2007, March 22). UN POQUITO DE TODO; Latino like me: Obama's experience offers lessons in our culture: [CONEXION Edition]. Conexion, p. 7A. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 1243838071).
Minority Culture in South Dakota
Lifestyles, Values and the Economy of Hispanic-Americans and Indian-Americans in South Dakota
The history of the minority groups in the U.S.A. dates back to historical times in the 1800 and their growth has been somehow stable in USA. It is undisputable that the treatment of the minority groups and the Native Americans and the African-Americans ran out of the borders of the tolerance and freedom. It is however notable that the U.S.A. has all through welcomed huge numbers of diverse immigrants and accommodated them as any other born American. It is no longer viable to ignore the issue of the minority groups in each state since even at the national grid, as U.S. Department of State (2006) indicates, the minority groups have played a significant part in all sectors. For instance Hispanics accounted for nearly half of the U.S.A. population increase between July 1, 2004…
Ann W.C. & Ruben D.N., (2011). Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Retrieved May 22,
2011 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5237.html
Bloomberg L.P., (2011). South Dakota Grows as Minority Population Surges, Census Finds.
Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-17/south-dakota-grows-as-minority-population-surges-census-finds.html
Minority Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…
Student Satisfaction and Diversity
The study is devised to grasp the relationship between student satisfaction in the diverse cultural and faculty patterns. The ultimate goal of all the contemporary societies of the world is to maintain and promote gender equality. Human race has always suffered dramatically whenever it has tried to stigmatize either of the two genders. But yet many under developed and third world countries are still not able to understand the importance of gender equality and the synergy this process yields. Cultivating, raising, and promoting gender equality is a global agenda, and gender mainstreaming is one out of many techniques that have been devised to promote gender equality at all levels. Education as a matter of subtle reality is the core competency that defines the knowledge, skill and abilities of an individual are therefore reported to have a lifelong impact on the life of an individual. Therefore satisfaction…
Arbaugh, J.B. (2001). How Instructor Immediacy Behaviors Affect Student Satisfaction and Learning in Web-Based Courses. Business Communication Quarterly, 64(4), 42+. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from Questia database:
Student Affairs Professionals
What, in your view, should the purpose of higher education entail?
Degree-granting institutes are expected to make sure that college-goers develop both generic dispositions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, curiosity, etc.) and skills (communication, oral, written, compassion, tolerance, etc.), and discipline-specific abilities (e.g., knowledge, skills, attribute, responsibility, etc.) on completing their college degree. Existing research indicates that receiving higher education doesn't only entail acquiring discipline-specific education or applied competences. ather, affective and socio-emotional skills (non-cognitive factors), which make a graduate an effective citizen, also constitute valuable outcomes for career readiness and college success (Chan, Brown, Ludlow, & Noguera, 2015).
I believe that higher education's chief purpose is, and ought to be, the development of prepared young minds. Higher education, specifically, and education, in general, have numerous purposes, of which one among the most crucial is promotion of citizenship. By surveying the present-day political scene, I feel that the…
Astin, A. (1968). The college environment. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Chan, R. Y., Brown, G. T., Ludlow, L. H., & Noguera, J. J. (2015, August 7). The Public and Civic Purpose of Higher Education: Exploring the "Non-Economic" Benefits for Completeing a College Degree. Retrieved from Academia: https://www.academia.edu/2626994/What_is_the_purpose_of_higher_education_Comparing_student_and_institutional_perspectives_for_completing_a_bachelor_s_degree_in_the_21st_century
Delaney, J. T. (2013, October 20). The Ideal Student. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from http://www.katz.pitt.edu/deanblog/?p=193
Dungy, G. J. (2009). Re-inventing Student Affairs: The Search for Mission in Changing Times. Journal of College and Character, 10(5).
Majority and Minority Governments
Is a Majority Government Better or Worse than a Minority Government for Canada?
The minorities of Canada function in a very different way than the minority governments of Europe and other countries (Cowdy 2008). The purpose of writing this paper is to find out if majority government is better or worse than a minority government of Canada. Before going in detail, it is important to know that in Canadian Parliamentary system, the party with the majority of the seats forms the majority government. However, when none of the party has majority seats than a minority government is formed by the party that wins half or less than half seats.
The majority government formed is obviously powerful and has ability to bring big changes. Contrary to this, a minority government works hard to maintain the confidence of the legislative assembly in order to stay in power and…
Accountability Measures. (1975). Report of the Independent Review Committee on the Office of the Auditor General of Canada. Report of the Secretary General, Ottawa: Information Canada.
Cody, Howard. (2008). "Minority Government in Canada: The Stephen Harper Experience." American Review of Canadian Studies 38.1 (2008): 27+. Questia. Web. 26 June 2012
Forsey, Eugene. (1964). 'The Problem of "Minority" Government in Canada,' The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 30, 1: 1-11.
Francois, Jean and Hoyland, Bjorn. (2009). Voting Coalitions and Minority Governments in Canada. American Political Science Association Meeting Toronto, September 5.
Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:
Reducing The Barriers
There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…
Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf
Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
Its main goals are to examine and evaluate the main areas requiring improvements. The technology transfer programs are the key information sources, which enables the veteran access the latest technologies that can lead to improvement of their livelihood standards. The veteran association other goal is to ensure automated and web-enabled activities. This will enable the association allow online submission of ids rather than uploads from emails hence reducing the usage of papers.
According to 2000 census, 12% of the U.S. population is African-American. This figure may be even less because there are some homeless and incarcerated who are not inclusive in the census report. The Africa American veterans mostly affected by depression though most of them believe is a personal weakness. They represent among the veterans who served in the homeless programs making about 11.4%of the veteran population. These veterans make up 35.1%of the homeless veteran population and 18.9%of the…
USDVA, (2013). U.S. Department of Veteran affairs.
Retrieved from http://www.northflorida.va.gov/services/homeless/
Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development of Office Technology
Transfer Retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/tpo/publications/upload/VA-Tech-Transfer-Plan.pdf
Student Support Services
Education is a critically important aspect of survival in our society. Educators have long sought out ways to improve the post-secondary educational experiences of students. Many educators feel that first generation students in particular are at a disadvantage when entering college. To address student needs the federal government has created the Student Support Services SSS Program.
The purpose of this discussion is to analyze the impact and effectiveness of the Student Support Services Program. We will pay close attention to the effectiveness of the mentorship programs that are provided by the SSS program. In addition, we will explain both the negative and positive impacts of SSS programs at various Universities across the country.
Before we can understand the impact and effectiveness of the program, we must understand the purpose of the program and how it came about.
The Student Support Services Program
The Student Support Services Program…
Barnhardt, C. (1994). Life on the Other Side: Native Student Survival in a University World. PJE. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(2), 115-139.
Byars-Winston, A., Estrada, Y., Howard, C., Davis, D., & Zalapa, J. (2010). Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), doi:10.1037/a0018608
• This article explores how both social cognitive and ethnic variables can play a part in determining the academic goals of people and groups that are "under-represented" within the academic sphere. The groups centered on this study include Africa-Americans, Latinos, Southeast Asians and Native Americans. There were 223 people in the study and the study itself was centered on what is known as the social cognitive theory, as proposed and discussed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994. There was a significant relationship found between outcome expectations, interests and goals. Self-efficacy and efficacy-mediated relationships were also in play. One area that is touched upon with fervor in this study is…
Pantages and Ceedon (1978) have epoted that the geatest attition ate occus among fist-yea students, and this goup is not vey likely to etun to college at a late date. Even if they do dop out, the longe a student pesists in a univesity o college setting the moe likely it is that they will peceive attaining a degee as beneficial (Tinto, 1975). Additionally, etention studies have emphasized that social and academic integation at the school is a majo facto in etention (Pascaella and Chapman, 1983). Attaining this integation is ove a challenge fo the non-taditional student, as they often commute to campus and ae not aound the college setting duing the off hous when many social activities take place. Muguia, Padilla, and Pavel (1991) discoveed that students in minoity ethnic goups often had access to this social integation though goups, clubs and enclaves on campus aimed at thei specific…
references toward Internet-based learning environments. British Journal of Education Technology, 36(1), 97-100
Villella, E.F., & Hu, M. (1991). A factor analysis of variables affecting the retention decision of nontraditional college students. NASPA Journal, 28(4), 334-341.
Transitioning and Student Wellbeing
Integration, Wellbeing, and Success of Transitioning of Students Background
Migration is a common phenomenon for many families around the globe. When a family moves, children often face the challenges of adapting to the behavior, culture, and requirements of the new school (Heinlein & Shinn, 2000). Significant evidence shows that the effects of moving affect students and teachers moving to a new school more than it does for the receiving students and teachers. However, those affected by changes in the learning environment are more resilient and can adapt easily to the new environment than their parents and teachers. The influence of mobility on the performance of the students has been an area of focus with a history that dates back to the beginning of World War II.
Significant evidence shows conflicting results on the effect mobility have on the performance of students, with some postulating it reduces…
Franke, T.M., & Hartman, C. (2003). Student mobility: how some children get left behind. The Journal of Negro Education, 72(1), 1-5.
Gruman, DH, Harachi, T.W., Abbott, R.D., Catalano, R.F., & Fleming, C.B. (2008). Longitudinal effects of student mobility on three dimensions of elementary school engagement. Child Development, 79(6), 1833-1852
Hattie, J. (2009) Making learning visible: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-analyses Relating to Achievement. London: Routledge
Heinlein, L.M., & Shinn, M. (2000). School mobility and student achievement in an urban setting. Psychology in the Schools, 37(4), 349-357.
Asking for help is discouraged through such a model. So is bringing in personal experience in an unauthorized fashion. By dispensing and withdrawing praise, the new self is shaped. But this sense of independence is 'felt' more than 'reality.'
The attempt at objective judgments seeps through -- IQ tests, grades, all require certain practices. Of course, some professors deviate from this formula, and may require portfolios or independent research in defiance of such conventions. But most methods of assessment suggest a certain kind of intelligence is required to succeed in university, and by implication, succeed in life. Most universities do not reward musical intelligence, kinesthetic intelligence, and even spatial intelligence to the degree they do quantitative ability and verbal ability. Even before entering the university, through secondary school and the admissions process, students likely feel pigeonholed and 'tracked.' Failing to succeed is equated with being a failure in life in…
g. culture shock, potential solutions and/or considerations to better overcome potential negative consequences are examined during the proposed literature review.
Research Questions to Guide Exploration
The research questions proposed for this study, presented in the previous chapter will help ensure sources remain in tune with proposed aims and objectives.
1. hat challenges/scrutinizes currently confront Middle Eastern Students attending George Mason University, located in the heart of Northern
2. How did 911 impact policies related to Arabian students?
3. Do Arabian students and/or the U.S. gain any intrinsic value(s) from time invested to study in the U.S.
Along with answering these research questions, additional consideration will be invested in culture shock, George Mason University; U.S. government policies following the 911 disaster; positive counters to culture shock and other relevant current concerns.
2.2: In the U.S.A.
U.S. Government Policies Following the 911 Disaster
George Mason University actively promotes positive cultural interactions.…
Arensberg, Conrad M. (1964). Introducing Social Change. Aldine Publishing Company. Chicago, IL
Campus Blues. Campus Center. (2001) Some Facts Psychologists Know About Foreign Student' Adjustments. Retrieved (7/16/02) at http://www.campusblues.com
CNN Law Center. (May 2002). INS Aims to Better Track Foreign Students in the U.S. Retrieved (7/19/02) at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/ins.students
Cushner, Kenneth. (1996) Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide.
The author of the article, "Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School" (Stits, 2001) related that "prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in districts where expectations were limited to keeping the students in school as much as possible," and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students "away from the traditional high school campus." The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the "good students" in the regular high school.
But eventually, the image of continuations schools in California changed, as communities more and more were trying to prevent school dropouts, and the need for a high school diploma became more important, as well, Stits writes.
HO DO CONTINUATION SCHOOLS OPERATE?
In an article in the journal Thrust…
Arlington Public Schools. (2005). Alternative Education: Purpose, Mission, Beliefs. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2007, at http://www.apsva.us/hsc .
Community College Week. (2004). R.I. Plan Would Help at-risk Students.
Hardy, Lawrence. (2007). Children at Risk: Graduation Day. American School Board Journal,
No. 37907. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2007, at http://www.asbj.com .
etention of International Students
The value of a college education is continually stressed today as an essential component of success in life. However, merely encouraging students to attend college is not enough: measures of student retention are far more critical in assessing the success of an academic program. Universities in Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom have all had trouble retaining students, particularly from historically underrepresented groups (Lau 2003). The consequences of low retention rates are not simply grave for the individual, but also for society, given the advantages a professional degree can convey. For example, in the profession of engineering, from "1983 and 2002, the percentage of women among bachelor degree recipients went from 13.3% to only 20.9% . In addition, the retention rates for female engineering students are substantially lower than their male counterparts" (Franchetti, avn & Kuntz 2010). A lack of female and minority representation…
Franchetti, M., Ravn, T., & Kuntz, V. (2010). Retention and recruitment programs for female undergraduate students in engineering at The University of Toledo, Ohio, USA.
Journal of STEM Education, 11: 5&6. Retrieved from www.summon.serialssolutions.com
Lau, L.K. (2003). Institutional factors affecting student retention. Education, 124(), 126-136.
Retrieved from summon.serialssolutions.com
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
This is very clear from the consistently over 50% level of activity for cardio training for example. It is noteworthy this is the first time activity levels across the respondent base have stayed over 50% for any factor. This leads to the conclusion that the greater the concentration on a given area or specialized fitness program the greater the commitment over time.
The fourth question is which type of activity is least likely to lead to a high level of commitment on the part of respondents. Previous analysis indicates that the more specialized the activity the greater the long-term commitment. The contrarian view is supported through nonparametric correlation analysis of the activities measured in the response. When aerobics and basketball are combined by the same respondent there is a very high negative correlation of -.306, significant at the .01 level of confidence.
The fifth question is whether respondents participate in…
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
This could hurt the ability of educators to evolve with new difficulties. At the same time, it is illustrating the benefits that this can provide inside the classroom. (Lee, 2008)
Key Elements: Select 2 key ideas from the article and consider how you can effectively connect them to your research question.
Two key ideas from the article include: using technology to speak to students in a format they understand and utilizing key phrases / words during the discussion. The way these insights are connected to the research question is they provide tools and techniques for improving diversity on the middle school level. This helps these institutions to more effectively accommodate a wide variety of students from contrasting backgrounds. (Lee, 2008)
eflection: Explain various ways that you could incorporate the learning theory expressed in the article into your teaching methods. Also, explain how the theory demonstrates Christian principles in teaching.
Lee, O. (2008). Science Curriculum and Student Diversity. The Elementary School Journal, 109 (2), 123 -- 137.