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The MMPI-2 reports on 10 different clinical scales. Generally, people will be coded based on their two highest single scales. Scale 1 measures hypochondriasis and assess concern over bodily functions. Scale 2 measures depression. Scale 3 measures hysteria. Scale 4 measures psychopathic deviance, which is actually a measure of social deviance and obedience to authority. Scale 5 is labeled masculinity and femininity. Scale 6 measure paranoia. Scale 7 is labeled psychasthenia and measures obsessive/compulsive behavior. Scale 8 is labeled schizophrenia, seems related to reality testing, and is difficult to interpret. Scale 9 is labeled hypomania. Scale 0 measures introversion/extroversion.
The major interpretive implications that must be considered when assessing the results of the MMPI-2 are age, culture, intellectual level, education, and level of functioning. In addition, one must consider the reason that the person is taking the MMPI-2. The test-taker's attitude can impact test results and impact the interpretation of…… [Read More]
Instrument review: MMPI-2
Balducci, C., Alfano, V., & Fraccaroli, F. (2009). elationships between mobbing at work and MMPI-2 personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior. Violence and Victims, 24(1), 52-67. etrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208557482?accountid=10901
The article "elationships between mobbing at work and the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventor (MMPI-2) personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior" examines 'mobbing' or bullying at work and the relationship of mobbing to workers' personality profiles, as measured on the MMPI-2. One controversial question surrounding the phenomenon is the degree to which the victim's measured personality traits are the consequence of victimization or the cause. Traditionally, victims have been said to manifest a personality profile typical of a victim of PTSD (such as flashbacks, social withdrawal, nightmares) and thus their symptoms and scores on personality test were seen caused by the mobbing. Previous studies suggested that mobbing caused PTSD in…… [Read More]
Each scale is intended to forecast what a person will say or do under defined conditions, and to identify individuals who will be described in characteristic ways by others who know them well or who observe their behavior in particular contexts. The scales are set up for convenience into four broad categories, bringing together those having related implications. The underlying logic of the categories is interpretational, not factorial. The four categories are not necessarily intended to constitute psychometric entities (California Psychological Inventory Scales, 2009).
The items on the inventory produce scores for 18 different scales, which are divided into four classes. These classes include: measures of poise, ascendancy, self-assurance and inter-personal adequacy; measures of socialization, responsibility, intra-personal values, and character; measures of achievement potential and intellectual efficiency; and measures of intellectual and interest modes (California Psychological Inventory Scales, 2009).
These two tests are very different in what they are used…… [Read More]
Individuals scoring high on this scale are preoccupied about their health, tend to exaggerate symptoms, and are considered to be demanding and immature. Scoring high on this scale is associated with complaints of chronic pain, fatigue and weakness. Individuals scoring low on this scale are held to be: "Healthy, insightful, and optimistic" (MMPI, nd)
Scale Two - Depression: This scale is used for assessing symptomatic depression exhibited as poor morale, no hope for the future and life dissatisfaction. Elevated scores on this scale may mean clinical depression while moderate scores are indicative of an individual with a life that is characterized by poor self-worth and a lack of involvement. (MMPI, nd)
Scale Three - Hysteria: This scale is used for identifying patients who have reacted hysterically to stress. The individual scores on this scale are related to "intellectual ability, educational background and social class." (MMPI, nd) Women and better educated…… [Read More]
In fact, it is important to understand that the MMPI-2 must be administered as a whole and that one cannot consider scores on any one area of the test in isolation from a subject's other results.
Moreover, it is important to recognize that while the scales may carry official names, they do not only measure the suggested disease. For example, the schizophrenia scale appears to measure the degree of alienation that a subject feels from society at large, a number that is going to vary depending on one's role in society. For example, one would expect a healthy minority member to have a higher score of on the schizophrenia scale because minorities are generally more disenfranchised from society at large. Therefore, the tool cannot be properly utilized if the testing clinician is lacking basic facts about the subject being tested.
Moreover, these scales test for a variety of different disorders.…… [Read More]
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)
The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.
The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)
Cost of the Test
According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)
Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test
Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…… [Read More]
Intellectual Testing: The client produced a Full Scale IQ score in the Average ange of intellectual functioning (FSIQ = 102). The results indicate that his Full Scale IQ score is at the 55th percentile compared to his peers (Wechsler, 1997). The client also produced a significant discrepancy on measures of his verbal and nonverbal intellectual skills in favor of his verbal abilities, although both were in the Average ange (Verbal IQ = 111; Performance IQ = 90). Further inspection of his pattern of results on the index scores indicates that the overall pattern of differences between his Verbal IQ and Performance IQ is not due to a significant difference in his verbal and nonverbal intellectual abilities, but to other issues.
First, the client produced equivalent performances on purer measures of his true verbal and nonverbal intellectual abilities (Verbal Comprehension Index = 109; Perceptual Organization…… [Read More]
Psychopathic Deviant Scale
This individual produced a valid MMPI-II profile with overt attempts to present as being overly virtuous, defensive, or a deviant or an attempt to exaggerate their perceived problems. Individuals with similar scores on the validity scales approach the test in a valid manner but sometimes may display political, social, or religious convictions that could be considered out of the ordinary (Hogan, 2015). The pattern displayed on the validity scales also suggests that these individuals are accurately reporting psychological problems.
Individuals with similar profiles on the clinical scales tend to be anxious and be perceived as high strung or tense. They are often viewed as chronic worriers and these individuals may often ruminate or worry excessively regarding both real and…… [Read More]
The MMPI-2 has been used successfully to detect feigning in neurological and psychiatric control groups (Klein, 2007). As a result, the MMPI-2 is the most frequently used test in forensic psychological testing. There is, however, still substantial "debate which of the four subscales is most useful for identifying malingering" (Klein, 2007). However, one of the MMPI-2's lingering problems is that it is a test where people can incorporate coaching, so that it is somewhat vulnerable to coaching.
The issue of coaching is critical in the forensics environment. This is because the goal of forensic psychology is to use neuropsychological assessment methods to help in some type of legal proceedings. These proceedings can be civil or criminal proceedings. In both civil and criminal environments, the need for accurate diagnosis can be critical to outcomes for the person being tested and for people being impacted by their testing. Moreover, it can be…… [Read More]
Furthermore, they can be potentially inflammatory for the group. The practitioner has to be careful to approach this type of interview differently than he would in an one-on-one interview; instead, at all times the practitioner must be aware of how group dynamics will impact the interview.
MMPI-2 Interpretation of the Profile for Validity and Clinical Scales and the Harris-Lingoes and Si Subscales Score Record
For this administration of the MMPI-2, the protocol appears to be valid. Her VRIN scale core of 66 and TRIN scale score of 58 suggest that she was consistent in her responses. Consistency in responses offers several indications about the test. First, it shows that she could read and comprehend the test items. It demonstrates that she was attentive and non-random in her answering. Therefore, it shows that the test was valid.
It is important to keep in mind that valid does not necessarily mean honest.…… [Read More]
In many instances, the structure of the test can be said to have an alienating impact on respondents as well. To the point, research by Butcher & Hostetler (1990) denotes that "some past objection to the MMPI's length came in part from the frustration that some patients may have felt about the item redundancy (16 items were repeated) or the perceived irrelevant item content." (Butcher & Hostetler, 16) These perceptions may also have contributed to negative performance indices, suggesting that there is an essential need for refinement of such personality testing methods to ensure their universality to the needs of all competent respondents.
Amstrong, D. (2008). Malingerer Test Roils Personal-Injury Law. The all Street Journal.
Butcher, J.N. & Hostetler, K. (1990). Abbreviating MMPI Item Adminstration. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2(1). 12-21.
Butcher, J.N. et al. (2006). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolscent. Pearson. Online at…… [Read More]
Forensic Psychological Evaluation
Confidential Psychological Evaluation
Gender: Male Date of Report: 05/07/2012
Date of Birth: 10/01/1981 Age
Marital Status: Single Occupation: Unemployed
Race: Caucasian Education: GED
Referred by: Dr., B. Wynter
REASON FOR REFERRAL:
A Psychiatric Evaluation on May 19, 2006 by Barbara Wynter, License psychologist who is
Clinical administrator of Central Treatment Facility ward 1, 2, 3, was requested to further assist in diagnosis.
LIMITS OF CONFIDENTIALITY:
DR, B. Wynters
MMPI (Spell out the name Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
Is a depressive component of scale 6. The items connote extraordinary emotional sensitivity or vulnerability that is dysphonic in tone. These items have a "poor little me" flavor, portraying the self as meek and innocuous, emotionally fragile, incapable of being a threat to others, and perhaps as being entitle to special concern and consideration for one's tender sensibilities. There is an implicit theme of resentment…… [Read More]
1). One potential criticism of the MMPI-2 is that although it is only supposed to be scored by a trained professional, the multiple choice "objective" format can lead to cursory diagnosis and analysis.
hile the MMPI-2 is used on many different types of patients, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) "is a series of questions developed to measure the intensity, severity, and depth of depression in patients with psychiatric diagnoses" (BDI, 2009). It is specific to a singular category of diagnosis (depressive illnesses) and is only use on patients with psychological disorders. It consists of 21 questions or items, each with four possible responses on the subjects of depressed mood, pessimism, sense of failure, feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, desire for self-punishment, self-dislike or self-hared, self-blame, suicidal ideation, frequency of crying, feelings of irritability, social withdrawal, distorted body image, work difficulties, insomnia, fatigue, appetite, weight changes, bodily preoccupation, and sexual desire (BDI,…… [Read More]
deductive and empirical strategies used in the construction of structured personality instruments, it is important to denote just what the terms deductive and empirical mean and how they relate to tests specific to psychological purposes. Empirical evidence is that which can be demonstrated or proven, and which ultimately exists in the world. Deductive reasoning is a form of logic wherein individuals establish a basic premise or truth, combine it with others for which there is empirical evidence to validate, and then draw conclusions. This type of reasoning determines conclusions based on a top-down approach to reasoning. These respective strategies, then, which frequently are applied in congruence with one another, are highly important for the makeup of structured personality tests. One may even posit the viewpoint that without such strategies, the results of personality instruments would be virtually useless or inconclusive at best.
Define and Describe Deductive
Therefore, when examining the…… [Read More]
cultural bias and/or culturally appropriate interventions.
Burnett, J.A., Hamel, D., & Long, L.L. (2004). Service learning in graduate counselor education: Developing multicultural counseling competency. Journal of Multicultural
Counseling and Development, 32(3), 180-191.
Even the most enthusiastic counseling students are initially limited by their cultural worldview. This article examines ways to enhance the education of graduate students in the field with service-based learning. Service learning integrates classroom learning with community service. The approach merges academic concepts with real-world, hands-on experience early on in the students' career to show the link between theory and practice. Everyone benefits: the student, the persons receiving the service, and the clients of the eventual graduates. The article involves a qualitative study of a single group of students who volunteered at four service agencies serving African-American low-income communities. Although assessing the ultimate effect on the students' practice was not conclusive (the study was not longitudinal…… [Read More]
Measuring special abilities can be limited in its application due to unstructured settings like unstructured interviews eliciting thematic life narratives. These kinds of interviews although useful in examining and measuring abilities, can be confining due to the range of topics "considered and abiguities inherent when interpreting this information; (b) structured interviews and self-report instruments elicit details concerning patients' conscious understanding of themselves and overtly experienced sypmtomatology" (Shum, O'Gorman & Myors, 2006, p. 149). Interviews like these help the psychiatrist/psychologist hone in on any unique or special abilities, even vocational abilities. Personality inventories or self report inventories, along with work and personal values measures like, the importance of family, help determine what kind of interests/abilities the person may be good in or be passionate about. As it concerns possible issues in regards to vocational ability or interest testing, certain things may be lacking such as suitable range of options to explore…… [Read More]
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…… [Read More]
Abramson, R. (2010). Psychotherapy of psychoses: some principles for practice in the real world. he Journal Of he American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 38(3), 483-502. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Abramson, R. (2010) explains that treatment of psychoses must include psychological treatments for the mind joined with the commonly employed biological treatments for the brain. here are various schools of psychotherapy, but psychoanalytic treatment is the only Western discipline devoted to comprehensive understanding of the subjective mind. Psychoanalytic authorities have written extensively on the psychodynamics involved in treatment of psychoses, but such approaches are limited by the realities of limited resources and number of therapists who have advanced training. Also, the techniques and understandings developed by prominent authors cannot always be implemented by many therapists who do not enjoy as robust a theoretic background. Presented here are five principles that are useful to keep in mind during the treatment…… [Read More]
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]
Age: 30 years, 11 months
Dates of Evaluation: 10/25/15 -10/30/2015
eason for eferral
This is a 30-year-old right-handed woman referred by Dr. Smith for a psychological evaluation to determine any lingering psychological and cognitive effects as a result of a mild head injury that she suffered on October 15, 2015 as a result of an automobile accident. The client has complained of severe memory problems, being disoriented at times, feeling depressed and anxious, and having nightmares the accident. Her physical complaints consist of headaches, back aches, poor sleep, nausea, and vomiting.
The client is a 30-year-old, divorced, Hispanic woman who lives with her children in a home that she rents in XXX (client please insert city). She has been married three times and has three children from two of the marriages.
The client grew up in XXXX (insert). She reported that her…… [Read More]
eason for eferral
Medical and Psychiatric History
Short Family and Social History
Short History of School Behavior
Information Assessment Techniques
Mental Status Examination and Behavioral Observations
esults Form Testing
The following results were obtained with respect to the different domain of functioning of Sebastian based on information from multiple sources.
There is a chance that the subject of the report or those who are closely associated with the subject of the report could get psychologically and/or emotionally hurt as the report contains sensitive information about the subject. This report is meant only for people trained enough to read such reports and should not be given to the subject named in the report. In order to ensure that the name of the person who is also the subject of the report…… [Read More]
Psychology is an ever evolving science. While some still feel it is a pseudoscience, many researchers have shown the benefits of applied psychology and the effects mental health can have on an individual. However, because problems of the mind are not so easy to measure as they would be in biology, there tends to be a lot of guessing and misinterpretation. Businesses, schools, and the government use personality tests to understand a person and their motives. First developed in the 1920's personality tests have grown in popularity, giving rise to debunking the validity of such tests. Are personality tests like orschach Inkblots, MMPO-2, and brief anxiety scales valid? No, they are not valid. This essay will show why these kinds of tests are not valid and reliable measures of personality and psychopathology through studies revealing accuracy rates from personality test results.
Personality tests first originated in the 1920's and are…… [Read More]
Culturally Sensitive Diagnosis
Cultural concerns can play a pivotal role in helping diagnose a patient and formulating the best treatment options for that patient, as indicated in the case study of Esteban. Esteban, a 21-year-old male from Columbia, presented with a wide variety of symptoms that could have biological or psychological causes. The first way that culture impacted an evaluation of Esteban was through language. Esteban's heritage indicated a possible conflict with languages; therefore, he was offered the MMPI-2, which is available in both Spanish and English. Dealing with potential language barriers is a critical component of assessment.
Esteban's sexual orientation was one critical area of potential conflict. Views of homosexuality vary widely from culture-to-culture. Many Hispanic cultures have extremely negative views of homosexuality. This could help explain why Esteban feels as if he must hide his sexual orientation and that it is a source of shame. However, it is…… [Read More]
Monique is a 24-year-old law student who appears normal on the surface, but struggles with substance abuse issues. She has been drinking since she was 14 years old and regularly consumes a large number of drinks when she goes out with her friends, in addition to consuming alcohol each evening at home. Her drinking interferes with her normal life, as hangovers prevent her from attending morning classes on occasion, and she sometimes blacks out while drinking. In addition, Monique smokes marijuana. She recently attempted to stop smoking marijuana due to concerns that she has a drug problem, but found herself unable to stop. She does not think that she has a drinking problem because she does not drink in the morning, but her family and friends are concerned about her drinking (Butcher et al., 2012, p.6).
Some of the information that would be important to collect during the initial assessment…… [Read More]
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…… [Read More]
Teachers must test. It is one method of evaluating progress and determining individual student needs. More than two hundred and fifty million standardized tests are administered each year to forty four million students who attend American elementary and secondary schools (Ysseldyke et al. 1992). Testing is only part of the broader conception of assessment. Testing is the sampling of behavior in students to obtain scores (quantitative indexes) or relative standing. In addition teachers and other school personnel assess or collect data through classroom observations, interviews with students' family members or care-givers. Psychological and psycho-educational tests are used in schools to help to identify types and bases and the extent of a student's learning difficulty or school adjustment problem. The assessment is used to make decisions about students.
At a curricular level, tests help to determine the effectiveness of a particular instructional intervention. Teachers give tests before and after…… [Read More]
Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III
Brief Description of the Test
The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)
The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…… [Read More]
Tori J. is a 12-year-old girl who was removed from her family at the age of 8, when she was placed with a foster family. Although her foster mother discussed some episodes of violence and defiance in the home, Tori was not initially violent or defiant in school. However, she frequently failed to complete her assignments, instead spending hours simply looking into space. She also spoke frequently to social workers and school counselors about problems in her foster home including allegations that she was not being fed sufficiently, that they would not purchase school supplies for her, and that there was emotional and physical abuse in their current home. These allegations were reported and determined to be unsubstantiated, but allegations of emotional and physical abuse and neglect in her family home were substantiated. The children were removed because of physical abuse and neglect. Interviews with Tori J.'s older brother reported…… [Read More]
580). The patient's individual test results can be compared with the results of the most appropriate normative group. The test is easily and quickly scored, given its multiple-choice format. Test reliability is judged as 'good' although the test data is descriptive rather than interpretive by nature.
The SCL-90-, in contrast to the Beck, is much more comprehensive and sweeping in nature. It measures a variety of complaints, rather than has the focused nature that is supposed to be the profile of a typical 'brief' assessment. The STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is more typical of a 'brief' assessment in that it focuses on anxiety, and seeks to identify specific mental states associated with anxiety, such as generalized anxiety, anxiety specific to a situation, and depression that can be masked as anxiety (Groth-Marnat 2009, p.590).
The use of brief instruments points to a disturbing trend in healthcare, namely the predominance of…… [Read More]
& Naugle, A. (2008). Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: Moving towards a contextual framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(7), 1096-1107.
Eckhardt, C.; Jamison, T.R. & atts, K. (2002). Anger Experience and Expression Among Male Dating Violence Perpetrators During Anger Arousal. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(10), 1102-1114.
Eckhardt, C.; Samper, R. & Murphy, C. (2008). Anger disturbances among perpetrators of intimate partner violence: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of court-mandated treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(11), 1600-1617.
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2010). Controversies Involving Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Response to Commentators. Sex Roles, 62(3-4), 221-225.
Palo Alto Medical Facilities (PAMF). (2010). Abusive Romantic Relationships. PAMF.org.
Smith, M. & Segal, J.…… [Read More]
21). Non-training and development-related actions should be required (Schraeder & Jordan, 2011, p. 6) and should include MMPI testing specifically for XX and generally for all RNs. Employee-development actions will include employee seminars and workshops around developing greater awareness, compassion and acceptance of personal accountability. Based on XX's very low score, I anticipate XX's only slight improvement due to imposed consequences for failing to learn proper policy and procedure; however, those gains will be only slight and probably insufficient (Schraeder & Jordan, 2011, p. 9). Given the hospital's very low score and static categorization, its ability to implement the development action plan will probably be signficantly hampered by the hospital's static approach to health care (Silverman, Pogson, & Cober, 2005, pp. 143-4). The collective effect of XX's well-deserved "unaware" categorization and the hospital's "static" categorization will probably result in small, inadequate changes on XX's part over a long period of…… [Read More]
fixing the conceptual and operational definitions of queer men.
The conceptual definition of queer men is that it is the synonym for homosexuality for gay. Homosexuality is conceptually defined as someone who has a sexual attraction to members of the same sex. In this context, the study centers on Canadian men who are sexually attracted to other men.
Operational definition: this study will be investigating men who sleep with other men and who engage in other sorts of sexual activities with them.
To assess validity and reliability of my construct, I would use the advanced MMPI scale that identifies homosexuality and is based on the hypothesis that propensity towards homosexuality derives from various personality factors that can all be measured. eliability for this scale was tested and demonstrated by Panton (1960) where he matched 58 male homosexual prisoners with 174 non-homosexual prisoners and compared their responses. These findings were then…… [Read More]
Institutions are defined as the existence of formal rules, on the one hand, and informal conventions and norms (such as impolitic societal rules that constrain behavior and impose forms of conduct) on the other. A system of enforcement structures are set in place to ensure that society abides to both and the strength of that enforcement system generally determines the extent to which individuals of a particular society will abide by its rules and conventions.
Enforcement may be carried out by various means depending on the specific set of situations. It may be carried out by self-enforcement (such as when one imposes upon oneself dietary restrictions of eating in order to lose weight). Enforcement may also be carried out by a second party as retaliation (as, for instance, another refusing to cordially greet the other is impolitely dealt with). Thirdly, and most strongly linked to maintenance and support of institutions,…… [Read More]
Danny's case, we do not have enough information thus far to make an accurate diagnosis. The information that he has provided is helpful as a starting point, but Danny has indicated that he is somewhat uncooperative at this point (he says he is not here for you to diagnose him with depression and that his arrival at your office is mandated by the school as part of his probation -- otherwise he would not be there). So, in order to properly diagnose Danny, more time will be needed and more information. Nonetheless, there are signs, just from the little that we have to go on, that could point us in the right direction. The history provided by the parents and the comments made my by Danny himself do suggest that Danny may be showing symptoms of bi-polar disorder…but more work must be done before this diagnosis can be made.
In…… [Read More]
Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…… [Read More]
Patient is a Hispanic male, aged 31. He is the father of one son, aged 10. The patient is Puerto ican, and was born and spent his childhood in Puerto ico. He came to live in the U.S. at age 11. He now lives in Brooklyn, New York. The patient is separated from the mother of his son. His son lives with his mother. The patient currently lives alone and is unemployed.
The chief complaint of the patient is that he is "feeling down and alone recently," and that he also feels separated from his family: "I also haven't seen my son for a while." Clearly he is depressed about his living situation, his prospects, and his health.
History of Present Illness
The patient's present illness is related to drug abuse, of which the patient has a considerable history. Essentially, the patient reports that over the past…… [Read More]
Attitude rating scale
For each question, circle one that best matches your perspective:
The state wide educational assessment will improve the levels of education.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment and the goals are well understood by all the teachers within the state.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment meets the dynamic contemporary needs of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment should be made more regular than it is.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know the weakness of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know their own weaknesses.
i. Definitely agree
ii. Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
While filing…… [Read More]