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Whereas, in the original thesis, the main contrast was between repressive and restitutive sanctions, in the later article the contrast involves a classification of crimes into those that are fundamentally religious in character -- offences against shared moral tenets that constitute the collective conscience -- and those that are "individual," in the sense of involving the essentially private interests of increasingly autonomous individuals. Penal sanctions also change in quantity and quality, with a movement away from corporal punishment and toward depriving the individual of possessions or freedom, i.e. fines and imprisonment. This development corresponds to the increasing differentiation within society, and the increasing focus on the individual, in this case as criminal or victim. Durkheim makes an interesting point about prisons only coming into existence when a society reached a sufficiently advanced stage of material development to permit the existence of secure and fortified establishments, such as castles or other…
Id. At 85.
Emile Durkhiem, the Division of Labour in Society, trs. George Simpson, New York, Free Press paperback edn, 1964.
John Horton, "The Dehumanisation of Anomie and Alienation: A Problem in the Ideology of Sociology," British Journal of Sociology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 283-300
The Second Opium War would involve: the contention that the Chinese and the ritish would have for each other. As the ritish wanted greater controls of the ports and land routes. Yet, the Chinese felt that the treaty to end the First Opium War was excessive. This resulted, in open hostilities, as the ritish merchants were seeking exclusive rights to: Chinese markets, the free flow of merchants / missionaries throughout the country and the distinction of most favored nation trading status. This would lead to years of conflict that would last from 1856 to 1860. At which point, the Chinese would grant the ritish: increased access to seven more ports, monopolistic control of key markets and they agreed to pay them large sums of gold (as reparations for the war). This is important, because the second defeat would add to the overall levels of humiliation, leading to the…
"A Rebellion that Nearly Worked." Life. 23 Sep. 1966: 76 -82. Print.
Chinese History. China Knowledge, 2000. Web. 14 Dec. 2010
Dukier, William. The Essential World History. Belmont: Thomason, 2008.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/
Survival Skills in Modern Society: Work, College, And Daily Life
Back in the days of early man, human beings had three basic needs: food, shelter, and clothing. The human body has not changed much since these early days. However, human civilization has changed a great deal over history. Different survival skills are required to survive in modern times. Once upon a time, being a great hunter or a great warrior was what made someone 'talented' at survival. Today, we have no need to kill game or even grow our own food. Unless someone is serving in the military, the skill of fighting in combat is not required. We can buy our own food at the grocery store, drive where we need to go rather than walk on foot. We do not have to tell if a plant is poisonous or not before we eat it. We can search out medical…
In modern society, public toilets has become a fixture wherever human activities take place; shopping malls, restaurants and filling stations all provide these places of convenience for travelers, diners and shoppers. However, when considering the nature and function of public toilets, many question their cleanliness and safety for public use. In addition, cultural and gender issues have also played a role in these debates. Women, for example, are obliged to make physical contact with public toilets, while this is not necessarily the case for men. In terms of cultural issues and sanitary concern, critics such as Isbit (2001) have suggested a toilet design whereby the human skin does not need to make any contact with the abode, but where both men and women squat to relieve themselves. To take these concerns into account, the history, background, and design of the public toilet should be considered in detail.
A to Z. Of Manners & Etiquette. (2010) Toilet Etiquette. Retrieved from: http://www.a-to-z-of-manners-and-etiquette.com/toilet-etiquette.html
Biddle, S. (2010, Aug 27). The Long, Unglamorous History of the Toilet. Gizmodo. Retrieved from: http://gizmodo.com/5622088/the-long-unglamorous-history-of-the-toilet
Brain, M. (2011). How Toilets Work. How Stuff Works, Inc. Retrieved from: http://home.howstuffworks.com/toilet4.htm
Clark, E. (2011) 3 Serious Concerns About Hygiene in Public Restrooms Revealed in Survey. Ezine Articles. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?3-Serious-Concerns-About-Hygiene-in-Public-Restrooms-Revealed-in-Survey&id=46579
In modern society, substance abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern of using a substance that is unnecessary for health. It is not limited to mood-altering or psycho-active drugs (marijuana, alcohol, etc.), but is defined as any substance that is habitual, interferes with one's life, and causes a large range of dependencies within human culture. It is a public health cost and issue, and comes under a number of categories (Lowinson, 2005). In the Healthy People 2020 initiative, one of the goals is to "reduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety and quality of life for all, especially children." For this review, we will use Tobacco Addiction as a model.
Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, death, or disability in the United States. More deaths are caused yearly from tobacco use than any other substance abuse, motor vehicle injury, HIV, or murder combined (Anti-Smoking,…
Religion, over many centuries has become a focal point for both society and the manner in which societies behaves. Since the emergence of the homo sapiens species, human have always been fascinated with the unknown. Religion was mans first attempt to make sense of the world around them and interesting phenomenon that have occurred. Due the early history of man, religion acted as a pseudo-science designed to explain naturally occurring behaviors in society. During these periods, long and severe droughts were explained by an angry God. Rain was described as God weeping. Eruptions of volcanos where explained away as the anger of the Gods. Each of these have later been validated and explained by science. Society now knows that rain is caused by precipitation, drought is much more common in the world and not a result of an inappropriate worship of a God. Although, science has shown many of the…
1. Abbate, Michael. Gardening Eden: How Creation Care Will Change Your Faith, Your Life, and Our World. Colorado Springs: Waterbrook Press, 2009.
2. Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Nature, God and Pulpit. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1992.
3. Austin, Richard Cartwright. Reclaiming America: Restoring Nature to Culture. Environmental Theology. Vol. 4. Abingdon, Va.: Creekside Press, 1990
4. Dawkins, Richard. The God Delusion, Black Swan, 2007, (ISBN 978-0-552-77429-1).
In a modern society, police have important roles play in preventing and managing crimes. The police are in good position to learn and investigate crimes and threats because they have available resources to ensure that communities are protected from vulnerable targets. However, changes and multi-dynamic complexities within a given society have necessitated police force to develop partnership relationships with various public agencies to enhance prevention of crimes and security matters within a society. (Clarke and Newman, 2007). Partnership working or partnership approach is largely based on the premises that only police force could not deal with the crime and complex safety problems within a community. Partnership working is defined as the cooperative relationships between two or more organizations with the aim to achieve common goals such as tackling the crime problems in a society. Partnership working with the goal to tackle crimes is now strongly embedded in the methods…
Berry, G. Briggs, P. Erol, R. et al. (2011). The Effectiveness of Partnership Working in a Crime and Disorder Context: A Rapid Evidence Assessment. Research Report 52, The National Archives, UK.
Clarke, R.V. And Newman, G.R.(2007). Police and the Prevention of Terrorism. Policing. 1 (1): 9-20.
Home Office, (2007). Delivering Safer Communities: A Guide to Effective Partnership Working. Guide for Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership and Community Safety Partnerships. Welsh Assembly Government. UK.
Jacobs, K.(2010). The politics of partnerships: a study of police and housing collaboration to tackle anti-social behaviour on Australian public housing estates. Public Administration, 88(4): 928-942.
Freud and Society
Sigmund Freud as ad a profound influence on our understanding of contemporary society. It can be argued tat Freud's teories and insigts ave also ad a direct effect on saping modern society itself and determining te way we see ourselves. Freud's teories are also te object of eated debate and criticism and is views of te dynamics of te individual in society are not always agreed upon. Wile it is undeniable tat, to large extent, "Our notions of identity, memory, cildood, sexuality and, most generally, of meaning ave been saped in relation to, and often in opposition to, Freud's work" (Rot. M.), yet tese views ave also been "otly contested."
Te teory by wic Freudian analyses is most commonly known is te "discovery" of te unconscious. In terms of society and sociological analysis te most significant aspect of te idea of te unconscious is te teory of…
Thus, initially, the U.S. was the victim of a terrorist attack. However, the perpetrator-victim dichotomy was eliminated with the U.S.'s offensive attack against Iraq, or as the Bush administration specifically claimed, 'Saddam Hussein's regime.' hen this happened, institutional violence was enforced, giving the U.S. The "license" to seek revenge because of the extent and seriousness that the attack has caused the country and the world.
However, the target of the U.S. offensive attack was like McVeigh: Hussein is considered innocent until proven guilty. Indeed, the absence of weapons of mass destruction (MDs) in Iraq only reflected that the offensive attack was made to destabilize Hussein, and not simply a case of seeking justice for the 9/11 attack. Justice, then, becomes retributive and unfair justice. In Sarat's analysis, the U.S. is "a killing state in which violence is met with violence, and the measure of our sovereignty as a people is…
Iadicola, P. And A. Shupe. (2003). Violence, Inequality, and Human Freedom. Rowman & Littlefield.
Sarat, A. (2001). When the State Kills: Capital Punishment and the American Condition. Princeton UP.
Adopting a personal songline as a set of principles that become habitual is actually relatively difficult, because it requires small changes, but many in the tactical framework that may actually build into something larger. Obviously, each requires a great deal of research since most have strings of suppliers themselves. However, many companies post their ecological or sustainability policies, or at least allow access to them. Those that do not are likely not the type of companies with whom we would want to do business. These may be outlined into various parts of everyday life:
Transportation -- If possible, use public transportation, preferably hybrid or fuel efficient vehicles. This is for local or regional travel as well as international travel. If at all possible, band together with friends or colleagues for travel to events.
Carbon Footprint -- reduction of carbon footprint by installing energy efficient bulbs; water savers in toilet and…
Other popular uses for fenugreeks seeds include use as a topical treatment for skin conditions such as abscesses, boils, burns and eczema and as treatment for heartburn and acid reflux.
As with any home remedy the use of fenugreek seeds should be done with caution (Izzo, 2009). Although its general use is considered to be safe when used as directed by the manufacturers there have been some reported side effects. The most commonly reported side effects are nausea and gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea and gas. When used topically, some users have complained of skin irritations and rashes. It should be noted that some prescription drug users have warned users of fenugreek seeds that the taking of the seeds should be done at least two hours in advance of the taking of prescription dosages. This warning is generated due to the fact that fenugreek seeds can interfere with the absorption…
Acharya, S.N. (2008). Fenugreek, an Alternative Crop for Semiarid Regions of North America. Crop Science, 841-853.
Gupta, A. (2002). Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds on glycaemic contral and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. Alternative Medicine Review, 1057-1061.
Izzo, E.E. (2009). Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. Drugs, 1777-1798.
Sharma, R.D. (1996). Use of Fenugreek seed powder in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nutrition Research, 1331-1339.
Traditional and Modern Societies during the 'European Expansion': Modernism in Europe and the Rise of Socialism in Non-Western Societies
European expansion and the civilization of modernity" by S.N. Elsenstadt provides a through discussion and analysis of the dynamics concerning the European expansion, centering in particular on its effects in non-Western or Asian societies. Tracing the history of the European expansion from the emergence of industrialization to the development of capitalism in Western societies, the author seeks to determine what caused the seemingly contradicting development of the so-called 'expansionist' movement of modernization in Europe. That is, instead of spreading modernization and capitalism in Asian societies, what occurred was the rise of socialism, which is a new form of society that overturns the basic premises of capitalism -- in effect, modernization.
This paper discusses Elsenstadt's arguments regarding the changes in the European expansion in non-Western societies: from being modernist to socialist, even…
Elsenstadt, S.N. "European expansion and the civilization of modernity"
In most modern societies education relies heavily on the distinction between sexes. Therefore, transgressions were severely punished until late in the twentieth century even in societies that like to present themselves as the most civilized and advanced in the world. Scientists such as: biologists, sociologists, psychologists and psychiatrists, are continuously asking questions about the origins of sex differences and sexual reproduction. These are topics that are still raising contradictions in the scientific world today. Furthermore, psychology and sociology dedicate today a large body of research to the differences between sex and gender. Linguistically speaking, sex defines two forms of life biologically, physically and genetically different, known under the names: male and female. Gender, on the other hand, marks a distinction in areas of study, it is related to human behavior and is mostly used to categorize human beings from a sociological point-of-view: masculine or feminine. A study of…
Harrub, B, Thompson, B. 2003 Evolutionary Theories On Gender
And Sexual Reproduction. Reproduced by Permission from TJ, www.AnswersInGenesis.org
Esplen, Emily and Jolly, Susie. GENDER and SEX . 2006. Available at: http://www.iwtc.org/ideas/15_definitions.pdf
However, it is already clear that the music industry had been irrevocably changed as the revenue potential shifts from traditional sources to those corresponding to the way music is typically enjoyed and shared by youthful consumers today (Halbert & Ingulli, 2007).
egardless of the many ways that modern technology and societies have changed the way music is produced, in many respects, music still provides many of the same functions as it always has. Music continues to be featured prominently in cultural and religious expression and it continues to be an important part of adolescent development and self-expression. Ultimately, music will likely always continue to change in superficial ways and in the manner in which it is produced and disseminated, but in its most fundamental character, it remains unchanged in it significance to human society and culture..
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World eport; June 15, 1998:48-55.…
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World Report; June 15, 1998:48-55.
Dennet D. (1997). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
English writing has taken a new evolutionary path in its development since Independence. India was observed post-colonially by English writers of Indian origin. While new ideas were being developed, emphasis was placed on religious, socio-economic, filial, and political problems as talking points; these issues captured the national movement sensation and attracted the attention of creative writers. Events like the partition and the resulting communal riots following it, coupled with the problems of caste discrimination, misogyny and the squalor in which the proletariat lived, were the major issues of the time. The clamour raised over these issues is massive, with many budding writers boosting the perception of literature as time passes. This paper seeks to evaluate and provide insight into the progress of English writing over a time period ranging from the post- independence period till the present time. Writing veterans who displayed the fifties' realism in their works are…
Disability as Diversity
People who are disabled very much face an uphill climb when it comes to surviving and thriving in the workplace. Indeed, the physical and/or mental challenges faced by the disabled are compounded by the way that organizations and the people therein react to them and that includes whether they are hired, what they are hired to do and how people treat the disabled employee upon hire. While much of the overall outlook is grim, a strong organizational culture that is installed and enforced properly via the following of social justice and similar principles can be a tool to make the disabled workers feel more welcome rather than as an outcast or someone that is not as worthy or capable.
One seminal work on the matter noted in the introduction that shall be covered in-depth in this report is that of Spataro. When it comes to organizational…
The advent of modernity has wrought massive changes in human society. New forms of transportation and communication, for example, have changed the way people work, learn, conduct business and organize into communities. Technological advances in medicine have resulted in new forms of treatment for disease and longer life spans. Upheavals such as the women's movement and the civil rights movement have challenged prevailing norms and transformed social relations.
The field of architecture is no exception. The modern architecture movement is also largely a response to the availability of new technologies and the changing social needs. The first part of this paper looks at the various definitions of what constitutes "modern" architecture. The next part then looks at how the various styles sought to take advantage of new material and to address changing social needs.
In the last part, the paper examines how modern architecture is responding to new concerns,…
Cannon-Brookes, Peter. "Modern architecture, modern materials and modern technology." European Business Review. 14(3). Proquest Database.
Kuipers, Marieke. "The modern movement." The Unesco Courier. September 1997. Proquest Database.
Lacayo, Richard. "Buildings that breathe." Time Magazine. August 26, 2002. Proquest Database.
Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.
Over the past 50 -- 60 years, the divorce rate in the United States has risen dramatically. Marriage was viewed differently in previous generations, and was generally considered an institution between one man and one woman. In today's modern culture, the lines between what is acceptable in a union between two entities is much more blurred than it was in earlier years. There is a movement to accept marriage as it was previously defined as too old-fashioned. Accordingly, there is a larger percentage of individuals who divorce after marriage, or who oftentimes do not marry at all, preferring instead to cohabitate one with another. Such a scenario seems to be based on a lack of overall commitment to the relationship, and this same lack of commitment affects married couples as well.
One recent study determined that in the 1950's happy marriages were the result of marrying someone with similar…
Amato, P.R., & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital instability across generations:Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 63, pp. 1038 -- 1051
Bennett, J. & Ellison, J.; (2010) I don't, Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 25, pp. 42 -- 45
Bowen, M, Dr.; (2011) Bowen theory, accessed on December 21, 2011 at http://www.thebowencenter.org/pages/theory.html
Burgoyne, C.B.; Reibstein, J.; Edmunds, A.M.; Routh, D.A.; (2010) Marital commitment, money and marriage preparation: What changes after the wedding?, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 390 -- 403
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
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Criminal Justice in Todays SocietyAbstractThe modern-day society has evolved, and so are the security and social issues that face it. To determine the specific challenges that face todays society and thus, the criminal justice system, it requires a critical and analytical research study that will filter through the information available and determine the thematic areas that emerge as critical for modern-day criminal justice. Research for this study was done through a systematic literature review method. This research method was considered to be the most appropriate for the current research and the research question. Analysis of the information presented through the reviewed materials showed that several issues are characteristic of todays society that the criminal justice system has to address or factor in its operations to realize its mandate. These issues emerged as common from the reviewed materials; i) rehabilitative and restoration, not just punitive criminal justice, ii) racial equality, iii)…
BibliographyArgun, U. & Daglar, M. (2016). Examination of routine activities theory by the property crime. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 1188.Bennett, M. W., & Plaut, V. C. (2017). Looking Criminal and the Presumption of Dangerousness: Afrocentric Facial Features, Skin Tone, and Criminal Justice.UCDL, Rev.,51, 745.Daly, K. (2012). Aims of the criminal justice system.Crime and justice: A guide to criminology, 289-406.Epperson, M., & Pettus-Davis, C. (Eds.). (2017).Smart decarceration: Achieving criminal justice transformation in the 21st century. Oxford University Press. LeClerc, B., & Savona, E. U. (Eds.). (2016).Crime Prevention in the 21st century: insightful approaches for crime prevention initiatives. Springer.Lee, N., & Loton, D. (2019). Capstone purposes across disciplines.Studies in Higher Education,44(1), 134-150.Manaliyo, J.C. (2016). Barriers to community participation in crime prevention in low-income communities in Cape Town. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 8(1).Matthews, R. (2020). New times, new crimes: Notes on the depillarization of the criminal justice system. Critical Criminology.Owusu-Bempah, A. (2017). Race and policing in historical context: Dehumanization and the policing of Black people in the 21st century.Theoretical Criminology,21(1), 23-34.Ransley, J., & Mazerolle, L. (2009). Policing in an era of uncertainty.Police Practice and Research: An International Journal,10(4), 365-381.Schmalleger, F., Donaldson, S., Kashiwahara, K., Koppal, T., Chase, S., Brown, A., ... & Marash, D. (2014).Criminal justice today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Tompson, L., & Belur, J. (2016). Information retrieval in systematic reviews: a case study of the crime prevention literature.Journal of experimental criminology,12(2), 187-207.
Dadaism in the Modern orld
The Danger of Definitions: Dadaism and its Modern Manifestations
Though there have been countless movements and representations of rejections of convention in the history of modern art in many cases these standards were developed by individuals acting in accordance with the idea that "this is how I see the world: love it or leave it" and hopefully love it as leave it doesn't pay the bills. Yet, with Dadaism, though there is a core few conceptual founders the movement is demonstrative of a collective of artists seeking to challenge convention. This work will briefly define Dadaism, as much as this is possible, provide a few representative examples and lastly and most importantly provide a unique analysis of how Dadaism can be seen reflected in art and life in the present time.
The Dadaists wished to let people know that regardless of the fact that the…
"Bjork & Gaga" Web. Dec. 12, 2011, http://www.last.fm/group/Bj%C3%B6rk+and+Gaga
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Critical Infrastructure Protection
Nowadays, computers have become very ubiquitous in the American society. Computers and related technologies are used at every level of government in the United States. Computer technologies are also used by all sorts of professionals, and private citizens to access information, store information, communicate, and/ or transform acquired information. Right now, there are also computer-dependent technologies that are used to monitor and control, critical transportation systems, water treatment and distribution systems, power grids, gas distribution systems, and oil transport systems. Moreover, virtually all aircrafts are guided by GPS (Global Positioning System), and other computer-linked/ related systems. From the above-made statements, it is clear that there is a need for coordinated security systems to protect critical computer systems that are keeping the world moving. This means there is a strong need for cooperation among stakeholders for the successful protection of critical infrastructure.
According to the Department of Justice,…
Society and Culture
The heirloom of the sixties era has been significant and decidedly pivotal for the advancement of culture and society in nations, an aspect that is referred to as civilization. These changes and modifications that the society went through made the 1960s decade to be one of the fundamental and vital periods of the twentieth century and a landmark that is forever etched. The 1960s era can be revered and given admiration as revolutionary. These changes had a major influence on not only nations in South America and Africa that were developing, but it also had a great influence in civilized nations and we choose to concentrate on Belgium (MacDonald, 2007).
The changes that the society experienced and went through at that time made the 1960s one of the fundamental transition periods of the twentieth century and significant to how culture had fashioned society to what we see…
Donnelly, M. (2014). Sixties Britain: culture, society and politics. Routledge.
Gammond, P. (1993). The Oxford Companion to Popular Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grossberg, L. (1984). Another boring day in paradise: Rock and roll and the empowerment of everyday life. Popular Music, 4, 225-258.
Helc, R. (2006). The Beatles and Their Influence on Culture. Brno: Masaryk University.
Gender Discrimination in an Equal Society
The case involving Mary as an employee of a construction company who feels that she is discriminated on account of her gender is very similar to the Supreme Court case of Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. case of 2007. Even with this, Mary's situation is more controversial as a consequence of the vagueness associated with her situation. Lilly Ledbetter realized that she was making at least $6,708 less than male counterparts in her company. The fact that she experienced a series of issues in the past and that she received negative reviews were considered to play an important role in the management's decision. In contrast, Mary discovered her male counterparts were making at least $5,000 more than her per year and there seemed to be no immediate discernable reason for it.
To a certain degree, it would be safe to say that…
Robinson, R. K. & Franklin, "Employment Regulation in the Workplace: Basic Compliance for Managers." (Routledge, 28 Jan 2015)
The family unit certainly serves as mechanism to ensure the survival of the human species, just as "family" units in the animal world function primarily to ensure that the young offspring reach an age when they can survive on their own. Interestingly -- and expanding the analogy -- the concept of "surviving on their own" does not mean surviving in isolation, except for those few animal species for which a solo existence in the norm. Indeed, for some animal species, a solo existence is dictated by the demand of territory with large expanses of wilderness or prairie required for their subsistence. But for human's surviving on one's own is taken to mean primarily an emotional maturity -- achieving an adult capacity -- with a strong economic overlay.
As society becomes more diverse, examples of how families support this independent living that is nested within social groups that are…
Individuals can find some sanctuary in the diverse population of urban areas. Unlike small family groups, which enforce social restrictions much tighter, larger urban areas give their inhabitants more freedom to explore diverse paths without fear of judgment or social outcast. More subgroups within a population lead to more individual exploration with fewer worries than lesser populated areas.
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "hat is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theoryeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
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Marx, Karl. "Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." The Communist Manifesto. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/courses/COMMAN.htmL
Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental…
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "What is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/TheoryWeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
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(athus) (Day) ("Susan Elliot")
Clearly, the five different works are illustrating how the art of the 21st century is taking the techniques of the past and they are incorporating them with contemporary beliefs. The way that this is occurring is through using classical themes and approaches to set the mood of each piece of art. Then, it is building upon them by taking modern day issues and highlighting the importance of them.
Once this takes place, is the point that these beliefs will become a part of the message that the artist is sending to the viewer. This is when they will have a greater understanding of these ideas and will be motivated to take action. As a result, 21st century art is illustrating how these images are influencing everyone.
"Cathe Hendrick." Cathe Hendrick, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012
"David Hatton." David Hatton, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012…
"Cathe Hendrick." Cathe Hendrick, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012
"David Hatton." David Hatton, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012
"Igal Fedida." Igal Fedida, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012 < http://igalfedida.com/index.php >
"Marianne Monnoye -- Termeer." Marianne Monnoye -- Termeer, 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012
It is only human for cultures to borrow from successful societies. It has been a common practice throughout human history, especially within the context of the Classical periods, where many major nations were developing themselves as world powers. Many of these traditions still live on today either in their own right, or through the perpetuation by other cultures. In fact, Western society owes much of its foundations and philosophies to Classical cultures, such as Greco-oman and Middle Eastern influences. Then, the question remains, how will our current society lend to the future formation of new societies yet to be conceived?
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html.
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, ichard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. etrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PESIANS.HTM.…
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html .
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, Richard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. Retrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS.HTM .
Jayaram, V. (2008). "Chinese Buddhism: An Overview." Hindu Website. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/chinese_buddhism.asp .
Rather than seeking to emulate an ideal, they sought instead to cobble together influences, styles, and techniques from a range of different traditions. Relying on what others have created without actually valuing those creations on their own merits is not respectful of either tradition or innovation.
The result was a hodge-podge of aesthetics that is not without merit, but that is criticized now (and for quite a time) for not having a clear focus. annerist artists neither venerated the past nor sought to create an entirely new way of seeing. They often did incorporate fantastical subjects and twisted the forms of both of these creatures and of human subjects into sinewy shapes. The effect was not so much dreamlike (or even nightmarish) but distorted.
Even as annerist artists borrowed freely from other traditions and so seemed to devalue the worth of innovation and the allure of the new, they did…
Modern art in general has had a much more positive regard for the innovative and new. The reasons for this are complicated but may reflect consequences that have arose since the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization brought about two important trends that affected the ways in which artists interact with and feel about the new. Industrialization made constant innovation a social good in a way that had never been true before. The fact that new technologies made it easier and easier to create novel objects in the commercial world bled over to a push toward the innovative in art.
The early phases of Modernist art played directly with the ideas of how technology and art intersected with each other and how the new era of the machine made it more difficult to create work that was based on the past. The machine changed everything and made it imperative for artists to re-evaluate what it meant to be an artist at all. Daumier's 1862 Nadar Elevating Photography to the Height of Art is an ironic visual exploration of the ways in which having artistic tools such as the camera made it impossible to make art as it once was. Timothy O' Sullivan's A Harvest of Death (1863) proved incontrovertibly that new technologies changed the way in which everyone (not just artists) would view the world.
The next phase of Modernist art continued the valorization of the new, although in far more ironic ways. Indeed, irony itself in many ways can be seen to be the way in which many artists chose to confront the emphasis on the new. Beginning with the (then) new century, artists tried to combine new technologies and new social mores to ensure their audiences that they were the newest and therefore the best thing. Giacomo Balla's Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912) focused on the ways in which technology affects the literal ways in which people view the world while a work like Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2 (1912) incorporating much more traditional artistic techniques with the innovative idea that art could only be defined by the artist.
unrealistic images that society portrays towards the male sex in general. I find this to be an interesting issue since usually the attention is drawn to the unrealistic images that are used for females. However, men face many cultural challenges in modern society with stereotypical concepts of what it means to be a male flooding media. I found two basic concepts of the male. One was what I referred to as a "doofuses" and the other was what I referred to as an unrealistic heroic type stereotype. In this meta text essay I will reflect on the challenges I had in expressing my feelings on this issue by outlining many of the specific changes I made between the original document and the revised document. By providing examples of the specific changes I can provide the reasons that I decided to make these changes. While most of the changes were either…
Society -- in Support of the Multidimensional View
The multidimensional view of society, as first advanced by the sociological theorist Max eber, confirms the common Marxian viewpoint about the class-ridden or divided nature of modern society. According to Marx, society was divided into different classes such as the workers and the factory owners, the proletariat and the bourgeois property owners, and thus existed in a state of constant polarity or division. However, the more subtle multidimensional view of society suggested that there were multiple dimensions to the inequality that existed in a society that made social analysis more complex than property ownership, and financial dominance.
In the multidimensional view, societal notions of class have social and political elements of power as well. For example, class is economic but is also established by what one does for a living. The contribution groups make to the productive system of the society may…
Richard H. Anderson. (1996) "Inequality and Conflict Topics." The Department of Sociology and the University of Colorado at Denver. Page last revised 12 Jan 1999. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://carbon.cudenver.edu/public/sociology/introsoc/topics/topic4b.html
" (illmott 2000) in other words, the reality of death is removed to the edges of culture and society; which means that the significance and reality of death is in effect 'anesthetized' by institutions such as the medicine and science. As Giddens states, death is avoided or excluded from common social life and from "…fundamental existential issues which raise central moral dilemmas for human beings." (Giddens 156)
This suggests that the taboo about death and its avoidance in the cultural discourse is linked to the structure and the composition of modern society and culture. There is a sense that death is seen as the pornography of the modern age. "Helmut Thielicke observed that death is coming to have the same position in modern life and literature that sex had in Victorian times." (the avoidance of death in our modern world)
If we analyze the sociological structure of modern society we…
"Death and Society." Web. 19 November
Giddens, a. Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age.
Individual and Society
Relationship between Individual and Society
As the world has penetrated into the age of advancements, numerous facets have been changed over time, and the relationship between the individual and society is one of the elements that have also changed over the course of period, which cannot be overlooked. Conformity and traditional values were considered the most significant aspect for the people in the earlier times, however, currently; individualization has been witnessed as the latest attempt that defines the current nature of this relationship.
Numerous investigations from the post modern, modern and late modern eras have been carried out in order to identify and determine the root cause of the changes in the relationship over time. However, amongst the numerous researches, few of it are highlighted that can measure the reasons behind the changing forms of integration and differentiation amongst the people and society.
Furlong, Andy and Cartmel, Fred. Young People and Social Change. 2nd Edition. Poland: McGraw-Hill International, 2006.
Jeffs, T. And Smith, M.K. "Individualization and youth work," Youth and Policy, volume 76, (2002).
Leccardi, Carmen and Ruspini, Elisabetta. A New Youth?: Young People, Generations And Family Life. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006.
Rury, John L.. Education and Social Change: Contours in the History of American Schooling, 3ed Edition, New York: Routledge, 2012.
Navajo Culture: Primary Modes of Subsistence
The Navajo currently stand as the largest federally recognized tribe of the United States of America. The Navajo Nation manages the Four Corners eservation in the Southwestern United States. They continue to speak their native Navajo language. Modern Navajo Society resembles other American communities in many ways. It derives its present income sources through taxation of its people, casinos, banking, and other sectors. This research will focus on traditional and ancient forms of subsistence in society on the Navajo reservation at Four Corners.
Subsistence and Commercial Activities
It is difficult to determine subsistence in ancient times as few records exist. During the reservation period, which began in 1868 and ended in 1960, farming and animal husbandry were the primary forms of economic activity. The Navajo also produced several goods for traders (Alessi, 1980). As the fabric of American society grew, opportunities for…
Carmean, K. (2002). Spider Woman Walks this Land: Traditional Cultural Properties and the Navajo Nation. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press,
Dempsey, P. & Gesse, T. (1995). Beliefs, values, and practices of Navajo childbearing women. West J. Nurs Res. Dec;17(6):591-604.
Denetdale, J. (n.d.) We Shell Remain -- The Dine. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from http://www.kued.org/productions/weshallremain/pdfs/WSRDenetdaleInterview.pdf
Van Sickle, D., Morgan, F. And Wright, A. (2011). Qualitative Study of the Use of Traditional
The problem is that if this trend continues it will have serious consequences for the society as a whole.
Many other great historical cultures have deteriorated and fallen as a result of a decline of social values and standards. We need only refer to the great Roman Empire for clear evidence of the link between a reduction of morals and standards and the demise of the culture. Historians refer to the view that the fall of the Roman Empire can be directly linked to a decline in moral and societal norms and that the culture was destroyed not only by the outside invaders but by internal decay and moral decline. As one expert writes,
The primary reason for Rome's fall was moral decline. Every Roman writer who chronicled the fall of the republic -- Appian, Tacitus, Cassius Dio, Sallust, Cicero, and others -- marveled at the evaporation of ancient virtue…
Bonta, Steve. Lessons of Rome: The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic
Provides Lessons That Hint at Flaws in Modern Political Policies. The New American, 21 Feb. 2005.
Nursing Home Current Events in Texas. 2001. June 22, 2009.
Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.
3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…
Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.
Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database:
Ancient Text ith Modern Text
Because written literature is capable of being transmitted from the person who wrote it across generations, it acquires the status of communal wisdom simply by being recorded. Yet there are limitations to the applicability of such stories, and to a certain degree wisdom consists in knowing that there are limitations to the theoretical knowledge one can acquire in this way, or human error can misinterpret the text. I would like to look at the way in which three texts -- one ancient (by Rumi) and two modern (by Siije and Soyinka) -- offer wisdom at the same time that they suggest limits to our own knowledge, and limits to the applicability of any such wisdom.
The poems of Rumi, by virtue of their age, seem almost to define the way by which wisdom can be transmitted in literature, but also can acknowledge its own limits.…
Rumi, Jalal al-Din. The Essential Rumi: New Expanded Edition. Translated by Coleman Barks. New York: Harper-Collins, 2004.
Siije, Dai. Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress. New York: Anchor Books, 2001.
Soyinka, Wole. Death and the King's Horseman. New York: Norton, 2002.
structure of ancient and modern dramas to highlight their differences and similarities. The paper also shows how drama evolved over the centuries with references to Greek, Elizabethan and Modern plays.
MODEN AND ANCIENT DAMA: A COMPAISON
Drama has an inherent ability to adapt itself to the thinking and wishes of the society in which it takes birth. Therefore modern drama with all its intensity, relevance and eloquence is certainly more popular among modern audiences than its ancient counterpart. Still we cannot deny the importance of ancient dramatic concepts, models and devices in the development and evolution of modern drama. While ancient plays are mostly remembered for their grandeur and myths, close analysis reveals that there is more to them than meets the eye. All ancient Greek tragedies contain some similar elements, which set them apart from tragedies of later eras. While they basically concentrated on highlighting the significance of myths,…
Aristotle The POETICS Book XIII: 350 BCE Translated by S.H. Butcher Online version:
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman, 1949 Penguin USA, 1 edition, October 6, 1998
Arthur Miller, "Tragedy and the Common Man," from The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller (Viking Press, 1978)
The Amazing Moderns W.H. Auden (adio Script)
"Jumpstart" radio show theme song playing.
Good afternoon girls and boys, guys and gals! This is Boom Bill Bass, a.k.a. Three B, ready to jumpstart your afternoon with my "unofficial" DJ mix and musings about prose and poetry, music and lyrics, and anything in between these things!
Listen up! We will be doing a great series in Jumpstart this month, called the "Amazing Moderns." This is a poetry series -- yes dear listeners, a poetry series this time -- showcasing the works of great poets in American literature in the 20th century. If you're wondering what 20th century means, guys and gals, it's that period when you're not yet born, oh yeah I'm kidding -- NOT! This period is between the 1900s and well before the Millennium, before the futuristic years of "2Ks" -- that's 2000 and up -- started.…
Auden, W.H. "The Fall of Rome." Available at: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15546
____. (1969). "Moon Landing." Available at: http://www.pressrun.net/weblog/2009/02/auden-on-moon-landing.html
To better describe the problem of a conflict of individual and society, Almereyda referred to the tragedy "Hamlet." Hamlet was one who decided to oppose existing evil, but being the child of the society he lived in, his inner contradictions, unconfident and stereotyped nature didn't allow his will to make a definite decision. Almereyda succeeded in transforming Hamlet from a medieval prince, into the modern hero, into representative of generation-X, filmmaker student. Still modern Hamlet has a more cynic and arrogant character, he is more stereotyped and cowardly. Hamlet of Manhattan's Denmark Corporation, played by Ethan Hawke, looks more like a spoiled white American teenager, than a noble Dutch prince, whom he was presented by Shakespeare. Modern Hamlet is quite different from the person of action, his actions are substituted by his thoughts and by his desire to escape from reality and be forgotten in his own world, where it…
Inuktitut in Modern Inuit Communities in Northern Canada
The role of language in identity construction of the Inuit in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada), which nourishes the evolution of their ethno-territorial movement in the eastern Canadian Arctic, had been around since the 1970s. This paper is an analysis of the legal-political context of the Quebec State then enables the detachment of the cornerstones of its policy speech in general, and finally those with respect to the indigenous population, in particular to the Inuit language.
There are eight major Inuit communities: those of the LABADO, the UNGAVA, and the BAFFIN, of Iglulik, the CAIBOU, of Netsilik and Copper as well as the Inuit of the Western Arctic (which replaced MACKENZIE INUIT). There are five main dialects Inuit in Canada Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut and inuttut grouped under a single language, Inuktitut or Inuktitut. (McGrath 2007) At the last census, 70% of Inuit said they…
Alia, Valerie (2009). Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845451653
Billson, Janet Mancini; Kyra Mancini (2007). Inuit women: their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742535961
Crandall, Richard C (2000). Inuit art: a history. McFarland. ISBN 0786407115
De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). ISBN 1-55597-249-7
auchenberg and Shochat
Shochat and auschenberg: Challenging Taboos
auschenberg's "Odalisk" (1955-58) and Shochat's "Johanan and the ooster, 2010" are separated by half a century and yet both works reflect one another artistically, in terms of style, theme and ideas. "Odalisk" is a parody of the 19th century portrait "La Grande Odalisque" by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, which depicts a nude Turkish concubine reclining on a bed peering over her shoulder at the viewer. auschenberg's composition (a collaged box standing one-legged on a pillow, a rooster perched atop the box, almost peering over its shoulder at the viewer) is a satirical glance backwards at the art which came before it -- and a comment on the sexual themes and intonations of the modern world. Similarly, Shochat's "Johanan" is a biting commentary on modern sexual mores -- a semi-nude man holding a rooster (i.e., cock) in an unabashed pronouncement of masculine sexuality…
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Rauschenberg, R. (1955-58). Odalisk. Comines. Retrieved from http://mediation.centrepompidou.fr/education/ressources/ens-rauschenberg-en/ens-rauschenberg-en.htm
Shochat, T. (2010). Johanan and the Rooster.
Weaver, R. (1984). Ideas Have Consequences. IL: University of Chicago.
(the ole of Science and Technology in Society and Governance, 1998) the most important thing to do is to redefine the role of science for the society and governance.
Looking at the relationship
Science does change society as much as society influences science. In the last century there were tremendous progress in scientific invention and discoveries. The vast expansion both in terms of facilities and information has affected the society to a great extent. The unfortunate part of the advancement is that science benefits the affluent, the corporate and the powers that be. While the changes in the society like medical advancements were brought about by science, they are still available to the affluent, but even insurance is not available to the poor. (Crow, 2001, p. B20)
The role of science and scientists, the thinkers of today is to figure out how they can stream line their progress so as…
Crow, Michael M. 2001. Harnessing Science to Benefit Society. The Chronicle Review
Ross, Andrew. 1996. Science Wars. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
Gruss, Peter. 2005. History of Science Particular Ethical and Moral Obligation. [Online] Available at http://www.mpg.de/english/illustrationsDocumentation/multimedia/mpResearch/2005/heft03/3_05MPR_66_67_pdf.pdf
hen Edith harton tells us that "it was the background that she [Lily] required," we understand that both Emma Bovary and Lily have a very important thing in common. They are first of all women in the nineteenth century society, fettered by social conventions to fulfill any kind of aspirations or ideals. A woman, as it is clearly stated in both novels, had no other means of being having a place in society than by acquiring respectability and money through a good marriage. To marry was the only vocation of a woman, as harton tells us.
Of course, there interferes a great difference between the two heroines here, because Madame Bovary, as her very title proves it, is already a married woman, while Lily in harton's book is in constant pursue of a redeeming marriage. But, essentially the frustration of the two heroines is the same, as Emma is as…
The American Experience: Andrew Carnegie- The Gilded Age. PBS Online. 1999. 1 Oct. 2006 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/gildedage.html .
Byatt, A.S. Scenes from Provincial Life. The Guardian. July, 27, 2002. Oct.2006 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2342/is_n1_v30/ai_18631915 .
Cahir, Linda Costanzo Solitude and Society in the Works of Herman Melville and Edith Wharton. New York: Greenwood Press, 1999
Deppman, Jed. "History with style: the impassible writing of Flaubert - Gustave Flaubert." Style. 1996. Oct 2006
Consumer Society or Capitalism
Consumer society which evolves out of capitalism has its advantages as well as its disadvantages. But even with its disadvantages, consumer society has now become an accepted from of modern society.
Under the pressure of corporate politics, the commercialization of culture and the influence of mass media, the conventional literary values of Western society are deteriorating. For the public in general, the mixing and transformative experiences of culture have been restored by the joint viewing experience and by contribution in consumer trends. (Cronk, Consumerism and the New Capitalism) George Orwell described consumer society as the air we breathe. High worker output and high general levels of consumption typify efficiently improved societies of late 20th century. Though this prosperity is endorsed with making benefits like raised education and health care, it is also linked with much extended work hours, raised lose-lose social rivalry, uneven communities, economic disparity,…
Cronk, R. "Consumerism and the New Capitalism" Retrieved from http://www.westland.net/venice/art/cronk/consumer.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
"False atheism or the new-sacred ideologies - Page 5 / 7" Retrieved from http://atheisme.free.fr/Atheisme/Fae5_capitalism.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
"Features of a Consumer Society" Retrieved fromhttp://www.consultmcgregor.com/PDFs/features%20of%20consumer%20society.pdf Accessed on 20 April, 2005
'"Global Capitalism Has Developed A Planetary Consumer Culture Based Upon Exploitation And Exclusion: Discuss" Retrieved from http://www.jakeg.co.uk/essays/consumer_exploitation.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
shift from agrarian to industrial society a simple substitution of one form of economic behavior for another, hanging up the hat of the farmer to put on the hat of the factory worker. But there was in fact a substantial shift in nearly everything about daily life for those generations caught up in the transition from rural to urban worlds. The most obvious change was in the relationship between people and the land itself. No longer were people defined by their place of birth, by where they had always lived. They were defined - by others as well as themselves - by a series of portable skills.
The magnitude of this change is difficult for those of us who have grown up in a world in which mobility is the norm. But it must have been for those living at the beginning of the Industrial evolution a shattering (as well…
Bensel, R. (2001). The political economy of American industrialization, 1877-1900.
Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Carter, G. (ed.). (2000). Empirical approaches to sociology: A collection of classic and contemporary readings (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Durkheim, E. (G. Simpson, trans.). (1971). "Social Order and Control Via Close Social Ties: The Example of Suicide" in Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.
One in which a person that does not put on effort or is corrupt should be return to the good path. The mission and goal that more and more had in mind was to work hard in order to remake society as God wanted it to be. Johnson shows that the power of religion, but most of all, the power of a personal and group that, if with the right motivation, can change society's face.
Johnson proposes in the beginning of the book, as well as the end, that the early 19th century industrial reform of society was fought with religious weapons. usiness, in order to retain power and to influence on its own terms the functioning of the modern society, began to envisage ways in which to convince the others. One of them was religion, through which the middle class became what is now bourgeois or democratic. usiness and…
Johnson, Paul. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837 Hill and Wang, 1978
They also prepared food, brewed chichi, prepared and harvested fields, card for children, and carried water. Men were responsible for many things, but their main responsibilities and their most important roles in life were believed to be soldiering and plowing their fields. Men also built houses, helped with the harvest, carried fire wood, and herded animals, and they even participated in spinning and weaving. However, their maleness was defined by the role of warrior and plowman.
5. What is Silverblatt's argument about how gender differences became gender hierarchies in Andean communities conquered by the Incas?
Despite the fact that so much of Andean culture was based on gender parallelism and equality, there were important gender-role differences that eventually became gender hierarchies. The main way this happened was that males within the family (and not women) represented the family in relations with the state, such as in relation to the census.…
J.D. Salinger: How the Characters in His ooks Interact With Society of the Time in Which They Were Written
The objective of this study is to examine the writings of J.D. Salinger. In addition, this study will examine how the characters of Salinger in his books interacted with society of the time in which they were written. J.D. Salinger's characters interacted with the society of that time through drawing the society into the stories and becoming a part of the daily lives of those who read Salinger's books.
One of the most popular works of J.D. Salinger is a 1951 novel entitled "The Catcher in the Rye." This book was an adult publication originally, that has since become a favorite of teenaged and adolescent readers. Salinger's characters became almost a well-known friend to readers of his books. For example, when the book entitled "Hapworth" was published by Salinger in 1924,…
Baume, S. (2013) Nine Stories by JD Salinger. Little Brown 1953. First Collection. The Short Review. Online Retrieved from: http://www.theshortreview.com/reviews/JDSalingerNineStories.htm
Geddes, D. (2013) J.D. Salinger -- IN Memoriam. The Satirist. Retrieved from: http://www.thesatirist.com/books/JD_Salinger_InMemoriam.html
Henderson, G. (2012) Genuine in a World of Phonies: Dance in J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. Senior Seminar in Dance Fall 2012. Retrieved from: http://dance.barnard.edu/sites/default/files/garnet_henderson.pdf
Malcolm, J. (2013) Justice to J.D. Salingers. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2001/jun/21/justice-jd-salinger/?pagination=false
Transparent Society: ill Technology Force Us
To Choose Between Privacy and Freedom?"
There seems to be no doubt that the genie is out of the bottle, never to be capped again. Individual privacy is being treaded upon daily by new technological devices that a mere generation ago were considered science fiction to be found only in novels such as George Orwell's "1984" and Aldous Huxley's "The Brave New orld." However, today these stories of surveillance and cloning have become reality. In "The Transparent Society: ill Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom?" David Brin examines how privacy as it was known a quarter of a century ago is gone forever and how citizens of the world have very tough decisions to make regarding how this new technology will be used and more importantly who will be in control.
Brin argues that the more open a society is the…
Brin, David. The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose
Between Privacy and Freedom? Perseus Publishing. 1999; pp 4, 5, 6, 7,
Having vs. Being in The Society of the Spectacle
The Society of the Spectacle was first published in France in 1967. The text was written by Guy Debord, a philosopher and Marxist. The work is succinct yet dense critique upon modern societies, particularly ones that are capitalist and systematically promote consumerism. There are many ideas presented in the text, yet there are a few to several pervasive themes. One persistent theme Debord presents is that as a society, we have moved from what he calls "being" into a state of "having." Debord describes his perceptions of the trajectory of modern society through a critical lens declaring that people no longer have or experience authentic social lives. Instead of authentic social experiences, we interact with series and layers of representations mediated through images. In the 21st century, it is not difficult to experiment, test, or apply Debords assertions, particularly…
Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle. Donald Nicholson-Smith (trans.) Zone Books: New York, 1995. Print.
" She could not give as much as she wanted to her art as the Emilys, "the whole that I possess / is still much less," because it was so difficult to balance a career and a family. omen are supposed to be able to achieve anything, but this is impossible to accomplish. The speaker wishes to join the three Emilys, but due to her children and her husband, "only [a] brief span" of time can be devoted to her poetry.
Born in 1943, Michael Ondaatje also participated in the 1960s transformation. The poem, "To a Sad Daughter," appears in his 11th collection of poetry, Secular Love, published in 1984. Similar to many fathers, this poem illustrates Ondaatje's love for his daughter and desire to lead her in the right direction for the future. He refers to the poem as his "first lecture" to a 16-year-old, but understands the difficulty:…
Dunn, Catherine M. "The Changing Image of Women in Renaissance Society and Literature." What Manner of Woman: Essays on English and American Life and Literature. Ed. Marlene Springer. New York: New York UP, 1977. 15-38.
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1963
Herrick, Robert. A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick. Charleston: Bibliobazaar, 2007.
Landrum, David, "Robert Herrick and the Ambiguities of Gender." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 49.2 (2007): 181-207
Role of Deviance in Societies
Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).
Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…
Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance."
http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:U0HBSqQA6f8J:www.ex.ac.uk/Psychology/docs/courses/3227/boydengreenwk7.ppt+Role+of+Deviance+in+Societies& ; hl=en
Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."
High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
Bauman summarises these factors by referring to the methods of scientific and bureaucratic rationality and logic which reached extreme levels during this period in Germany. While on the one hand bureaucratic rationality can be seen as a positive aspect in relation to the ordered development of society, it can also be seen as the underlying cause that led to an atmosphere of moral distancing and irresponsibility.
In respect to the theoretical view of civilization and society espoused by the theorist, the above discussion highlights Bauman's view that sociology as a science has not taken into account the full implications of the rational-scientific worldview. This is evident from his critique of the Webber's model of sociology as a science that follows the rational dictates of modernism. (Bauman, 1988, p. 478) As the author states;
The anxiety can hardly abate in view of the fact that none of the societal…
Bauman Z. 1988, 'Sociology after the Holocaust', The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.
39, No. 4, pp. 469-497.
Bauman Z. 2007, Liquid Times: Living in an Age of Uncertainty, Polity, Cambridge.
Bauman Z. And Ga-ecki L. 2005, The unwinnable war: an interview with Zygmunt
Intimate relationships have changed in contemporary Britain for a variety of social and economic reasons. In the past, marriage made economic sense for both men and women. Today, however, with a combination of social factors from the sexual revolution of the 1960s to the Women’s Movement of the 1970s (which helped women to establish themselves independently of men) to the advent of contraception (liberating sex from procreation) to the proliferation of pornography (thanks to liberal ideals and technological advancements like the Internet), the idea of matrimony as an expression of economic dependence has diminished while the concepts of monogamy, virginity having value, and sex being linked to marriage, family and community have by and large given way to more liberalized concepts in which intimacy is linked with pleasure and self-satisfaction without social, economic or personal responsibilities necessarily being part of that equation. The rise of the idea of romantic…
The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London:
Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
Walden Two: Human Nature and Society
The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best.
People throughout history, since the beginning of time began, have been expressing dissatisfaction with the way the world is and trying to find ways to make it better. Along the way various fictional societies called "Utopias," after the book of the same name written by Thomas More in 1515 and 1516, were created in an image of perfectionism. These utopian communities, all somewhat different in many ways and often ultimately oppositional in form and function, nevertheless had one thing in common. Each one boasted proudly that it alone was worthy of the ultimate claim: a foundation of consummate judicial and moral principles with the ultimate result of effortless happiness and true freedom for all its people.
.F. Skinner admits that when he wrote Walden Two in 1945…
Bruce, Susan. Introduction to Three Early Modern Utopias. (1999) New York: Oxford University Press.
Skinner, B.F. Walden Two. (1948) Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.
- . Walden Two Revisited: Preface to Walden Two. (January 1976) Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.
Three Early Modern Utopias: Utopia, New Atlantis, The Isle of Pines. Edited by Susan Bruce. (1999) New York: Oxford University Press.
2. Freedman, Jonathan. (2007). "No real evidence for TV violence causing real violence."
Retrieved July 7, 2010 from:
This source is an Internet editorial article published online on April 27, 2007 by Jonathan
Freedman, a Psychology professor and former department chairperson at the University
of Toronto. Professor Freedman has taught previously at Stanford University and Columbia University and has chaired the department at the University of Toronto.
Professor Freedman's central thesis is his fundamental opposition to the position taken in
2007 by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) that violence in media is a causal factor in actual aggression and violence in society. According to Professor
Freedman, the FCC relied on inaccurate information on the number of relevant studies, and also failed to distinguish between empirically valid information and anecdotal information in reaching their position on the issue. Professor Freedman also suggests the need to differentiate between depictions of…
And moreover, Barth summarizes Sennett's book as a discussion of how "eighteenth and nineteenth-century Paris and London" reflected an "erosion of public life through an analysis of middle-class behavior in the theater and on the street."
And Barth adds that Sennett's work "...lacks the terse logic of comparative history," and "makes many excursions into fleeting aspects of culture, yet in its discussion of the theater misses the rise of vaudeville house and music hall as the nursery of a new urban audience." Yes, Barth concludes, Sennett is correct that "public and private behavior changed between the three decades," but instead of documenting those public and private changes, Barth continues, Sennett calls upon (in Sennett's words) "...the expectations of a sophisticated, intelligent general reader."
And if that reader discovers (continuing with Sennett's words as quoted in Barth's essay) "a reasonable analysis of how a malady of modern society has come about,…
Axhausen, K.W. 2000. Geographies of Somewhere: A Review of Urban Literature. Urban Studies 37 (September): 1849-1864.
Barth, Gunther. 1977. Richard Sennett: The Fall of Public Man. American Historical Review
82 (December): 1214-1215.
Berman, Marshall. 1977. Facades at Face Value: The Fall of Public Man. The Nation (August):
In fact, it is difficult to imagine many other possible areas where increased funding and emphasis would equal the benefits of investing in computer technology in higher education. Computers on campus facilitate communications between students and faculty that provides much closer supervision and better access to professors on the part of students. Even in liberal arts studies of classical literature, computers allow instantaneous access to commentaries and many different academic perspectives from libraries and databases worldwide.
More generally, the current prospect for being hired directly out of college in one's field of study is not particularly good. In all likelihood, most new graduates from American colleges next year will not find employment in their chosen fields directly after college. However, all of them will almost certainly rely heavily on their computer literacy and competence immediately upon being hired in any professional capacity. Today, computer skills play a significant role in…