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Money and anking
ankers hold more liquid assets than most business firms. Why?
As is the case for all businesses, one obvious adverse liquidity outcome for banks is the inability to pay liabilities as they fall due. And, liquidity risk is even broader, including the realization of a market loss as a result of the premature or forced sale of assets to raise liquidity and loss of business opportunity or franchise due to a lack of liquidity.
ut, banks face even more difficult liquidity challenges than do most businesses. anks protect customers against liquidity problems by taking in money which can be withdrawn on demand or at short notice, and by providing committed loan facilities to corporate customers and overdraft facilities to personal sector customers. y insuring others against liquidity risk, banks become exposed to it themselves because of the mismatch between the term structure of the assets and liabilities…
Abell, Alicia. "Credit Unions Offer Employees Financial Options at No Charge to Employers." The Chronicle of Philanthropy 23 Oct. 2003. Available: http://philanthropy.com/jobs/2003/10/30/20031030-213134.htm (Accessed 29 Apr. 2005).
Chaplin, Graeme, Ernblow, Alison and Michael, Ian. "Banking System Liquidity: Developments and Issues." Financial Industry and Regulation Division, Bank of England. Available: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/fsr/fsr09art2.pdf (Accessed 29 Apr. 2005).
"Efficiency of U.S. Banking Firms -- An Overview." FRBSF Economic Letter, 28 Feb. 1997. Available: http://www.frbsf.org/econrsrch/wklyltr/el97-06.html (Accessed 29 Apr. 2005).
Sharma, Paul. "Liquidity Risk." 8 Oct. 2004. Available: http://www.fsa.gov.uk/Pages/Library/Communication/Speeches/2004/SP201.shtml (Accessed 29 Apr. 2005).
Money and Banking
Capital controls in developing countries
According to the Investopedia (2013), capital control is seen as any measure that is taken to control the flow of foreign capital into or even out of the domestic economy an these measures are always taken by the central banks or the governments. These controls normally come in the form of tariffs, volume restrictions, taxes, outright legislations and other market-based forces and these controls do affect several classes of assets like the equities, foreign exchange trades and even bonds. Apparently tight capital controls are common among the developing nations since their capital reserves are comparatively lower and hence more volatile.
There have been a lot of discussion on the positives or negatives of capital controls especially among the developing economies. There are a good number of economists who feel that the controls inherently limit the progress of the economies and their efficiency…
Investopedia (2013). Capital control. Retrieved December 9, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capital_conrol.asp
Marcos Chamol et, al (2010). Can Capital Controls Help Developing Countries Cope with Global Financial Instability? Retrieved December 9, 2013 from http://carnegieendowment.org/2010/05/04/can-capital-controls-help-developing-countries-cope-with-global-financial-instability/21mv
Money and Banking
If the central bank has an interest rate target, why would an increase in the demand for bank reserves lead to a rise in the money supply?
An increase in the demand for reserves will raise the central bank's fund target. So as to preclude such a possibility, the central bank will purchase bonds, thus increasing the amount of non-borrowed reserves. As a result, this shifts the supply curve for reserves to the right, thus maintaining the central bank's funds rate from increasing. The open market purchase will at that time instigate a rise in the monetary base and the money supply.
Interest ate (4%) L2 (Y1)
As indicated in the diagram, the assumption is that the central bank targets an interest rate of 4% per annum. Considering this, the money demand increases are offset by a change in the…
Bogetic, Z., 2002. Costs and Benefits of Unilateral Monetary Unions. Montenegrin Economic Papers, (1).
Dellas, H. and Tavlas, G.S., 2009. An optimum-currency-area odyssey. Journal of International Money and Finance, 28(7), pp.1117-1137.
Ireland, Peter N. (n. d). "Money, Banking, and Financial Markets." Lecture Notes, Department of Economics, Boston College, [email protected] bp. edu. Retrieved 30 June 2016 from: http://irelandp.com/ec261/chapter17a.pdf
Minford, P., 2002. The costs and benefits of Economic and Monetary Union to the UK economy -- the 'fifth (overview) test'. Cardiff Business School.
The economics textbook definition of the "money multiplier" assumes lending banks automatically expand their credit money supply to a multiple of their aggregate, or saved reserves of money. The Federal Reserve requires all banks, after the crash of 1920, to keep a certain amount of money in reserve in relation to the money lent by the bank. In the U.S. The required reserve ratio usually hovers around ten percent, implying that the money supply should be about ten times larger than the aggregate reserves of banks. The significance of the multiplier is that the more banks are required to keep in reserve; theoretically the less they will be able to lend. Thus, in its basic form, that multiple is equal to the reciprocal of the required reserve ratio. The theory behind the requirement also assumes the FED issues loans in compliance with the multiplier, although this is often…
The Fed Today." (2003) EEP: Economic Education Publications Website. Retrieved on August 1, 2004 at http://www.dallasfed.org/educate/pubs/fedtoday.html
Discount Rate." (2004) Investopedia. Retrieved on August 1, 2004 at http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/discountrate.asp
Federal Reserve System: General Information." (2004) FED Official Website. Retrieved on August 1, 2004 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/generalinfo/faq/faqfrs.htm#4
Hummel, WF. (2004) "Money Multiplier." Money: How it Works. http://wfhummel.cnchost.com/multipliermyth.html
12-8) if Tulip is paid $60,000 for her equity, that is a no bonus scenario. The entry would be:
Tulip, capital $60,000
If Tulip is paid $80,000 that is a bonus to the retiring partner. The remaining partners would pay out Tulip based on their new income sharing ratios, which would be 5:3, reflecting the degree of increased share each has of the partnership with the withdrawal of Tulip. The payout is $20,000.
Tulip, capital $60,000
Holland, capital $12,500
Flowers, capital $7,500
If Tulip is paid $30,000 this reflects a bonus to the remaining partners. Since Tulip's value was $60,000 the remaining $30,000 would be allocated to Holland and Flowers based on the new ratios.
Tulip, capital $60,000
Holland, capital $18,750
Flowers, capital $11,250
12-12) Return on equity is the net income for each partner divided by the average equity. Average equity is calculated…
The existence of money makes exchange easier, compared with barter systems, because money provides a stable store of value. If exchange is conducted with physical goods only – as in a barter system – then there are many points of friction that will inhibit exchange. First, goods have different physical characteristics that can put limitations on exchange. Some goods are perishable, others too large to transport, still others difficult to transport. Two goods may have equivalent value, but these physical limitations create barriers to exchange. How does one exchange a house for a year's supply of fish, for example? They might have roughly the same value, but you can't take all the fish at once, you can't trust that the fish will be delivered later, and moreover if the person wishes to take back the house because the deal fell through, but the other person ate all the fish,…
Ascent of Money
As we will see in this short essay, The Bank of Amsterdam, the Bank of England and the Federal eserve are linked in the history of money and banking. We will investigate the roles that each of these institutions played in providing a critical institutional foundation for the expansion of the world trading system. We will explore the Bank of England's role in providing a guiding influence in the functioning of the gold standard. The creation of the Federal eserve was linked to the actions of the Bank of England which was what it was modeled upon.
While not a true central bank, the bank of Amsterdam was a precursor and was founded to help the Dutch finance their wars against Spain. Paper money was issued based upon the public credit (Ferguson, 2008, 47). This type of institution spread to England where the Bank of England was…
Ferguson, N. (2008). The ascent of money: A financial history of the world . New York, NY: Penguin
Gold standard. (2010, February 1). Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/officer.gold.standard.
North, G.C. (2011, August 15). Gold standard or nixon standard. Retrieved from http://lewrockwell.com/north/north1020.html .
He also recommends investing in a oth IA, rather than a traditional 401K, because the oth accounts are safer and usually pay back higher dividends. He says, "Generally 401k and 403b accounts underperform IA accounts because they offer less options and flexibility for investments and impose higher fees" (Green 101). He talks about how the stock market is not such a good investment anymore since it fell in 2008, and he offers ways to make the stock market more effective. These are all good ways to get finances back on track once you have saved some money, and they make you feel more effective in managing your own financial future.
A big portion of the last part of the book is devoted to the stock market and how to make it work for you. This is probably the most confusing part of the book. It is written as simply as…
Green, Charles. The Money Game: Play to Win, Put the Odds in Your Favor. 2009.
economic crisis in Europe and the increasing costs for European countries to borrow money and bail out other Euro countries in financial distress. The EU nations that use the Euro have experienced a crisis among certain countries with high debt requiring bailouts for Greece and Ireland and the likelihood that Portugal and Spain may also need a bailout. Postponing the restructuring of high interest debts has led to further crisis rather than resolving any of the problems faced by insolvent countries. Huge transfer payments from the more powerful Euro countries, like Germany, to the failed economies of Greece and Ireland have made investors nervous and led to less investment at a crucial time. The author suggests that the debts of troubled countries need to be restructured now in order to create a sustainable payment to increase confidence and secure future payments.
Creditors will also have to shoulder some of the…
Bamberger, K.. (2010). Technologies of Compliance: Risk and Regulation in a Digital Age. Texas Law Review, 88(4), 669-739. Retrieved January 21, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1995143041). http://www.egloballibrary.com/egl/html/institutes/1086/homepage/library.jsp
Corder, J. (2009). The Federal Reserve System and the Credit Crisis. Public Administration Review, 69(4), 623-631. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02011.x http://ehis.ebscohost.com.csuproxy.egloballibrary.com/ehost/detail?hid=6&sid=feb1c9d6-ff89-462b-9741-b5b3cfdd54aa%40sessionmgr12&vid=8&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=buh&AN=42960193
Europe finance: Time for Plan B. (2011, January). EIU ViewsWire. Retrieved January 19, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2241366821).
While time did not have an incredibly large impact on the decisions made by respondents according to the instrument there was a statically significant change that calls for further research with larger populations to be undertaken. It is also possible that the specific creation and presentation of the scenarios included in the instrument had some level of influence on the results, as there are other considerations that are at play in each of the scenarios -- most importantly, the additional time required to change the course of action, which is distinct and wholly separate from the sunk-costs associated with the original course of action -- and this combined with the other design issues noted above and the lack of strong and clear determinations of mean differences means that the results of this research are ultimately inconclusive.
While the results of this research might not be entirely conclusive, they do…
Soman, D. (2001). The Mental Accounting of Sunk Time Costs: Why Time is not Like
Money. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 14(3): 169-85.
They could not foresee the housing market falling as it did, and the number of foreclosures it would create, and so, they aggressively continued to pursue the market when they should have been cutting back. The top executives left the company, but they were not fired, in fact, Killinger retired, comfortably it would seem. The customers of the bank, especially those with mortgages, are the ones who really will suffer in the long-term. The bank will rebound, but those with foreclosed homes never got the chance for a bailout, and so, they lost everything, while the executives and leaders of the bank are not charged with any wrongdoing. Luckily, the American taxpayers did not suffer, either, because JP Morgan Chase financed the takeover and the continuing operations of the bank.
In conclusion, WaMu's failure came about due to a number of reasons. They invested far too heavily in the sub-prime…
Adler, Joe, and Hopkins, Cheyenne. "FDIC's 'Big One': Long Prelude Gave Way to a Sudden End." American Banker, 29 Sept. 2008, Vol. 173, Issue 188.
Cocheo, Steve. "Kerry Killinger Builds His Dream Bank." ABA Banking Journal 93.8 (2001): 22.
Editors. "Washington Mutual, Inc." New York Times. 27 Sept. 2008. Business, 1.
Ivy, Bob and Shen, Linda. "Washington Mutual Hobbled by Increasing Defaults on Option ARMs." Bloomberg.com. 15 Sept. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aNSwdt57nTBI&refer=home
Blockchain technology is an innovative addition to the financial market. What began as a brainchild by the people or person known as ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’, blockchain technology has evolved and become something far greater than most would have imagined. Blockchain technology allows for digital data to be distributed (not copied), allowing for it to become the foundation for a new kind of internet. Businesses have used the technology to implement the use of digital currency like Bitcoin and promote growth of blockchain companies. Some of these successful blockchain companies are: Aeternity, Bitfury, DFINITY, ContentKid, and Blockphase. These companies represent the future of blockchain technology and how far it will go.
Background: What is Block-Chain Technology?
A recent innovation within the financial world, the mastermind behind blockchain technology is ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’. He is the pseudonym for a person or a group of responsible for developing, authoring, making, and deploying bitcoin, bitcoin…
The definition of usury has evolved over time. The basic premise is that a lender charges a rate of interest that is too high. Today, the standard for usury is defined in law, but initially the practice had no formal definition. Usury was traditionally banned in Christian society, has been criticized in Indian texts, and remains banned in Islamic society. Islamic banking, for example, requires that the lender either earn money from fees, or more commonly the lender exchanges the financing for an equity share, so profit-sharing, as a means of earning money without charging interest (IIBI, 2015)
During the time of King Henry VIII, usury was defined as charging interest. The idea of paying interest was new at the time, as a means of compensating the lender for the risk associated with lending. Interest, however, was not a common concept at least in England before this time. As…
IIBI (2015). Islamic banking. Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance. Retrieved December 2, 2015 from http://www.islamic-banking.com/prohibition_of_interest.aspx
Investopedia (2015). Definition of usury. Investopedia. Retrieved December 2, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/u/usury.asp
Perry, M. & Schweitzer, F. (2002) Antisemitism: Myth and hate from antiquity to the present. Palgrave MacMillan: New York.
social cultural effects money. Use concrete examples readings; addition
The social and cultural effects of money are quite considerable. However, they must be viewed within the proper sociological and, indeed, anthropological context for their effects to truly be appreciated. Money, regardless of the denomination or type of currency, is a capital means of procuring essential needs. Its value is strictly related to its ability to procure essential goods which are those pertaining to the basic elements that humans need to exist such as food, clothing and shelter. Therefore, the social and cultural effects of money are more accurately described as those relating to the things that money can afford or provide. Viewed from this perspective, there are several discernible ramifications that money engenders within contemporary and previous societies, all of which are related to the provisioning of essential elements of human existence.
Elucidated within the point-of-view of the preceding thesis,…
shadow banking system, its role in the subprime mortgage crisis, and failures of regulation within the shadow banking system. The term "shadow banking system" was coined by PIMCO's Paul McCulley in 2007 (Spanos, 2012) and refers to a banking system that includes financial intermediaries that are involved in creating credit across the global financial system, whose functions are not subject to regulatory oversight (Investopedia, 2012). The question has been debated as to whether shadow banking meets the definition of true banking. Given that the two systems perform similar functions, including credit intermediation and maturity transformation, the two should be considered parallel systems (Noeth and Sengupta, 2011).
The term shadow banking is used to describe any provision of credit taking place outside of the traditional deposit-funded lending system. This definition includes institutions that range from pawnbrokers and consumer finance companies to securities dealers as well as firms that issue corporate bonds.…
Armstrong, R., 2010. Q+A -- Regulating the shadow banking system. Fox Business. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].
Beckworth, D., 2010. "Deposit insurance" for the shadow banking system. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].
Drum, K., 2012. The shadow banking system speaks: It's not time for austerity yet. MotherJones. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].
Hsu, J. And Moroz, M., 2009. Shadow banks and the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Research Affiliates LLC. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].
Opportunities to Improve elationship Banking at Al ajhi Bank
In an increasingly globalized and competitive marketplace, many banking professionals today are faced with the need to develop informed and timely responses to changes in consumer demand, as well as fluctuations in the global economy that can have a positive or negative effect on investments. In affluent nations, this need has become especially pronounced as billion-dollar deals are routinely involved, and bankers working relationship banking operations stand to assist banks in attracting and retaining wealthy private and highly fluid commercial enterprises as long-term clientele. The enormous amounts of money that are involved make it important to formulate such responses in ways that add value to the banking operation including providing a competitive advantage. In some banks, relationship banking at this level is termed "privilege banking" or "prime account management," but the common feature of these business units is targeting high net…
About Us. (2012). Al Rajhi Bank. Retrieved from http://www.alrajhibank.com.my/corporate_
Constantinides, G.M., Harris, M. & Stulz, R.M. (2003). Handbook of the economics of finance.
Diversification of anking Returns Through
Greater Share of Non-Interest
Income and Off-alance Sheet Activities
The banking system was considered to be stable before the great financial crisis of 2007. The banking system faced the worst turmoil during that period due to the evolution of the nature of banking activities. anks started to employ diversify their sources of income. efore 2007, the one and only function of banks was to take deposits and lend money. Diversification of banking returns included many off-balance sheet activities and non-interest incomes into the features of the banks. The extra features are collectively known as shadow banking because of the lack of transparency in it. These activities increased the borrowing and lending and eventually, everyone was in a financial turmoil.
"The advent of shadow banking has fundamentally altered the nature of banking. Where once banks weremainly in the traditional business of taking deposits and making loans,…
Calmes, Christian, & Theoret, Raymond. "Bank Systemic Risk and the Business Cycle: Canadian and U.S. Evidence." Paper presented at Annual Conference of SocieteCanadienne de Science Economique, Canada, April 27, 2011.
Calmes, Christian and Raymond Theoret. "Financial Services."Lifting the Veil: Regulation and Shadow Banking (2011): 1-6.
Calmes, Christian, & Theoret, Raymond. "The Rise of Shadow Banking and the Hidden Benefits of Diversification." Paper presented at C.D. Howe Institute Conference, Canada, April 2011.
John. H, Boyd and Gertler Mark. "Are Banks Dead? Or Are The Reports Greatly Exaggerated." NBER Working Paper Series (1995): 2-7.
function of money.
Money has four purposes. It serves as:
Medium of exchange -- i.e. The currency used for bartering one good for another
it serves as the standard numerical unit of measurement of the market value of goods, the value of the program, or transaction
A store of value -- it can be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved and used whenever it is retrieved. Its value remains unchanged.
A standard of deferred payment. - It is an accepted way to settle a debt ( Mishkin .2007)
• Explain how the central bank manages a nation's monetary system.
The Federal Bank manages the nation's monetary system by virtue of three strategies:
It can change the interest rate on money that it lends to banks. A higher interest rate makes money more expensive. Banks may be, therefore, more reluctant to sign loans to applicants. On the other hand, the Bank by…
Board of Govs. Of the FRS. How does monetary policy influence inflation and employment? http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12856.htm
Chairman Ben S. Bernanke Semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. July 17, 2012 http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/testimony/bernanke20120717a.htm
Mishkin, Frederic S. (2007). The Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets (Alternate Edition). Boston: Addison Wesley.
NY Times. (November 16, 2012) Federal Reserve (The Fed) http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/f/federal_reserve_system/index.html
Shadow Banking on the International Level
A definition of international shadow banking
International shadow banking is a term that originated from pre-recessionary period in 2007 and was popularised in pose recession period. The term invited the attention of financial experts and researchers towards the emergence of non-banking entities playing banking role. Hence, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) formally identified their existence and role by defining the term shadow banking system (Pozsar et al., 2012).
It regarded non-banking entities as intermediaries in the financial system but external to the banking system. It is not only because they perform banking activities, but also because they perform certain other activities which are not part of the banking system. The definition was considered as valid and readily accepted (Pozsar et al., 2012).
No objection was raised upon the point that there are certain entities which are not banks but playing an active role in…
Pozsar, Z. et al. (2012). Shadow Banking. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Staff Reports. Taken from: http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/staff_reports/sr458.pdf
FSB. (2012a). Strengthening Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking: A Policy Framework for Addressing Shadow Banking Risks in Securities Lending and Repos. Taken from: http://www.financialstabilityboard.org/publications/r_121118b.pdf
FSB. (2012b). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from: http://www.financialstabilityboard.org/press/pr_121118.pdf
FSB. (2012c). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from: http://www.financialstabilityboard.org/publications/r_121118c.pdf
financial assets in order to recommend the appropriate investment vehicle for the client. Analysis of different investment vehicles shows that ETFs are the best investment option for our clients. The ETFs are the basket of securities that combine stocks, bonds, cash, commodities and other securities. The report diversifies our investment options choosing the stocks, bonds and cash from different industries. Based on the historical data, our average annual returns are 38% revealing EU 32,997 as our annual returns from our initial investment capital of EU 100,000. After 3 years, the net worth of our investor will be EU 457,901, which include the cumulative returns and the capital. However, the net worth of our investor will be EU 5.38 Million after 10 years. The report also carries out the sensitive analysis on the investment option assuming that our investment choice is affected by the macroeconomic forces. The report reduces our annual…
Costa, D. (2011). The Portable Private Banker Investing Efficiently through Mutual Funds and ETFs. UK. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Costa, D. (2011). The Triumph of Intelligence. UK. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
David White & Associates (2011).The Benefits of Diversification. USA.
Justice, P. (2013). ETF Investor Recommendations for commonsense ETF investing. Morningstar Investment Report .
Value of Money
I would define the time value of money as the value of what that money could be earning between the present day and the future time that one could have the same amount of money. In addition to the financial earnings, I would factor in opportunity costs to my calculation of the time value of money, because it is important to consider what opportunities, not simply earning opportunities but general opportunities, one would miss by not having that money available in the present time. In other words, the time value of money is what one will have to make in the future to replace the money that is missing now combined with the opportunities lost in the interim.
It is critical for financial managers to understand the concept of the time value of money, because it is the whole concept behind financial planning. Many people who seek…
The operating decisions that must be made by Thomas Money include the level of output that the company needs to have in response to the prevailing economic conditions. The company is facing a difficult economic environment at present. Thomas Money's performance is strongly correlated with economic measures that focus on construction, such as new housing starts and new business or institutional construction. In the current environment, housing starts are entering into a long period of decline following the bursting of an unsustainable housing bubble (Byun, 2010). The one bright spot in Thomas Money's business is that there is strength in institutional construction in the health care industry, as the elderly population increases, driving increased demand for health care services (no author, 2007). However, this improvement is not enough to keep Thomas Money's customer in business and as a result the company is facing a high level of repossessions.…
No author. (2007). Health care demand rising, population aging: The imperative to increase physician supply. Health Care News. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from http://www.gnyha.org/5834/File.aspx
Byun, K. (2010). The U.S. housing bubble and bust: Impacts on employment. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved February 3, 2012 from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2010/12/art1full.pdf
Landsburg, L. (2007). Comparative advantage. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Topics/Details/comparativeadvantage.html
Investopedia. (2011). Interest rate parity. Investopedia. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/interestrateparity.asp#axzz1lFGk3bQ3
What is Money?
Money is anything that is accepted as a form of payment and in the modern world this typically currency. Today's currency is essentially created by governments, and backed by their ability to tax. Thus, money today derives from both the legitimacy of the state and from the revenues of the state. Money is typically issued by a central bank, and it has considerable leeway with respect to how much money it issues. The value of money is determined by the supply of and the demand for money.
The supply of money is controlled, as we've said, by the central bank. Demand for money is based on the need for that currency to make transactions. So demand for Japanese yen is in part related to how much yen people need to buy goods and services from Japan. The same is true of all currencies, including the U.S.…
CIA World Factbook: Puerto Rico. (2013). Retrieved May 3, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rq.html
Investopedia (2013). What is money. Investopedia. Retrieved May 3, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/03/061303.asp
Value of Money
My SLP company is Wal-Mart. For me I would pay less than $100,000 for this bond, because I know that the $100,000 face value of the bond is not going to have the same purchasing power in a year as it does today. The value of the bond will therefore be less than $100,000, based on the prevailing interest rate. Wal-Mart is a company with a high amount of cash flow that is quite reliable. Thus it is not expected that Wal-Mart would pay much in the way of interest, maybe 2% per year. This implies the value of the bond would be around $98,000.
The discount rate for this bond, based on a $98,000 price, would be 2.04%, as calculated by ($100,000 -- 98,000) / 98000. This reflects the return that the bond offers to the investor.
Target is a company in the same industry as…
Demand for Money
Money in economics terms can be defined by holding cash or non-interest bearing bank accounts. Since these holdings are less advantages than interest bearing accounts or some form of investment, there has to be some motivation to keep cash or completely liquid assets. There are a range of different motivations that can be used to describe these behaviors. However, most of them use liquidity in one form or another. For example, it is necessary to have liquid assets to make purchases or pay bills for example. So if an individual gets their paycheck they may deposit a portion of the check into some form of investment account, while keeping a portion of it liquid to cover their monthly living expenses.
An individual may also move money to a liquid account if they are planning to make a purchase in the short-term. The demand for holding money can…
Charusheela, S., & Danby, C. (1998). Macro Notes 3: Money Demand. Retrieved from Washington University: http://faculty.washington.edu/danby/notes/notes12.html
Davis, B., Karemera, D., & Whitesides, L. (2013). The intertemporal stability of the U.S. money demand function: new evidence from switching regressions. Applied Economics Letters, 581-586.
Dobnik, F. (2013). Long-run money demand in OECD countries: what role do common factors play? Empirical Economics, 89-113.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. (2014). M1 Money Stock. Retrieved from Economic Research: http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2 /series/M1#
Online banking, the ability to conduct banking transactions on the Web, is revolutionizing the way that consumers bank. ehind this transformation is information technology. With its use, banks have been able to scale and secure transactions, provide the same and often more functionality than brick-and-mortar banks and evolve from mass marketing to one-to-one marketing.
The popularity of online banking is soaring with more than fifty million adults banking online in the United States as of November, 2004, an increase of forty-seven percent during the past two years (Sullivan, 2005). It is the fastest-growing Internet activity. Home broadband connections are credited with driving consumer adoption. Those with broadband access are about twice as likely to have tried online banking as users with dial-up connections because broadband encourages users to do more activities online. Demographic characteristics of those more likely to have broadband access include consumers between the ages of…
Fields, J.(2001, September). CRM and financial Services: like money in the bank. CRM Magazine. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.destinationcrm.com/articles/default.asp?ArticleID=1043
Hoffman, K.E.(2003, March/April). Beyond the firewalls. BAI Banking Strategies. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.bai.org/bankingstrategies/2003-mar-apr/beyond/print.asp
Katz, I. (2005, February 5). Online banking victim files suit; $90,000 lifted from account traced to Latvia. Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/local/southflorida/sfl-zlopez05feb05,0,7861225.story?coll=sfla-home-headlines
Miranda, A.L. (2002, June 21). Information technology in financial services. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from Web site: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/inimr-ri.nsf/fr/gr111851f.html
Credit isk Management
Banks are an important part of the economy of any nation. Traditionally, the banks operate as financial intermediaries serving to satisfy the demand of people in need of various forms of financing. Through this, banks enable people to purchase home and businesses to expand. These financial institutions therefore facilitate investment and spending that are responsible for fueling the growth of the economy. In spite of their vital role in the economy, they are nevertheless prone to failure and just like other types of businesses, they also go bankrupt. Unfortunately, the failure of banks can have many and significant implications than any other type of business. As witnessed during the great depression, and in recent times following the global economic crisis and recession, the stability or lack of it in the banking system could trigger economic epidemics that would impact millions of people. With respect to this, it…
Bank for International Settlements (BIS). (2001). Consultative Document -- Overview of The New Basel Capital Accord. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (1988) "International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards" (www.bis.org/publ/bcbs04A.pdf).
Benston, G.J. (1998) "Regulating Financial Markets: A Critique and Some Proposals." Hobart Paper no. 135. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Blundell-Wignall, A., Atkinson, P. And Roulet, C. (2013). Bank Business Models and the Basel System: Complexity and Interconnectedness. OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends, Issue 2.
Ethics, Values, Social esponsibility
Bailout of Banking Industry in United States
Ethical Compliance by Banking Industry
It is quite common in American history that government comes for the rescue of companies and organization in the time of financial crisis. General motors' acquisition was one such example where saving GM meant saving the nation. When Government takes measure for the welfare of any segment of the economy, it then becomes responsibility of the organizations that they comply with social responsibility and ethical standards so that it should respond to its social character and use the benefits provided by the government in the honest fashion. The recent bailout of banking sector by U.S. government, and the misappropriation and misuse of these funds, have raised a big question mark on the compliance to ethical standards by the bank.
United States government has a long history of bailing out its financial institutions. Some of…
Amadeo, K. (2012). What Exactly Was the Bank Bailout Bill? retrieved from http://useconomy.about.com/od/criticalssues/a/govt_bailout.htm
Applebaum, B. (2009). Financial Rescue I.G. Says Banks Funneled TARP Aid to Various Expenses, The Washington Post, Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/19/AR2009071901770.html?nav=hcmodule
Congressional Budget Office. (2010), Report on the Troubled Asset Relief Program -- November 2010, Retrieved from http://www.cbo.gov/publication/21942
Davis, M. (2009). Top 6 U.S. Government Financial Bailouts, Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/08/government-financial-bailout.asp#axzz1ujUlc2ZS
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…
Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.
Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .
Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005. http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
USAA Online Banking Analysis:
Assessment of Positive & negative Impacts & ecommendations
The USAA online banking system has been specifically designed to provide the financial institution's customers with reliable, secure and virtual access to their accounts and supporting banking transactions globally. Through the use of any Internet browser, USAA banking customers can quickly sign in, access and view account information, transfer funds, and set up and use automated payments for their personal and business-related bills. There are also a series of preferences which can be configured by customers to further tailor their online bank accounts to their specific needs. This is particularly useful for creating automated bill payment alerts and transactions to make sure bills are paid on or before the due date, new loan or savings accounts are securely created and managed, and enabling cash transfers to USAA and other financial institutions' accounts. One of the most…
Chong, A.Y., Keng-Boon Ooi, Lin, B., & Tan, B. (2010). Online banking adoption: An empirical analysis. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 28(4), 267-287.
Claessens, J., Dem, V., De Cock, D., Preneel, B., & Vandewalle, J. (2002). On the security of Today's online electronic banking systems. Computers & Security, 21(3), 253-265.
Lim, N., Yeow, P.H.P., & Yuen, Y.Y. (2010). An online banking security framework and a cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 13(3), 39-62.
Mavri, M., & Ioannou, G. (2006). Consumers' perspectives on online banking services. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(6), 552.
Marketing in Banking
The topic being researched for this doctoral work is marketing in the banking industry. Before delving into the research too much for this topic, the researcher will first enumerate the goals that are to be attained. These goals, as also suggested by the parameters of the assignment, include meeting proper validity and reliability standards, avoiding bias, not posing hypotheses or ideas that are self-fulfilling prophecies or that have desired answers on the part of the researcher. There is also the consideration of using critical reasoning and strong logic skills so as to avoid making conclusions that are not supported by the evidence and/or that are completely contradicted by that same evidence (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010).
eliability & Validity
eliability and validity are two hallmarks of any good research and they must both be satisfied for the research outcomes to have any staying power or good ongoing reputation…
Leedy, P.D., & Ormrod, J.E. (2010): Pages 1-8, 28-35
Morris, F. (2009, October 2). Enforcing the Law - Eight Years Later. New York Times.
Retrieved August 18, 2013, from economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/02/
e. no standardization) b) Diamonds: good medium of exchange
Peaches: perishable, differences in quality (i.e. no standardization) d) Grade a Honey: differences in quality (i.e. no standardization), difficult to transport e) Ice in a warm climate: perishable, difficult to store a. Over the long run, what is the primary determinant of the price level? Supply and demand, with price acting as an equilibrator b. Over the long run, what is the primary determinant of inflation?
The supply of money as compared to changes in productivity.
c. How is inflation related to the nominal interest rate?
Expectations of future inflation are one of the key factors in determining the nominal interest rate, the other being the 'core' interest rate, or the inflation-free level at which one is willing to lend money (which differs according to the issuer and associated risk premium).
4. Describe each of the following financial institutions. If it…
Another issue worth mentioning is that prior to the acquisition of 2007, the BB&T employees were already being offered training programs in convenience banking. The programs were basically revolving around the techniques which would be implemented by the organization. In this order of ideas, the most focus was placed on the De Le ue coin counting machine and the Datacard 150i instant issue debit card machine. Employees were taught how to operate, maintain, balance and audit the according operations. Emphasis was also placed on the elationship Bankers in reference to the new account bounding process including free gifts and the efer-a-Friend process. The improvement plan sees the continued training programs which teach staff members how to most efficiently operate the new systems and how to explain their benefits and functionality to the customers. Also, BB&T should remain channelled on the emergent changes affecting the market and the industry and should…
2009, BB&T Corporation, Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/bb&t/--ID__14758 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on February 9, 2009
2009, Website of the BB&T Corporation, http://www.bbt.com/last accessed on February 9, 2009
2007, InSite Communicating Within, BB&T Insite
Coastal Federal Bank Unveils the Carolina's Most Convenient Bank, PR Newswire
CS in Saudi Arabian Banking
Social esponsibility: Attitudes, Actualities, and Possible Areas of Advancement in Saudi Arabian Banking
The global financial system has become increasingly smaller and more complex, with individual countries and their financial and banking infrastructures more intertwined and mutually dependent on each other. Because of this, understanding the role that banking systems and entities play in the social and political spheres is essential for policy makers and for individuals working in the banking sector. Of special importance are the social responsibilities that are borne by banks and the banking industry, which can vary greatly from country to country, based on a multitude of factors. The research described and proposed herein will yield a greater understanding of how these responsibilities are viewed by bankers in Saudi Arabia.
Scholarship on Saudi Arabia's banking industry has focused almost entirely on the financial implications for the country and the globe of…
Babbie, E. (2009). The practice of social research Mason, OH: Cengage.
Breakwell, G. (2006). Research methods in psychology Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Butters, A. (2009) "Saudi's small steps" Time 174(15), pp. 44-77
Campbell, J. (2007). "Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility" Academy of Management Review 32(3), pp 946 -- 967
Demand for Money
The international community is currently facing the most severe crisis since the Great Depression of 1929 -- 1933. It started within the American real estate sector and soon expanded to the rest of the sectors, as well as to the rest of the global economies.
The causes and impacts of the crisis have often been discussed in the media and within the specialized literature, and the discussion is far from over. Still, this approach to the crisis is more descriptive and reflective. At this stage nonetheless, it is necessary to implement a proactive approach through which to promote solutions to overcoming the crisis.
Governments across the globe have each developed and implemented their own solutions to the crisis, ranging primarily from injecting capitals in the troubled industry sectors and companies, to efforts aimed at reducing federal costs. In the completion of these efforts, a crucial role is…
Bae, Y., De Jong, R.M., 2005, Money demand function estimation by non-linear conintegration, Ohio State University, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/1999/wp9964.pdf last accessed on January 17, 2012
Balnaves, M., Caputi, P., 2001, Introduction to quantitative research methods: an investigative approach, SAGE
Barth, R.C., Hemphill, W.L., Aganina, I., 2000, Financial programming and policy: the case of Turkey, Vol. 1, International Monetary Fund
Canova, L., 2006, Estimating demand for money in Jamaica, Munich Personal RePEc Archive, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/1023/1/MPRA_paper_1023.pdf last accessed on January 17, 2012
Still, since it is looking to sell a property asset that is not their main residence, they will be required to pay a capital gains tax, in the amount of 18 per cent (Direct Gov). For an estimated retail price of £150,150, and a tax rate of 18 per cent, Olly Lloyd would have to pay £27,027 in taxes.
For the new employment contract, Lloyd would have to pay taxes in the amount of £5,281. The sum is decreased significantly by deductions adherent to contributions made by Olly to the pension funds (Listen to Taxman).
c) Suggestions for financial management
Leone Lloyd-Cardle is, without a doubt, facing severe problems. In order to restore the responsibility and stability of her financial decisions, the following financial management recommendations are made:
Discussing the problem with her husband. Having reached such a high level of debt indicates severe problems which cannot be overcome by…
Davis, E.P., 2009, Financial stability in the United Kingdom: banking on prudence, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 717, http://www.ephilipdavis.com/uk%20financial%20stability%20oecd.pdf last accessed on December 19, 2011
Inmann, P., 2008, Traders predict house prices will fall by 50% in four years, The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/jun/09/housingmarket.houseprices last accessed on December 19, 2011
2009, Residence, domicile and the remittance basis: operation changes, HM Revenue and Customs, http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/briefs/income-tax/brief1709.htm last accessed on December 19, 2011
2011, Tax liability, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/taxliability.asp#axzz1gxx7hXX1 last accessed on December 19, 2011
If the Federal Reserve requirement is 10%, the money multiplier is 10, meaning that banks can lend out 90% of every dollar they receive as illustrated by the following example of multiple deposit creation (Larsson, 2005):
John deposits $10,000 into his checking account at ank a.
ank a Deposit: $10,000
Reserve (10%): $1,000
Lendable Amount: $9,000
Mary borrows $9,000 from ank a and buys a car. The car dealer then deposits $9,000 into their account at ank .
Reserve (10%): $900
Lendable Amount: $8,100
Mark borrows $8,100 from ank . And has surgery. The doctor then deposits $8,100 into his account at ank C.
Reserve (10%): $810
Lendable Amount: $7,290
This process continues until the lendable amount is 0. When M1 is measured, the original $10,000 deposit will have created a total of $100,000 in deposits system wide (Larsson, 2005).
Beale, L. How banks create money. Retrieved October 20, 2006 from Web site: http://ecedweb.unomaha.edu/ve/library/HBCM.PDF
Larsson, T. (2005, February 1). How banks create money. Retrieved October 20, 2006 from Web site: http://www.gold-investor.com/article.php/20050201204730229
Obringer. L.A. How banks work. Retrieved October 20, 2006 from Web site: http://money.howstuffworks.com/bank1.htm
Although this does not necessarily have an immediate monetary translation, it shows that the individual will prefer to receive his money and dispose of them earlier rather than later on.
On the other hand, we can indeed see that the present value of money is greater if we can deposit the money received at time t0 to a simple deposit account, with a certain interest rate. We will expect that amount of money to gradually increase over time and to reach a higher value some time in the future. As we can see from this example, the time value of money does not only fluctuate, but actually increases from moment t0 to moment t1.
3. Does one always earn the yield to maturity on bonds? Explain.
Not necessarily. In order to best explain this, we need to further clarify the concept of yield to maturity on bonds. The final yield…
In the long run, the volatility of money supply will also only cause changes in inflation rate and thus the nominal GDP of the country, as believed by monetarists, as the markets are believed to be always approaching their full employment rate.
But with evolution of capital markets and appearance of numerous wealth capitalization methods besides holding M1, the velocity of money became very variable rather than stable and equal to one, which made scholars hesitate on the validity of Quantity Theory of Money, while equation of exchange is supported by majority of economics schools.
Besides many contributions made by Knut Wicksell into the economic theory, the major appreciated work is the interest theory implications from his work Interest and Prices, where he separated the notion of monetary interest rate, or interest rate derived from the capital markets; and the natural interest rate, or the interest rate neutral to the…
References Available at http://ingrimayne.com/econ/Money/Equation.html
Friedman, Milton and Schwartz, Anna J. (1965). The Great Contraction 1929-1933. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Available at http://www.econweb.com/MacroWelcome/monetarism/notes.html#3Available at http://www.dallasfed.org/research/ei/ei0401.html . Available at
Functions of Money
CheckPoint Money esource: Money: Its Functions Characteristics Submit a 250- 300-word response addressing points: • Money acts a unit account, medium exchange, a store . Describe functions. • Provide money functions.
Money is defined according to it three major function. It is in many cases referred to as a store of value, unit of account and a medium of exchange. Money is any item that is legally satisfying the needs for undertaking a transaction in an economy Woodford M., 2000()
Money as a Unit of Account
A unit of account means assigning a value to goods and services in the economy Woodford M., 2000.
This function of money assigns money the key role of designating value to tradable items in an economy. Money as a unit of account indicates what buyers and seller are willing to part with or receive.
When one visits a suit merchant,…
Woodford M. (2000). "Monetary Policy in a World Without Money." International Finance, 3(229-260).
value of money is perhaps the most critical concept in modern financial theory. According to Bianco & Poole (2010), "While executives and academics often disagree, they all agree that the time value of money (TVM) is the most important finance concept that should be taught in introductory finance classes" (Gup, 1994) Undergraduate business students are typically exposed to time value of money concepts in more than one course. Introductory accounting and financial management courses always cover TVM. Students are often taught this subject in mathematics and other general business courses. Many techniques are utilized for teaching and solving TVM problems including formulas, tables, financial calculators and spreadsheets." (Bianco, Poole, 2010)
In my opinion, the idea for TVM is important due to the notion that a dollar invested today increase the value of dollars earned today due to the value of receiving P + i, which is principal plus interest. According…
Bianco, C.A., Nelson, D.T. & Poole, B.S. 2010, "Teaching Time Value of Money," The Business Review, Cambridge, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 25.
Croft, J. 2010, Littlewoods fights for ruling on VAT refund treatment, The Financial Times Limited.
Schwartz, M.A. 1991, "Time Value of Money," The National Public Accountant, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 6.
Marketing in the anking Industry
Prescott Valley, Arizona
Abridged Literature Review
While there are many industries in the world that are growing at a rapid pace, one of them is exceedingly doing well. This is because it relies upon the monies and funds of its customers and greatly influences the other industries as well. This is the banking industry. Although a common part of every consumer's life, the banking industry has been growing and developing globally. To understand such growth, the attention instantly goes to the strategic and marketing techniques that have been applied by the people of this industry. Therefore, to gain a thorough and concise outlook of the marketing wonders that have continue to enable the banking industry to succeed at all fronts, the research topic that has been proposed for this research paper is 'marketing in the banking industry'. This topic will not only…
Berger, A.N. (2003). The Economic Effects of Technological Progress: Evidence from the Banking Industry. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, Volume 35.
Chaneta, D.I. (2010). Marketing: Packaging and Branding. Journal of Comprehensive Research, Volume 8, 19-30.
Flaunet, M. (2012). Banking Industry Challenges. Retrieved from Deloitte: http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_LU/lu/industries/banking-securities/banking-industry-challenges/#.UlTYD9KBlac
Jr., G.P., & Hoskins, L. (2006). The Case for Market-Based Regulation. Cato Journal, Vol. 26, No. 3, 469-487.
Money Its Value?
Using objects such as shells, coins, and other things of value to a community or individual has been practiced for thousand of years. If a close enough look could be taken, spending "money" probably started with Adam and Eve. When this exchange of tokens of some sort takes place, the tokens acquire a worth and enable the spender to obtain goods or services.
Money is defined as, "any definite or indefinite object which has value to both parties involved in the transaction." (Webster's New World Dictionary, 2nd College Edition).
Many different goods have been used as money throughout history. Over the centuries, only two commodities, gold and silver, have emerged as money in the free competition of the market, and have displaced the other commodities. In a free market, the medium of exchange is developed by people and their economic interactions. This is what establishes what money…
Investments are the assets or items purchased with the anticipation to generate the income in the future. In the economic sense, investments refer to the goods and services purchased and not consumed today for the purpose of generating wealth in the future. Similarly, going to a university or building a factory to produce goods and services are the examples of investments. Within a financial environment, investors purchase assets with the hope that they will appreciate in the future, thus, creating wealth for the investors. Examples of investment in the financial circle include purchasing of stocks, or real estate property with the anticipation that they will appreciate in the future. Despite the benefits that can be derived from the investment purpose, the investment is not something an individual can take lightly. Investors are to implement a careful planning to reap the benefits of an investment. Typically, an investor can lose his…
Costa, D. (2011). The Portable Private Banker Investing Efficiently through Mutual Funds and ETFs. UK. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Morningstar (2014). Exchange Traded Funds, Morningstar website. Avaliable from:
Morningstar (2014). ProShares Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology BIB, Morningstar website. Avaliable from: http://performance.morningstar.com/funds/etf/total-returns.action?t=BIB®ion=usa&culture=en-U.S .
After reading both of the articles for these assignments, I actually do think that universities should enter into affinity agreements with universities. There are simply too many benefits to this approach to rightfully consider terminating these agreements between credit card companies and universities. Additionally, the vast majority of the detriments of these agreements are readily mitigated by a number of precautionary measures, the vast majority of which were previously implemented near the end of the last decade (Lederman, 2010).
There is no disputing the financial benefits associated with affinity agreements between universities and credit card companies. It is key to realize that universities in particular are able to capitalize on these agreements. In fact, there are a number of examples of universities that have earned millions of dollars in revenue (Silver-Greenberg, 2007) simply by letting credit card companies take priority on their campuses with affinity agreements, in which the…
Lederman, D. (2015). Credit cards and campuses. www.insidehighered.com Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/02/19/credit
Silver-Greenberg, J. (2007). The dirty secret life of campus credit cards. www.bloomberg.com Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/stories/2007-09-06/the-dirty-secret-of-campus-credit-cardsbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Video Tape and Disc ental
Health and Personal Care Stores
Table 2: Comparisons of Most isky Small Business (BizStats.com, cited by Telberg, 2003)
An Engine of Economic Growth
More and more, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) argue, policymakers perceive the small business sector "as a potential engine of economic growth. Policies to promote small businesses include tax relief, direct subsidies, and indirect subsidies through government lending programs." These authors stress that encouraging lending to small business purports the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) primary policy objective of the loan-guarantee program. In their study, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) implement empirical research to focus on SBA-guaranteed lending, utilizing a panel data set of SBA-guaranteed loans, they assess whether SBA-guaranteed lending discernibly impacts local economic performance. Ultimately, these authors cautiously conclude that "There is a positive (although small) and significant relationship between the level of SBA-guaranteed lending in…
Authority, purpose and scope. (2002). EXTENSIONS of CREDIT by FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (REGULATION a). Retrieved November 10, 2007, at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=57016e116171461106934124459aa8aa&rgn=div5&view=text&node=1-2:126.96.36.199.1&idno=12#12:188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108945401
Bannock, G. (2005). The Economics and Management of Small Business: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108945415
Bielski, L. (2006). On the Hunt for the Meaningful Segment: With a Deluge of Customer Information to Choose from, Bankers Struggle to See Their Customers in More Refined, Specific Ways. ABA Banking Journal, 98(9), 45+. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017258794
Brew, J. (2007). Taxes: The Forgotten Piece of Bank Profits Investigating Two Overlooked Strategies Could Put You on Your Way to Cutting Taxes by Half. Got Your Attention?. ABA Banking Journal, 99(5), 22+. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020964964
English Right of Set-Off and Combination in the Circumstance of Insolvency
The right of combination and set-off, as developed under English law offer a number of safeguards to banks and creditors in general. These rights were expanded under the principles that they were necessary to effect substantial justice and that they would stimulate economic growth and trade. In the following paper, I suggest that the judicial application of these rights has tended to unfairly favor banks at the expense of the individual customer, which may initially stimulate growth by encouraging banks to provide loans, but in the long-term may serve to deteriorate trade, particularly at the international level. Customers in other countries, particularly civil law countries, experience much more risk when they do business with an English bank, and hence may be better off refraining from bringing their enterprises there, or at any rate must be extremely careful in drawing…
Aldrich, George. The jurisprudence of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal. New York: Oxford University Press (1996)
Collier, John & Lowe, Vaughn. The Settlement of Disputes in International Law: Institutions and Procedures. New York: Oxford University Press (1999)
Pritchard, Robert. ed. Economic Development, Foreign Investment and the Law: Issues of Private Sector Involvement, Foreign Investment and the Rule of Law in a New Era. Boston: Kluwer Law International, International Bar Association. (1996)
Jan Paulsson, Nigel Rawding, Lucy Reed, Eric Schwartz, The Freshfields Guide to Arbitration & ADR (2nd revised ed.), Boston: Kluwer Law International (1999)
Bankwest is an Australian banking institution that provides banking services to all Australians equally. This bank is a relatively old institution. It has been in operation for over a hundred years building a reputation of community involvement and support that exudes compassion and benevolence. They do this by supporting many charitable projects and organizations in addition to a number of banking services such as Some of those being retail, business, institutional, investing funds management, "superannuation, insurance and investment and share broking" (Bankwest About 2011).
Bankwest was founded in 1895. At that time it was the Agriculture Bank of Western Australia. The government in Australia designed the bank to build up the farm production industry (Bankwest History 2011).
Several years later in 1945, the bank started trading on the stock exchange on experienced growth on the western area of Australia. Eventually becoming an industry leader in the market (Bankwest History 2011).…
BankWest.com: CaseStudy. 2010. Industry Specialization Media Awards. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/Media_Centre/Bankwest_Awards/Best_of_the_Best_2010/index.aspx [12 March 2011].
Tribe, A. 2011. Business. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/Business / > [13 March 2011].
BankWest.com:Community. 2011. About Community Sponsorships. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/About_Us/Community_Sponsorships/index.aspx > [12 March 2011].
BankWest.com: Home Loans. 2011. Personal Home Loans. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/Personal/Home_Loans / > [ 12 March 2011].
exchange of currency have proliferated the Internet marketing world. Customers have faster and easier access to methods of exchange, deposits and payments, than ever before and the changes have come rapidly as more and more Internet commerce demands more and more ease of exchange. A global economy requires global economic infrastructure solutions to exchange of funds and to a large degree the Internet market has answered the call for change and availability of services. Yet, the substantial growth of Internet sales has also, arguably caused the growth of subsystems and infrastructural shifts that might not have been implemented with full knowledge of the implications of such actions. With security at risk and issues of currency exchange rates, not to mention global monetary regulations consumers must be aware of the type of services they are using and the way it might affect the efficacy of their transaction.
Internet Marketing not only…
Plander, B. "Credit Card Processing" http://www.west-wind.com/webconnection/MerchantProviders.asp
Phase 5 "RBC Case Study" http://www.phase-5.com/p5-case_studies/bank_tracking.php
Hoovers Online "Fact Sheet PayPal" http://www.hoovers.com/paypal/--ID__61321 -- /free-co-fin-factsheet.xhtml
In either case, privacy issues were known to be much more complicated than mere issues of personal secrecy. In fact, as Richard Posner suggested more than 20 years ago, there is a fundamental economics of personal privacy -- an economics that is in large part responsible for, and untiringly organic to, our Constitution.
It is feasible, therefore, that there are rudimentary, biological, economic bases at the very roots of humankind's insatiable desire and need for privacy and security. (Posner, 1983)
As Mcride's research further indicates, "In 2002, the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies initiated Project Guardian: Maintaining Civil Liberties in the Information Age. The effort is aimed at shepherding discussion from all qualified voices on issues central to the tradeoff between privacy and security, particularly as this balance is threatened, or is perceived to be compromised, by advances in technology. Guardian is enriching the discussion by establishing a rigorous, multiway…
1) David Brin. "Coming Full Circle -- 21st Century Defense Will Stress Citizenship." Proceedings from Out of the Box and into the Future. Arlington, Va.: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, 2001.
2) Michael Fitzgerald. "Alien lands big Gillette deal, but privacy is not on razor's edge." Small Times. 24 January 2003. www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=5363.
3) Amitai Etzioni. The Limits of Privacy. New York: Basics Books, 1999.
4) Richard a. Posner. The Economics of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983.
electronic money, and a description into the various types of electronic money.
Computers and telecommunications devices may come in place of paper currency and checks - during a course of time. Also, electronic ways of transaction of money have turned out widely prevalent. Anyhow, in the recent past debate about "electronic money" has witnessed a dramatic change, narrowing down to the level to which new ways of electronic money will in course of time turn central banks out of date, making them fragile that they cannot manipulate inflation. (Stevens, 72) Electronic money can be considered in terms of electronic substitute for coins and banknotes, which is saved on an electronic gadget such as a chip card or computer memory and which overall is meant for the reason of influencing electronic payments of restricted loans. (Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2)
Electronic money is not…
Bank of International settlements, (BIS). Security of Digital Money. Basel, 1996, 1-11
Board of Governors (BoG) of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve System: Purpose & Functions. Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve System. 1994, 1-18.
Bonorris, Steven. Institute for Technology Assessment (ITA) (ed.): Digital Money: Industry and Public Policy Issues. Washington: ITA, October 1997, 44
Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2000, Official Journal of the European Communities, 27 October, 2000, 1-10
edit this based on what I have.
Please do not change the paragraph. You can edit by each paragraph.
A more stable gold standard monetary system can be one of the solutions used to help the economy. However, given the lack of gold during the Opium War and the shortage of silver, the Qing government was not able to import gold at the time. Even so, the stable gold standard is a good way to develop a strong economic foundation. However, the Qing government should have stabilized the silver price so as to prevent inflation and deprecation.
Lijin was a system of taxation during the Taiping Rebellion in Qing China. The Qing government used this in order to expand the military budget and to collect more in taxes from the people. It was a 1% tax and was levied on all commercial transactions. As the tax became more widely practiced…
Spatial tracking systems that make banks' floor plans and product positioning more effective;
5. Intelligent interactive displays that reflect the interests of the watcher;
6. Use of wireless tablet personal computers (PCs) for client interviewing; and,
7. Videoconference virtual experts for collaborative selling (56).
The same features that characterize high performance banks in their brick-and-mortar operations appear to relate to the use of technology as well, with the best performing banks having identified the optimum mix of services for the markets they serve. For instance, Grasing reports that, "Banks are taking a variety of approaches in implementing technology to make improvements in retail delivery. The methods differ, depending on the bank management's mindset toward the purpose of the software and its valued place in the new business or service delivery processes" (3). The main point in this area is that high performance banks apply technology in ways that help minimize…
Bielski, Lauren. (2007). "Today's Elements Tomorrow's Branch: The Branch Was Supposed to Phase out. It Hasn't and May Never. What Will the Branch of the Future Feature? Self
Service and Collaboration." ABA Banking Journal 99(6): 55-57.
DePrince, Albert E., William F. Ford and Thomas H. Strickland. (1999). "The New High
Performers Stretch Their Lead." ABA Banking Journal 91(11): 36.
Commonwealth Bank of Australia
etail Banking Service
Premium Business Services
Marketing Strategies at CBA
National Australia Bank
Australian and New Zealand Banking Group
Western Pacific Bank
Sustainable Competitive Advantage
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Commonwealth Bank of Australia
Commonwealth Bank of Australia:
Headquartered in Sydney, Australia, Commonwealth Bank of Australia or CBA is one of the four large banks of Australia. The bank was established in 1911 as a government bank, since then, it has seen tremendous growth. Today, Commonwealth Bank of Australia is a multinational bank with operations across United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK), Fiji, New Zeeland and Asia. The bank got privatized in 1996, with issuances of shares worth 1.2 Billion USD in 1991, 1.7 Billion USD in 1993, and 5 Billion USD in 1996. As of January, 2008, Commonwealth Bank of Australia was the second largest Australian listed company…
Anz.com. 2014. Personal - Online Banking | ANZ. [online] Available at: http://www.anz.com/personal / [Accessed: 29 Mar 2014].
Commbank.com.au. 2014. Personal - Commonwealth Bank. [online] Available at: https://www.commbank.com.au / [Accessed: 29 Mar 2014].
Commbank.com.au. 2014. Tools - Commonwealth Bank. [online] Available at: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/ConsumptionTax.html
A debit card Christmas. (2009, November). Economics Week, 165. Retrieved November 25,
2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1903084411)
This means those companies that are in industries that are exposed to tremendous amounts of volatility should be engaging in these activities. Some of the different areas they will become involved in are: currencies, stocks, futures, options and commodities. The reason why, is because these kinds of companies are often exposed to large swings that could happen at any point in time (due to adverse changes in the economy or the markets). This will have a negative effect on earnings and it will become difficult from them to make accurate projections. When a company begins using hedging, this will provide more consistent earnings stability to their business model. This is point that they can provide more stable returns to shareholders.
However, not all firms should be hedging. In some cases, this activity could be considered to be speculation. As, the hedge may not provide any kind significant benefit to the…
Thomas, M, 2005, Hedging Instruments and Risks. McGraw Hill, New York.
3. Future Value (of an investment)
The future value of money is the amount that it will grow to after a specified time in the future. In the previous example, the future value of $10,000 after 1 year is $10,450. In the 2nd year, the future value is $10,920.25. In the 3rd year, the future value is $11,411.66. Let's say we want to get $10,000 after 3 years (future value). Assuming that the interest rate is still 4.5%, the money that we should have right now (present value) should be $8,762.97. We can see this in the following computations:
After 1st year: $8,762.97 + 4.5% = $9,157.30
After 2nd year: $9,157.30 + 4.5% = $9,569.38
After 3rd year: $9,569.38 + 4.5% = $10,000
This further illustrates the fact that the same $10,000 in the future (3 years from now) is only worth $8,762.97 in the present (Croome 2003).
Garrison, Sharon (2006). StudyFinance.com. "Time Value of Money" Retrieved November 10, 2006 at http://www.studyfinance.com/lessons/timevalue/index.mv
Croome, Shauna (August 27, 2003). "Understanding the Time Value of Money" Retrieved November 10, 2006 at http://www.investopedia.com/articles/03/082703.asp
Wikipedia contributors (2006). "Opportunity cost." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opportunity_cost
Wikipedia contributors (2006). "Rule of 72." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_72
For Love and Money: The Ambiguity of Agency and Morality in O. Henry's "Mammon and the Archer"
illiam Sydney Porter, better known by his penname O. Henry, was a prolific author of short stories, and especially so when the brief span of his writing career is considered. The brevity of this career and the impetus for its undertaking allow for highly informative readings of O. Henry's short stories, though they do not necessarily make these stories any more conclusive in their statements on morality. "Mammon and the Archer" is a quintessential O. Henry short story in several regards: it deals with love and money as themes, it ends happily though with a surprising and somewhat ambiguous twist, and it contains comments on morality without making any real moral judgments. ith an adult life that included a constant search for jobs and a stint in prison as well as…
Bloom, Harold. O. Henry. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House Publishers, 1999.
Eggert, Marijke. "Is the short story 'The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry still relevant today?" Seminar Paper. Accessed 20 October 2012. http://books.google.com/books?id=_HJbRhq2-h4C&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=o+henry+criticism&source=bl&ots=D1e1HZh_QK&sig=l5COQwKjMQLbKmyzQSvUpUp2TYc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=21mDUIy2EInUigKzioHICQ&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q&f=false
Henry, O. "Mammon and the Archer." Accessed 20 October 2012. http://www.literaturecollection.com/a/o_henry/36/
A much more important avenue of interdiction to combat terrorism (and the drug trade, for that matter) is money laundering, by which money for illegal goods and services changes hands on the black market. Money laundering is facilitated by corruption within state institutions and international banks and can be most effectively fought there (Blank, 2001). Some potentially effective means of reducing money laundering include: providing more oversight and transparency to international banking, reducing layers of bureaucracy in government institutions in which below-board transactions can take place beyond the reach of law enforcement, and enacting strict penalties for corruption. While it will be impossible to fully eliminate money laundering, these are important key steps that can be taken.
Blank, S. (2001, December). Narcoterrorism as a threat to international security. World and I, 16(12), p. 265.
Felbab-Brown, V. (2006, January). A better strategy against narcoterrorism. MIT Center for International Studies. The…
Blank, S. (2001, December). Narcoterrorism as a threat to international security. World and I, 16(12), p. 265.
Felbab-Brown, V. (2006, January). A better strategy against narcoterrorism. MIT Center for International Studies. The Audit of Conventional Wisdom. Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for International Studies.
Riorden Manufacturing Budget
Money management is an important skill for managers. No company, and thus no manager, has access to infinite amounts of money, so it is critical that a manager learn to review budgets, to account for increases in costs, and to determine how to trim a budget if the situation requires it. The Riorden Manufacturing IT Manager oversees a budget of under 2 million dollars, and must be capable of balancing the budget, which means balancing the requirements of running a capable IT department with the actual amount of money he has been given to run his department. His original budget included costs totaling $1,901,300 for the financial year, which runs from October through September. He has been tasked with decreasing the total budget from the expected level by 2%, to meet a total budget of $1,863,274 or less.
In the same financial period, Riorden Manufacturing has been…
Business Research Lab. (2007.) "Employee Recognition Programs." Retrieved from http://www.busreslab.com/policies/goodpol4.htm
Consumer Traveler. (May 4, 2011.) "Bing Travel Summer Forecast: Airfares Rise nearly 15%, Hotels Up 7%." Retrieved from http://www.consumertraveler.com/today/bing-travel-summer-forecast-airfares-rise-nearly-15-percent-hotels-up-7-percent/
Kawaguchi, Daiji and Ohtake, Fumio (2007.) "Testing the Morale Theory of Nominal Wage Rigidity," Industrial & Labor Relations Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, article 3. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/vol61/iss1/3
Schenberg, David. (December 1, 2008.) "Why do people go to conferences?" BusyEvent Blog. Retrieved from http://www.busyevent.com/blog/?p=58