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egardless of the type of music students listened to while being evaluated, their fine motor skills performance did not significantly vary. There are a number of possible explanations for these results.
The most likely explanation for the lack of significant findings in this study is the small sample size. With only 12 students in the sample, it is quite likely that the sample size simply was not large enough to detect any significant differences that may actually exist. In other words, while music and type of music may in fact have an important role to play in the performance of fine motor skills, it could be that a sample of 12 is too small to allow for the detection of a significant difference. Consequently, future research should examine this question with a larger sample size in order to determine whether a larger sample size may produce statistically significant results. In…
McHale, K. & Cermak, K. (1992). Fine motor activities in elementary school: Preliminary findings and provisional implications for children with fine motor problems. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(10), 898-903.
Schlaug, G., Norton, a., Overy, K., & Winner, E. (2006). Effects of music training on the child's brain and cognitive development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060, 219-230.
Schneider, S., Munte, T., Rodriguez-Fornells, a., Sailer, M., & Altenmuller, E. (2010). Music-supported training is more efficient than functional motor training for recovery of fine motor skills in stroke patients. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 27(4), 271-280.
Tabachinick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2012). Using Multivariate Statistics (6th Edition). New York: Pearson.
Fine Motor Skill Development in Children
Fine motor skills are important for a variety of activities such as writing and feeding, so its important they develop properly in young kids. This paper talks about the importance of fine motor skills and how it can be improved with proper intervention and the right activities.
Fine motor skills and their importance
Fine motor skills are the skills that involve the use of small muscles in the hands such as fingers. The biggest challenge in fine motor skills is the coordination of the hand with the eyes and brain and it is more complicated than what many people imagine. It develops at a young age, typically before five or six and it plays an important role in the way our hands function during adolescence and adulthood.
The development of fine motor skills is vital in young children because it is these skills that…
Smith, Jodene. (2003). Activities for Fine Motor Skills Development Grd PreK-1. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources.
No author. (2011). Fine motor control. Medline Plus. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002364.htm
Curtis, Kathleen; Newman, Peggy. (2005). The PTA Handbook: Keys to Success in School and Career for the Physical Therapist Assistant. New Jersey: Slack Incorporated.
Charlesworth, Rosalind. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning.
The objective of this study is to examine the stages of motor learning including cognitive, associative and autonomous stages and the role of attention in learning motor skills. Practice scheduling will be examined and the variable impacting memory and retention of motor skills and the impact of individual differences. The role of augmented feedback will be examined and finally, this work in writing will discuss the observable changes in human coordinated movement that occur as both novices progress through the stages of learning to hit a softball.
According to Hart (2011) "A motor skill is a learned sequence of movements that requires voluntary body and/or extremity movement to achieve a goal." (p.1) Optimization of a learning conditions is reported to involve "careful manipulation of the practice context. Motor learning is enhanced when practice variables are manipulated to promote cognitive effort since cognitive processes greatly contribute to learning during…
Dunphy, BC (2003) Assisted Performance and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD); a Potential Framework for Providing Surgical Education. Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology. Vol. 3, 2003, Retrieved from: http://www.newcastle.edu.au/Resources/Research%20Centres/SORTI/Journals/AJEDP/Vol%203/v3-dunphy-dunphy.pdf
Fitts, P.M., & Posner, M.I. (1967). Human performance. United States of America: Greenwood Press.
Grimley, GC (2007) The Impact of Haptic Guidance on Musical Motor Learning. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sept 2007. Retrieved from: http://opera.media.mit.edu/articles/Grindlay_MSthesis_final.pdf
Hall, JC (2002) Imagery Practice and the Development of Surgical Skills. The American Journal of Surgery. Vol. 184, Issue 5. Nov 2002.
Motor Processes in Sport
Tom is an 18-year-old goalkeeper who recently moved up in class from youth to adult football. He was an early maturer and has a history of being more advanced in soccer than his peers but now a weakness is exposed. He never learned to kick with his left foot and this has been a problem at this level. The current paper discusses the proposed reasons for his difficulty and outlines a plan of intervention.
Understanding the Effects of Early Maturation as They Apply to Tom
The traditional view holds that early maturation in boys has more positive consequences for psychosocial adaptation than late maturation. The early literature by researchers like Mussen and Jones (1957) described early-maturing boys during late adolescence (17 -- 18 years) as having higher self-esteem and self-confidence, a more positive self-image, and as being more socially mature, which may have led to more…
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 4 (10), 829 -- 839.
Banister, E.W. (1991). Modeling elite athletic performance. In H. Green, J. McDougall and H. Wenger (Eds.), Physiological testing of elite athletes (pp. 403 -- 424). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Brewer, J., Balsom, P.D., & Davis, J. (1995). Season birth distribution amongst European soccer players. Sports Exercise Injury, 1, 154-157.
Castaneda, B. & Gray, R. (2007). Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29 (1), 60-77.
new branch of science called Sports Science that respectively makes use of motor learning and motor control in the sports industry.
Motor learning and motor control is a field of science that is being studied from a sports point-of-view. Motor learning is connected to all the processes and conditions that affect one's ability to acquire skills, while motor control ascertains neuromuscular performance of individuals. Many people are taking great interest in the learning of motor skills and expertise, and the development of coordination. This new field of sports is based on the use of the knowledge base in the movement and sport sciences, cognitive sciences, and also physical therapy.
Sports science is a new area of study that is forcing people to explore the scientific explanation for David Beckham's superb soccer skills, and even wondering what would Wimbledon be like if say Pete Sampras had to use an…
Computational Learning and Motor Control Lab, available at http://www-slab.usc.edu/,accessed on: November 20, 2003
Graduate Programs: Masters in Motor Control, available at http://www.indiana.edu/~kines/ms_motor.html , accessed on: November 20, 2003
JCU - Motor Learning and Motor Control, available at: www.jcu.edu.au/school/phtm/ises/lev3sub/sp34hbk.html, accessed on: November 20, 2003
Motor Behavior Specialization - Doctoral Degree Program, available at http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/ess/grad/motrbeh1.htm, accessed on: November 20, 2003
Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance
Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses
Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…
Bruce, M., Scott, N., Lader, M., & Marks, V. (1986). The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 81-7.
Brunye, T.T., Mahoney, C.R., Leiberman, H.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2010). Caffeine modulates attention of network function. Brain and Cognition, 72, 181-8.
Caffeineinformer. (2014). Drip Coffee: Caffeine levels. Retrieved 16 Mar. 2014 from http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-content/coffee-drip .
Jacobson, B.H. & Thurman-Lacey, S.R. (1992). Effect of caffeine on motor performance by caffeine-naive and -- familiar subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 151-157.
When io de Janeiro recently won its bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games, they had one world famous representative on their Olympic committee that may have actually been more famous than our President Barak Obama. This individual may not be a household name in America, but he is most famous for scoring 2 goals in the 1958 World Cup championships when he was only 17 years old. This made him the youngest player to ever play in these renowned championships and over the course of his distinguished career; the majority of the football world would certainly consider him to be the best soccer player ever. Brazil actually has declared this individual as a national treasure in order to thwart other teams and countries from stealing him away and out of their country. His name is Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, but you may know him simply as --…
Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.
Keele, Steven W. (1968). "Movement Control in Skilled Motor Performance." Psychological Bulletin 70:387-403.
Leawoods, Heather. "Gustav Radbruch: An Extraordinary Legal Philosopher." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://law.wustl.edu/journal/2/p489leawoods.pdf.
Magill, R, A. (2007) "Motor Learning Control: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill: Louisiana State University, USA.
Developmental milestones are important for comparison and to make sure that a child is growing at what is considered the normal pace. For this we will take a look at some important milestones from birth to 3 years. These developmental milestones are considered a rough account of how a child should develop. Some children will demonstrate all of these while others will master some skills and may lag behind in others. Generally physicians would not consider it a sign of developmental delay unless the child is markedly slow in some areas of development. General milestones from birth to 3 years are mentioned below and it must be noted that these milestones are important for professionals in related fields since they can assess a child's progress against these milestones and at the same time study the reasons behind developmental delays.
Birth to one year:
During this critical period of…
All information comes from: Developmental milestones. Retrieved online from http://www.med.umich.edu/yourchild/topics/devmile.htm
Motor and Process Skills among Blacks and Whites
As its title suggests, the purpose of the research in this journal article was to learn if the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), which is an assessment of daily living in personal and domestic activities (ADL), can be utilized as a "valid, nonbiased tool when assessing black Americans," according to the introduction (Stauffer, et al., 2000). Why such research is necessary, as explained by the authors, is that when occupational therapists study blacks, they want to be sure that statistical bias and incorrect assumptions to not enter into the equation.
As of 1999, roughly 13% of the American population was African-American, amounting to about 33.8 million people. But within the black population, there are distinctive subgroups, and so, across-the-board occupational generalizations are risky, in terms of researchers' need to achieve - and report - accurate, usable data.
The AMPS, Stauffer…
Stauffer, Lisa M.; Fisher, Anne G.; & Duran, Leslie. (2000). ADL Performance of Black
Americans and White Americans on the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills.
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54, 607-612.
Team Implementation - General Motors
Team implementation -- General Motors
The American automobile industry has historically been one of the largest employers of the country. During the recent years however, the industry has suffered massive demises and was forced to downsize its staffs. Some of the challenges which faced the automobile industry included the forces of globalization which intensified competition, the changing consumer demands, the fluctuating prices of oil or the very threat of global warming.
But the more recent and most severe challenge was raised by the internationalized economic crisis. Commenced within the American real estate sector, the crisis soon expanded to the automobile industry, the furniture, electronics and virtually all commercial sectors of the economy.
General Motors was one of the companies worst affected by the economic recession. The organization was forced to downsize, restructure its debt and request financial aid from the United States Government. These solutions…
Dettmann, T.R., Effective teams… some guidelines, CF Systems, http://www.cfsystems.org/drupal/docs/Teams.PDF last accessed on December 8, 2011
Kiev, A., 2008, Hedge fund leadership: how to inspire peak performance from traders and money managers, John Wiley and Sons
Lumsden, G., Lumsden, D., Wiethoff, C., 2009, Communicating in groups and teams: sharing leadership, 5th edition, Cengage Learning
Phillips, J., Gully, S.M., 2011, Organizational behavior: tools for success, Cengage Learning
Additionally, aside financial resources, they also used their assets. The most relevant example in this sense is the selling of part of its interests in Mazda. It as such transformed its assets into liquidities -- the 20% shares in Mazda were converted into $540 million (Murphy) -- that better allowed them to pursue their innovation objectives.
The matter of technological innovation is not only a core focus of Ford's, but of all players within the American automobile industry. The reasons for the rivalry in terms of &D are numerous, the most outstanding however being constituted by the desire to attract and satisfy as many customers as possible, managing as such to increase organizational revenues. "&D efforts in the U.S. Auto industry are channeled into a variety of processes such as stamping, casting, machining, and assembling. Within the time-frame of our investigation, &D efforts had to embrace sudden changes in taste…
Brighton, G., July 17, 2006, Ford to Drive Revolution with £1bn R&D Project, PSFK, http://www.psfk.com/2006/07/ford_to_drive_g.html last accessed on May 6, 2009
Murphy, J., November 18, 2008, Ford Cuts Mazda Stake, The Wall Street Journal
Ramrattan, L.B., 1998, R&D Rivalry in the U.S. Automobile Industry: A Simultaneous Equation Model Approach to Bain's Hypothesis, American Economist, Vol. 42
Ramsey, J., October 7, 2007, Ford is Biggest Spender on R&D, AutoBlog, http://www.autoblog.com/2007/10/07/ford-is-biggest-spender-on-randd / last accessed on May 6, 2009
World's Most Ethical Companies: Analyzing Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company, herein referred to as Ford, is a U.S.-based multinational manufacturer of transportation vehicles, particularly luxury cars and commercial trucks. It was formed by Henry Ford in 1903 and has its headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan. The company currently ranks second among America's largest automakers; and is fifth in Europe, and eighth in the world. Cisco Systems, one of its largest technological partners, acknowledges that the company's high-level moral consciousness in the treatment of its stakeholders has contributed to its success year after year. This text outlines the various ways through which Ford demonstrates its moral responsibility to different stakeholders and examines how these acts contribute to the company's overall success.
Ford's Moral esponsibility towards Customers
Organizations have a moral responsibility to ensure that customers receive value for their money and are kept satisfied through high-quality products. Ford goes out…
Cisco Systems. (2007). Ford's Innovative Customer Relations Programs Increase Owner Satisfaction and Promise 20% Reduction in Annual Savings. Cisco Systems Inc. Retrieved 30 August 2014 from http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/wp/Ford_CS_1116.pdf
Ford Motor Company. (2012). Sustainability 2012/13. Ford Motor Company. Retrieved 30 August 2014 from http://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability-report-2012-13/people-workplace-health
Ford Motor Company News Center. (2014). Let the Sun In: Ford C-Max Solar Energi Concept Goes off the Grid. Gives Glimpse of Clean Vehicle Future. Ford Motor Company. Retrieved 30 August 20145 from http://corporate.ford.com/news-center/press-releases-detail/let-the-sun-in -- ford-c-max-solar-energi-concept
The Volvo Group. (2012). The Volvo Group Sustainability Report 2012. The Volvo Group. Retrieved 30 August 2014 from http://www.volvogroup.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/VGHQ/Volvo%20Group/Investors/Financial%20reports/Sustainable%20reports/sustainability_report_12_eng.pdf
Teaching the Skill of Listening to Children
This short essay aims to discuss the process of teaching listening skills to children. The main focus is to describe problems that may arise and then to suggest some possible solutions for each in terms of the learning process in general. Listening as a skill set is one of the more critical skills needed by young learners. To show how difficult attaining listening is, consider this from a non-native speaker. "A common complaint from learners on first visiting an English-speaking country is that their listening skills cannot cope with fast spontaneous speech." (Cauldwell) It is believed that of the group of four skills humans use most often, listening should be considered to be by far one of the most frequently used. Consider how in the United States speaking and listening are usually taught in tandem, but from the teaching perspective, speaking…
Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.
Carlisle, Lynn (1988). "Communication Skills." Sacramento: California State Department of Education, Division of Special Education. ED 315-933.
Cauldwell, Richard. (2009). "Grasping The Nettle: The Importance Of Perception Work In Listening Comprehension." Retrieved on December 20, 2009, from http://www.developingteachers.com/articles_tchtraining/perception1_richard.htm .
Edleston, Charlotte (1987). "A Program of Games and Activities to Increase Listening and Attentional Skills in Kindergarten." Nova University: Ed. D. Practicum, Dissertation/Theses. ED 292-586.
Now "battered by soaring gas prices and plummeting sales" Ford has been "forced to slash production of the trucks that have been its lifeblood -- from half of its vehicles today (and 70% in 2005) to a projected "one-third by 2012" (arner 2008). Congress is calling for Ford along with the other American car companies demanding a bailout to show a real commitment to raising fuel economy standards and creating a leaner, meaner production machine.
Ford must point to its previous good-faith attempts to raise fuel standards to support its calls for government assistance. Many point to previous CEO Bill Ford's inability to sell his vision to other members of the company: "no matter his personal convictions, Bill Ford had neither the operational skills nor the management talent to make his green aspirations a reality. Instead, the chairman tried to tack environmental changes onto a business model focused obsessively on…
Bray, Jim. (2008, October 28). Ford flexes its marketing muscles with new crossover. The Post
Chronicle. Retrieved 19 Nov 2008 at http://www.postchronicle.com/cgi-bin/artman/exec/view.cgi?archive=102&num=181770
Currie, Alan. (2008). Ford, GM, Chrysler chiefs should have gone by fuel-efficient car to bailout.
Telegraph. Retrieved 19 Nov 2008 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/breakingviewscom/3488678/GM-Ford-and-Chrysler-chiefs-should-have-gone-by-fuel-efficient-car-to-bail-out.html
Strategic Plan for General Motors Upper Mid Sedan Vehicle Segment
To maintain and consolidate the status of the company as the number one auto manufacturer in the U.S. y employing the core values of continuous improvement, innovation and integrity and teamwork. To foster consumer enthusiasm and also enhance the team by giving them individual respect and responsibility.
Economic: Currently the U.S. economy is experiencing a slowdown. The buying power of the American consumers is shrinking and that is causing the sellers of goods to suffer. The automotive industry, being seller of high priced and high involvement product, is suffering as a result of this slowdown. The consumers are spending less and less on upgrading their cars or buying second hand cars. This will cause the sales of light vehicles in 2002 to go down from the 17 million units' barrier that has been achieved…
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One of the main reasons for his success has been the fact that Mulally was not intimidated by the necessary decision to divest large assets despite possible concerns that doing so demonstrated weakness of fear on the part of the organization. Mulally recognized that the current challenges facing the organization required consolidation and solidarity of Ford brand names instead of diversity (Hochleutner, 2011), which conflicts with traditional business management theory in many situations (Hill & McShane, 2007). The strategic vision that Mulally demonstrated in that respect is a fundamental component of effective organizational leadership (Hill & McShane, 2007).
Under Mulally's leadership, Ford has also embraced technological innovation (Hochleutner, 2011) and in the broadest sense that extends beyond merely innovation of its product line. In that regard, Mulally recognized the importance of the newest forms of social media, especially with the youngest segment of its market. Instead of relying on traditional…
Hill, C.W.L. And McShane, S.L. (2007). Principles of Management. New York:
Hochleutner, M. "Ford CEO, Alan Mulally, on remarkable turnaround: It took leadership, courage, and service to something great." (February 9, 2011). Retrieved March 4,
2011 from the Stanford University Center for Leadership Development and Research (CDLR), from:
Ford Motor Company and its human resources management practice. The company's human resources strategy is very closely tied to its strategy. As with other automakers, Ford's labor costs can be quite high, but there are also related costs of labor, such as benefits and pensions that can result in the total labor cost today being very high, even when much of the company's production is automated. Ford also must work closely with its main unions in order to negotiate the terms of each contract, something that also influences the company. Ford seeks to compete largely as a cost leader in its industry, but needs to have relatively low labor costs in order to pursue this policy profitably.
The HR position at Ford constitutes a number of different tasks. Labor relations is listed as the foremost specialty within the HR department, and with good reason given how critical it is to…
Boxall, P. (2003). HR strategy and competitive advantage in the service sector. Human Resource Management Journal. Vol. 13 (3) 5-20.
Walker, G. & MacDonald, R. (2001). Designing and implementing an HR scorecard. Human Resource Management. Vol. 40 (4) 365-377.
Richard, O. (2000). Racial diversity, business strategy and firm performance: A resource-based view. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 43 (2) 164-177.
Furthermore, the customer is most likely not to be biased hence the credibility of the feedback. The sources of information will be integrated by analyzing the data and comparing the feedbacks to determine if they show consistency; before drafting the final report.
The performance appraisal method of evaluating the behavior for rating has a critical technique of analyzing information incorporated. Therefore, in developing the tool, the first approach is to establish the information that is required (Flynn, 2010). Once determined, the questioned are phrased and documented into questionnaires and interviews, which will then be administered to the supervisors, the co-workers and customers for feedback purposes. Additionally, the previous reports on the company's trends will be incorporated to show how the behavioral changes in the department affect the returns of the company. The information gathered is then consolidated into a report for the final scaling which is the report of…
Josiane Fahed-Sreih, (2009) "The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance,"
Management Research News, Vol. 32 Iss: 3, pp.297-299
Maurer, S.D. (2002). A practitioner-based analysis of interviewer job expertise and scale format as contextual factors in situational interviews. Personnel Psychology, 55(2), 307-327.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220142693?accountid=35812
Three of the most important ones are succinctly revealed below:
(a) The declining demand for the company's vehicles -- this issue led to the necessity for more financial resources, which eventually materialized in the acceptance of aid under TAP
(b) The growing competition placed by international manufacturers -- this situation raised an impending necessity to reorganize the company in a means that it better addresses the needs and wants of customers
(c) The fact that the consumers were turning to foreign cars translated in the inability of GM to understand and serve the needs of its customer base
5. Strategic Options
As the gravity of the situation was intensifying, the managerial team at General Motors found itself in a position in which they had to identify several strategic courses of action, and select the most adequate one. Some of their alternatives would have included slashing down the car prices, implementing…
Gutierrez, C., December 20, 2008, GM and Chrysler Covered by TARP, Forbes, http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/20/auto-bailout-update-markets-equity-cx_cg_1219markets29.html last accessed on January 11, 2010
Haglund, R., 2009, Analyst Says TARP Funding Hurting General Motors, MLiv e, http://blog.mlive.com/autoblog/2009/03/analyst_says_tarp_funding_hurt.html last accessed on January 11, 2010
Krebs, M., 2009, Good-Bye Pontiac, Saturn, Saab, Hummer, Auto Observer, http://www.autoobserver.com/2009/04/good-bye-pontiac-saturn-saab-hummer.html last accessed on January 11, 2010
Schafer, D., Reed, J., 2009, GM Still Confident of Opel-Magna Deal, FT, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f2a69666-bcd1-11de-a7ec-00144feab49a.html last accessed on January 11, 2010
The process of reframing is well illustrated in the case of Tata Nano car concept. The reframers question themselves in an attempt to answer the question "why not." Tata for instant broke a century old paradigm for car manufacture by distributing the component kits for the manufacture of the Tata nano to a number of entrapreneural smaller firms could assemble closer to their customer base. This was as opposed to complete production of the car in their factories. They questioned the conventional wisdom in order to aid the firm in navigating the increasingly complex corporate environment.
The culture of creative dissatisfaction
Other than the formal system of the TSC the company has taken certain key steps that are aimed at the stimulation of creative thinking. The company trains its employees so as to think about improving its products at all times. They refer to this as the culture of creative…
Business Week (n.d). Tata's Innovation Engine:How Tata spurs creative thinking http://feedroom.businessweek.com/?fr_story=b3b3118b61a41a63272819d801b28a6ab58242d9
Drucker, P (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles
Gosh, G (2010). Reframing is the key to Disruptive Innovation
CEO as Leader of Ford Motor Company
The leadership of any large, diverse multinational corporation needs to concentrate on a unifying vision coupled with transformational leadership skills to keep the company moving forward over the long-term (Wang, Oh, Courtright, Colbert, 2011). At the Ford Motor Company, the challenge is to not only manage these core aspects of effective leadership, the CEO must also initiate and continually improve innovation over time as the auto industry is going through significant transformation (Luca, McNamara, 2010). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how effective leaders are in the auto industry in synchronizing these many tasks, in conjunction with serving as a catalyst of effective innovation and transformational growth over time.
Analysis of the CEO ole at Ford
Alan Mulally is currently CEO of Ford Motor Company, and his background is heavily based on aerospace, defense and commercial airline industries. In these industries,…
M. Birasnav, S. Rangnekar, & A. Dalpati. (2011). Transformational leadership and human capital benefits: the role of knowledge management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(2), 106-126
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Ford Motor Company's efforts to redefine strategies to address key strategic issues during the upcoming fiscal year. The essay also reviews Ford's business-level strategy, the company's value chain activities and identifies Ford positioning with respect to the five forces of competition.
Ford's current business- level strategy was developed as a result of challenges the company has faced in the last decade. Ford saw their market share in the U.S. decline from 23.7% in 2000 to 15.5% in 2006. Over the same period Ford's North American division reported billions in losses from the Ford, Lincoln and Mercury product lines. To return the North American division to profitability, Ford launched an ambitious restructuring plan, the Way Forward. (Kirtane, Shukla, Wang and Zhan, 2006).
Over the last decade, Ford's business-level strategies were ambiguous, with the result that they were neither a successful differentiator nor cost leader. Ford failed to innovate on many of…
Cisco Systems Inc. (2007). Ford's innovative customer relations programs increase owner satisfaction and promise 20% growth in annual savings. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Ford Motor Company. (2011). Our value chain and its impacts. Ford corporate website. [online] Available at: < http://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability-report-2010-11/operations-value> [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Herman, C. (2007). Ford zooms past competition in quality. ABC News. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Johnson, D. (2011). Future Lincolns to be better differentiated from Ford counterparts. Left Lane. [online] Available at:< http://www.leftlanenews.com/future-lincolns-to-be-better-differentiated-from-ford-counterparts.html > [Accessed 11 September 2011].
Leadership Development Practice at Ford Motor Company
Given the enormous effect of an informed and effective leadership team on a company's profitability, it is not surprising that leadership development has become an important part of the practices of many Fortune 100 companies. By identifying potential leaders today and providing them with the training and education they will need to become effective leaders in the future, these companies are making an investment in their futures. The costs that are associated with providing these leadership development programs are significant, though, making the need for informed and effective practices essential. To determine how one Fortune 100 company is approaching the need for such leadership development programs, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning Ford Motor Company, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
One Fortune 100 company that has clearly embraced…
Egodigwe, L. (2009, June). In perfect alignment: An HR auto exec understands the importance of synchronizing the team. Black Enterprise, 39(11), 48-49.
Extending reach and ensuring effectiveness of leadership development. (2009, June 22).
Workforce Management, 88(7), 13.
Krivokapic-Skoko, B., Dowell, D., O'Neill, G. & Kleinschafer, J. (2009). Research note:
Alan Mulally the CEO of Ford
Discuss the role of leadership and how it can impact organizational performance?
Prior to Mulally's arrival at Ford in 2006, he carefully studied the organization, he took detail notes on the company. Mulally knew every detail about the organization prior to his arrival at Ford. His background in engineering and leadership is a great asset to Ford. He was selected by the Ford family to become the next President and CEO because of his intellectual capabilities and his vision for the organization. Mulally's first decision at Ford was to create a strategic plan for success for the organization. He looked at the products, the sales charts and made decisions based on previous records and current trends. Mullaly first major decision at Ford was to bring the Taurus model back. This car was a best seller until the 1990's, so Mulally made some changes to…
Taffinder, P. (2007) Leadership Crash Course. Viva Books, New York, NY
Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC
Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC is a British multinational corporation that designs, develops, manufactures, promotes, and sells automobiles under the brand names of Jaguar and Land over, including ange over brand. Jaguar Land over is the United Kingdom's largest automobile corporation that took its roots from a couple of strongest automobile brands: Jaguar and Land over. Currently, Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC is a renowned subsidiary of India's most successful automobile group -- Tata Motors. It is headquartered in Whitley, Coventry, United Kingdom. Tata Motors acquired Jaguar Land over in 2008 from Ford Motor Company. The major subsidiaries of Jaguar Land over Automotive PLC include: Jaguar Land over Holdings Limited, Jaguar Land over Limited, Jaguar Land over India, and Chery Jaguar Land over. Jaguar Land over was the result of a union between Jaguar Cars and Land over which Ford Motor Company did…
Cranfield University, (2014). Jaguar Land Rover: High Performance Leaders Programme. Retrieved on April 2nd, 2014, from
Harrison, J.S., & John, C.H. (2014). Foundations in Strategic Management, 6th Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.
Henry, A. (2011). Understanding Strategic Management, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2009). Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts & Cases, 8th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Freeing the Voice
Linklater's (2006) book 'Freeing the Natural Voice', and the introduction to the book, have the aim improving vocal communication. One thesis which may be extrapolated from in is that the natural voice may be seen as akin to a musical instrument capable of a wealth of expression, but the ability of individuals to fully express themselves with their natural voice has been constrained by blocks and inhibitions present in modern society. Understanding this potential constraint, and how it may limit the use of vocal expression, Linklater presents a work that aims to help the reader develop their vocal skills.
The introduction provides a basis for the thesis presented above. It provides information on the type of blocks are constraints which exist, and how they may be overcome. For example, Linklater (2006) argues that the first steps in overcoming limitations which lead speakers to stay with in speech…
Linklater, K. (2006), Freeing the Natural Voice, Drama Publishers/Quite Specific Media
AGE GROUP PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT MILESTONES
There are many milestones for each age. I have selected some that have to do with movement on a small and large scale because I believe that they have to do with the way in which children may be inclined to move a good deal and perhaps exercise in later life.
Infants: [footnoteRef:1] [1: American Pregnancy. First Year Development: Infant Development. American Pregnancy Association. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/firstyeardevelopment.html, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine (Small) -- hands clench, strong grasp reflex, holds objects, pulls on clothing or blankets.
Gross (Large) -- Turns head, rolls back and forth on stomach, holds weight on feet, bounces when held standing, sits well by about nine months.
Toddlers:[footnoteRef:2] [2: Toddler Developmental Milestones. Parenting Magazine. http://www.parenting.com/article/toddler-developmental-milestones?page=0,1, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine -- filling up and dumping out small items, trying to dress and undress, drawing or scribbling, stacking or sorting objects, poking and…
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
Modeling and Mental Practice
There has been much research regarding modeling (also called observational learning) and mental practice, also -- and perhaps more commonly -- known as imagery. Mental practice is also known as mental rehearsal and visuo-motor rehearsal, although these terms are much less commonly used in the literature assessed here. The current research question is:
Does modeling, when combined with mental practice and physical practice, have a grater effect than the combination of mental practice and physical practice on the learning of a novel motor skill?
The literature accessed tends not to make much distinction between modeling and mental practice, and it tends also not to assess the addition of these factor as an intensifier per se of the physical learning of a motor skill, or at least, does not quantify the impact precisely. However, previous research into motor skills vis-a-vis modeling and mental practice does point the…
Glisky, M.L., Williams, J.M., & Kihlstrom, J.F. (1996). Internal and external mental imagery perspectives and performance on two tasks. Journal of Sport Behavior, 19(1), 3+. Retrieved November 14, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=5002278837
Jax, S.A., Rosenbaum, D.A., Vaughan, J., & Meulenbroek, R.G. (2003). Computational motor control and human factors: Modeling movements in real and possible environments. Human Factors, 45(1), 5+. Retrieved November 14, 2005, from Questia database:
Infant Physical, Cognitive and Social Development
One of the most important aspects of a child's physical, cognitive and social development is motor skills development. In this case, an infant is expected to master fine and gross motor skills in order for him/her to effectively explore the surrounding environment/world. Gross motor skills are considered as large muscles movements such as arms and legs whereas fine motor skills are considered are movements of smaller groups of muscles like hand and wrist. Berk & Meyers (2016) have developed a table that provides a list of gross- and fine-motor skills milestones in different stages of an infant's development. As an 11-month old infant, David has relatively developed necessary and anticipated motor skills based on the milestones listed in the table. He has fairly developed nearly all motor skills expected of infants his age and seems to be progressing well in motor skills development. David's…
1st Method Psychomotor Assessment
Neurological observation as relating to psychomotor Assessment framework revolves around collecting data about the CNS or brain and spinal cord of a patient. Some of the areas that are assessed include Level of Conscious, Alertness, Pupillary esponse, Vitals, and Motor esponse (Mooney and Comerford, 2003).
In categorizing the level of consciousness some of the observations include alertness, being aware of surrounding environment, in contrast to drowsiness or slower responses. As stimuli is applied, it is important to record not only if there is a response, but the rate or speed of the response could indicate there is an uncharacteristic condition. If a patient is not conscious, there is no response even to a pain induced stimuli such as heat, pressure, or light. A problem could exist when there is pressure on the brain caused by excess fluid or a head trauma of some type.…
Mooney, G.P., Comerford, D., M. (2003). Neurological observations. Nursing Times Volume 99. Iss. 17.
Rhoads, J. (2006). Advanced health assessment and diagnostic reasoning. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Tellefson, J. (2010) Clinical psychomotor skills: assessment tools for nursing students. (4th ed).
Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan
"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".
Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…
CHILD'S DAWING ABILITY
Drawing complexity as the complexity or the level of difficulty involved in children's drawing. Drawings from younger children can be less simple with fewer features but as the age of the child progresses the complexity of the drawings increases due to the complex cognitive development.
Drawings are mirror representation of the child's development. Children's drawings have significant roles in the cognitive development of the child. Other roles include training the brain of the child to pay attention and to sustain attention, stimulating individual cells and clusters of cells in the visual cortex for line and shape, practicing and to organizing the shapes and patterns of thought and, through an increasing affinity for marks, to prepare the mind of the child for its determining behavior
Understanding children's cognitive development has implications for many fields, and in particular for education. There exists many possible approaches to the study of…
Bensur, B.J., Eliot, J., and Hegde, L. (1997). Cognitive correlates of complexity of children's drawings. Perceptual and motor skills, 85, 1079 to 1089.
Callaghan, T.C. (2000). Factors affecting children's graphic symbol use in the third year.
Language, similarity, and iconicity. Cognitive Development, 15, 185 -- 214.
Cherney, I. D & Seiwert, C. S & Dickey, T.M. & Flichtbail, J.D. (2006). Children's drawings: a mirror to their minds. Educational psychology, 26(1), 127-142.
Jack used some elements of guilt surrounding his hospitalization in an attempt to persuade his mother to get him a treat at the cafeteria. This attempt to maintain control over his mother is appropriate to this developmental age according to Erickson's stages of development, and Donna easily managed his request by explaining that his diet was restricted prior to surgery. Jack was able to accept this answer, but continued to request assurances he would obtain the treat later in the day. Jack responded appropriately to all staff requests and his behavior appeared age appropriate and unremarkable. He maintained eye contact with staff and initiated conversation on several occasions.
The staff provided some coloring books and paper for Jack once he was confined to his bed in preparation for surgery. Jack appeared to be able to manage crayons without difficulty and easily wrote his name in block capital letters which were…
Siddiqui a. (1995) Object Size as a Determinant of Grasping in Infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 156 "http: Marcia, J.E., (1966), Development and validation of ego identity status, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3, pp. 551-558
Centers for Disease Control (2000), 2-20 years. Stature for age and weight for age percentiles. Accessed via the Internet at www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/growthcharts/set1clinical/cj41l021.pdfon 23 June 2007
I. Personal. 3:551-8, 1966.
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
Activity #1: Discuss the pros and cons of testing from two perspectives: (1) as a test-taker and (2) as a test-giver
From the point-of-view of the test-taker, the 'cons' of taking a test seem obvious. Besides the nerves and the fear of being put under pressure, from the test-taker's point-of-view being tested requires subjecting something quite unique, namely their individual human mind, to an objective test that cannot take into consideration adverse circumstances, from a lack of engagement with the material, poor teaching, or an eccentric learning style. Testing can thus discourage creativity and a sense of fun in learning for the test taker. Test can also encourage students to learn how to take a particular teacher's tests, rather than to truly learn and actively engage with the material on an individual basis like a research paper.
This is also the downside of testing from the teacher's perspective as…
ABC Teach. (2004). "Charlotte's Web." Retrieved on July 13, 2004 http://www.abcteach.com/directory/theme_units/literature/charlottes_web/
Bloom's Taxonomy. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 http://www.fgcu.edu/onlinedesign/designDevd.html
College Board. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at collegeboard.com
Fair Test. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at http://www.fairtest.org/facts/nratests.html
How does depth perception occur in a person who gains sight after being congenital blind?
Depth perception is necessary for the ability to perform many tasks including driving, and many other activities. The ability to perceive the distance of objects is a complex process. hen people are born blind in one eye, regardless of the reason, they do not develop the ability to perceive depths. Their world is flat compared to that experienced by the rest of the world. hen that person undergoes surgery or other procedures to restore sight to the blind eye many of these patients are able to perceive depth. The ability to do this defies commonly held views on the connection between visual acuity, depth perception and motor development.
This research explores current research on depth perception and the development of depth perception. Studies in this area are limited to animal studies and those involving…
Bushnell, E. & Boudreau, P. "Motor development and the mind: the role of motor abilities as a determinant of aspects of perceptual development." Child Development. August 1993.
64.4: 1005-1021. Web. 21 October 2012.
Deregowski, J. "Difficulties in Pictorial Depth Perception." Africa British Journal of Psychology. August 1968. 59.3: 195-204. Web. 21 October 2012.
Fulcher. E. "Gibson's theory of direct perception." Crucial, a division of Learning Matters Ltd.
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…
Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.
Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
10-year-old boy, Alec. The child has had pervasive relocations in his life, beginning at age 2 and endured a challenging separation between his parents. Since the separation he first experienced 50% split parenting, living with his mother one week then his father and stepmother the next, until such time as he was school age. He then began to live full time with his mother during the school week and visit his father and stepmother every other weekend, until age 7 when his mother relocated to an area which is a seven hour drive from his father at this point the mother also remarried. From that point to the present he has stayed with his mother and stepfather the majority of the time and traveled to visit his father and stepmother on the Christmas holiday, spring break and through the summer, which usually works out to be about 2 months. Prior…
Gardner, H. (2000) Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, NY, USA: Basic Books.
Janssen, A., Diekema, E., van Dolder, R., Kollee, L., Oostendorp, R., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. (2012). Development of a movement quality measurement tool for children. Physical Therapy, 92(4), 574-594.
Light, P. & Littleton, K. (2000) Social processes in children's learning. Port Chester, NY, USA: Cambridge University.
Meadows, S. (1986) Understanding child development. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge.
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
The activity will begin with two warm up exercises, the first being a short session with theraputty, to get Jack's fingers warmed up as the assessor notes can be helpful to him. (p.7) the second warm up activity will be a freeform painting session, where Jack will be offered the supplies and asked to be creative. (p.2) if the structured painting, of figures and shapes proves, very difficult for Jack, this freeform painting may actually be used as a physical break for Jack, so he may have the opportunity to have a physical break to rest and be creative, between each figure or shape. Each session will then begin, after the warm-up with the imitation of a geometric shape, with the single color and the paintbrush on the paper. The therapist will place a copy of the shape next to Jack on a directly adjacent easel, placed on Jacks dominant,…
Laura, (December 2000) "Occupational Therapy Evaluation: Jack."
Human Behavior Social Environment
This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.
The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.
The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…
Freeman, K.A. (Spring 2000). Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst 23 (1): 85 -- 94.
Germaine, C.B and Bloom, M. (1999). Human Behavior in the Social environment: an ecological view. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Greene, R.R. (2008). Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Publishers
.....parents of young children, it is important to know how your child interacts and plays and what it means. Play is important because it helps a child's mind to develop and also the child's sense of self and motor skills to begin to grow. Children learn social skills through play, creativity through play; they learn about themselves -- their strong suits, what they can do, sense of confidence, and more.
You can encourage and support play for children by taking them to the park where other children play. Your kids can watch, they can mimic, they can interact, or they play together cooperatively -- it all depends upon the stage of development they are in. These stages are also fluid and there is no need to think that they are in one stage at one time. Children will slide in and out of stages as their minds grow and process…
By the time the class is set to be over, each pair is then expected to bring about one Inspiration web for the case of presentation to the entire class, which is usually then presented in front of the entire class. These can then be set to be saved in their own folders for further usage in the studies pertaining to the book. (Educational Technology Unit) The question still remains as to whether this gives the computer and software dominance on the education of the students that it does not deserve.
This level of categorization of knowledge now exists for all subjects and in the new California State standards, there are three overall model content standards. The first of these is to show relevant knowledge and competency in motor skills, movement patterns and strategies needed to perform a range of physical activities. In the second set, there has to be…
Educational Computing and Technology Standards" The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Retrieved at http://cnets.iste.org/ncate/n_intro.html . Accessed 7 November, 2005
Educational Technology Unit" Retrieved at http://www.soe.usfca.edu/departments/edtech/downloads/edt. Accessed 7 November, 2005
Mat Course Descriptions" Retrieved at http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/AcadProg/mat/courseDescription.html. Accessed 7 November, 2005
New California State Standards" Retrieved at http://www.peworkshop.com/framework.htm#topAccessed 7 November, 2005
NI observed a five-year-old female playing at a playground. The tasks I witnessed included seeing the child running, playing on a slide, ascending stairs and climbing on playground equipment.
The child is in Erickson's third stage of development where play is an important component of learning. This is why the child had a tendency to mimic the actions of the other older children on the playground. She was so amused by her brother that she started to copy his actions and called to her mother to watch her perform this amazing feat. The child was proud once she was able to accomplish the task and looked for parental praise. Her play allows her to work out the male/female relationship parameters (Harder).
The two children interacted not only on the playground slide, but also through different areas of the playground as well. Motor skills are very important in child social interactions.…
Harder, Arlene F. "The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson." Learning Place Online.com. Learning Place Online, 2009. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .
..[and]strengthen and improve the coordination of the small muscles in their hands and fingers. They use these muscles to control writing tools such as crayons, markers, and brushes" (Koralek & Collins, 1997). Thus even simple crafts and fun art projects can expand literacy skills, as can games like playing a matching game such as concentration, which show children that
"some things are exactly the same" like letters, and this "leads children to the understanding that the letters in words must be written in the same order every time to carry meaning" (Koralek & Collins, 1997). Reciting rhyming poems or singing songs that contrast short and long letter sounds teach children phonics basics. "Research has shown that phonemic awareness is the best predictor of early reading skills. Phonemes, the smallest units of sounds, form syllables, and words are made up of syllables. Children who understand that spoken language is made up…
Burns, Susan, Peg Griffin, & Catherine Snow. (1998). "The Foundations for Reading."
Reading Rockets. Retrieved 4 May 2007 at http://www.readingrockets.org/article/354
How children learn to read." (2007). Help with school work: Primary Literacy. BBC. Retrieved 4 May 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/parents/work/primary/literacy/reading_learn.shtml
Koralek, Derry & Ray Collins. (1997). "How Most Children Learn to Read." Reading
Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand"
There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as a creation of nature, a work of breathtaking art, scientific breakthroughs that benefit human kind, and acts of bravery are, without doubt, worthy of the admiration and the sentiment that they inspire. Unfortunately, however, human beings also fruitlessly admire a great many more things that are illusory in nature and, therefore, not really worthy of respect. Take, for instance, the human desire to be good looking, rich, successful and powerful. These qualities seem desirable purely because people who possess these attributes appear to be better off in life. But, are they really? Or, do these qualities give rise to admiration only because we don't really understand what being beautiful, wealthy, successful or powerful entails?
Perhaps, it is precisely the recognition that…
Cool Nurse. "Marijuana." Cool Nurse Web site. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004:
MDCH. "Key Facts from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Michigan
Department of Community Health. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004: http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-2941_4871-79336 -- ,00.html
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy
Diagnostic Statement for Nancy
Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.
DSM-IV-T (2000) Diagnosis
The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:
(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder
296.xx Major Depressive Disorder
301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder
Antonovsky, A. And Sourani, T. (1998) Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 50. No. 1 Feb 1998. National Council on Family Relations. Retrieved from: http://psych.wfu.edu/furr/362/Family%20Sense%20of%20Coherence%20Scale.pdf
Connell, Cindi (2010) Multicultural Perspectives and Considerations Within Structural Family Therapy: The Premises of Structure, Subsystems and Boundaries. Rivier Academic Journal. Vol. 6. No. 2 Fall, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.rivier.edu/journal/ROAJ-Fall-2010/J461-Connelle-Multicultural-Perspectives.pdf
Fischer, J. And Cocoran, K. (1994) Measures of Clinical Practice. Social Science. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=y2C9YvSU53sC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Ruiz, MA (nd) Transgenerational and Structural Family Therapy, An Analysis of Both Schools. Retrieved from: http://miguelangelruiz.webs.com/Transgenerational%20and%20Structural%20Family%20Therapy.pdf
The 18-month-old child depicted in the video is seen first playing with blocks and then identifying pictures of various objects and animals, with prompting from an adult female (presumably the child's mother, though she is not identified in the video). There are not significant hesitations on the part of the child before identifying pictures, with approximately a three-second interval typically occurring between the time the prompt is given and the time the child responds. No anxiety or other stress is exhibited by either the child or the adult at any point in the video, and the relationship the child has with the adult and with his environment -- the blocks and the pictures especially -- appears to be secure. Motor skills from grasping to standing/walking are strong and in keeping with expectations for the child's age. A further analysis of the child's behavior as depicted in the video…
Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Finley's Parent Teacher Conference. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/resultsmatter/RMVideoSeries.htm
Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Sharing Documentation with Families. [Video file]. Retrieved from
Parents Magazine (2008):
I am Toddler, Hear me Roar: Learning to Live With and Love Your Toddler"
The Terrible Twos: A Preview of the Teenage Years
Angry. Opinionated. Possessing a unique will and capabilities. Ready to explore the world, regardless of whether his or her parents think he or she is ready to do so. Although this description may seem to fit the profile of the typical adolescent, it is also a fair description of toddlers as well. Toddlerhood is the first major stage of childhood development when children are learning how to test their limits and stretch and grow as people by taking risks. As any parent knows, every toddler's favorite word is a decided 'no,' usually uttered in a very loud and declarative tone! Parents are often frustrated during this period of their child's development, as they strike a balance between encouraging the toddler's independence while still striving…
The preschool period is generally considered to be three to five years of age (4). I observed a five-year-old female playing at a playground. The tasks witnessed were running, playing on a slide, ascending stairs, and climbing on a jungle gym (a circular interlocked metal object with a ladder). Play was performed in the presence of her mother and older brother. The preschooler is a very social individual who is making friends and exploring the world (4).
This child had a tendency to mimic the actions of her older, seven-year-old brother. He made a point of showing his sister when he walked up the slide rather than sliding down it. Repition is a coping behavior and helps children learn (2). She was so amused by her brother that she started to copy the action and, when mastered, called to her mother to watch her perform this amazing feat. The child…
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…
Intervention in Action Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants With Multiple Disabilities and Their Families
Module 5; Sensory Processing in the Context of Early Intervention
In the words of Holloway (2008), when it comes to working with children with multiple disabilities, giving their behaviors interpretations from a sensory point-of-view is of utmost importance to give goal setting and activity selection the right direction. From this point-of-view and of many other researchers and studies, paying keen attention to children with multiple disabilities is very important. This ensures that their behaviors and the changes in the behaviors is not misinterpreted and also allows the interventionists involved in their daily activities to fully understand them and gain the knowledge of how to help them.
Working with such children needs open minded people who are willing to study and work side by side with them in order to fully understand their needs. It will…
Pathways Awareness (May 14, 2013). Understanding Sensory Issues in Young Children [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com
Connecticut State Department of Education. (1999). Guidelines for Occupational Therapy in Educational Settings. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from Connecticut State Department of Education: http://www.sde.ct.gov/
Holloway, E. (2008). Sensory Processing in the Context of Early Intervention, Part 2. In D. Chen, Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families (pp. 1-37). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Snell, R. (2008). Motor Development and Physical Disabilities. In D. Chen, Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families (pp. 1-61). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…
Bedard, M., Stones, M., Guyatt, G. & Hirdes, J. (2001). Related fatalities among older drivers and passengers: past and future trends. The Gerontologist. 41 (6), 751-57.
Beers, M.H. & Berkow, R. (eds.) (2000) the Merck Manual of Geriatrics. 3rd ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co.
Central Intelligence Agency (1998). World Fact Book Washington, D.C.: Government
Education Implications of Movement by Bryant J. Cratty. Specifically, it will include a report on the book.
Author of this book, Bryant J. Cratty, is a professor emeritus from UCLA and a doctor of education. He has written numerous books, and is an expert on motor development and movement in children. This book concerns motor activities of children, and how they relate to education. A basic thesis of this book comes early in Cratty's discourse. He writes "The manner in which man manifests himself in measurable tasks is often multi-faceted" (Cratty 16). Thus, movement in education is based on several criteria, including perception and movement activities. The book covers experiments in educational movement, the child's interaction, and the relationship of motor learning to cognitive development, along with some thoughts and studies on motor movement in children, along with some opinions on the relevance of physical education in the curriculum.
Cratty, Bryant J. Some Educational Implications of Movement Seattle, WA: Special Child Publications, Inc., 1970.
Mental Imagery and Its Limitations
Sports coaches, just as the athletes they train are also viewed as performers. While the nature of their performance might differ from those of the athletes, their jobs do require meticulous planning in areas like training, competition as well as the execution of the training procedures. They must be flexible enough to adapt to different situations, as they present themselves, and be good at coping with stress arising from the nature of the competition and media intrusion and also the pressure on them to produce good results (Olosuga, Maynard, Butt & Hays, 2014).
It is apparent therefore that psychological factors have a part to play in getting results. A theoretical framework for athletes to self-regulate their emotional states made suggestions that psychological skills like relaxation, self-talk, imagery and goal setting are needed for the enhancement of psychological abilities like the ability to completely relax (Olosuga…
Beauchemin, J. (2014). College Student-Athlete Wellness: An Integrative Outreach Model. College Student Journal, 268-278.
Burke, A., Shanahan, C., & Herlambang, E. (2014). An Exploratory Study Comparing Goal-Oriented Mental Imagery with Daily To-Do Lists: Supporting College Student Success. CurrPsychol, 33, 20-34.
Klein, J., & Moritz, S. (2014). On the relevance of mental imagery beyond stress-related psychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 1-3.
Loft, M., & Cameron, L. (2013). Using Mental Imagery to Deliver Self-Regulation Techniques to Improve Sleep Behaviors. The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2013, 46, 260 -- 272.
Chi-Square, T-Test and Correlation
esearch Methods in Psychology a (HPS201/HPS771)
Crosstabs and Chi-Square
Some researchers have suggested that there are two main types of personality: Type A and Type B. Individuals with Type A personality are characterized as being conscientious and competitive. They strongly desire success and typically present with higher levels of stress. Conversely, individuals with Type B personality are typically less stressed and tend to be more laconic, relaxed and less concerned with competition.
Due to the higher levels of stress experienced by those with Type A personality, health insurance risk evaluators are interested in knowing whether individuals with Type A personality are at greater risk of having a heart attack.
You are hired as a researcher to investigate this research question. You take a random sample of 40 individuals aged between 40 and 60 years and assess their personality to determine whether they possess a Type…
Emory.edu. (n.d.). One-Sample t-Test. Retrieved from emory.edu: http://psychology.emory.edu/clinical/bliwise/Tutorials/TOM/meanstests/tone.htm
MacLeod, S. (2011). Type A Personality. Retrieved from Simplypsychology.org: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-a.html