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The topic of the project is "multicultural management in the virtual project setting." In today's globalized business environment, multicultural work teams are become the norm, rather than the exception. Often, projects are undertaken at multiple work sites around the world, so that not only are teams diverse, but they are virtual as well. The members of these teams, with their different ethnic backgrounds, will often have different values, and different perspectives on the issues that the team faces. Such diversity can aid with problem-solving and also with decision-making where the employees' different experiences and worldviews contribute to seeing the problem in multi-faceted ways. This can help to drive innovation and help the company to derive original solutions, allowing the organization to better compete in the global environment. Promoting creativity and building global consensus are two of the most important benefits of multicultural, diverse work groups (Horwitz & Horwitz,…
Bell, B.S., & Kozlowski, S.W. (2002). 'A typology of virtual teams: Implications for effective leadership'. Group & Organization Management, 27, 14-49.
Horwitz, S.K., & Horwitz, I.B.. (2007) 'The effects of team diversity on team outcomes: A meta-analytic review of team demography'. Journal of Management, 33(6), 987-1015.
Kozlowski, S.J.W., Gully, S.M. Nason, E.R., & Smith, E.M. (1999). 'Developing adaptive teams: A theory of compilation and performance across levels and time'. In D.R. Ilgen & E.D. Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of work and performance: Implications for staffing, personnel actions, and development (SIOP Frontiers Series). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
O'Reilly, Williams, & Barsade. (1998). 'Group demography and innovation: Does diversity help'? In DH Gruenfeld (Ed.), Composition (pp.183-207). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
acism in a Multicultural Society
United States is called a melting pot because of the influx of immigrants from diverse backgrounds who have all somehow adapted well to the life in the U.S. We are talking about the U.S. In multicultural context because no other country can claim to have a society so diverse as America. But with multiculturalism come few serious problems too including racism. acism had been a pervasive issue in the United States for a very long time and just when we think it has been effectively dead, some incident occurs to remind us that it is still very much a part of this society. African-Americans still suffer from racism in variety of ways. But it is not the only minority group that has endured racial attacks, there are now other groups facing similar problems including Muslims after the 9/11 attacks and it has become a much…
Alexander, N. Antonio Segrio Alfredo Guimar-es, Beyond Racism: Race and Inequality in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Lynne Rienner. Boulder, CO. 2001. 505.
Maran, R. A Report from the United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance Durban, South Africa 2001. Social Justice. 2002. 177+.
Kelly, G. -- LOYALISTS LAUNCH ANTI-RACISM FIGHT; Poster Campaign to Stamp out Hate Crimes in Ulster. Newspaper Title: The Mirror. March 10, 2005. 22.
Strickland, Bill: The changing face of racism: new strategies needed for new century. Crisis (The New); Mar/Apr2001, Vol. 108 Issue 2, p20, 2p, 1c
ace and Gender Discrimination
This paper discusses literature regarding the Equal Employment Opportunity Act which helps protect both applicants and employees from being discriminated against on the basis of their race, religion, age, sex, gender or disabilities. It also discusses and explores the roles of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which is a federal agency that investigates and enforces the laws that were enacted from the EEOA. This paper also explores the notion that despite our modern social advances, we are not totally removed from discrimination of all types in the workplace. The role and relationship of the hospitality industry as it pertains to laws and regulations is also discussed.
etype Title Here
The Equal Employment Opportunity Act was created and born out of Title VII of The Civil ights Act of 1964; it consists of a series of laws that are all…
Bohlander, G.W., & Snell, S. (2007). Managing human resources. Mason, OH: Thomson.
Casado, M.A., & Dereshwizky, M.I. (2007). Cutulral Diversity in Higher Education: Implications for Hospitality Programs, 128(2), 294-306.
Dennis, H., & Thomas, K. (2007). Ageism in The Workplace. Generations, 31(1), 2-9.
Equal Employment Opportunity Act. (n.d.). The U.S. Department of Labor Home Page. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.dol.gov/
Another factor that impacts the level of community resources offered is that many of the schools do not offer intramural activities for elementary school students. Participation in these group activities are most often children from middle to middle upper class families; due in part to cost and accessibility.
Those representing the lower socioeconomic strata tend to take greater advantage of the social services available within the community. Social services purported to be available including both state funded and privately funded organizations that offer basic services including food, clothing and shelter, as well as public welfare such as Temporary Assistance to Need Families, Social Security benefits, Medicaid and Medicare. The Department of Family and Children Services is a large provided of social services and serves as the gatekeeper to many of the private agencies that offer foster care, domestic violence counseling services, child welfare services, as well as many levels of…
Burt, J., Ortlieb, E., & Cheek, E. (2009). An investigation of the impact of racially diverse teachers on the reading skills of fourth-grade students in a one race school. Reading Improvement, 46(1), 35-45.
Keengwe, J. (2010). Fostering cross cultural competence in preservice teachers through
Multicultural education experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(3),
V. Implementation of Multicultural Diversity and Classroom Harmony Creation
Classroom harmony should be relatively easy for the teacher of geography to create since the entire focus of the study of geography are places and locations throughout the world and certainly this is a study subject endlessly graced by potential subjects that have the potential to create understanding and harmony in the classroom.
II. Key Example of How Teaching Subject May be Facilitated
A key example of how teaching geography can be used in facilitation of cultural diversity is the study of world cultures in combination with world locations. For instance, teaching geography on the Western world and specifically on the United States can involve the sharing of knowledge of the many and diverse cultures that together represent the demographics of the United State. Included are African-Americans, native Indians and of many various tribal lineage, as well as the European Caucasian…
Clark, Marie and Drudy, Sheelagh (2006) Teaching for Diversity, Social Justice and Global Awareness. European Journal of Teacher Education. Vol. 28, No.3. 3 Aug 2006.
Abu-Saad, Ismael (2004) Separate and Unequal: The Role of the State Educational System in Maintaining the Subordination of Israel's Palestinian Arab Citizens. Social Identities. Vol. 10. No. 1. Carfax Publishing. Taylor & Francis Group.
Liederman, Molokotos (2009) Religious Diversity in Schools: the Muslim Headscarf Controversy and Beyond. Social Compass, 2000; 47; 367. Sage Publications.
Dehyle, Donna (nd) Navajo Youth and Anglo Racism. Harvard Educational Review.
The Foundation called specific attention to the prospect of institutional and policy-level strategies to increase the participation of under-represented minorities in the health professions. In response, the Institute Committee on Institutional and Policy-Level Strategies for Increasing the Diversity of the U.S. Healthcare Workforce came out with a report, entitled "In the Nation's Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health Care Workforce." The Committee consisted mostly of academicians, two of whom represented the nursing profession.
In its report, the Committee recognized the importance of increasing racial diversity among health professionals in order to improve access to care, greater patient choice and satisfaction and better educational experiences for practitioners, among other benefits. It also recognized the lack of strategies in reducing institutional and policy-level barriers among health profession educational institutions or HPEIs. In response to the lack, the Committee recommended that health professions education make a clear stand and mission on the…
AHRQ (2007). The national healthcare disparities report, 2006. Agency for Healthcare
Quality and Research, Medscape. Retrieved on June 18, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552271
Alabama Nurse (2004). ANA Review: Institute of Medicine report on workforce diversity,
Multicultural Resources Report of Internet Sites
Multicultural and diversity issues exist in our day-to-day lives.it is therefore very important to sensitize people and make them aware of these issues and how they can deal with them. The paper is a report on multicultural resources using the internet sites.
Milano, P.J. (1997).The National Forum on People with Differences. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://www.yforum.com/
There are so many internet sites that contain information on some aspects of multicultural and diversity issues.one such site is Y? Forum. This is a national forum on people with differences. This site provides a safe place where people candidly discuss tough issues such as stereotypes, racism, religious persecution, gander discrimination, homophobia and other issues pertaining to cultural diversity. This site has an appealing appearance which attracts anyone that visits the site hence they will be able to read through what is contained in the site.it is…
American Counseling Association is another site that contains information on multiculturalism and diversity.it sis easy to navigate through the site as everything is clearly indicated on the webpage. There is an icon for the homepage, knowledge center and browse by topic. Therefore whatever topic one wants to access is easily available.it therefore makes it easy for anyone visiting the site to maneuver and get exactly what they want and they are looking for. There are also some links to social media such as Facebook and twitter on the top most side of the site. This enables one to share the site with other people and hence it becomes very easy for information sharing .there is even an option to join this site and continue learning in the process. This is very good as it will enable those people who join the site to learn and get their questions answered in every possible way (American Counseling Association, 2013).
Curators of the University of Missouri, (2011). Diversity and Multiculturalism. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://diversity.missouri.edu/learn/researchers/diversity-multiculturalism.php
This is yet another site that contains information on diversity. There are various diversity researches that are listed on the site with their names, their research description and contact information. This is very useful as it gives one a guideline on the available research that has been conducted on this topic and how it was handled.one also has the access to contact information of those who carried out this research and hence can do a follow-up if they have any questions to be answered. These research topics give the viewers of the site a guideline on the available
CROSSING COLOR ARRIERS
Ethical and Legal Concerns
Section I of the ACA (2014) Code of Ethics on Resolving Ethical Issues mandates professional counselors to behave ethically and to obey the law. They are fully aware that client welfare and the trust enjoyed by their profession entirely depend on a high level of professional conduct on their part. They adhere faithfully to the ACA Code of Ethics and other applicable codes. They base their solution to an ethical issue or dilemma on the Code, consultation, relevant ethical standards, principles and laws. In cases when ethical responsibilities conflict with established laws, regulations and/or other governing legal authority and no solution is achieved, they may choose to yield to the requirements of these legal authorities (ACA).
Section .1.c. On Respect for Confidentiality obliges counselors to guard all confidential information of both current and future clients (ACA, 2014). They reveal specific information…
ACA (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. ACA Governing Council. Retrieved on March 29,
2014 from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
DeTrude, J. (2001). The supervision process: complications and concerns. Professional Issues in Counseling: Sam Houston State University. Retrieved on March 30, 2014
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.
Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:
Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.
Maketing to a multicultual audience -- Stabucks and McDonald's
All businesses today must be multicultual to some extent (Makgosa 2012). The Intenet has opened up new potals to multicultual, multinational consume audiences. Moe foeign nationals in developing nations aspie to imitate the Ameican, consumeist life they see potayed in the moden media. Ameica itself is gowing inceasingly divese, which demands a moe caefully-segmented appoach to maketing. Howeve, this ceates a poblem fo global businesses such as Stabucks and McDonald's. On one hand, the coe foundation of thei business is based upon maketing a paticula type of lifestyle, a lifestyle gounded in an image ooted in Ameicana (o in the case of Stabucks, a vey Ameican vision of a Euopean cafe). The coe poblem of today's multicultual maketing is that changes must be made to addess an inceasingly divese audience: an audience which demands moe than mee tokenism o…
Palacios, S. (2011). Multicultural is the wave of the future. Ad Age. Retrieved:
Patterson, P.G., Scott, J., & Uncles, M.D. (2010). How the local competition defeated a global brand: The case of Starbucks. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18(1), 41-47.
Starbucks: Japan's highest-rated coffee chain. (2009). What Japan Thinks.
what is multicultural literature? What are the characteristics of quality multicultural literature?
Within the latter part of the twentieth century, a pattern referred to as multiculturalism acquired popularity in American education (Almerico et al., 2006). Gay (1994) within an intensive research of the very commonly used meanings of multicultural literature recognized 13 particular explanations involving the idea and mentioned that a number of factors had been typical out of all definitions for the reason that all of them concur that the content material of multicultural literature ought to include:
Cultural pluralism, ethnic identities, unequal division of resources as well as
Opportunities along with other socio and political issues arising from extended track records of oppression
Multicultural education like a school of thought, a strategy for education transformation, along with a collection of particular subject material within just educational courses. (p. 3)
In her own book, Affirming Diversity, Nieto…
Almerica et al. 2006:
The authors in this research carried out a content evaluation of children's literature college books to find out the way the phrase multiculturalism had been interpreted within just the perspective of children's literature. They established the way the idea had been outlined, the degree to which various subcultures within the America had been depicted, the quantity of textual content dedicated to every depicted cultural group, and also the quantity of suggested trade books for every group.
• The racial foundation involving the classroom has and also will continue to transform.
For some, the discussion of multiculturalism is a theoretical one, with little practical application to their day-to-day behavior. Even when people encounter others from different cultures, ethnocentric ideals may prevent them from really understanding how cultural backgrounds impact their interactions. For classroom teachers, however, multiculturalism is much more than a theoretical concept; it is the framework that helps establish how a teacher can create a classroom environment that is beneficial for all of the students in the classroom. However, establishing a multicultural classroom is not a simplistic process. In order to do so, an educator must consider many factors that relate to development in children. Educators must also think about the different family backgrounds of the students. Finally, teachers have to keep in mind that they may direct their classrooms, but they do not completely control them; the teacher has to play an active role in facilitating the…
Australia Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship. (2011). The People of Australia: Australia's Multicultural policy. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from Australian Government website: http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/pdf_doc/people-of-australia-multicultural-policy-booklet.pdf
Lo Bianco, J. (2010). Multicultural education in Australia: Evolution, compromise, and contest.
Retrieved September 11, 2013 from International Alliance of Leading Educational Institutes website: http://www.intlalliance.org/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Conference_2010/NP-AU.pdf
Swetnam, L. (2003). Lessons on multicultural education from Australia and the United States,
Companies will need to look at regional and national differences, and draw on the similarities between countries to enhance their competitive advantages (Powell, 2005). It is clear that as company, like WTI grows globally, they will benefit from a multicultural workforce. They must put managerial, educational, and cultural proactiveness in place, which will not only improve their opportunities for greater worldwide competition, but by bringing establishing a multicultural workforce, they also improve the interrelationships between their employees. Employees who do this, learn to communicate and other points-of-view and opinions. By doing this WTI, and other large companies, poise themselves to become successful in the emerging globalize culture of the 21st century.
Using Innovative Human Resource Techniques to Manage Diversity - Human resource management, whether specifically titles or not, has been a part of any organization's management since groups banded together for specific tasks. Ancient armies, projects, and even educational and…
Figure 2 -- Simple life cycle utilizing eHRM for employee (Armstron, 2006; Boudreau).
Thus, this simple figure shows that starting with the potential employee's entry of their resume into the electronic system, how the data begins to manage itself and becomes available to those who need it most. Employees and managers all have access to the data, and the employee can update the resume when new skills are acquired, apply for internal jobs by simply sending a note to the manager, manage their payroll, sick-leave, vacation, and retirement data, and work with their own professionals to plan and execute their career.
For managers, the system focuses on skill management and the ability for individual managers to do skill-based strategic planning and what if scenarios without the need to access hundreds of man-hours of time from another department. The manager can quickly see both who within the organization, and on resumes on file, might have a particular desire or skill set which the company is in need of. For the employee
Diversity in the Workplace
The increase in globalization has resulted in greater levels of interaction of individuals from diverse cultures and beliefs than ever before in the history of the world. As noted in the work of Green, Lopez, Wysocki and Kepner (2002) "People no longer live and work in an insular marketplace; they are now part of a worldwide economy with competition coming from nearly every continent." (p.1) Diversity is defined as "The variety of experiences and perspective which arise from differences in race, culture, religion, mental or physical abilities, heritage, age, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and other characteristics." (University of California, San Francisco, 2012, p.1)
Challenges, arriers, and enefits to Workplace Diversity
The Multicultural Advantage website reports that there are specific barriers and challenges to workplace diversity and that these are inclusive of: (1) communication; (2) resistance to change; (3) Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies;…
1. A Diverse Workforce Is Integral to a Strong Economy. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/labor/news/2012/07/12/11900/the-top-10-economic-facts-of-diversity-in-the-workplace/
2. Andrade, R. And Rivera, A. (2012) Developing a Diversity-Patent Workforce: The UA Libraries' Experience. Journal of Library Administration. 51:7-8, 692-727
3. Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity (2010) U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/workforce-diversity.pdf
4. DuPont, K. (1999) Handling Diversity in the Workplace; Communication is the Key. American Media, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/ad_hoc/54400000NewEmployeeResources/Handling%20Diversity%20in%20the%20Workplace.pdf
Using Power Point: Understanding Diversity answer the below questions
How could prejudice affect a person's ability to learn and work?
Prejudice could affect the person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Teachers and peers might treat the student differently than they would without the prejudice, even if the prejudice is "positive," such as prejudice toward Asian students in a math class. Prejudice might impede a person's ability to learn and work, because it impacts the reactions of both teachers and students.
How important is the issue of diversity in your daily life?
Diversity is hugely important in my daily life. I do not like being in homogeneous places, because they are not reflective of the world at large. The world is diverse, filled with people with differing points-of-view and backgrounds. My views and outlooks change when I interact with different people, and I like that diversity makes me think more critically and…
Qualifying for professional certifications should be sought. All of these are ways the counselor can ensure that he or she has sound attitudes and abilities for making good judgments on ethical and multicultural questions.
There are growing resources of culturally-sensitive educational material for use by counselors. It is left to the counselor to pursue this crucial extra dimension on their own, stemming from personal dedication to the professional task. The practitioner must always seek to improve skills and understanding without simply relying on mandates from external organizations. There is a need for continuing education to make sure one is aware of new scientific and professional information and procedures of value to specific client population worked with (e.g., Mexican or Chinese populations). It is crucial to seek out communication with counselors who have greater experience and may help with advice. Also one must consult with counselors whose social and cultural backgrounds…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA Code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Garcia, J.G., Cartwright, B., Winston, S., & Borzuchowska, B. (2003). "A transcultural integrative model for ethical decision making in counseling. (Practice & Theory)." Journal of Counseling and Development. 2003. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from accessmylibrary: http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-106027116/transcultural-integrative-model-ethical.html
Gielen, U.P, Draguns, J.G., & Fish, J.M. (2008). Principles of multicultural counseling and therapy. New York: Routledge.
Pedersen, Paul. (1994). A Handbook for developing multicultural awareness. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Diversity Issues in Higher Education and the University of Vermont
How does this school present its interests in " diversity"(college's mission statement, diversity statement, website)
The University of Vermont takes great pride in the diversity of its student population. The school courts students from throughout both the United States and the international community, creating an atmosphere in which all races, religions, ethnicities, nationalities, sexual orientations and genders are made to feel welcomed and embraced. According to UVM's informational website, the school has been engaged in an array of diversity improvement programs that speak to the school's commitment to creating a multicultural community. UVM reports that the school is engaged in five separate "presidential commissions" which are focuses on better understanding diversity issues and improving the university's response to these issues. The mainstream curriculum also requires students to engage in 6 mandatory credits relating to diversity issues in education.…
Boyer, E. (1990). Campus Life: In Search of Community. Jossey-Bass.
Cappex. (2011). University of Vermont. Cappex.com.
Shampnois, G. (2011). Office of Student and Community Relations. UVM.edu.
Silverman, A. (2011). Racial Diversity Inches Higher in Vermont. USA Today.
How do gende diffeences affect communication?
Geneally, males and females communicate somewhat diffeently. Males tend to communicate vey diectly and to focus on issues, often without consideing moe pesonal aspects of the convesation o the feelings of the othe peson. Females tend to communicate moe indiectly and often devote consideable attention to the pesonal aspects of communications and the specific thoughts and feelings of the othe peson. Males also tend to discuss abstact ideas and tangible things wheeas females tend to discuss people and elationships. Males ae moe likely to discuss things in impesonal ways wheeas females ae moe likely to establish pesonal appot befoe addessing impesonal issues. I have had expeiences woking with females whee my focus on wok was peceived incoectly as coldness o unfiendliness because of the diffeences in ou pesonal styles that wee pobably functions of gende.
Descibe thee baies to bidging diffeences. What stategies may…
references of some individuals and negative expectations of others. Naturally, those perceptions and expectations conflict with decision-making based on objective merit or the value actually contributed by individuals to the group.
Healey, J.F. (2008). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Schaefer, R.T. (2006). Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper Collins.
We went in assuming we would be rather homogenous and then found that the dynamic of the group could have broken down as a virtue of differences. Once those differences were noted by myself, the group leader the task became essentially easier, as more time working in the collective was sought by the group and as an individualist, simply had to adapt to this idea and allow for this time.
Within the works of Charles Handy there is also a message that influenced my thinking on this project and its dynamic and communication strategies. Handy stresses that the application of political ideas to company management is inevitable and in particular he stresses that federalism is the concept most likely to be utilized to demonstrate company structure and change. Not only did find this to be true regarding the materials gathered in the project context, HP, but also in the collective…
ITIM International Website "Geert Hofstede" Accessed January 7, 2008 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/
Ledwith, S. & Seymour, D. (December 2001) Home and Away: Preparing Students for Multicultural Management. International Journal of Human resource Management, (12) 8, 1292-1312.
Tomlinson F. & Egan, S. (2002) Organizational Sensemaking in a Culturally Diverse Setting: Limits to the 'Valuing Diversity' Discourse. Management Learning, (33) 1, 79-97.
Multicultural Counseling Competency
The development of American society as a multicultural society in the recent years resulted from the numerous incidences of diaspora and migration among individuals who belong to various cultures and societies all over the world. At present, the United States is host country to peoples of various race, ethnicity, worldviews, as well as social class, which include Europeans, Asians, Africans, Hispanic, and Native Americans. The diversity of American society thus necessitates an awareness of the cultural differences among these groups to further understand and tolerate these differences as each group interacts with the other and the whole of American society.
Understanding cultural diversity is indeed imperative for the counselor, who faces the challenge to provide efficient mental health service for an individual who may belong to a culturally-different group other than the white Americans. The hybridization of American society serves as a challenge for multicultural counseling to…
Arredondo, P. (2004). "Multicultural counseling competencies=ethical practice." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 26, Issue 1.
Baruth, L. And M. Manning. (1999). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: a lifespan perspective. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Constantine, M. (2001). "Multicultural training, theoretical orientation, empathy, and multicultural case conceptualization ability in counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 23, Issue 4.
Liu, W. And D. Clay. (2002). "Multicultural counseling competencies: guidelines in working with children and adolescents." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 24, Issue 2.
Tolerance for Ambiguity in Global Managers
Each worker and manager in today's world is affected by globalization. This does not mean, however, that all individuals in each organization are equally prepared or equally capable of meeting the demands of a world in which traditional boundaries are overrun and even erased. One of the key qualities, especially for managers and other leaders, of succeeding in the world of global companies and global markets is a higher tolerance for ambiguity than would otherwise be needed. Bringing together people of different cultural values, traditions, and needs (whether this collection of differences occurs in the workplace or in the marketplace) requires an ability to be highly flexible. And key to the ability to be flexible is the ability to tolerate ambiguity (Williams, 2001).
To bring together the different voices of worker and consumers in a way that allows the strengths of diversity…
Diversity in Practice: Becoming Culturally Competent. Retrieved from http://www.centre4activeliving.ca/publications/wellspring/2006/oct/oct06.pdf
Bowen, F. & Blackmon, K. (2003), Spirals of silence: The dynamic effects of diversity on organizational voice. Journal of Management Studies 40: 1393 -- 1417.
Burns, P. & Schapper, J. (2008). "The ethical case for affirmative action." The journal of business ethics 83(3): 369-379.
Ely, R. & Thomas, D. (2006)."Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes." Administrative Science Quarterly 46(2): 229-273.
One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.
A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…
Chokshi, M. Carter, C. Gupta, D. Martin, T. & Allen, R. (1995) "Computers and Apartheid"
Computer Science: 201 Final Project: Stanford University Computer Science Department at: http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.html .
Hlatshwayo, S.A. (2000). Education and Independence: Education in South Africa, 1658-1988. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Seidman, G. (1999). IS SOUTH AFRICA DIFFERENT? Sociological Comparisons and Theoretical Contributions from the Land of Apartheid. 419.
The school aims to recruit students that will balance the spectrum of diversity. Before this can be accomplished however, existing and future employees of the university will need to be prepared. "Diversity is about encouraging and enabling all employees to draw on their talents, skills, and experience for the benefit of the business." (Bruno, 2004) Schools that are diversity sensitive will more often be prepared for the competitive recruitment markets and thus attract higher potential students and employees. The school has implemented the necessary training that will bring the entire student recruitment process together.
No matter what the level of need, a good diversity training program will maintain the most important aspects of the school's initiative. Diversity training has been proven to reduce the potential for misunderstandings, conflict and litigation which is often related to basic differences in communications and expectations. "All of the admissions staff has been…
Bruno, Jeanne-Marie (2004). "Implementing Diversity in a Meaningful Way." American Works Association Journal, Vol. 96(10), 47.
Lehigh University (2005). Lehigh University Home Page. Retrieved on 8 February 2005, from http://www3.lehigh.edu/path/visitors.asp .
Lehigh President's Speech. (n.d.) "Diversity Speech."
.." (Fluker, 2006). According to research, 90% of faculty and 75% of students enrolled in doctoral religious studies programs in the United States and Canada are Caucasian (American Academy of eligion, 2003). Fluker argues (and rightfully so), "Without racial and ethnic diversity, schools fail to create a positive institutional climate in which students from all backgrounds can succeed. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students fail to meet and learn from role models and mentors they can emulate in their own vocations. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students of all races fail to learn how to relate to the diverse world in which they will live and work after graduation..."
The fourth article "Education Groups Push for Greater Diversity in Teaching Force" defends the fact that "a lack of racial and cultural diversity among teachers is hurting the chances of success for minority students..." (Cox, Matthews & Associates, 2004). esearch suggests…
Cherwitz, R.A. (2004). Capitalizing on unintended consequences: Lessons on diversity from Texas (Reality Check). Peer Review 6 (3), 33-36.
Fluker, S.W. (2006). Diversity delayed, excellence denied. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 23 (4), 59-60.
Noteworthy News (2004). Education groups push for greater diversity in teaching force. Black Issues in Higher Education, 21(21), 14-15.
Valentin, S. (2006). Addressing diversity in teacher education programs
Multicultural Workplace esearch: Abstract eview
The research study entitled, "The impact on the cultural diversity to employees' job satisfaction between mainland China and Taiwan: a comparison of Taiwanese invested companies" by Chuan-Cheng Wu and Yu-Chen Chiang (2007) looked into the effect of cultural diversity to employees' satisfaction among mainland Chinese and Taiwanese employees. In the abstract of the research article, the authors shared key points about their research, although details provided were incomplete. Among the research details shared in the abstract were the research topic, research question, participant groups in the study and a summary of the key findings. However, among items not specifically included were the following: methodology, analyses used, and a conclusion that ultimately tells the readers the main result of the study.
eviewing the research article, these missing details about the research are identified. To develop a complete abstract for the study, these gaps must be addressed…
Wu, C. And Y. Chiang. (2007). "The impact on the cultural diversity to employees' job satisfaction between mainland China and Taiwan: a comparison of Taiwanese invested companies." International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 18, No. 4.
Knowledge of avenues for community support as well as for physical aid such as shelter and food are vital to providing help, both immediate and long-term, to discriminated populations. I have confidence that between my studies and real-life experiences such as internships and work, that I can gain this knowledge and disperse it amongst clientele.
The fourth role a therapist ought to play is as a "consultant helping clients (and others in their life) find ways to work toward reducing discriminatory practices in the community" (Atkinson, et.al., 1993, pp. 264-270, cited in Cooper and Lesser, 2005, p. 67). This role dovetails with the second role above of being an advocate oneself.
If one is successfully filling the role of advocate, then sharing information on how to participate in the local community, to contact one's officials, and to agitate for change is not a large step. Teaching clients how to successfully…
Atkinson, D.R., Thompson, C.E. And Grant, S.K. 1993. "A three-dimensional model for counseling racial/ethnic minorities," in The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 257-277.
Babakan, H. And Gopalkrishan, N. "Posttraumatic experiences of refugee women," in Rabin, C. ed., Understanding Gender and Culture in the Helping Process. Sydney, Thomson Wadsworth.
Banks, J. 2004. "Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform," in Banks,.J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Banks, J. 2004. "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals," in Banks, J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis Worksheet
Select and identify six groups in the left-hand column. Complete the matrix.
Write a summary.
Format references consistent with APA guidelines.
What is the group's history in the United States?
What is the group's population in the United States?
What are some attitudes and customs people of this group may practice?
What is something you admire about this group's people, lifestyle, or society?
The Sioux is a group of Native American tribes, related by language, that were based in the Great Plains. In the 1800s, westward expansion and white settlement led the U.S. government to by force remove the Sioux from their native lands onto reservations. Anger over these removals and poor treatment by the federal government ultimately boiled over into armed confrontation, which ended in the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 and the…
Sioux. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/sioux
Black History. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory
African-American Voices. (2007). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20080507214116/http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/black_voices/voices_display.cfm?id=23
The Story Of Hispanics In The Americas. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://history-world.org/hispanics.htm
If the right employee is chosen then the knowledge that they gain while abroad can be a valuable asset when they return home. They develop an intimate relationship with a different market than the parent company. This knowledge can help the parent company expand to meet the needs of a more diverse group of clients. There have not been many studies in this area at all. This study has a strong theoretical background based on a synthesis of existing knowledge in the field. It focuses on recent peer reviewed articles as the basis for its constructs. The study found that in order for repatriate knowledge to be useful, the company had to first have a sound knowledge management system in place. In addition, it had to have a strong multicultural knowledge management. This study used a study group of 16 expatriate employees to draw its conclusions.
The study focused on…
Selden, S. (2005). Human Resource Management in American Counties, 2002. Public Personnel Management.34 (1), 59-90.
Many studies in human resource management have focused on the federal and state level. This study was unique in that it focused on the county level. It focused on county government issues rather than those dealing with the private sector. The study focused on structural and political changes. The purposes of the study were to provide data that could be extrapolated to the general population in America. However, it focused on Los Angeles and surrounding counties. This area has a unique political, social and economic landscape. However, the uniqueness of this area was not addressed by the study. This data is only applicable to areas that are identical, or substantially similar to the counties in the study. It does examine some of the topics and concerns that could effect county governments in the rest of the country, but further examination of these areas would have to be conducted to determine their similarities and differences to the counties examined in this study. It is useful to this research because it does bring to light several issues that might be of concern in other areas of the country as well. However, extrapolating the data from this study alone would lead to skewed conclusions about the other county.
This study found that there are several barriers to county governments that place a damper on their ability to function as efficiently as possible. One of the key constraints is a tight labor market. Other factors that effect the ability to operate effectively are uncompetitive county salaries, budget constraints, procedural constraints, residency requirements, slow hiring processes, background checks and collective bargaining agreements. Many of these factors would apply to any county government and would result in similar difficulties. However, the key complaint about this study is that it failed to recognize differences in counties. For instance, Los Angeles County has a high population center. This type of county could not be compared to a rural county with a significantly lower population and different industry profile. This was an excellent study on counties in Southern California counties, but is cannot be applied to all counties in America, as the title implies. Diversity in County government was higher than in other counties around the country. This was another factor that cannot be extrapolated to other parts of the country.
The American workplace has become increasingly diverse, a reflection of the American urban environment. Diversity training serves a few different purposes in organizations. The first is that it promotes an atmosphere of tolerance in the company, but many scholars have also made a business case for diversity. Some earlier writings on the subject outlined that diversity training helps to resolve internal conflict, improve communication flows within the company, align the company better with its market, and can also help improve organizational creativity by introducing new ideas to organizations (Cox & Blake, 1991). Later writers noted that the effects of diversity were complex, something that should be reflected in the way that the organization trains for diversity (Milliken & Martins, 1996).
As awareness of diversity grows, and the case for diversity training increases, it is evident that more companies are including a diversity component in their training programs. Initially,…
Anand, R. & Winters, M. (2008). A retrospective view of corporate diversity training from 1964 to present. Academy of Management Learning & Education. Vol. 7 (3) 356-372.
Cox, T. & Blake, M. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. Academy of Management Executive. Vol. 5 (3) 45-56.
Milliken, F. & Martens, L. (1996). Searching for common threads: Understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 21 (2) 402-433.
Swoyer, C. (2003). Relativism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/#2.5
The Impact of Diversity on our Current Society
The workforce and the society in general, in the United States will continue to diversify among racial groups. Although many organizations are fully aware of the trend, there have been some gaps among this trend and the preparations that need to be done to manage a more diverse workforce and nation. It has been estimated that roughly two thirds of U.S. companies have some sort of diversity training. However, these programs are implemented with a varying effectiveness. This paper will provide a brief background on many of the minority movements that have gotten us to this point as well as make some predictions and recommendations about what can be done in the future to effectively deal with the upcoming issues of diversity
Background on Diversity & Civil Liberties
There has been a long and sometimes bloody struggle for minorities in the…
Ardichvili, A. (2008). Learning and Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities of Practice: Motivators, Barriers, and Enablers. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(4), 541-554.
Chrobot-Mason, D. (2012). Developing Multicultural Competence to Improve Cross-Race Work Relationships. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 199-218.
Grosse, C. (2002). Managing Communication within Virtual Intercultural Teams. Business Communication Quarterly, 65(4), 22-38.
Minbaeva, D., Pedersen, T., Bjorkman, I., Fey, C., & Park, H. (2003). MNC knowledge transfer, subsidary absorptive capacity, and HRM. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(6), 581-599.
According to these authorities, "Workplace stressors often have detrimental effects on faculty job satisfaction and may lead to decisions to leave the institution or to leave higher education entirely. Although some degree of turnover is inevitable and perhaps desirable, high rates of faculty turnover can be costly to the reputation of an institution and to the quality of instruction" (p. 776). In many cases, the very faculty members that are adversely affected in this fashion are those the school district can least afford to lose, with a concomitant negative effect on those teachers who remain: "Too often the faculty who leave are those the institution would prefer to retain. Additional negative consequences of faculty turnover include costs for recruiting replacements, reduced integration within the academic department, disruption of course offerings, and diminished morale among those employees who remain in the organization" (Daly & Dee, p. 777).
In reality, the outcomes…
Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003). Post-tenure review at graduate institutions in the United States: Recommendations and reality. Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 241.
Becton, J.B. & Schraeder, M. (2004). Participant input into rater selection: Potential effects on the quality and acceptance of ratings in the context of 360-degree feedback. Public Personnel Management, 33(1), 23.
Broadnax, W.D. (2000). Diversity and affirmative action in public service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Brownell, M.T., Ross, D.D., Colon, E.P., & Mccallum, C.L. (2005). Critical features of special education teacher preparation: A comparison with general teacher education. Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 242.
7) Ensure that appropriate accommodations are made for disabled applicants. 8) Know your own biases, including what stereotypes you have of people from different groups and how well they may perform on the job, what communication styles you prefer, and acknowledge that what one may consider to be appropriate or desirable qualities in a candidate may reflect more about personal preferences than about the skills needed to perform the job (UCSF, NDI).
In order to facilitate tolerance in the workplace organizations should institute programs related to diversity training for both employees and managers. These programs should focus on raising awareness of the current demographics in the organization as well as the community and the industry. Sometimes it may be necessary to institute a policy of affirmative action. Affirmative action focuses on specific groups of historical discrimination and emphasizes legal necessity and social responsibility. Organizations face enormous responsibilities for helping women,…
Bear, J.B., & Woolley, a.W. (2011, June). The role of gender in team collaboration and performance. Interdisciplanary science reviews. Vol. 36, Issue 2, 146-153. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=aa10aca0-9710-4ddf-82ca-36d1d2518fd5%40sessionmgr10&vid=4&hid=12
Jonas, M. (2007, August 5) the downside of diversity. The New York times. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/05/world/americas/05iht-diversity.1.6986248.html?pagewanted=all
Kurtz, D.L. (2010). Contemporary business. 13th Ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
UCSF. (NDI) Chapter 12: Managing diversity in the workplace. Guide to managing human resources. University of California, San Fransico. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-12-managing-diversity-in-the-workplace/
While some improvements in those strategies have occurred, further improvements are needed. To achieve this ends communities must begin to insist that their police department's leadership seriously seek to discover and eliminate cultural biases, prejudices, and other barriers that impede the ability of the police to effectively deal with cultural differences in the community. As America becomes more culturally diverse and citizens' skin colors begin to meld, the importance of recognizing sameness, rather than difference, becomes imperative.
Alexa Kasdan (2006) believes community groups need to work with police departments to analyze gaps in current recruitment efforts in order to develop new approaches to increase race and gender diversity among law enforcement personnel in their jurisdictions. The focus of recruitment efforts should aim toward building police forces whose members reflect the diversity of the wider society, even in overwhelmingly homogenous communities. Kasdan recommends beginning the process by gathering data to find…
Coderoni, G., R. (2002, November) The realtionship between mulitcultural training for police and effective law enforcement -- Perspective. The FBI law enforcement bulletin. In BNET, The CBS Interactive Business Network. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_11_71/ai_94873352/?tag=content;col1
Jan, T. (2009, July 20). Harvard professor Gates arrested at Cambride home. Metrodesk. Boston.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2009/07/harvard.html
Kasdan, A. (2006, October) Increasing diversity in police departments: Stratigies and tools for human rights commisions and others. Program in Criminal Justice and Management, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.hrccj.org/pdfs/increasing_police_diversity.pdf
Saulny, S., & Brown, R. (2009, July 24) Professor's arrest tests beliefs on racial progress. The NewYork times. New York Times Company. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/24/us/24blacks.html
Cox models have be used by many organizations to deal with conflict resolution issues, including those with diverse populations. In Cox analysis, the change model for work on company diversity has provided an effective approach to establishing and maintaining diversity in workplaces. hen we review this issue, leadership is the key aspect here because this situation raises core questions about the company leadership's philosophy, vision, strategy and integration. Leadership in such situations has been found to be critical in guiding organizations during times of social change, especially with regard to dealing with diverse populations in work places. In such situations, sensitivity training has been successful if combined with a cost benefits analysis. hile it might be "nice" to treat people with respect, it has statistically been proven that such efforts are enhanced when employee stakeholders find that the issue impacts their own bottom lines. They, they have a personal stake…
Cox, Taylor. (1991). The multicultural organization. Academy of Executive Management, 5 (2), 37-47.
Facts about discrimination based on sexual orientation. (2011).
Retrieved from http://employment.findlaw.com/employment/employment-employee-discrimination-harassment/employment-employee-other-discrimination-top/employment-employee-other-discrimination-facts.html .
Diversity and Ethics Reporting Systems
Diversity Management and Discrimination Issues at Work
Enhanced globalization and immigration, which occurs for economic and socio-political reasons, has led to the development of multicultural societies across the globe. Today, many nations and workplaces have employees from diverse backgrounds. More often than not, cultural differences as well as other inherent differences such as gender often lead to stereotyping, categorization, and labeling; which set precedence for discrimination at the workplace (Appleby, 2007). In basic terms, workplace discrimination denotes unfair differential or unequal treatment of employees based on their differences in gender, nationality, religion, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or disability (Collins, 2012).
Gender discrimination issues are part of the discriminatory issues that arise out of gender differences or special gender-related issues such as pregnancy. It denotes the unequal treatment of employees based on their gender. Examples of issues that often arise in relation to this form of…
7. Must be a good team player.
Looking at the above list, it is apparent that aside from basic OMA knowledge, two competency areas are particularly important in entry-level positions: personal qualities and human relations skills. Personal qualities include characteristics like flexibility, maturity, outgoing and pleasant personality, and strong skills in communication, organization, time management, multitasking, problem solving, and critical analysis. In the category of human relations, multicultural sensitivity, teamwork, and active listening are deemed important.
Slide # 6. The Issues We Face (Common Issues in Multicultural Affairs)
Professionals within multicultural affairs are faced with various issues that fall categorically in the areas of racial identity, and ethnicity, LGBT, religion, and student disability ("Bias incidents," n.d., para. 1; Flowers, L, 2003, Contents, Section 2). Issues that permeate all categories include, harassment, bias incidents and hate crimes.
1. acial Identity and Ethnicity -- culture clashes, racial tension, bias incidents
1. A complex mission (n.d.). In Mission of the Office for Multicultural Affairs. Retrieved Sept. 17, 2009, from http://www.calvin.edu/admin/provost/multicultural/mission.htm
2. Barrett, W. (2003). Information technology in student affairs. In S.R. Komives, & D.B. Woodard, Jr. (Eds.), Student services: A handbook for the profession (4th ed., pp. 379 -- 396). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved Sept. 17, 2009, from http://www.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=l9eUK5qBWlgC&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=Information+Technology+in+student+services&ots=XLg6zWzMn7&sig=PDlwDD-i_VQAKMGa_9e1wzh1lUU#v=onepage&q=Information%20Technology%20in%20student%20services&f=false
3. Basic Job Qualifications (n.d.). Retrieved Sept. 17, 2009, from http://maf.dept.uncg.edu/docs/OMAassistant.pdf
4. Bias Incident/Hate Crime. Retrieved Sept. 19, 2009, from http://www.rwu.edu/about/administration/publicsafety/biashatecrime/
Most of the employees had been hired by the company because they were not only good communicators, but they were also creative and reliable as well. One recent article espoused the same philosophy that our company seemed to use when they hired employees. The article states "marketer are hiring more talent and spending more money than ever to chase multicultural consumers, yet they are divided on how to reach them- and unsure they're getting good returns on their investments" (Bulik, 2008, p.1). The company that I worked for fit that mold.
The culture remained the same because the company did not know how to diversify. Oftentimes, it seemed as if management did not wish to fix what was not broken.
This company culture led to the fact that when a spec ad was completed for this one particular client, she took offense to it. To most of the employees, the…
Bulik, B.S.; (2008) Marketers: We don't get how to do diversity, Advertising Age, Vol. 79, No. 8, p. 1, 25
Martinez, L.; (2007) Take a glance under the big tent: Latino's hot and bothered about the wrong image, Advertising Age, Vol. 78, No. 36, pp. 18-19
Rover, D.T.; (2008) Engineering identity, Journal of Engineering Education (Washington, D.C.), Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 389-392
Multicultural model of counseling was developed with individuals with disabilities in mind, as well as other minorities and special needs populations. It is founded on the idea that multicultural competence rests on the ability of a counselor to integrate personal, professional and institutional contexts and suggests that change requires "affective, cognitive and behavioral learning competence" (eza & Toporek, 2001: 13). Further the model suggest that counselors integrate the practice of self-assessment in order to help acquire the standards necessary to address race, culture, ethnicity, disabilities and any other factors that have been recognized as critical to the counseling practice (eza & Toporek, 2001).
Perspectives in Counseling
Kim & Lyons (2003) point out that a growing number of ethnic, disabled and racial minorities in the United States in recent years has necessitated increased attention in the field of counseling toward the unique needs of minorities. In addition research findings tend to…
Cook, D.W. (2000). "Issues in rehabilitation counseling." Journal of Disability Policy
Kim, B.S.K. & Lyons, H.Z. (2003). "Experiential activities and multicultural counseling competence training." Journal of Counseling and Development, 81(4): 400
Reza, J.V. & Toporek, R.L. (2001). "Context as a critical dimension of multicultural counseling: Articulating personal, professional and institutional competence." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(1):13
The benefits of this study will be both to adult learners and to their educators. The benefits to the students should be obvious; though it will take time and further research to evaluate and implement the suggestions made by this study on a large scale, the needs of the students in a multicultural setting will be better met by educators who better understand the diversity of needs and styles that multiculturalism helps to propagate and condense in the classroom.
4) the theoretical frameworks of multiculturalism and teaching theories are best suited to the study proposed. The varying degrees of assimilation and resistance to it need to be both respected and understood for effective teaching to take place, as well as an understanding of specific practices and behaviors of other cultures. Multiculturalism, though now a disputed framework, still provides the clearest and most readily applicable insights into these areas, and will…
" (Geographia) Such a country, therefore, can probably teach the world a valuable lesson on how to achieve unity within diversity. for, after all, it appears that India is a country, which has developed multicultural competence. Thus, I would be interested in understanding how an Indian manages to strike a balance between a national Indian identity and an independent cultural identity.
I am particularly interested in India's management of its cultural diversity because I believe that the development of multicultural competence is going to be a crucial skill in today's increasingly globalized world. In fact, this skill is important from both a career as well as social justice point-of-view: "A multiculturally competent person is aware of and knowledgeable about cultural differences, their own cultural identity, and the history and struggles of marginalized groups. They balance this awareness and knowledge with continuous empathy and curiosity. They also examine how social context,…
Geographia. "India." Accessed Nov. 27, 2004: http://www.geographia.com/india/
Morales, a.H. "Multicultural Education & Human Relations." Accessed Nov. 27, 2004: http://www.soemadison.wisc.edu/eas/multicultural/multiculturaled-101.htm
The Quotations Page. Accessed Nov. 27, 2004:
Moore shared this insight with other children's-book writers, librarians and editors, including Elinor Sinette, Franklin Folsom, Mary Elting Folsom, Frances Keene, Stanley Faulkner and Sylvia Faulkner" (Kohl, 1991).
Later on the Council on Interracial Books for Children was founded by Moore and they made it their cause to highlight the flaws in the text books. The council not only supported reform but it also became an example of an interracial organization. They started their work with the Interracial Books for Children Bulletin as a platform to highlight issues of treatment of minorities in textbooks and library books. Later workshops, public meetings and the Bulletin were used to augment the cause. This and other such organization made public the stereotypes and biases portrayed in the text books. They not only criticized writers but they also blamed publishers for encouraging books that supported a racist stance. Due to their efforts a moderate…
Graner, P., Lacava, P., & Simpson, R. (2004). The No Child Left Behind Act: Challenges and Implications for Educators. Intervention in School & Clinic, 40 (2), 67+.
Kohl, H. (1991). Staying Alive. The Nation. 252(14): 495+.
Multicultural therapies like ethnic family therapy recognize the multiple worldviews and diversity of values among clientele. Moreover, multicultural therapies avoid problems associated with decontextualization and the ignorance of politics and power structures in people's lives (Comas-Diaz, 2014). Therapists working in a diverse environment do need to develop cultural competence to serve their communities. Cultural competence requires self-awareness and recognition of one's own worldview, biases, and attitudes. Likewise, cultural competence leads to effective means of helping people whose worldviews and backgrounds are different from the therapist. Without branching too much into related social sciences like sociology, anthropology, and social work, multicultural psychological therapies do draw from other disciplines in order to form a more cohesive vision of cultural competence. No person develops in isolation of his or her culture or background. Therefore, it is critical to include dynamics of oppression, experiences of racism or stigma, issues related to the immigrant experience,…
Comas-Diaz, L. (2014). Multicultural theories of psychotherapy. In Corsini, R.J. & Wedding, D. Current psychotherapies (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy
According to the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, the psychopathology of college students, and their demand for counseling services in university college centers (UCCs) has risen substantially over the last decade (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). Well, there are number of reasons why this is so. The most significant of these perhaps is that the modern-day college student faces significant psychological concerns in the form of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and history of hospitalization resulting from lifestyle factors. It is reported, for instance, that between 15 and 20% of college students today suffer from depressive symptoms, compared to between 5 and 6% ten years ago (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). For this reason, most UCCs have adopted and expanded the use of group psychotherapy platforms as an alternative to the traditional individual psychotherapy in a bid to address the…
Lee, J. (2014). Asian International Students' Barriers to Joining Group Counseling. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 64(4), 444-464.
Perez, S.M., Yang, K.Y., Edelman, M.W. & Jones, J.M. (2014). South-East Asian-American Children: Not the Model Minority. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 121-137.
Peters, S. (2015). Barriers to Group Psychotherapy for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students. Professional Dissertation (Wright State University). Retrieved July 14, 2015 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=wsupsych1434388016&disposition=inline
Riva, M. (2013). Emphasizing Training and Supervision. The Group Psychologist, 23(1), 1-24.
Culture is commonly understood as a set of shared beliefs, values, goals and other such common ideas practiced by a group. It is an integration of art, architecture, language, food, music, lifestyle, religion and other such facets which are the defining feature of every culture. Amongst the several varying cultures of the world, this paper would focus on the Japanese culture thereby highlighting its practices and also linking it with the traditional psychological theories.
The Japanese culture is a complex system which is seen to go through a number of transformations. The initial establishment had an influence from the Chinese and Korean practices. As a matter of fact, it was the military that actually ruled the country. However, apart from going through several military conquests, instabilities and isolation, the Japanese culture took a new turn under the influence of the Western presence ultimately making Japan the…
Berg M. (2011). Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation. Berghahn Books. USA.
James B. (2005). Asian Culture Brief: Japan, National Technical Assistance Center, Vol. 2, No. 6. Hawaii.
Immigration Bureau (2005). Statistics for Foreign Residents in Japan. Ministry of Justice. Japan Immigration Association
Ritts, V. (2000). Culture and aging. Retrieved on 7th September, 2011, from http://users.stlcc.edu/vritts/aging.html#top.
" (Kanani, 2006)
If this can be the case for one city it is evident that by taking up such an ambitious education program nationwide, it is possible to bring about a better understanding in all police forces. The success of the Chicago and the New York police has egged the other states to create such training and induction into their own forces. There are training academies that impart diversity training to its officers. Austin Police Department in Texas has a "Cadet Community Immersion" program which helps officers deal with diverse Austin communities (Kanani, 2006) the greatest effort on record is probably from New York. The department has a strength of 35,000and is the country's largest police force. It has become diverse. The enlisted officers came from various backgrounds from Burma, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Venezuela, and Albania. Earlier the officers were of German, Irish, and Italian backgrounds. (Hays, 2007)
Hemphill, Hellen; Haines, Ray. (1997) "Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now" Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kenney, Dennis Jay; McNamara, Robert P. (1999) "Police and Policing: Contemporary
Issues" Praeger. Westport, CT.
National Research Council; Research on Police Committee to Review. (2004) "Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence" National Academy Press.
Teachers have a responsibility to promote social justice in their classrooms. Classrooms should be treated as microcosms of the world, and the more diverse the room, the greater the opportunity for learning. Many students will come to class burdened with the biases and bigotry of their parents, peers, or culture. Teachers may struggle to re-educate students who have a hard time working with, or even simply coexisting with, people who are not like them or who challenge their core beliefs. In this case study, a teacher needs to deal with a full three students who are homophobic. The students are all mature enough to confront their bigotry, but the teacher will have a much harder time dealing with intolerance in a classroom of adults vs. A classroom of young students, whose minds are still flexible. It is a much greater challenge to encourage a change of mind and heart…
"Does Gender Matter?" (n.d.).
"Managing a Culturally Diverse Classroom," (n.d.).
"Understanding Diversity," (n.d.).
Outsourced employees should be limited to filling non-critical areas of need. They should be used to alleviate the load on regular employees, rather than to replace them. They will fill in non-essential positions, leaving full-time employees to fill the more sensitive security roles.
Strategic planning will be an ongoing process, rather than a single event that is a part of the initial phases of the process. Security issues are constantly emerging and evolving. In order to remain an effective deterrent to harm, one must stay informed and keep one's staff informed of the changes that occur. An informed staff will be the most effective in spotting and reporting threats before they become problematic. The strategic security plan will be one of continuous monitoring and improvement. Security audits will be a part of this strategic planning cycle. Training and regular staff briefing will round out the security planning sessions.
Boeree, G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved September 18, 2007 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html .
A www.informaworld.com http://www.articlestree.com/management/personnel-management-to-hrm-maslow-s-theory-tx307537.html.
Overseas Security Advisory Council (2007) Guidelines for American Enterprises abroad, OSAC Publication, World wide 1 Jun 2005, Chapter 1 through chapter 7..
Te, H. (n.d.). Attitude toward the self. Retrieved September 18, 2007 at http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Den/5908/values/attitude.html.
Perhaps the clearest and most direct way to make the reading and general learning experience more personally relevant, however, is to include an analysis of text-to-self-connections in reading lesson plans and tasks. Not only does this lead explicitly to every individual developing their own context for reading a given text, making them consciously aware of the different perspectives that exist in literature and in the wider world, but a lack of ability to connect to specific texts can bring to light subtle yet profound injustices that might exist in he material chosen in many standard curricula (Boyer 1990). In this way, adjustments can be made in the curriculum and one-on-one discussions (or even classroom discussions) can help individual learners connect with texts even through the disparity in culture, class, or age that they might perceive between themselves and the text. That is, the aspect of this separation can itself be…
Baldwin, S.C.; Buchanan, a.M. & Rudisill, M.E. (2007). What Teacher Candidates Learned About Diversity, Social Justice, and Themselves From Service-Learning Experiences. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(4), 315-327
Boyer, E. (1990). Campus Life: In Search of Community. Jossey-Bass.
Farstrup, a.E. (2002). The Value of Diversity. Reading Today, 19.
Grant, C.A. & Sleeter, C.E. (2006). Turning on Learning: Five Approaches for Multicultural Teaching Plans for Race, Class, Gender and Disability. Jossey-Bass.
Doing activities like making pinatas are fun and instructive and offer relaxed opportunities to discuss what they are learning. They will learn some Spanish words and to delve more deeply into what it means culturally to be Mexican, which could lead to an interest in taking Spanish in high school or college some day.
It should not be ignored that students will get an opportunity to broaden their concepts of what culture actually is and also gain insight into the fact that all cultures celebrate holidays that commemorate important aspects of community life and history. The holiday itself and specifically how it is celebrated is interesting and broadening, but even more important is its reason for being and the events that led to its becoming a holiday.
One of the most difficult things to understand about another culture is its values and the reasoning behind them. The students will be…
Bowman, B. (1994). Cultural diversity and academic achievement. From Urban Education Monography Series, Chicago: NCREL.
Fogelman, E. (1995). Conscience and courage. New York: Anchor.
Hanley, M.S. (2002). The scope of multicultural education. From New Horizons for Learning. Seattle: New Horizons for Learning.
Hilliard, A. & Pine, G. (1990). Rx for racism: Imperatives for America's schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 593-600.
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
2%; 7.8% minority females and 1.51% minority males. Minorities comprise 29.8% of its workforce in the U.S. They are 6.2% Asian, 14.4% African-American, 8.4% Hispanic and .8% Native American. Minorities account for 22.% of its officials and managers and 35.5% of newly hired employees. Of these,. 31.4% are female (Xerox Corporation).
Its diversity initiatives consist of a balanced workforce strategy, a minority or female vendor program and work life programs (Xerox Corporation, 2009). The company's diversity agenda is fuelled by an executive commitment, communications, training and competency, operations strengthening and continual strategy development. The Diversity Council's 15 senior leaders meet with the caucus groups to review diversity practices and receive recommendations. Discussions focus on workforce representation, work environment, diverse customer markets, diversity practice like training, other initiatives at continually improving multicultural diversity within the company. The Xerox Foundation also extends financial support to university affairs, community affairs, Xerox technical minority…
Bernstein, A. (2001). Racism in the workplace. Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved on October 22, 2011 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/01_31/b374304.htm
Chawla, J. (2006). Copying machine supply - a brief history of Xerox. Articles Base: Free
Articles. Retrieved on October 22, 2011 from http://www.articlesbase.com/sales-articles/copying-machine-supply-a-brief-history-of-xerox-43490.html
Whitelaw, K (2010). Diversity efforts uneven in U.S. companies. National Public Radio.
... led me to suggest, as an alternative to assimilation, the value of being asimilao.
IV. eminders to Help
Kim & Lyons (2003) report that games can be successfully used to instill and enhance individuals' abilities to succeed in a multicultural firm. Game playing possesses numerous characteristics which could enhance the learning of competencies areas of skills, attitudes and beliefs, and knowledge. Games which include low-risk potential can increase a sense of safety, reduce vulnerable feelings, while also, and enhancing multicultural awareness.
For example, the use of games can balance out the inherent hierarchy between the trainees and the instructor (i.e., it levels the playing field) and potentially lead to an increased sense of safety on the part of the trainees" (Kim & Lyons, 2003). Increasing an individual's sense of safety can work tom eliminate prejudices and allow students and trainees to more readily examine their personal norms; cultural values;…
Chang, C.Y. (2003). Chapter 5 Counseling Asian-Americans. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 73-92). New York: Brunner-Routledge. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91054568
Cunningham, M.J. (2001). B2B: How to Build a Profitable E-Commerce Strategy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000786585
Diversity or Diversion? Experts Express Their Views about the Effectiveness of Diversity Programs and Offer Suggestions on How to Improve Them. (2002, July). Black Enterprise, 32, 82+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14677163
Diversity in Organizations
Workforce diversity recognizes the truth that people differ in many ways, noticeable or unseen, mainly age, gender, marital status, social status, disability, sexual orientation, religion, personality, ethnicity and culture. HM is a set of distinct actions, tasks and procedures that are aimed at drawing in, directing and continuing an organization's human resources. The H function has grown considerably over the past few decades and now covers the whole range of people management processes. There are dissimilar views about the nature of HM and there exists a massive variety of H practices accepted by various organizations. Nonetheless, it is broadly accepted that the key practices of HM include recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management and pay (Shen, Chanda, D'Netto & Monga, 2009). In order for a company to be successful they must have a workforce diversity program in place (Kramar, 2010).
ecruitment and Selection…
Klie, S. (2009). Diversity makes employers more attractive to candidates. Canadian HR
Reporter, 22(8), 20-20.
Kramar, R. (2010). What is the Australian model for managing cultural diversity? Personnel
Review, 39(1), 96-96-115.
The following facts have been established with regard to preschoolers' cultural understanding, tolerance, influences and attitudes:
• At the early preschool age, kids begin developing definite attitudes with regard to their own ethnic and racial group, and other ethnic/racial groups.
• Toddlers are able to tell if people they interact with are different from themselves, and by the time they reach preschool, they are easily able to grasp negative stereotypes.
• Caregivers' cultures, views and mindsets are readily adopted by preschoolers. Hence, a caregiver's views of other racial and ethnic groups may shape children's attitudes towards racial/ethnic minorities.
• Early childhood instructors may elicit positive attitudes among preschoolers through getting to know and promoting their pupils' diverse cultures.
• Preschoolers may begin stereotyping other cultures if their elders fail to highlight the similarities among human beings (Teaching with a Multicultural Perspective Article).
An issue underlying the existing emphasis of multicultural…
Being a job coach is an honor, a privilege, and even a necessity in today’s workplace environment. Based on evidence highlighting the effectiveness of coaching, more and more companies are “opting for team coaching as a more effective way to improve team capability and performance, while at the same time saving on costs,” (Stout-Rostron, 2016, p. 238). The friend in question should absolutely insert herself as a coach to help manage and leverage diversity in the organization and promote an organizational climate of inclusivity. In fact, someone with an international background is perfectly poised to guide organizational policy and practice regarding diversity and communication.
Religion can be a central component of individual identity construction and community cohesion. Just as employees have rich social and family lives outside of their place of employment, they also observe religious practices that coincide with their personal beliefs or their cultural background. While…
diversity of the different cultures. The main aim is to highlight the diversity in the form of literature. Through different research methods, the paper has been compiled with the help of different reference sites and libraries.
There are different pieces of literature listed in the paper. The main aim of this is to show the different variance of culture in literature. The main focus of the paper is children's books. There is a vast variety of different story books for children. Some are universal, while others are culture specific.
This list is based on such culture specific stories for children to read. This list consists of books which are suitable for children in grades K. To 8.
Bishop, C.H. (1996). The Five Chinese Brothers.
The story is about five brothers from Chinese descent, who have the ability to do something special. The one with the ability to hold…
35). Information can also be added that relates to families, parents, and others whose primary culture and language are not in the mainstream.
Using children's literature to teach diversity: It is not a new idea for teachers to use literature to educate young children. But because Gillian Potter and colleagues assert that teachers are being challenged "as never before" to create experiences that are culturally meaningful to all children -- literature has come under a new and vitally important focus. And for those purposes, children's literature is a "powerful resource" to aid children in the knowledge of their known world, and literature allows them to travel to other worlds and "explore the unfamiliar" (Potter, 2009, p. 108).
For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development of language, it fosters intellectual development and supports the growth of the child's personality and moral development as well, Potter goes on (p. 2).…
Biles, Barbara. (2008). Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness. KCET. Retrieved
January 26, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/ .
Corso, Robert M., Santos, Rosa Milagros, and Roof, Virginia. (2002). Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. Teaching Exceptional Children.
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, and Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora. (1999). Teaching "Diversity": A Place to Begin. Early Childhood Today. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www2.scholartic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3499&print=1.
Indeed, even the most outspoken critics of law enforcement will likely be the first to dial "9-1-1" when their homes are being burglarized or members of their families are being attacked, but the fact remains that many police department remain primarily white and male in composition. The impetus for effecting substantive changes in the composition of the nation's police forces will therefore need to be mandated in order for things to change in any meaningful way. The desirability of developing a more diverse police force that reflects the demographic composition of the larger communities they serve has been recognized as an important element in this regard. For instance, as Hood, othstein and Baldwin (2004) emphasize, "Any geographically extended political system can set standards from the center, but diversity in law enforcement is often seen as both necessary and desirable" (p. 175). Although it may be necessary and desirable, there are…
Barlow, David E. And Melissa Hickman Barlow. 1999. "Cultural Diversity Training in Criminal Justice: A Progressive or Conservative Reform?" Social Justice 20(3-4): 69-70.
Bedi, K. And R.K. Agrawal. 2001. "Transforming values for principle-centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel." Journal of Power and Ethics 2(2): 103.
Broadnax, Walter D. 2000. Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Culver, Leigh. 2004. Adapting Police Services to New Immigration. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
It is significant to note that this story was initially published during the 1970's, which was a period of relative rest and calm following the justifiable turbulence of the 1960's. Due to this publication date, this story does not reflect the current generation, but that of at least one before it. It is interesting to consider the fact that this story was not published prior to the 1970's because many of the notions and stereotypes it challenged were still too dominant during previous periods. As such, this book is able to deliver readers an unflinching perspective about what life is like for someone who is different, and teased as a result. Readers are able to ascertain just what exactly other people have to go through when they are teased. There are some touchingly poignant moments in this tale related to Oliver's differences that unequivocally reveal what life is like for…
dePaola, Tomie. Oliver Button is a Sissy. New York: Harcourt Books. 1979. Print.
Kennedy, Elizabeth. "Oliver Button is a Sissy: Overcoming Bullying." About.com. no date. Web. http://childrensbooks.about.com/od/picturebooks/fr/oliver.htm
multicultural and a multilingual background. At home, I speak Arabic to my Palestinian-Muslim father, Polish to my Polish-Christian mother, and English to both parents when together. I speak French with my peers at the Lycee Francais de Jerusalem and Hebrew in the streets of Jerusalem. My multilingual fluency has allowed me to maximize the benefits of exposure to various different cultures and communities and it has reinforced the tremendous value of communication in connection with understanding the very different points-of-view held by different members of my community.
As a Palestinian child growing up in Jerusalem, I have always been keenly aware of the intense political factionalism and conflict in my part of the world and with the manner in which individuals can easily become indoctrinated with negative beliefs about and expectations of others. Luckily, my family promoted the opposite approach, teaching me to recognize the common humanity and potential for…