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On the other hand, multiculturalism appears to be automatic in conceding division (Werbner, 2006).
In multicultural societies, issues of bias and racism invariably summon political leaders whose base of power is dependent on division. This is contrary with cosmopolitan societies, which considers division unworldly and rude. While one society keeps its opening up its wounds, the other one tends to let its wounds heal by themselves. This means that one society is healthy while the other one is unhealthy. Multiculturalism exists. This has been evidenced by Lebanon and USS. During the Apartheid era, South Africa was based on multiculturalism, whereby power was shared in an uneven manner. It is not necessary that multicultural societies are doomed to fail, but it is common that most of them have cannot withstand the test of time (Werbner, 2006).
Cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism policies have been strong indicators of strong societies. While one reflects…
Ang, I. & Stratton, J. (1998). Multiculturalism in Crisis: The New Politics of Race and National Identity in Australia. Topia: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies 2, 22-41
Delanty, G. (2006). The cosmopolitan imagination: critical cosmopolitanism and social theory. The British Journal of Sociology, 57(1), 25-47.
Leeman, Y. & Reid, C. (2006). Multi/Intercultural Education in Australia and the Netherlands. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 36 (1), 57-72
Rizvi, F. (2008). Epistemic Virtues and Cosmopolitan Learning Radford Lecture, Adelaide Australia 27 November 2006. The Australian Educational Researcher, 35 (1), 13-35
The term multiculturalism can be given two broad ways of definition. In its literal meaning, multiculturalism refers to a situation where a certain culture of concern happens to be having more than two cultures in it. Certain communities are known to have more than one culture in them. These are multiculturalism communities. Multiculturalism also has a descriptive definition in which the term is defined as a situation of diversity of culture as depicted by a school, institution, organization, or any other place where members of different cultures are able to come together and coexist as a diversified community. The other definition of multiculturalism is called a normative definition. This definition takes multiculturalism as a body of ideologies and policies, which are used to foster institutionalism or diversity. ith this definition and sense, multiculturalism incurs to a station where people are free to have individual expressions. This definition of multiculturalism…
Chamoiseau, Patrick, Rose-Myriam Rejouis, and Val Vinokur. Solibo Magnificent. New York:
Vintage Books, 1999. Print.
Hida-yat, S-a-diq. The Blind Owl. Richmond: Alma Classics, 2012. Print.
Modood, Tariq. Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity, 2007. Print.
The United States is a multicultural nation. Even before the Europeans landed on American shores, the continent was multicultural, as Native Americans are comprised of hundreds of different linguistic and tribal groups. The European settlers in turn came from various European nations: the earliest settlers came from Great Britain and France, and later from Germany and the Netherlands. The international slave trade ushered in several more African ethnic groups, albeit in bondage. During the Industrial Revolution, economic opportunities prompted droves of new immigrants from Europe to move to the United States. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, immigrants from Eastern Europe and Ireland especially added to the multicultural mix that characterized the United States. The great ethnic and cultural diversity that existed at the turn of the last century caused people to start referring to the United States as a "melting pot," where peoples from various nations…
'Multiculturalism." Wikipedia. May 2005. Online at .
RCADE. "Maryland Governor Calls Multiculturalism 'Crap.'" Drudge Retort. 12 May 2004. Online at .
'What is Multiculturalism?" 20 Jan 2004. Canadian Heritage. Online at .
One study examined the gender roles associated with social supports in nursing home residents. The aim of the study was to link the connection between gender identity and willingness to engage with social supports. The study surveyed 65,838 nursing home residents in Michigan for marital status (including if one was widowed, divorced, or never married), contact with friends and family members, and the engagement or withdrawal from social activity. The study showed more men than women are married (42% compared to 15%), while more women than men are widowed (69% compared to 30%). The results generated preliminary evidence that women tend to retain more contact with friends and family, and also participate at higher levels of involvement than men (Banaszak-Holl, & Copen, 2002). The study marked a significant gender difference regarding social supports, as the large majority of men are married compared to women. Social supports in nursing home settings…
Banaszak-Holl, J, & Copen, C. (2002). Gender differences in social support in the nursing home setting. Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy, 17. Retrieved from http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102272314.html
Belgrave, L, Wykle, M, & Choi, J. (1993). Health, double jeopardy, and culture: the use of institutionalization by african-americans. The Gerontologist, 33(3), 379-385.
Bird, CE, Lemon, S, & Intrator, O. (2000). Gender differences in nursing home, hospital, and hospice use in the last year of life. Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy, 17. Retrieved from http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102272314.html
Castellanos, V. (2007). Food and nutrition in nursing homes. Generations, 28(3), 65-71.
Multiculturalism in American Literature
Traditionally, American literature as it is taught in schools, has been comprised of texts composed by white, male, protestant authors who have been accepted into the estern canon. As such, "American" literature has left out huge swaths of the literary tradition of America, simply by failing to qualify it as American literature. However, this has begun to change, as the works of other American cultures begin to gain prominence, and be regarded with the same serious study that has been given to elements of the traditional canon. The concept of an overarching American culture had effectively whitewashed away other forms and styles of literature, composed by incredibly distinct subcultures (Jay 49). However, the study of American literature is now progressing toward a more inclusive, expansive means of embracing is multicultural heritage.
America is composed of a variety of groups, many with their own clear cultures and…
Jay, Gregory. "The End of "American" Literature: Toward a Multicultural
Practice." College English. 53.3 (1991): 45-62. Print.
Viktor gains importance when he is selected as a Triwizard Champion and this creates tension between Krum and Harry. The two could have allowed tension to grow between them but they are different enough that they do not. Harry does not enjoy the limelight as much as Krum does and the two never attempt to undermine each other. hile Krum is initially angry about Harry's being champion, the two eventually form a friendship. Krum is a gifted athlete while Harry was born to be great; they know and understand this about each other and this is why they are able to be competitors without becoming enemies. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire grows with the characters in that it provides them with opportunities that we all encounter at one time or another. By getting beyond differences, we have a better chance of success than we do if we harbor…
Blake, Andrew. The Irresistible Rise of Harry Potter. New York: Verso Books. 2002.
Clark, Leilani. "What is it about Harry Potter?" Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2001, 44, 8. GALE Resource Database. Information Retrieved March 14, 2009. http://www.infotrac.com
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Books. 2000.
pecifically, it focuses the attention of authorities on persons of a certain race and creed, in direct opposition to the constitution, which guarantees equal rights and opportunities for everybody. As such, the Act is a manifestation of the underlying racial attitudes still very prevalent in the United tates today. Indeed, it once again uncovers what has become invisible in these attitudes: that Americans who believe themselves to be open-minded are willing to give up every basic American principle of equality for the sake of a scape-goat. o, under the Patriot Act, many law-abiding Arabian and Muslim Americans have been targeted, slandered and assumed to harbor terrorist intentions against their country. The Patriot Act, along with the newer Patriot Act II, has therefore been the target of much critical attention. However, the majority of Americans appear to see it as the answer to the problem of terrorism, regardless of its part…
American Civil Liberties Union (2003, Oct. 5). Stop the New Patriot Act. http://www.aclu.org/safefree/general/17138res20030510.html
Cannon, Lou. (1999, Aug. 30). American Travesty: How justice failed the Rodney King cops. National Review. Online Database: FindArticles.com
Galernter, David. (1995, Oct. 9). The real story of Orenthal James - O.J. Simpson murder trial. National Review. Online Database: FindArticles.com
Linder, Douglas. (2000). The O.J. Simpson Verdict, 10 years later: the impact and the aftermath. The Jurist. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/trials10.htm
" In the workforce, this means creating a spirit of cooperation and sharing to get the designated work done and of a quantity and quality that facilitates the company's goals. "Thus, the new workplace structures - in response to the increasingly multicultural workforce - should focus on cooperation and team goals rather than on individual change. Further, communication plays a key role in working with others to achieve company goals, and thus, in the successful corporate shift to a multicultural, cooperative philosophy."
However, a lot of companies are now counting on the diversity of the emerging new world order to be addressed at the academic level, before people emerge into the workforce as adults. "Multiculturalism in education attempts to resolve the conflict between "mainstream" and "other" by preserving individual identity rather than erasing it. Most educational theorists agree that multiculturalism incorporates two features: the promotion of mutual understanding and respect…
Still those who stayed in the Los Angeles area formed in solidarity Koreatown even though many were brutalized as being seen connected to the Japanese (Kim and Yu par. 5).
During this time, settling in the United States meant many benefits to the Korean-American. It meant they no longer had to put up with Japanese imposed laws where traditional Korean language and culture was prohibited. In many cases, they could not even use their sur names. It meant they did not have to be made slaves in their own country. Literature suggests as Seong oo Lee and et al. write that Korean-Americans benefited from migration more than their Asian counterparts because they saw opportunity (609). They saw opportunity in the forms of small business and education. ith this in mind, this could be on reason why out of all the Asian immigrants, Koreans seem most prepared for American life (Lee…
Auster, Lawrence. "How Multiculturalism Took Over America." FrontPageMagazine.com 9 July 2004: 1+. 28 June 2005 http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Printable.asp?ID=14164..
Hurh, Won Moo. The Korean-American Dream: Immigrant and Small Business in New. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.
Immigrant Entrepreneurs." Research Perspectives on Migration 1.2 (1997): 10+.
Kang, Connie, K. Home Was the Land of Morning Calm: A Saga of a Korean-American Family. Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing, 1995.
In addition incentives such as signing bonuses can be utilized to persuade more men to become teachers. As an aspect of such a program male college student will have the opportunity to act as a volunteer in the school's classrooms. In engaging the students the potential teacher will understand the importance of their presence in the lives of children. Te ultimate goal of such a strategy is to create an environment in the school that is conducive to learning for all students.
The purpose of this discussion was to examine multiculturalism as it pertains to gender. The research indicates that the major issues related to gender are gender bias and a lack of male teachers. Gender bias tends to discourage students from functioning outside of perceived gender roles. In addition gender bias can impact the manner in which student and teachers interact with one another. In addition, recommendations were…
Banks, J.A. Banks C.A.M. (2009) Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Johnson S.P. (2008) the Status of Male Teachers in Public Education Today. Center for Evaluation and Education Policy. 6 (4), 1-12.
multiculturalism. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/multiculturalis
Woodward a. (2001) Gender Bias in Education. Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0002/ai_2602000263/
While different views of the American experience, then, both of these stories and their authors are quite deserving of their place in the canon.
Edwidge Danticant's "Seven" is similar to "The Third and Final Continent" in terms of plot; an immigrant man that as finally received his green card is preparing for the arrival of his wife. This story is as concerned with the meeting of the husband and wife in their own native country as it is with their reunification in the United States, however, and seems to exemplify more a transcendence of culture than an assimilation or a difficulty assimilating -- not that life as an impoverished immigrant is easy, but it isn't the focus of the story. In "What You Pawn I Will Redeem," Sherman Alexie views assimilation from yet another angle -- not as something that can be transcended, but as something that simply cannot occur.…
Multiculturalism is a term referring to a current concern in academic circles. A high school education is considered effective and valuable if it helps the individual be prepared to live in a world of competing ideas and values and to be able to work with people from different backgrounds. As Hugh B. Price notes, the issue is whether a multicultural education is necessary to achieve these goals. This leads Christine E. Sleeter to consider what multicultural education really means.
First, to ask whether multiculturalism is needed in school is not to ask whether there should be a mixture of cultures in school, because this certainly will true as a matter of course. Students from a variety of different ethnic, racial, and even national backgrounds come together in American schools and bring differing values with them. The issue of multiculturalism in schools, however, is a curricular issue as parents ask whether…
" This applies very much in this case. The second multicultural issue in this case, the young man's history of violence and torture, does not necessarily make him mentally ill. Many soldiers after serving violent and dreadful tours in war often bounce back strong from this exposure and become productive members of society, while some do not.
It is therefore extremely important to ensure that this man is aware of the cultural differences within his previous experiences are not helpful in keeping him out of prison in his current status. The Cambodian cultural as a dark and bloody history of genocide and torture within its recent years. Although, this is true within America as well, our culture is considerably more refined and civilized. Any hope of reforming this young man must incorporate some sort of reeducation and retraining into the American ways of life. Until this happens, his psychological health…
Bartol, C & Bartol, J. (2004). Introduction to Forensic Psychology. Sage Publications, Inc., 2004.
APA Online: APA Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations
The other thing Takaki (1993) wants to know is how that process of alienation and domination created in the white man an intense rage that overpowered rationality. He wants to understand why white men, as a generalization, do not want to get along with other cultures and how they arrived at this opinion. There must have been something out there in the world to harden their hearts toward the prospect of good cross-cultural race relations. Whatever it was, or whatever they were, if there was more than one factor, he wants to know what caused it.
The conquering of the Native Americans and the abolishment of slavery all happened a long time ago. There is no reason why anyone of any race should hold a grudge against another race at this point in history, but some still do, and it seems to be largely the white men that are holding…
Takaki, Ronald. (1993). A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.
What money was available went to the downtown area. The neighborhoods were left to rot. y the 1980s many of them looked like war zones. In 1975 my grandmother moved up north to escape the racial tension which had grown quite ugly. My grandmother had four children by that time and one of them was my mother Anna.
My mother never liked it up north. She thought it was boring. As soon as she got old enough she moved back to Detroit and went to Wayne State University.
In 1984 she got a job with the Detroit Fire Department as a licensed paramedic and that is where she met my father. He was a fireman. They both played musical instruments and were in the Fire Department Jazz and. They got married and I was born the next year. Today, Detroit's population is 951,270. The racial make-up is drastically different, though,…
Detroit Infra. http://www.ci.detroit.mi.us/environaffairs/Bfld%20Toolkit/Toolbox/detroit
Gay, Cheri Y. Detroit Then & Now. Chicago: Thunder Bay Press, 2000.
Georgakas, Marvin et. al. Detroit, I Do Mind Dying: A Study in Urban Revolution. Detroit:
Southend Press, 1998.
Once again, intercultural resentment begins to manifest as a result of apparent favoritism for the "struggle" and those who were part of it during the 1960's and 1970's. This has become so evident that many prominent colored artists' work has come to be referred to as "victim" art. This of course does nothing to alleviate already pronounced racial tensions because of multiculturalism.
The strongest argument against multiculturalism is the already mentioned concept of a national identity. The United tates, outh Africa and Australia are countries that, like many others, have been colonized by Britain and Europe. Unlike Britain then, these countries were already composed of a variety of cultures when they began to be established as the countries they grew into being today. The difficulty here is that various cultures were brought over from abroad, and a single national culture was difficult to form. Especially in the United tates then,…
Dalrymple, Theodore. (2004) "Multiculturalism Starts Losing Its Luster"
Summer 2004. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/cfml/printable.cfm?id=1653
Otherwise, even if we can see diverse individuals in the campus but there is no connection between each individual, we can say that diversity does not work in them. The physical existence of diversity is not important if there is no correlation between the being of diversity.
Another example of diversity in Lehigh University, and where we can measure success of divesity, is the process of attracting women faculty to teach academics that were used to be taught by men faculty. The ability of the students to learn does not depend on the gender of the instructor. This is one principle that the Lehigh University perhaps believes when they started to attract women faculty to the academics of engineering, science, and business. This is in contrast to how the process or hiring used to exist in the institution, indicated as follows.
Too often hiring pools for faculty positions in these…
Henze, Rosemary. Leading for Diversity: How School Leaders Achieve Racial and Ethnic Harmony. 2000.
Diversity is School Priority.
In the first half of the 20th century, the globalization of business was based on the Western model. Headquarters, functions, and capital were in one place, with managers sent to run regional operations as if they were colonies. In the second half of the 1900s, organizations began to adopt the multinational model, duplicating their home country operations in other places where conducting business.
According to a Conference Board and Focus Consultancy survey with 900 respondents from the European Commission, 83% agree that diversity policies make good business sense. emoval of specific employment barriers lead to recruitment from a wider talent pool, longer retention of better personnel and enhanced community relations and corporate image. However, almost half of all these firms have not yet implemented diversity policies. egardless of how the idea of multiculturalism is beginning to move into organizations worldwide, there is yet a long way to go.
Conference Board. Good practice in work place diversity. The business case for diversity in an enlarged European Union. Retrieved January 28, 2008. http://www.conference-board.org/worldwide/europeDiversity.cfm
Egodigwe, L. (November 14, 2005) Leadership (a Special Report); Back to Class: Diversity training has been around for decades; but it doesn't look anything like it used to. Wall Street Journal, R4
Vallario, C.W. (2006) Creating an environment for global diversity: global diversity in the workplace is not just a human resources issue, but a business strategy that embraces many elements. Here's how 10 multinationals are successfully managing the process. Financial Executive, 22 3, 50(3)
McGregor, J., and Hamm, S. (2008) Managing the global workforce. Business Week. 4068, 34.
There are good choices available that provide positive images of people from different backgrounds and cultures. Schools, as a whole, can provide family supports to strengthen ties between various cultures and the education experience.
Though many publications exist to help educators bring diversity to their schools, efforts cannot simply be an afterthought to a system that is slow to change. Numerous studies show that there is a cultural gap between teachers and students. Howard (1999, p. 4, cited in Santoro 2007, p. 82) claims, "Too often we place White teachers in multicultural settings and expect them to behave in ways that are not consistent with their own life experiences, socialization patterns, worldviews." It is a problem faced the world over, and a pertinent one as student populations everywhere become even more diverse. Cultural studies, as Santoro and others point out, must be components of pre-service education for teachers.
Jones, Tyi-Sanna. 2005. "Incorporate Diversity into Your Classroom," Intervention in School & Clinic 41(1): 9-12.
Santoro, Nina. 2007. "Outsiders' and 'Others': 'Different' Teachers Teaching in Culturally Diverse Classrooms." Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 13(1), pp. 81-97.
Sung, Jik Bae, and Gary M. Clark. 2005. "Incorporate Diversity Awareness in the Classroom," Intervention in School & Clinic 41(1): 49-51.
Berlin district mayor, Neukolln, asserts that multiculturalism in German has fallen short. Evidence shows that the recent increment in immigration is because of economic refugees from southern European nations because of the euro disaster (Conradt 2013, p.117). However, the debate regarding the considerable rise in immigration in German falls back to the Turkish community integration, which depicts the uppermost number of foreigners in Germany, the Europe largest economy. Scores of policy makers and politicians view integration as a means to form a homogenized society as opposed to a strategy that reinforces equal social and political contribution for every individual in Germany. Integration is ill-executed, and this issue has instigated a block amid Turkey and Germany in recent times, particularly when Wulff Christian, a former German President, was advised by, Abdullah Gul, a former Turkish president, that German should integrate Turks into its German culture. Following this request by Abdullah…
Koopmans, R 2007, Good intentions sometimes make bad policy: A comparison of Dutch and German integration policies, in migration, multiculturalism and civil society, Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Statham, P., & Koopmans, R 2005, Contested citizenship: Immigration and cultural diversity in Europe, Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Paul, M 2009, Supporting diversity-Strengthening cohesion: Multiculturalism in Germany, Berlin: GRIN Verlag.
Klopp, B 2002, German multiculturalism: Immigrant integration and the transformation of citizenship, Berlin: Greenwood Publishing Group.
workplaces now and where are they going?
Multiculturalism in the workplace article summary
Blanding, M. (2013). How cultural conflict undermines workplace creativity. Forbes. etrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/hbsworkingknowledge/2013/12/09/how-cultural-conflict-undermines-workplace-creativity/
According to Forbes, it is necessary for workplace teams to be diverse to respond to the needs of a modern global economy. However, managers cannot simply assume that communication will naturally flow freely and easily. If not appropriately managed, diversity can be a roadblock rather than a facilitator of productivity. Conflict in the workplace with cultural roots can also spill over into greater workplace intolerance because people receive a daily message that individuals of diverse backgrounds cannot get along. "Just as a child observing parents not getting along may develop the notion that marriage is very difficult, those seeing conflict around them by involving people of different cultures may develop the idea that ideas from those cultures are incompatible and cannot be easily combined"…
Conrad, C. & Poole, M.S. (2012) Strategic organizational communication in a global economy
(7th Ed.) Wiley-Blackwell.
Children from other cultures frequently have trouble during their high school years. They are almost always forced to find a group and to fit in. If they are from different backgrounds, it is difficult for them to find somewhere they can fit in. Young children have a hard time understanding another child if they are different from who they are. Once they grow up, these youngsters start to understand exactly who they are and feel to good about where they came from. However, their education did not do this for them. They had to get this from outside of the school system.
Mixed culture children are growing in population. They need to be taught to appreciate who they are, to be proud of that and then because they feel secure to exchange cultural knowledge on an equal basis with peers in a multicultural society. In addition, as it has been…
Arthurs, H. (2003). Governing the canadian state: The constitution in an era of globalization, neo-
liberalism, populism, decentralization and judicial activism. Forum Constitutionnel, 13(1), 16-
Asher, N. (2007). Made in the (multicultural) u.s.a.: Unpacking tensions of race, culture, gender, and sexuality in education. Educational Researcher, 36(2), 65 -- 73.
Secondly, it is also important that children should recognize the inequalities and biases currently existing in the world. Tasks based upon this understanding are probably more appropriate for higher grades. To teach this, I would prefer to let students work in groups. I would assign to each group a type of action research task, where they will be required to research a particular culture, and the challenges faced by this culture in the social, economic and cultural world. As a basis for this, each group will also be required to research the history of the culture within the country. This is then also offered to the class in presentation format, with a question and answer period at the end of each presentation.
In conclusion, I believe that there should be a balance between the understanding that culture is important, but also that different cultures face different challenges in the world.
It is not helpful, for example, to have one week or day to celebrate diversity and then go back to the standard traditional format. The teacher should show respect and encourage his or her students to likewise show respect for each culture. As Villegas (2007) points out, too many teachers see other cultural groups in a subordinate position. Such perspectives are picked up by the students and followed.
Ogbu (1995) also notes that how much the students, themselves, react to having their culture integrated into the curriculum along with other cultures depends on their background and experiences. Thus, involuntary cultures, those that are here in the U.S. without a choice, such as African-Americans, will not be as positive about multiculturalism as voluntary cultures as Asian-Americans.
The most important thing for teachers to always remember, of course, is that all children need to be treated as important contributors to the class.…
Bank, J.A. (1994) Transforming the mainstream curriculum. (Educating for Diversity). Educational Leadership 51(8), 4(5).
Bullard, Sara (1991) Sorting Through the Multicultural Rhetoric Educational Leadership; 49(4)
Cushner, K. (1998) International Perspectives on Intercultural Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ogbu, J.U. (1995) Cultural problems in minority education. Urban Review 27, 189-205
Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender, And the Recognition of Minority Rights
This paper looks at the issue of multiculturalism, its development, its use by society and the ways in which the field of psychology have reacted towards, and used, multiculturalism. Firstly, a brief history of the meaning of multiculturalism will be entered in to, next a brief discussion of the work of five authors (in particular Kymlicka, Taylor and Gerd) who have been influential in the development of research about multiculturalism will be presented, and then the psychology of multiculturalism will be discussed, from the viewpoint of how multiculturalism has been embraced by psychologists.
What exactly is multiculturalism? Everyone has a different idea of the meaning of this word in their minds, and consequently many different meanings of multiculturalism float around in the literature and in popular speak. Multiculturalism has gained particular significance in the United States, where there have…
Gerd, B. (1999). The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Reliogious Identities (Zones of Religion). Routledge.
Gordon, W and Newfield, W. (2000). Mapping Multiculturalism.
Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. And Norman, W. (2000). Citizenship in Diverse Societies. Oxford University Press.
The rise of globalization has caused tremendous changes in international economy. Technology and relaxed trade regulations have facilitated significant changes in trade practices and have changed the way countries deal with one another.
Globalization has wrought significant changes in the socio-cultural areas as well. Hollywood movies, for example, are shown in countries all over the world. So-called "world music" has become popular in the United States. Many malls sell what would previously have been classified as "exotic goods" -- Peruvian rain sticks, mango chutney, Tibetan prayer beads - as a matter of course. Proponents of globalization herald this cultural phenomenon as "multiculturalism," one that allows Americans to appreciate the diversity of cultures around the world.
There is, however, a dark underbelly to this equation. The dominant American and estern economies have also ushered in the dominance of its society's values and lifestyle. The unfortunate result is not multiculturalism,…
Barlow, Maude. "The Global Monoculture." Earth Island Journal, 16(3): 32-33. Autumn 2001. Proquest database. www.proquest.umi.com.
Klein, Naomi. No Logo. Great Britain: Flamingo Publishing: 2000.
Radical multiculturalism holds that cultural groups should be the measure for considerations of justice as a group offers the individual the indispensable good of being rooted in a community. The problem is that groups always set-up unequal in-group out-group relations that are detrimental to society.
The problem is that conservatives claim it undermines cohesiveness, but cohesiveness is exactly what all social movements in the last hundred years have attempted to bring about.
In this context this means that the gains of one group are not balanced by losses of another group.
The civil sphere includes structures of feelings, symbols, psychological identifications, and sympathies determine how resources are allocated in society. The public sphere is more of how this publically stated (the two can be different).
Common identity is malleable depending on the times. The move for woman's voting rights and equal rights into the national identity is an…
Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.
A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in estern societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It…
Fourny, Jean-Francois, & Ha, Marie-Paule. "Introduction: The history of an idea." Research in African Literatures 28.4 (1997): 1-8.
Frazier, Herb. "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures." NABJ
Journal 13.5 (1995): 4-7.
Gikandi, Simon. "Chinua Achebe and the Invention of African Culture." Research in African
In a very different issue, Bunch (1990) argues that women's rights are ignored by the general human rights movements, argues that consideration of women must be added to human rights definitions in order that better account should be taken of women's lives and that they be accorded the treatment and notice that they so clearly deserve. Destructive myths and violence should be eradicated. To that end, Bunch (1990) presents four different approaches that would link women's rights to human rights in order to address the issue in a concrete manner. The human rights community, she concludes, need not see the gender issue as conflicting with other significant issues that need to be addressed. On the contrary, other issues should not be abandoned. Rather, human rights activists should cease to 'gate-keep and guard prerogatives' and conceptualize human rights issues as legitimate according to their own narrow standards.
I found both essays…
Bunch, C. (1990). Women's Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-Vision of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 4, 486-498
Xanthaki, a. (2010) Multiculturalism and International Law Discussing Universal Standards. Human Rights Quarterly, 1, pp. 21-48
As America gradually becomes a predominantly diverse society, more and more issues are brought into fore, and this include the formulation of policies and institutions that seek to improve the lives of the 'minority' (i.e., Americans with non-Caucasian race) and provide efficient services for them. This is the greater implication that Takaki elucidates in his book: analyzing a socio-cultural problem to bring about effective solutions for it.
Takaki's discussion of this social problem is related with a more serious and crucial problem that plagues American society today: the closed-minded view of Americans concerning cultural diversity and its apparent fear for the destabilization of the status quo. This status quo was identified by Takaki as the Americans' tendency to think of the concept "American" as "white," and the destruction of this status quo would result to a new social order, wherein Americans of European descent would eventually become the minority and…
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
3) Hiroko taking Jack to her family's home -- Eliot realizes that he is the outsider, the one who is bumbling, even his long legs do not fit comfortably under the table. Hiroko is obviously fond of him, and in the simple ceremonies of dining, and the reactions of her grandparents, Eliot realizes that it is again his own "bumbling" that is causing the conflict, not Japanese culture. In addition, Eliot learns that "The Chief' is actually Hiroko's father, who is quite literate in English, but proves to Eliot that he is in Japan, it is up to him to learn some Japanese.
4) the team's reaction to his apology -- ealizing his set of faux-pas, Eliot admits his deficiencies to the team, and rather than his expectations of continued ostracizing, Eliot learns that there is a real camaraderie within the team, that they genuinely like him, and once he…
Adler, N. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Florence, KY:
Hofstede, G. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York:
McGraw Hill, 2005.
Doing activities like making pinatas are fun and instructive and offer relaxed opportunities to discuss what they are learning. They will learn some Spanish words and to delve more deeply into what it means culturally to be Mexican, which could lead to an interest in taking Spanish in high school or college some day.
It should not be ignored that students will get an opportunity to broaden their concepts of what culture actually is and also gain insight into the fact that all cultures celebrate holidays that commemorate important aspects of community life and history. The holiday itself and specifically how it is celebrated is interesting and broadening, but even more important is its reason for being and the events that led to its becoming a holiday.
One of the most difficult things to understand about another culture is its values and the reasoning behind them. The students will be…
Bowman, B. (1994). Cultural diversity and academic achievement. From Urban Education Monography Series, Chicago: NCREL.
Fogelman, E. (1995). Conscience and courage. New York: Anchor.
Hanley, M.S. (2002). The scope of multicultural education. From New Horizons for Learning. Seattle: New Horizons for Learning.
Hilliard, A. & Pine, G. (1990). Rx for racism: Imperatives for America's schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 593-600.
Feminism and colonialism
Gayatri Spivak's essay "Can the subaltern speak?" is a complex and sometimes elliptical essay which can be summed up in a very simple answer: "no." Spivak poignantly illustrates the reality of many Indian women's lives throughout history by providing an overview of how the treatment of native women was regarded during the period of Indian colonial rule. The British, in their effort to present themselves as civilizing the uncouth and barbarian Indians, decried what they saw as negative, male-dominant aspects of Indian culture. Many Indian men defended this ideology as a source of national cultural pride and as a source of resistance to colonialism. Of course, the voices of the women were lost in this discourse: to speak out against patriarchy meant to ally themselves with the British who did not have their interests or their country's interests at heart. To condone Indian patriarchy meant to sublimate…
Counseling Alternatives in Modern Times
There are certainly several benefits to counseling theories that consist of contemporary, multicultural, and Biopsychosocial counseling and its integration. However, since each of these respective types of counseling theories focus on a particular aspect of psychology and counseling, there are also drawbacks to them as well. Perhaps the true strength in each of these theories lies in their integration -- both with one another and with other theories in general.
The most salient positive associated with multicultural counseling theories and integration is the emphasis they place on one's cultural identity. As such, clinicians are supposed to help cultivate a client's cultural identity -- which greatly pertains to his or her ethnicity, socio-economic status, religion, and other eminent cultural factors. Another boon associated with this approach is that it considers the client as a unique individual, one whose identity "is embedded in multiple levels of experience…
Banks, J.A., Banks, C.A., McGee, E. (1995). Sue, D.S. Toward a theory of multicultural counseling and therapy. In Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Borrell-Carrio, F., Suchman, A.L., Epstein, R.M. (2004). The Biopsychosocial model 25 years later: Principles, practice and scientific inquiry. www.annfammed.org / Retrieved from http://www.annfammed.org/content/2/6/576.full
The utterance of multiculturalism generally refers to an applied ideology of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a specified place, usually at the scale of an organization such as a school, business, neighborhood, city or nation. (Britannica, 2008). Multiculturalism should embody different ethnic clusters living separately but equally together, while sharing in an enhanced capacity to build up the community, as a diverse single unit. However, the word multiculturalism is often viewed or associated with extremist or immigration issues. According to one article on multiculturalism, the vision of multiculturalism is about creating group solidarity, not social disconnection from society. (Anthony Giddens, 2008). A sense of meaning and belonging are powerful agents when it comes to self-orientation or identity. The importance of identity has been nurtured by state policies over the last two decades, which privilege the importance of different cultural identities. (Munira Mirza, 2005)
Some of the typical stereotypes about Asian-Americans all being financially and socially successful, in addition to being intelligent, are inaccurate. As with any cultural group there is a degree of success as well as failure. There are those who are gifted and those who are average. Cultural conflicts exist in the Asian-American community because of identity problems, thus forcing another culture's value system and methods of healing on to Asian-American clients may send a patient into withdrawal. The English language of communication is another barrier within the Asian-American community. (Sue and Sue, 1990).
In many verbal social-orders, the seniors in the group are pursued for counsel as a sign of respect towards their years of wisdom. For additional assistance beyond the scope of the elder in the community, the counsel of a traditional healer for the culture is approached. Thus, the individual's ethnicity influences the duty of helper to their society. This is dramatically different from the standards for helpers in Western societies. Educational training and any required license to practice is the only requirements of the culture. (C. E. Vontress, 2002).
In emergent countries the relationship between counsel and patient is not governed by a strict
Assessment of an individual's personality and behavior are judged according to the audience's cultural orientation. Because judgments are subjective, and subjectivity contains with it the values, attitudes and behavior of an individual, assessment of normal and abnormal behavior depends on the level of 'normality' the audience assesses the individual's behavior to be. This means that an audience that is oriented toward practicing a set of rules and normative behavior may express agreement or approval with an individual who acts according to these sets of rule and social behavior. Conversely, an individual who deviates from these social norms may be considered disapprovingly by other members of the society. In this situation, it then becomes evident that judging the normality or abnormality of an individual's behavior is culture-bound.
Take as an example of an American who goes on a medical mission to a country in Africa. Arriving at the country, the…
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…
Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1976.
. Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), ix.
Diversity Experience Reflection
My choice for a diversity experience was to volunteer with Autistic children and teens. Autism is a condition that sees a great deal more attention in the press in the 21st century, yet I do not have a direct experience with Autism when it affects so many. I decided instead of reading about or watching a program about Autism that I would learn about Autism experientially. I performed some basic Internet research to find volunteer opportunities in my area. I contacted a few places via email and phone, and secured a session at a Special Education school in Lower Manhattan. The center welcomed my intent to volunteer and said they would make sure I would interact with as many age groups as possible. I volunteered at Hawthorne Country Day School on William Street. It is a center that practices Applied Behavioral Analysis with the students. They…
What ideas did you find useful from the section "General Strategies" that would help you in your teaching?
General strategies for multicultural teaching include tips related to the learning environment, the lessons, leading class discussions, and communications. Ultimately I find all of these ideas useful. Recognizing biases that I have absorbed is the most difficult step because most biases are buried and often remain unconscious throughout the person's life. It is difficult to develop self-awareness and might involve my being willing to listen to criticism about my own teaching style. Teaching in ways that both recognize cultural diversity but also celebrate individuality can be challenging. It is important to be sensitive to the divergent need in each person to be an individual and also proud to be a member of a community. Other ideas include being more conscious of gender-biased language and correcting it at all junctures. Similarly,…
ace and Ethnicity
What is multiculturalism?
Multiculturalism is an ideology which is defined in different ways following in the varying paradigms of one's culture and knowledge. However, it is generally explained as a system of beliefs which recognizes and appreciated diversity of groups in a society or in any organization. In t his regard, it also acknowledge these difference particularly the socio-cultural disparity thereby stressing upon its impact in a culture as it empowers the whole society. Multiculturalism is all about recognizing the difference and respecting them. In other words, this points out to the equal treatment of every human being regardless of any distinction based on color, race, religion, gender and culture. It aims at safeguarding and building up the integrity and dignity of these differences so that they are tolerated and celebrated (osado C, 1997).
Multiculturalism is feature of globalization as well as post…
Banting K. 2006. Immigration, multiculturalism and the welfare state. Ethics and International affair. Vol. 20, No.3. Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affair.
Benwell, B. And Stokoe, Elizabeth. 2006. Discourse and Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Brooker, P. 1999. Concise Glossary of Cultural Theory, London: Hodder Arnold.
Cohen D. 2007. Violence Is Inherent in Islam - It Is a Cult of Death. The Evening Standard. 18.
epublic of Fiji
Multiculturalism and Globalization in the epublic of Fiji
In an increasingly global society, multiculturalism is becoming important for businesses and individuals that want to advance. There is an increasing need to understand and relate to others, and people who are unable or unwilling to do so are finding that they are being left behind in business. They are also finding their growth stunted financially and culturally, because they do not permit themselves to be open to other people and to continue to learn what they can from people who are different from them. While that is unfortunate, how significant multiculturalism is in the life of a particular person can depend greatly on where that person lives and the culture that he or she is exposed to on a daily basis. Some people need to be more multicultural than others, just based on where they reside.
Derrick, R.A. (1957). A History of Fiji. Suva, Fiji: Government Printer.
Routledge, D. (1985). Matanitu - The Struggle for Power in Early Fiji, Suva, Fiji: University of the South Pacific.
Scarr, D. (1984). Fiji: A Short History. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Waterhouse, J. (1998). The King and People of Fiji. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.
The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).
Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.
Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Ever since fashion has evolved, we have an observed a significant relationship with art and fashion. It is seen that both the disciplines encourages, inspires and somewhat competes with each other. (Duggan, 2001) It is observed that artists and fashion designers creativity is exchangeable and their main objective is somewhat the same. Duggan (2001) also emphasized on the role of media and education in blurring up the boundaries between art and fashion. As we observe, just like art changes throughout the time, fashion change with time as well. Just as the atmosphere around a certain place changes, so does the fashion of that time. With technology becoming really prevalent these days, techno Fashion has emerged out as the new thing.
Fashion designers are therefore looking into the possibility of Techno fashion. This is basically the ability to incorporate tech item into the clothes a person is wearing. The…
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.
Bhabha, Homi. "DissemiNation: Time, Narrative, and the Margins of the Modern Nation." Nation and Narration: 291-322. 1990.
Bhabha, Homi. The location of culture. London: Routledge Press, 1994.
Craik, Jenny. "The face of fashion: Cultural studies in fashion." London: Routledge, 1993.
Good people do not use their power as belonging to the dominant group in society to make those who are minorities -- because of their race or their gender, their religion or their ethnicity -- feel lesser.
Simple, right? Multiculturalism preaches tolerance, and this is a very good first step. But critical multiculturalism teaches tolerance plus the need to be honest with ourselves and others about who in any relationship or interaction has power. Simple, right? Well, not really. One of the striking things about the responses to Straw was that while many of his critics chastised (or excoriated) him for siding with Western values against the values of his Muslim constituents, some of those who supported him praised him for siding with Western values (such as freedom and self-autonomy) against patriarchy and sexism. When he said that veils were not a good thing for a society that includes Muslim…
Bennett, D. (Ed.) (1998). Multicultural states. London: Routledge.
Calhoun, C. (Ed.) (1994). Social theory and the politics of identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Dallmayr, F. (1966) 'Democracy and Multiculturalism' in S. Benhabib (Ed.) Democracy and difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Parekh, B. (2000). Rethinking multiculturalism. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Multiculturalism and Multilingualism in Classrooms
One cannot predict the future of multiculturalism and multilingualism in the classroom without looking at both their history and their current state. Until very recently, with its idea that America was a melting pot, American society could be classified as imperialistic. Those who were not of European descent were expected to take on the attributes of the dominant culture and assimilate into American society. This attitude permeated the schools, leaving little room for the study of alternate cultures or languages outside of the European norm.
There was a slow shift in the attitude of American society, which slowly permeated into the school system. This shift recognized the intrinsic value of other cultures and was demonstrated by a wave of new immigrants who refused to abandon their culture and language simply because they moved to America. As a result, schools began to reflect those differences as…
The report explains that these languages differ greatly depending on the neighbourhood or the area of the city. These differences exist because people from different countries of origin tend to settle in the same areas. For instance in a neighbourhood such as Harrow, with a large Asian population the top three non-English languages are Gujarati, Hindi/Urdu and Punjabi (Vertovec, 2006). On the other hand there are neighbourhoods in which the people speak languages from vastly different regions of the world. Such is the case in Merton where Creole and Cantonese are common languages (Vertovec, 2006).
This linguistic diversity can be a challenge for those institutions that compose the nation's infrastructure. These institutions include schools, local authorities and hospitals. Each of these institutions has to find unique ways of serving these diverse people groups that speak many different languages. For this very reason new initiatives such as that Language shop have…
Benedictus, L. And Godwin M. 2005 'Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth,' The Guardian 21 January
Gardiner, V. Matthews H. (2000) The Changing Geography of the UK. Routledge: London.
Kyambi, S. 2005 New Immigrant Communities: New Integration Challenges? London: Institute for Public Policy Research
Robinson, D. AND Reeve K. 2005 The Experiences and Consequences of New Immigration at the Neighbourhood Level: Reflections from the evidence base, Project Report, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation
This continuing trading out of one tyranny for another is also built into a recurring theme in the text.
Early on in the novel, a scene of mob violence -- that is, of a white mob practicing violence upon black students, including with the use of a baseball bat -- is described, and Puttbutt's reaction to the scene is prompted and recorded by the ubiquitous television media. Puttbutt describes the problem as one that the black students themselves have created and perpetuated, with the help of the black faculty agitators, not simply acting as an apologist for the white students but actually blaming the victims for their differences. Though Puttbutt is also angling for tenure and security, there is a sense of irony and staire in his speech that cannot be ignored.
Specifically, when he refers to the "poor white students" who let things like affirmative action and quotas…
The school aims to recruit students that will balance the spectrum of diversity. Before this can be accomplished however, existing and future employees of the university will need to be prepared. "Diversity is about encouraging and enabling all employees to draw on their talents, skills, and experience for the benefit of the business." (Bruno, 2004) Schools that are diversity sensitive will more often be prepared for the competitive recruitment markets and thus attract higher potential students and employees. The school has implemented the necessary training that will bring the entire student recruitment process together.
No matter what the level of need, a good diversity training program will maintain the most important aspects of the school's initiative. Diversity training has been proven to reduce the potential for misunderstandings, conflict and litigation which is often related to basic differences in communications and expectations. "All of the admissions staff has been…
Bruno, Jeanne-Marie (2004). "Implementing Diversity in a Meaningful Way." American Works Association Journal, Vol. 96(10), 47.
Lehigh University (2005). Lehigh University Home Page. Retrieved on 8 February 2005, from http://www3.lehigh.edu/path/visitors.asp .
Lehigh President's Speech. (n.d.) "Diversity Speech."
Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice
One interesting theme which emerges in the book Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice: Integration, Theory, and Application is the idea that the multicultural and social justice perspectives counselors may adopt are not necessarily synonymous. Although multiculturalism may stress the need to take into consideration a counseling subject's unique needs, including the fact that the client comes from a more collectivist culture, the social justice perspective emphasizes the need for change and dynamism in society and ensuring fairness for the client in frequently unfair situations. The social justice may challenges some of the client's deeply-held social assumptions and force the client out of his or her comfort zone. The counselor must weigh the need to be sensitive and not impose a particular worldview on the client with an accurate view of the client's situation.
It is true that multiculturalism and the social justice perspective…
Ratts, M. & Pederson, P. (2014). Counseling for multiculturalism and social justice: Integration, theory, and application. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Glasser's, Awad's, and Kim's study analyzes how four newspapers have written from different points-of-view relating to the same event. Two of the newspapers have written professionally, without attempting to influence the readers in any way. In contrast, the other two newspapers have written so that the public would get a wrong idea of the incident. Just as in the present case, it is normal for media services from within a local community to write differently than bigger, more specialized, media services. The journalists from the two newspapers which have distorted reality and have written the articles from their own points-of-view belong to the community involved in the incident discussed. The respective journalists have turned an ordinary conflict (between the officials and their community over the building of a mall) into a cry for help from a community presumably discriminated for years.
It is of no relevance whether or not the…
Glasser, T.L. & Awad I. & Kim J.W. (2009). The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity. Journal of Communication, 59: 57-58.
Globalization is best defined as a process of increasing interdependence between all people in the world. From fashion to the environment to multiculturalism to musical fusion and more, globalization emerged as a significant, new worldview in the 1990s. Globalization has created a world market in which goods, money, and people cross international borders as freely as possible. Modern transportation and theology, including the Internet, played a key role in the facilitation of globalization during the 1990s. As a result, there are many different areas in which worldwide perspectives, influences, and interactions during this time period altered daily existence for Americans and other citizens of the world.
As a result of the globalization boom of the 1990s, we now live in a world in which markets, media, law, corporations, labor, scientific research and advocacy groups are international, multinational, and multicultural. This has resulted in an enormous increase in multiculturalism around the…
Fedderson. (2003). The Meaning and Implications of Globalization. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.feddersen.net/archives/000343.html.
International Monetary Fund. (2000). Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#II .
Yergin, Daniel. (May 27, 2003). Globalization opens door to new dangers. USA Today. Retrieved from the internet at http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2003-05-27-oplede_x.htm .
Goblet of Fire
International Relations in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
Rowling's series of books concerning the boy wizard Harry Potter have garnered a lot of attention since the publication of the first volume over a decade ago. Much of it has been positive -- the books have been credited with encouraging children to read, and even with rekindling faith in juvenile fiction altogether. Critics applaud Rowling's storytelling abilities, and her business savvy (with the help of Hollywood and other marketers) has made her one of the wealthiest individuals in the world, all from a seemingly simple series of books. Not all of the attention given to the Harry Potter series has been positive, however. The portrayal of witchcraft has angered many people, especially conservative Christians, and there are many who believe the books are simply frivolous stories with little point and absolutely no literary value. Given the…
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Press, 2000.
person within the Christian worldview. Specifically it will discuss technology, the environment, and the media as it relates to my personal Christian worldview. As noted in this course, understanding a worldview can help a person understand other people and all their roles in today's society. Today's culture is broad, and influenced by a variety of sources, from scientific to religious, and they combine to create a contemporary Christian worldview in others and myself. Personally, my worldview is one of balance between my Christian beliefs and scientific study and analysis, which may be fairly common for a modern Christian worldview.
First, it is necessary to define worldview and what it is. A worldview encompasses every aspect of life, so understanding it is crucial in decision-making and living life to the fullest. It is really a wide-ranging perception of the world around us, formed using a Christian viewpoint. In other words, it…
Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 22 June 2009 from the Evangelical Climate Initiative Web site: http://christiansandclimate.org/about/ .
Gibson, T.S. (2004). Proposed levels of Christian spiritual maturity. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32(4), 295+.
Holy Bible. New King James Version.
Schmeltekopf, D.D. & Vitanza, D.M. (Eds.). (2006). The future of Baptist higher education. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.
ABC Aviation has managed to capture the attention of international organizations and NATO members due to the high quality of their helicopters. However, to be able to complete the signed contract, the organization must first resolve their internal disputes and must implement a strong organizational culture which embraces and promotes cultural diversity.
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, ., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. etrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16.…
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, R., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Thematic Teaching: Geography Through a Lens of Multiculturalism
All too often, students feel that they must leave their everyday lives, experiences and interests outside of the classroom. From the perspective of many students, the more rigid foci of traditional curriculum do not allow for inclusion of personal dimensions such as ethnic background, distinct cultural knowledge or unique personal history. And as students reach the pre-adolescent stages of middle school, and as the formulation of personal identity becomes a stronger force in each individual's life, this rigid quality can have the impact of alienating the individual from the formal educational process. Thus, it is incumbent upon us as educators to find ways to bridge this gap between personal life and public education; between individuals strengths and learning needs; between creative freedom and academic proceduralism. As the Head of the Geography Department for 5th, 6th and 7th Graders, I propose…
Adams, D.M. & Hamm, M. (2005). Redefining education in the twenty-first century: shaping collaborative learning in the age of information. Henry C. Thomas.
Association of Zoos & Aquariums. (AZA). (2011). Thematic Educational Activities. AZA.org.
Heilman, E.E. (2010). Social Studies and Diversity Education: What We Do and Why We Do It. Taylor & Francis.
Indiana University Northwest (2011). School of Education. IUN.edu.
In fact, Piaget also identified empathy as part of the development process. Empathy "is more than the recognition of someone else's feelings, but rather a deeper understanding. Thus, empathetic reactions allow people to recognize that something is different from what is already familiar or acceptable to them, yet not be prejudiced by its unfamiliarity." (Piaget)
James anks incorporates all of these theories and many more into his belief that it is important in education to teach children how to think, rather than teaching them what to think.
y teaching children to understand all things and to be active in creating their own interpretations of past and current events. y helping students become critical thinkers, they will have the foundation to build a better society. James anks' concept of the Canon Debate identifies a major problem with schools. Western traditionalists believe that the history, culture, and literature of the Western civilization…
Ardoin, Beth D. "Theories." Multiculturalism. 6 December 2000. http://www.start-at-zero.com/papers/multiculturalism/theories.htm
Banks, James. Introduction to Multicultural Education.
Banks, James. "The Canon Debate, Knowledge Construction, and Multicultural Education." Educational Researcher. 19993, June-July.
McLaughlin, B. And McLeod, B. "Educating All Our Students: Improving Education for Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds." June, 1996. http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu/miscpubs/ncrcdsll/edall.htm
For example, Archie couldn't prevent his black neighbors from moving next to him or stop his daughter's marriage to a liberal Polish man. Archie's ire stemmed from his belief that gains by minorities were coming at the expense of the hard working, lower-middle class whites such as himself.
Therefore, he used stereotypes to position minorities as groups of lazy people wanting a free ride and unfair favoritism. When Michael tells Archie that the black man and other minorities also want their rightful share of the American dream, Archie responds, "Now let me tell you something. If your spics and your spades want their share of the American dream, let them go out and hustle for it, just like I done." (Cited in Firetto and Gaffney, 2006). Archie refuses to acknowledge the struggles of minorities to earn their rightful place in society, stating that the black man has had more opportunity…
Firetto, C. And Gaffney, K. (2006, May 15). Race in American lit. And popular culture. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:6gV7chKy6rAJ:www.raritanval.edu/departments/english/full-time/Gaffney/Elective/All%2520in%2520the%2520Family.doc+%22all+in+the+family%22+%22Archie+Bunker%22+essay&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture on All in the Family. http://www.bookrags.com/All_in_the_Family
.. have played a large role in defining how Americans interpret citizenship education, the hallmark of social studies, and in informing notions of what is educationally worthwhile as related to citizenships. Ideological difference has, of course been a recurring theme in textbook censorship battles and curriculum dis8utes over the course of this history " Curriculum is described by Croc o as being "an educational tradition providing 'culturally constituted tools for understanding and reforming the world'. (Crocco, 2003-2004)
IV. Vinz: Competing Versions of How to Educate for Cultural Understanding
The work of Ruth Vinz entitled: "Learning the lues: Transcending Essentialist Readings of Cultural Texts" states: "The history of multicultural curricula is a story of competing versions of how to educate for cultural understanding." Vinz notes that instability of meaning and interpretation are only one difficulty that is inherent in attempting to understand different cultures within the society or the educational institution…
Gary B. Nash (1992) "The Great Multicultural Debate" in Contention (1992) 274
Diane Ravitch, (1990)"Multiculturalism: E. Pluribus Plures," the American Scholar (59, no.3, Summer 1990) 291
Vinz, Ruth (1994) Learning the Blues: Transcending Essentialist Readings of Cultural Texts. Teachers College, Columbia University.
Taking Sides (nd) Part I. Classical Issues in Race and Ethnicity. Online available at (http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:-6YtjadxV38J:www.miedvied.com/3P/Taking%2520Sides.rtf+MULTICULTURAL+CURRICULUM:+Nash+(1992),+Ravitch+(1990)&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=67