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Music and the Internet
in order to accommodate these specifications in the number of pages requested (though the paper is 9 1/2 pages as it stands), the paper has utilized ANALYSIS in the article and the discussion section, thereby combining article summary with analysis of sources and thus putting the second point given by the professor "Then write a separate discussion the issue as a whole…" into a proper context
-however, as this paper is a model, it CANNOT be utilized as your own, so please consult the terms and conditions above for proper citation methods
Music and the Internet:
A Shift in Tradition; A Shift to Technology
Many advances in technology have changed the current living population's life, especially in developed countries. These include better food, better medicine, and better connectivity with the rest of the world. Yet perhaps one of the most important things, especially in these Westernized…
However, with the advent of the internet and the placement of music on it, one must also realize that there are now more and more opportunities for business for the artist, starting from single downloads to merchandise such as t-shirts and such, all to be found online. Perhaps the greatest examples of online "merchandising" is American Idol, the show that is one of the most popular music-related shows in American television history. According to Kot, "…American Idol is as big as it gets when it comes to music. It's kind of like the last vestige of the old music industry. Clive Davis has a role in it -- he puts out a lot of the records those artists make after their Idol experience. What you were talking about earlier regarding the next big mainstream phenomenon -- right now, American Idol is the phenomenon. But it remains to be seen whether any of these artists will truly have a 10-year career."[footnoteRef:10] The truth is, probably, that no, these artists will not have a ten-year career, but again music today is about business, not longevity, and the internet helps bring about this reality. [10: Greg Kot, 2009. How the Internet Changed Music [online]. TIME. Available at: < http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1900054,00.html >. [Accessed 1 December 2011]. ]
Another important source to consult for this topic is the interview conducted with music industry veteran Steven Meyer, who speaks about the way music has changed with the internet in the digitalized age. Meyer discusses his background at Capitol Records and argues for that the digitalization of music actually enhances the industry. Meyer "describes the challenges facing record companies as a failure of imagination and suggests that the full potential of the internet as a distribution channel has yet to be fully exploited," according to the interview.[footnoteRef:11] [11: Russ Roberts, 2010. Meyer on the Music Industry and the Internet [online]. Library of Economics and Liberty. Available at: < http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2010/03/meyer_on_the_mu.html >. [Accessed 1 December 2011]. ]
There are many academic sources that agree that music has been changed forever by the advent of the internet. Some are the sources presented above, which come from research and from newspaper articles, as well as from institutions studying the connection between how music has evolved and how the internet has promoted this evolution. In order to incorporate enough analysis, this paper has striven to analyze each point made in the articles above as it was made, thereby finding that music has been revolutionized beyond a doubt, despite the positives and negatives given by some sources. Thus, one can only hope the in the future, music will continue to be provided through legal means, and will be just as easily attained, for only music has the potential to truly affect emotions and potentially unite those in discord.
For example, music revealed disillusionment with the American Dream and expressed criticism of American foreign and domestic policy. In particular, the music industry reflected the anti-war sentiments during the late 1960s and early 1970s when the United States was still involved in Vietnam.
Music also reflected shifting social and cultural values. For example, songs in the 1950s were innocent whereas those from the 1970s were darker in tone and often contained references to sex and drugs. The tone of American music shifted toward even more frank discussion of political and social issues during the 1980s when punk delivered frank messages. The music industry in America also introduced sounds from across the sea: from primarily the United Kingdom but also Japan, Germany, India and all over the world. The introduction of multicultural beats into American music reflected the diverse fabric of our society.
The music industry continues to reflect the diversity…
Again, I would find here that in spite of my assumptions entering into the process that the technology now available has been the primary cause of damage to the record industry, the poor practical orientation of the record industry seems to be the real catalyst to its dramatic collapse. As McCready points out, making money on album sales through a record company has always been a convoluted and dubious process. Accordingly, McCready reports that "Record companies try to make the royalty rate paid to artists as attractive as possible. They may give you a generous royalty rate. However, in addition to the reduced royalty rate on CD's sold outside normal retail channels, there are also many reductions in your royalty rate. I said that the financial terms are often 15 pages or more. ell, your royalty rate is on the first page and the remaining pages are all the reductions.…
Bachmeier, J. (2007). How the DMCA Affects Internet Radio. EZine Articles.
Marino, M. (2008). How Has the Internet Affected the Music Industry. Music and Thoughts.
McCready, M.P. (2008). Record Contract Basics. Songstuff.
Rosenbaum, J. (2007). The Era of Free Music is Upon Us. The Seminal.
The topic of interest is the relationship that musicians have with the Internet. The Internet era has brought significant challenge for artists, especially pertaining to piracy, but there are also opportunities. The Internet, therefore, has significantly changed the media and marketing landscape for artists.
Morris (2010) notes that music has largely shifted from physical commodity, being sold on CDs (and vinyl and cassettes before that) to a digital commodity. This has transformed the marketing and distribution landscape for artists and record labels, and has transformed how the public consumes music. This reality raises a number of questions. Much of the prior academic work in this field, such as Patrik Wikstrom's The Music Industry and works built on that (such as Morris, 2014), focus on the industry's relationship with technology, and perhaps pay insufficient attention to the consumer side. So there is both an interesting body of existing literature and…
Morris, J. (2010). Understanding the digital music commodity. McGill University.
Morris, J. (2014). The music industry. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. Vol. 58 (2) 324-326.
Reynolds, A. (2009). Review: The music industry by Patrik Wikstrom. The Kelvingrove Review.
How the Internet has Transformed the Economics and Value of Music
Digital technology has transformed the way people all over the world consume music. The Digital Age has also impacted the way musicians, artists and producers benefit from making music. Prior to digitalization, music had to either be consumed live and in-person or through the purchase of a hard copy (disc, cassette tape, record, etc.). Now that music files can be shared digitally over the Internet or streamed over social media sites, the ability of producers to manage how their content is distributed has been diminished substantially. In other words, the technology of connectivity has impacted the monetization of intellectual property (IP) by making it easier for consumers to obtain IP without necessarily having to pay for it—and labels such as illegal downloading or piracy do not sufficiently act as deterrents. With the arrival of iTunes, Spotify, Pandora and…
Anderson, Chris. The Long Tail. Change This.
Benchler, Yochai. The Wealth of Networks. Yale University Press, 2006.
Duckworth, William. Virtual Music. Routledge, 2005.
Galuszka, Patryk. “Music Aggregators and Intermediation of the Digital Music Market.” International Journal of Communication 9 (2015), 254–273.
Mulligan, Mark. Awakening: The Music Industry in the Digital Age. MIDiA Research, 2015.
Indeed, neither weather nor economy concerns appear to have deterred travelers to the event, a trend that is apparent for festivals across the world, as mentioned above.
The Essence Music Festival runs for three days and includes features such as entertainment activities and seminars at the Convention Center during the day, while the nights are punctuated by concerts. It started in 1995 in celebration of Essence magazine's 25th anniversary. In terms of the economy, it has become a significant supplement to the hospitality industry, during a time of year when revenue is generally slow. There are also several sponsors for the festival, including Ford Motor Co. And Coors, as well as Verizon, Walmart Food and State Farm, and Coca-Cola. These sponsorships have enabled the festival to create and retain its competitive edge by including many extra features beyond music. From the sponsorship point-of-view, the festival also offers the opportunity to…
A Greener Festival. (2011). Awards. Retrieved from: http://www.agreenerfestival.com/agf-award/
Ambert, C. (2003). Promoting the Culture Sector through Job Creation and Small Enterprise Development in SADC Countries: The Music Industry. International Labour Office -- Geneva. Retrieved from: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_emp/@emp_ent/@ifp_seed/documents/publication/wcms_117682.pdf
Atkinson, S. (2010, Jun. 14). Festivals put green issues higher up the bill. BBC News Business. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10145690
Earth Day Music Festival & Eco Bazaar. (2011). Retrieved from: http://earthdaymusicfestival.bbnow.org/index.php
New Technologies and Globalisation on the Music Industry
The global music industry today is going through a series of disruptive innovations that are changing business models in the short-term and value chains over the long-term. The pervasive influence of the Internet, mobile and streaming technologies, and the shift from CD-based music to digital and online music also signals how quickly the global value chain of the music industry is changing today. Of these many disruptive innovations, the most significant is the shift from individual record labels and their relatively un-integrated approach to delivering digital music to the pervasive platforms that include Apple iTunes
(Hopkins, 2011). With the number of legitimate online sources for music growing from 60 in 2005 to more than 400 in 2010 the role of the platform as consolidator in this global industry is clear (Hopkins, 2011). Of the many types and forms of global music distribution,…
Apple, Investor Relations (2012). Investor Relations. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from Apple Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://www.apple.com/investor/
Hopkins, M.S. 2011, "How to Innovate When Platforms Won't Stop Moving," MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 55-60.
Lee, D., Jaimie, Y.P., Kim, J., Kim, J. & Moon, J. 2011, "Understanding music sharing behaviour on social network services," Online Information Review, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 716-733.
Pikas, B., Pikas, A. & Lymburner, C. 2011, "The Future of the Music Industry," Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 139-149.
The recorded music industry is in a state of flux. Thanks to technology, new opportunities have been made available, however, new challenges have emerged as well. The most significant concern is piracy, especially with peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet.
Sony Corporation's business unit, Sony BMG, is a new merger of Sony Music Entertainment and Bertelsmann AG. The merger occurred as an effort to take advantage of economies of scale and ward off against declining sales and profitability the industry is faced with. The mega music organization is positioned at #2 in the industry.
By applying a strategy of utilizing the Internet as a channel of distribution and as a marketing tool, Sony BMG can ward against the piracy that is plaguing the industry. Offering inexpensive music downloads provides a win-win solution for both Sony BMG and their customers. Customers will get quality music, increased flexibility, and increased…
FAQ. 2004. Sony BMG. December 7, 2004 .
Kay, Nancy. "Financial Overview: Sony Corporation." Hoover's 2004. Hoover's Online. Hoovers.com. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 7, 2004 .
'History: Sony Corporation." Hoover's 2004. Hoover's Online. Hoovers.com. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 7, 2004 .
'Overview: Sony Corporation." Hoover's 2004. Hoover's Online. Hoovers.com. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 7, 2004 .
The event is held yearly but has only limited opportunity for profit, as the venue, rather than direct ticket sales incur the cost of the events. In other words the venue is slightly different than the standard concert or tour experience, because the overall support of the whole event (the County Fair) offsets the costs incurred by the label and the artist's tour systems. The Label has been actively seeking support of the community for sponsorship as well, as the opportunity for profit in this venue has historically been limited and the services and options for artists and their support team has also been limited. It is for this reason that the collective Label USA plan has always been to pepper traditional summer to and spring artist tour dates with venues such as this. In my experience this type of concert is one of the most difficult to plan and…
Black, G.C., Fox, M.A., & Kochanowski, P. (2007). Concert Tour Success in North America: An Examination of the Top 100 Tours from 1997 to 2005. Popular Music and Society, 30(2), 149.
Dunn, L. (1999). Tourism Attractions: A Critical Analysis of the Subsector in Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press.
Fox, M. (2004). E-Commerce Business Models for the Music Industry. Popular Music and Society, 27(2), 201.
Garland, E. (2003, November/December). Online Music: The Sound of Success; the Online Music Industry Is Turning the Traditional Music Industry on Its Head. The Futurist, 37, 24.
Other uses of copyrighted music in unencrypted form lends itself to humorous uses, such as "mash-ups," where someone takes the vocal track from one song and combines it with the instrumental track of another (Johnson, 2005), in the process violating both copyrights but producing a unique file that may interesting, odd or even bizarre
The recording industry would rather end the abuse than prosecute people and have offered amnesty to anyone who will sign a declaration promising to not violate copyrights in the future. However, suspicious users are afraid that signing such a document may lead to their prosecution (Editorial staff, 2003)..
Rather than try to work around these systems, people should recognize that a copyright means the song is someone's property, and that taking the music without paying for it is no different than shoplifting. Stealing in any form is wrong, and ethical people will not do it.
Author not available. 2003. "Operators' sites attract young public." South American Business Information, Sept. 5.
Barlas, Steoheb. 2003. "Getting in on the (copyright) act: electronics industry calls for change in law." Electronic Business, June.
Editorial staff. 2003. "RIAA amnesty won't slow trading."
University Wire, Sept. 10.
(Kajuter, Baumgartner & Van, 2001, p. 37) (Hansen, Matthews, Mosconi & Sankaran, 2001, p. 33)
Business 2 Consumer (B2C)
The realistic and optimal development of the current e-music industry is the shift from illegitimate P2P exchanges to B2C exchanges that allow the artists, support systems and entire communities which rely on revenue from legitimate sales to ensure recovery of investment and potential profit. The potential for such a transition, which could ultimately reduce B2B and "middle-man" sales revenue must be balanced with other solutions but could be the ultimate saving grace of the music industry, the evolving multifaceted system of exchanges and challenges. (Dennis, Fenech & Merrilees, 2004, p. 2) Like was said in the previous section, B2C exchanges should be based largely on the technology that has driven B2B technology advances that attempt to ensure ease of use for both exchanging entities and still provide adequate security for both…
Abram, J., & Hawkes, P. (2003). The Seven Myths of Customer Management: How to Be Customer-Driven without Being Customer-Led. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Benkler, Y. (2004). Sharing Nicely: On Shareable Goods and the Emergence of Sharing as a Modality of Economic Production. Yale Law Journal, 114(2), 273.
Brown, C.M., Carbon, H.B., Brown, T., Donaldson, S.A., Holmes, T.E., Hughes, a., et al. (2007, December). Hotlist 07: These Bold Innovators-All under the Age of 40-Are Shaping Our World. Black Enterprise, 38, 120.
Catalano, P. (2003, January). The New World of the Microlabel. World and I, 18, 98.
It is important to note, from the onset, that revenues for the U.S. recorded music industry have more than halved since the late 1990s (Figure 1.0). In essence, what has often been blamed for the falling revenues is the online music revolution (Mezei, 2018). It is instructive to note that in recent times, streaming services have seen their paid subscriptions go up significantly, with 2016 having been a particularly good year for the said services. These include, but they are not limited to, Tidal, Apple Music, as well as Spotify. Thanks to such growth in streaming services, quite a number of players have in the past expressed their intention to try their hand in this specific market. These include new entrants to this spot, like Amazon.
According to the Recording Industry Association of America - RIAA (2017), in the year 2016, there was an 11.4% growth in U.S.…
In "The Times They Are a-Changin'," released in February 1964, he encapsulated the spirit of the times, and issued a timely warning to the older generation to accept the changing times or be drowned in a youth-inspired social revolution. (Mcilliams, 32)
hile Dylan was introducing protest folk music in the mainstream popular music in the early 1960s, bands such as "The Beatles" had captured the imagination of the estern youth on both sides of the Atlantic. By accepting the influence of each other's music in their work, these artists revolutionized estern popular music. The power of such music in shaping the direction of the youth culture was immense. It spread the message of peace, love, racial and gender equality and challenged the hypocrisy of the existing social order.
Not all aspects of the sixties music were positive. Many of the sixties rock musicians adopted a hedonistic lifestyle and indulged in…
DiGrazia, Judith L. "The Sixties: Notes of Discord." Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. 1983. January 18, 2007. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1983/4/83.04.04.x.html
McWilliams, John C. The 1960s Cultural Revolution. Ed. Randall M. Miller. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Rodnitzky, Jerome L. "The Sixties between the Microgrooves: Using Folk and Protest Music to Understand American History, 1963-1973." Popular Music and Society 23.4 (1999): 105.
Dylan started to introduce amplified rock music into his acoustic folk repertoire by 1965 and the "Beatles" replaced their simple "I wanna hold your hand" lyrics by more socially relevant themes in their songs in the latter part of the sixties.
Few popular music stars today are as colorful as Lady Gaga. Recently on tour, Lady Gaga is again making the headlines. In South Africa, a group of churches has been organizing protests against Lady Gaga's performances, and even just her presence, in the country. Among other complaints, the South African Council of Churches claims Lady Gaga's visit "could lead to an exponential growth of Satanism," (Engelbrecht, p. 1). For others, Lady Gaga is a welcome presence in the popular culture because she spreads the message of gender equality and positive gender "performativity," (Horn, p. 1). Lady Gaga is like a female "drag queen" and therefore sends a good message about tolerance of gender and sexual identities. Finally, Lady Gaga exemplifies the way social media can be used to promote popular culture and allow for greater fan interactions and control over content. Given that Lady Gaga is associated with Satanism,…
Engelbrecht, David. "Council of Churches Still Anti-Gaga." Channel 24. Retrieved online: http://www.channel24.co.za/Music/News/Council-of-Churches-still-anti-Gaga-20121129
Hampp, Andrew. "Gaga, Oooh Lala: Why the Lady Is the Ultimate Social Climber." Advertising Age. 22 Feb, 2010. Retrieved online: http://vandymkting.typepad.com/files/2010-2-22-adage-gaga-oooh-la-la-why-the-lady-is-the-ultimate-social-climber.pdf
Horn, Katrin. "Camping with the Stars: Queer Perfomativity, Pop Intertextuality, and Camp in the Pop Art of Lady Gaga." Current Ojbectives of Postgraduate American Studies. Vol. 11. Retrieved online: http://copas.uni-regensburg.de/article/view/131/155
Since the band exploded onto the scene in 2005, the White Stripes have wooed casual listeners and hypercritical audiophiles alike. Founded by Jack White, the White Stripes have received much critical acclaim and the most affectionate form of flattery, too, which is imitation. For instance, Vancouver, Canada band the White Blood Cells is "a pair of balding Irish guys who only play White Stripes songs," (Lucas, 2012). Usually cover bands are tributes to rock's greats such as Led Zeppelin. The fact that the White Stripes already have cover bands dedicated to them shows how much of a mark they have made on music. Yet it has been difficult to classify the music of The White Stripes. Using the term "rock" music is overly general. Therefore, the best classification of The White Stripes has been, to date, the term "garage rock." Garage rock refers to a sub-genre of rock music…
Florida, R. & Jackson, S. (2010). Sonic City: The Evolving Economic Geography of the Music Industry. Journal of Planning Education and Research 29(3): 310-321.
Lucas, J. (2012). White Blood Cells' Get Going is an impressive effort. Straight.com. Retrieved online: http://www.straight.com/article-838066/vancouver/white-blood-cells
McGreevy, R. (2012). How Jack White earned his stripes. Irish Times. 31 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2012/1031/1224325939787.html
In the face of current economic slowdown, no industry is likely to survive if it sticks with its old business models and refuse to adapt to change. Besides economic problems, there are some other factors, which are forcing corporations to adopt new and better business strategies and discard old ones since they are not producing positive results. These factors include political conditions in the country, global rise in terrorist activities and rapid development of technology, most specifically the Internet. With American households and corporations getting wired at lightening speed, it is only logical to incorporate this technology in a new business model to make business strategies produce desired results.
Apart from technological change, companies are also required to focus more on pricing models. It has been noticed that with consumer spending shrinking, only those corporations that have a viable pricing model are likely to stay afloat.…
The Music Industry In a spin, The Economist, Feb 27th, 2003
Frank Rose, The Civil War Inside Sony, WIRED Magazine Issue 11.02 - February 2003
Jon Hilkevitch, FAA predicts airline industry recovery Chicago Tribune March 18, 2003
Shares fall but Easyjet figures grow, Birmingham Post, 01-09-2003, pp 22.
Music and the Universe
Music is one characteristic everything in existence possesses. For anything to be existing, it has to possess an amount of energy and these always undergo vibration. From these vibrations, sound waves are generated and these combine to form what we call music. Nothing better defines the phrase "Universal Language" than music. Every human being relates to it. Sound waves move and come in contact with just about anything existing including water, soil, animals, vegetation, other worlds and galaxies etc. Music could also determine a person's mood. This power of music on human moods and emotions can actually be explained easily. The sound waves on reaching a person encounter his/her unique energy signature which causes a unique response to each sound.
This study aims to illustrate just how music and language are related and to also conclusively show that these two have a deep mental and scientific…
Auner, Joseph. "Chapter two: Expanding musical worlds" in Music in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. WW Norton and Company. (2014): 16-34
Brown, Steven, and Joseph Jordania. "Universals in the world's musics." Psychology of Music 41, no. 2 (2013): 229-248.
McMullen, Erin, and Jenny R. Saffran. "Music and language: A developmental comparison." Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal 21, no. 3 (2004): 289-311.
Slevc, L. Robert, and Brooke M. Okada. "Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control." Psychonomic bulletin & review 22, no. 3 (2015): 637-652.
Music and Dance in Indian Films
In sheer quantity, INDIA produces more movies than any other country in the world-over 900 feature-length films in at least 16 languages, according to a recent industry survey. This productivity is explained by several factors: the size of the Indian audience, low literacy rates, the limited diffusion of television in India, and well-developed export markets in both hemispheres. (http://worldfilm.about.com/cs/booksbolly/)
In its historical development, India's film industry paralleled that of the West. Dadasaheb Phalke's Raja Harishchandra, the first silent film for popular consumption, appeared in 1913; Alam Ara, the first "talkie," was released in 1931. ut the Indian cinema derived its unique flavor from the older Indian musical theater-particularly from the Urdu poetic dramas of the late nineteenth century. The influence of this tradition ensured that Indian movies would favor mythological or legendary-historical stories, that their dialogue would carry an Urdu flavor even in languages…
National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987 (Texas Film Studies) by Sumita S. Chakravarty Univ of Texas Pr; (December 1993)
Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha (Editor), Paul Willemen (Editor) British Film Inst; Revised edition (September 1999)
Cinema of Interruptions: Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema by Lalitha Gopalan British Film Inst; (July 1, 2002)
Music and Society
Music has a profound influence on society. As with other forms of art, music has the ability to communicate messages that are both complex and oblique -- the message need not be specific, but may convey an emotion or ethos, external to the lyrical content of the songs. Music gives a voice to generations by allowing those who have the ability to convey their thoughts and feelings through the form, and others to convey theirs through the consumption of the media. Thus, while music can have significant influence over a generation, and reflect its values, likewise the music to which that generation is drawn to reflects its values outward to the world, allowing some of the music (and other art) consumed by that generation to be understood by any society that chooses to consume that music. One cannot replicate the 60s just by listening to the Doors…
Edmonson, J. (2013). How social media and streaming have influenced the music industry. Socialnomicsi. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.socialnomics.net/2013/12/02/how-social-media-and-streaming-have-influenced-the-music-industry/
Gordon, A. (2014). Subcultures, Popular Music and Social Change.: Subcultural practices in UK punk culture. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Music Games International (MGI) had a product that they wanted to develop but they were not sure how they were going to do this. The founders of the company -- Igor, oman and Sasha -- had already produced a game that used a game platform to introduce youth to music, and it had been a critical success. Unfortunately, the game did not sell well, so the three were basically broke and searching for a way to reinvigorate the concept. Every year Harvard Business School (HBS) has a business plan contest that allows students to showcase their talents. They are allowed to work in teams and with outside developers and that is how Henry and Dana became involved with MGI.
The task was to create a business plan out of the previously muddled work of the original founders and determine what was needed to present the concept to investors. There were…
Berry, T, (2007). How to perform a SWOT analysis. Retrieved from http://articles.bplans.com/business/how-to-perform-SWOT-analysis/116
Leslie, J.B. (2009). The leadership gap: What you have, and don't have, when it comes to leadership talent. Center for Creative Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/leadershipGap.pdf
Music on American Culture and Values
Over time, music has molded the American culture and its values in a variety of ways. In this text, I will highlight the various ways in which both music and radio have shaped American values and culture. In so doing, I will identify my favorite genre/type of music in an attempt to highlight the impact the music I listen to has had on American culture and social behavior.
How the American Culture and Its Values Has Been Shaped by Music and adio
In the words of Eldridge (2008), "by the close of the 1930s, twenty-eight million households (and seven million cars) boasted at least one radio set, with most tuned-in to a network or local station for an average of five hours a day." In that regard, it would be correct to point out that radio has played a critical role in the growth…
Bob & Hanger, J. (2012). The Silent Generation: 1925 -- 1945. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Eldridge, D.N. (2008). American Culture in the 1930s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Keith, M.C. (2008). Radio Cultures: The Sound Medium in American Life. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Furthermore, Live Nation would have a great advantage in advising and guiding Springsteen regarding his career and recordings. Since the company handles all aspects of the artist's career and has a great chance of benefiting from everything the artist does, it also has a long-term perspective and interest in developing the artist's career.
Springsteen has been widely advised to sign the ten-year deal with Live Nation in order to avoid the difficulties and costs associated with self-marketing. However, this deal is not the most suitable because Springsteen already has a huge and loyal fan base and would therefore have fewer challenges in marketing his album. Secondly, Springsteen will also lose creative control since creative decisions are not left entirely on the artist's hand since the partner has too much at stake. While he stands a chance to receive a lot of money up front in this deal, he will significantly…
Byrne, D. (2008, January 16). David Byrne's Survival Strategies for Emerging Artists -- and Megastars. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://www.wired.com/entertainment/music/magazine/16-01/ff_byrne?currentPage=2
"The Current State of the Music Industry." (2010, March 31). DIO: Do It Ourselves. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://dio333.wordpress.com/2010/03/31/the-current-state-of-the-music-industry/
In many of the cases Music is termed as 'Universal Language', a language that has no word but still has lot to convey. Music therefore has positive consequences on different front of societies including social, cultural and economical (Music industry and Tourism foster economic growth).
All these factors have convinced the school management to introduce and teach Music as formal subject in their schools, the Music subject has equal factor in terms of grade evaluation as compare to any other subject, Music has to be necessarily considered as core subject for teaching, "The term 'core academic subjects' means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography"(No Child Left Behind Act of 2002).
Following facts and figures are listed to support the case,
According to College-Bound Seniors National eport: Profile of SAT Program Test Takers, Students having involved in the environment or…
David Bray., Teaching Music in Secondary School.
Nicholas Temperley., the Lost Chord: Essays on Victorian Music.
Gary Spruce., Teaching Music in Secondary Schools.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, Title IX, Part a, Sec. 9101 (11).
Universal Music Group
CBP is based on past consumption values as a way to forecast the sale of future goods and services. In regards to the music industry, CBP planning from before the internet would look quite different than from after. Before the internet, there was no way to digitally download a music CD. Thus, all music purchased had to be in the form of an in-person transaction resulting in a customer purchasing a physical CD. ight after the inception of this new technology, CD sales skyrocketed. This can be seen in the following graph of sales of different music mediums. This meant that for this time period, music suppliers and record companies, like Universal Music Group, were continuing to bump up inventory levels based on the massive increases seen in previous sales. Using CBP, the previous increases in sales would recommend an future increases in inventory.
Goldman, David. (2010). Music's lost decade: Sales cut in half. CNN Money. Web. http://money.cnn.com/2010/02/02/news/companies/napster_music_industry/
Leibowitz, Stan J. (2004). Will MP3 downloads annihilate the record industry? The evidence so far. Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, & Economic Growth, 15(2004), 229-260.
Lessig, Lawrence. (2012). What's behind the big drop in CD sales? Bull Not Bull. Web. http://www.bullnotbull.com/archive/lessig-1.html
relationship of music and culture and history in Japan. The music of Japan is as rich and diverse as the culture of Japan's people, and it has a long place in Japan's history. Several different musical forms and instruments make up Japan's musical history, and it has ancient beginnings in the earliest history of Japan in many cases. While the Japanese have held on to their musical past, they are also not afraid to create new musical traditions, such as the karaoke fad that swept the world in the 1990s and beyond.
Ancient Japanese Music
Many scholars believe that Japanese music has its roots in the music of China, an ancient culture that dominated Asian culture from the earliest recorded history. However, studies indicate this is really not the case. Japanese music historian Egon Wellesz notes, "It might be expected that Japanese music would exhibit considerable Chinese influence; but it…
Asai, S.M. (1999). Nomai dance drama: A surviving spirit of medieval Japan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Malm, W.P. (2000). Traditional Japanese music and musical instruments. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International.
Tokita, A. & Hughes, D.W. (2008). Ashgate research companion to Japanese music. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Wellesz, E. (Ed.). (1999). Ancient and oriental music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The crowds Christina draws are not all twelve-year-old girls; because the artist has earned numerous critical accolades fans come in droves to see one of the most well-respected musicians in the United States. After winning a slew of Grammy awards, Christina also captured the attention of other well-respected and well-known artists in the music industry. Most notably, Christina Aguilera toured with Justin Timberlake, Pink, Mya, and Lil' Kim. She has also performed onstage with artists as prestigious as Madonna. The recognition Christina Aguilera has earned for herself make her one of the most attractive performers in the industry, but the artist is also an incredible human being.
Aguilera's fame has not destroyed her spirit, proven by the way she has balanced her sexuality with her singing and her fortune with philanthropy. Her Web site describes her primary concern as the fight against AIDS. Christina Aguilera has devoted performance time and…
Christina Aguilera: Biography." The Christina Aguilera Official Website. Retrieved April 11, 2008 at http://www.christinaaguilera.com
Brown had succeeded in spite of a terrible start in life and seemingly without making musical compromises" (95). Indeed, he did.
Brown's style has been one that successfully changed with the times. A close look at his songs will reveal how his music evolved with the sounds of the times. Brown drew from rhythm and blues musical influences such as Little Richard and Ray Charles, as these influences are present in his early work. From "Please, Please, Please" to "Living in America," Brown's identifiable sound has never lost his style. His first hit Please, Please, Please" demonstrates sounds that were popular in the late 1950s. In "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag," we hear the earlier influences of the late 50s and early 60s in the lyrics and the guitar riffs.
Brown's career and musical inclinations began to change in the mid-60s, which can be seen in "I Feel Good…
Brackett, David. "James Brown." Grove Music Online. Site Accessed May 19, 2008. http://www.grovemusic.com
Kamien, Roger. Music: An Appreciation. Boston: McGraw-Hill. 2000.
Danielson, Anne. Presence and Pleasure: The Funk Grooves of James Brown. Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. 2006.
Elliot, Marc. I Feel Good: A Memoir of a Life of Soul: Introduction. New York: Penguin Books. 2005.
industry, the drivers of competition are largely revealed by competitive forces. Hence the ability to detect and address a wide range of competitive threats is largely founded on the fact that competition is not in any way limited to existing rivals. After a comprehensive study of various corporations' competitive strategies, the author of "The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy" attempts to demonstrate how a company can enhance its profitability while at the same time ensuring that it significantly decreases its vulnerability to attack by way of understanding its industry's structure using the five forces.
The Article's Key Concepts
From the onset, Porter states that understanding competition and formulating strategies to deal with it remains every strategist's main objective. However, it should be noted that in most cases, strategists define competition in chronically narrow terms by limiting their scope to industry rivals only. With that in mind, Porter's insistence on…
Music in the 21st century was accused of being increasingly derivative and irrelevant. Interest in individual performers, in the era of iTunes, was being relegated to the sidelines as teens assembled their own 'mixes' rather than sought to embrace the output of an individual artist. It was said that the era of the great soloist and the great musical concept album was dead. ith her first album The Fame in 2008, Lady Gaga changed all of that and silenced the industry's critics. Yes, she is frequently outrageous and provokes controversy for her attire as well as her voice. But underneath all of the glam and glitter, Lady Gaga has proved that she a unique mix of vocal talent, showmanship, and social activism. She has also generated a huge following on Facebook and Twitter. Lady Gaga's fans do not simply download "Poker Face," "Telephone" and "Born this ay" online. They love…
"Lady Gaga tells all." Rolling Stone. June 21, 2010. [November 11, 2011].
"Poker Face." Lyrics. [November 11, 2011].
Archaeological finds show that prehistoric man had already played music. Music and dance are the humans' most natural and original forms of expression. Berendt said of modern generations: "Nada brahma - all is sound," in nature. Stones, bones, pieces of wood, hollow vessels and cups make sounds when pushed, beaten or rubbed together. Stretched hides bang, the buzz of the arrow whizzing off the bow can be imitated with fingers and the murmuring, roaring and whistling of the wind can be caught in reeds, bone pipes or hollow branches.
Today, numerous types of different forms of music are played across the world. Because humans are so diverse, it comes as no surprise that people like different types of music. For example, there are many adults, many of them older, who do not particularly appreciate hip hop and rap. Part of this has to do with the slang language,…
Berendt, J.E. Nada Brahma. The world is sound. Rowohlt, Reinbek,1983.
Christenson, P.G. And Roberts, D.F. It's Not Only Rock & Roll: Popular Music in the Lives of Adolescents. New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1998.
Freidan, Gregory. "A Response to Professor Taruskin." New York Times, December, 2001.
Liske, Kenneth L. "A Statement of Educational Philosophy and Professional Purpose." University of Wisconsin. 11 May, 2005.
Because of the enormous popularity of Snoop Doggy Dogg's "Gin and Juice" single, the proposed video will be based on a similarly styled rhythm and blues-based hip-hop song entitled "The Power of Youth." Thematically, "The Power of Youth" will not resemble "Gin and Juice," but the overall rhythm and style will. Vocals will include a choral background and familiar song structure that will grab young listeners and include all demographics. Instead of gangsta rap lyrics, the lyrics of "The Power of Youth" will concentrate on life on the streets, poverty, gender inequity, and other issues relevant in the upcoming election.
Visuals used in the music video will parallel the lyrics and theme. Instead of scantily clad ladies, ordinary women will be featured to promote Barack Obama as president. Skillful editing will interject footage of Barack Obama working in Chicago with disenfranchised African-Americans into the music video. Revealing the roots of…
Music, Art, Literature Trends
From impressionism to pop art, jazz to hip hop, science fiction to beat poetry, artistic, musical, and literary expressions have varied considerably between 1870 and 2005. The period between the end of the nineteenth century to the current day can be generally described as the modern and postmodern eras. The beginning of the modern era, during the final decades of the nineteenth century, coincided with the Industrial evolution. Along with fascination with modern technology and optimism for the future came simultaneous disillusionment. However, modern technological advancements have made such widespread creativity possible. Social and political trends have also influenced creative endeavors, and vice-versa. Art, music, and literature are more accessible and more possible to create than they ever were in the past. The modern era has been characterized by an overall flourishing of the expressive arts, but some trends have a more lasting significance than others.…
Rock music became more than just a musical trend; it also characterized the rise of the teenage culture, symbolized rebellion, and influenced political and social attitudes. Furthermore, rock and roll remains a viable creative endeavor today, and is also internationally popular, which is why the trend is so important. Beyond rock and roll, electronic music and hip hop are recent significant musical trends. Electronic music has been around for decades, and reached a peak with the advent of the rave. Electronic music remains a vital force in the industry, and has also impacted the development of hip hop. Hip-hop is yet another musical trend that coincides with social and race-related realities in the United States. The genre is so important because it represents American urban culture.
Among the literary trends between 1870 and the present day, the most significant ones include post-colonialism, science fiction, beat poetry, and horror. Post-colonial literature such as the works of Joseph Conrad brought awareness to the problems associated with the colonialist mentality. Post-colonial fiction put a human face on the very real political, social, and economic issues of the modern world. Realism was a major literary method used by post-colonial authors, who depicted their worlds with stunning detail. With the modern fascination with technological advancements, science fiction became a highly significant literary trend to emerge during the twentieth century. Science fiction originated in the early twentieth century when Orson Welles' reading of H.G. Wells' novel the War of the Worlds shocked the nation into believing that aliens had indeed attacked the United States. Science fiction literature strongly influenced television and film, too, and is responsible for the popularity of both Star Trek and Star Wars. Related to but different from science fiction, fantasy writing also emerged during this time and gave rise to the writings of J.R.R. Tolkein, whose works recently spawned motion pictures.
Another significant literary trend to emerge during the middle of the twentieth century was beat poetry and beat literature. Beat poetry was completely free verse and free form, in sharp contrast to earlier, more structured forms. Moreover, beat poetry was far more abstract than previous works. Just as modern art was becoming more abstract and expressionist, so too was literature. Another key literary trend to emerge during the past century was horror fiction. While horror derives from earlier Gothic literature as well as from science fiction, the horror genre has had a huge impact on modern literary expression. Authors like Stephen King have become immensely famous by making people afraid, and his works as well as the works of countless other horror writers have impacted the plots and themes of films and television shows.
" Instead of those key lines, a wailing voice suggests that prayers for love remain unfulfilled. The stress is on lines like "without a dream in my heart, without a love of my own," as the wailing replaces the rest of the chorus. Elvis's "Blue Moon" is truly blue: filled with sadness and unfulfilled longing.
To enhance the reinvented theme of "Blue Moon," the instrumentation is stark. Throughout the recording, only a bass and a drum accompany the sultry vocals. The effect is clearly and intentionally that of a cowboy song. The rhythm of both the bass and the drums convey a horse gently trotting, carrying its lone rider through the Wild West. Evoking cowboy movies and mystique is one way the arrangement sends a far different message than the one that ogers and Hart had intended. In Elvis's version, the male vocalist is totally, utterly alone. He is a…
"Blue Moon: by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.lorenzhart.org/moonsng.htm
"Blue Moon." Versions performed by the Boswell Sisters, Elvis Presley, and Rod Stewart. Retrieved on YouTube.
They will be able to get and enjoy music for free. They will be able to share music to their friends without limits or boundaries. However, the fact remains that copying or downloading music from the internet is piracy. It is copying without proper consent from the real owners. It is copying and reproducing without notifying the people who have shed great efforts in producing such music. Thus, honor, credibility and integrity of the consumer is being wage.
Music Downloading: Why is it Illegal?
There has been various ways that different countries do to prevent music piracy. In Canada, for example, the government of this country has allowed for the downloading of copyright music from peer-to-peer networks, but uploading the same file to any other software is not. Even recording music and sounds to blank CDs is illegal in this country, and anyone who would be caught will be fined…
Greene, Michael. (1997)"Building Bridges with Music." Grammy Latino 1: 22-25.
IFPI. 2000. The Recording Industry in Numbers 2000. London: IFPI
The Recording Industry in Numbers June 2001. London: IFPI, 2001 Spaulding, Michelle. "Copyright protection for Music on the Move." The Berkman Center for Internet and Society. [Online] viewed: 30 September 2006. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/mp3/
Musicland Named in Label Suit." Available online: http://twincities.bcentral.com/twincities/stories/2000/08/14/weekinbiz.html. Accessed 30 September 2006
The Evolution of Folk Music Vocals
By its definition, folk music technically refers to indigenous forms of music created by local, regional or native populations as a way of engaging in cultural expression. This means that at its core, folk music is not intended to command a commercial value nor is it necessarily folk music by definition once a form has been co-opted by an outside culture. However, this is also a definition for folk which has long been rendered obsolete by the aesthetic and vocal qualities that listeners tend to associate with the genre today. This is because the most historically significant instances in which folk music converged with the commercial zeitgeist would come to produce a highly distinctive set of sounds.
Indeed, when we think of folk music, one tends instantly to conjure image of a young Bob Dylan with harmonica rack and guitar, wheezing his…
EW. (2013). The Great Folk Rock Revival: how bands like Mumford & Sons and the Lumineers are leading a global phenomenon. Entertainment Weekly.
Holden, S. (2013). When They Hammered Out Justice in the '60s. The New York Times.
Jacobs, P. (2006). Bringing It All Back Home -- The Folk Music Revival. Rewind the Fifties.
McCormick, N. (2011). Folk Music: A Quiet Revolution. The Telegraph.
Reggae music, born of a combination of R&B, blues, jazz, and traditional African music, and combined with a religious tradition, was unique to Jamaica at a time when the country was looking for her identity. The combination of political messages, religious connotation, and raw sound was ideal for the changing society of the time. However, to be pushed to international stardom, the music was altered and rerecorded by milder, less powerful white British artists who helped internationalize the genre. The end result, however, was that it would take many years for true reggae to reach international audiences, complete with the ideology and messages the music was intended to portray. hile the British musicians helped popularize the culture, it would take Bob Marley and many others decades to bring the true message of reggae music to international light.
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge,…
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103320803 .
Everything Jamaican. "The History of Reggae Music." Jamaica. Everything Jamaican. 2004. 7 May 2007. http://www.everytingjamaican.com/jamaica/ .
Farred, Grant. What's My Name? Black Vernacular Intellectuals. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109751409 .
Bays, Barry T. Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106845661 .
Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves
Music Videos: Promotional Device or Separate Product?
Music videos are constructed in many different ways, but many of them involve the artist and others singing and dancing to specific songs. Some also tell stories or provide other background dealings that make the music video much like a television program. An example of this would be Michael Jackson's 'Thriller,' which was a very long video that involved much storytelling and other information as opposed to just the song. Some of these story type videos are still done today but this seems to be more popular in country music that it does in rock-and-roll.
No matter what genre is dealt with, however, the debate as to whether music videos are promotional devices or a separate product in and of themselves has been continuing for many years. In 1981 music television first began broadcasting music…
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
American Idol" has had on the music industry and how it has changed the public's perception of music. While there is no doubt "American Idol" has significantly impacted the music industry and the public's perception of music, the author fails to provide any concrete evidence to support the claims made.
The essay begins with the author's claims that "American Idol" changed the public's perception of music because people came to realize that they could instantaneously become successful. Despite the author's claims, I believe they are misleading because this argument is not about the music itself, but rather the music industry. Tastes in music are subjective, but realizing that one can become famous by trying out on the show has nothing to do with tastes in music, but rather it is an opportunity the contestant takes. Becoming successful does not have anything to do with music per se, but rather the…
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui
The ethics of free downloads has been tested in research and shows it won't stop without some threat of punishment (Taylor, 2004).
One of the ways this problem can be addressed is for the government to implement laws that increase the fines for free sharing while providing benefits by way of reduced taxes to companies that offer downloading for a reasonable cost. Paying the artists a portion of each sale is not as difficult as it sounds. Each time a particular song from an artist is downloaded the computer software can generate that the funds paid get divided between the artist and the site and a monthly check gets sent to the artist.
If this is not done and the downloading from free sites continues music as society knows it will change forever. A world without new music is a world without joy. How many songs do you know that…
Retail Music Industry Battles Extinction; Mintel Report Cites Labels Slow to Respond to Consumer Needs; Downloads Steal the Spotlight. Business Wire 2006
Taylor, Susan (2004) Music piracy -- differences in the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors.(Cyber Dimensions) Journal of Education for Business
Music Industry in Transition: Digital Music Libraries Expand as CD Sales Lag; Legal Digital Music Services Potential Has Only Just Begun to Be Tapped, According to Recent Data from the NPD Group. Business Wire
Targets Warned of Music Download Suits
The creation and enjoyment of music has been a part of our collective human culture since long before the beginnings of recorded history. It is believed that once upon a time even cavemen and Neanderthals were able to create music using their prehistoric instruments and technologies. Archaeologists and historians have discovered remnants of musical instruments in dig sites from all across the globe. The various instruments or what may or may not have at one time been instruments, that have been found at each of these locations have been a reflection of the culture in which it was used. As modern culture is reflected in current musical interests, so too the cultures of past civilizations have been reflected in the instruments and music that those cultures had left behind. Part of the culture invariably involves the tools and available materials that the population would utilize in order to…
Anderson, J 2008, 'Slaves to the rhythm,' CBC News.
Busoni, F 1962, 'Sketch of a new esthetic of music,' Three Classics in the Aesthetic of Music:
Cher 1998, 'Believe,' Believe. Warner Bros.
Everett-Green, R 2006, 'Ruled by Frankenmusic,' The Globe and Mail.
The New Face Book of ock and oll
An entirely new book (okay score) on the future of music and the place of rock and roll is being written, and yet we really can't even tell what the experience will be like, though it will most likely be a continued mix of country/folksy democracy. What we can tell is that it will come in the packaging of a self-published, self-directed, interactive collection (just like an ebook!), and that its messages of defiance will be such that the entire digital universe of followers will each think of themselves as their own Guitar Hero!
While many people believe that Guitar Hero brought rock and roll into the digital era, the case can be made that it did as much damage as good. It turned many people on to a sense of simulating the music of the leaders of rock and…
Crocker, N. (2010), Mashable Business, 5 predictions for the music industry in 2010. Retried from http://mashable.com/2009/12/25/music-industry-predictions-2010/ .
Parker, J. (2009), School of Rock: What does Guitar Hero's popularity mean for the future of rock and roll? The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/03/school-of-rock/7278/ .
Bain & Company, Publishing in the Digital Era (2011). Downloadable from http://www.bain.com/bainweb/PDFs/cms/Public/BB_Publishing_in_the_digital_era.pdf
PESTLE and FIVE FOCES Analysis: Miley Cyrus
PESTLE is a mode of analysis which refers to the Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, Environmental (cipd.co.uk). Essentially, it is a means of assessing a given entity's impact in a comprehensive and nuanced manner so that this entity can engage in the best decision-making and strategy to achieve all objectives. On the other hand, Michael Porter's Five Forces offered a framework for an entity to determine the models of industry and the forces which shape them: supplier power, threat of substitutes, threat of new entrants, buyer power and rivalry. It's useful to determine how these methods of analysis can manifest themselves in the music industry as that is a professional arena where artists experience extreme rivalry and competition and where it's extremely difficult to determine who will be gone tomorrow and who will not. Forging a lasting career in the music industry is…
Cipd.co.uk. (2013). PESTLE analysis. Retrieved from CIPD.co.uk: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/pestle-analysis.aspx
Knopper, S. (2013, October 16). On the Charts: Miley Cyrus' 'Bangerz' Finally Kicks In. Retrieved from Rollingstone.com: http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/on-the-charts-miley-cyrus-bangerz-finally-kicks-in-20131016
It is never just about the music.
No matter how great the musician, music is always the expression of an entire culture, of a moment in history, of a particular place in time. The genius of a particular musician, the synergy of a particular group - these are both essential to the success or failure of a particular group. But that success or failure is never intrinsic to a single song, to a single album. Music that succeeds - both in its own time and later - does so because it has the ability to express something important about that moment in time. eggae has been able to provide just such an expression of the beliefs of a particular people at a moment in history for the last two years - and it has been able to do so because of its ability to change with larger political…
5 billion and 71,060 jobs in the U.S. (according to one of the country's most conservative think tanks that refuses to release information regarding its corporate sponsors)(RIAA par. 9). Though this might be the value of the music pirated, many illegal downloads are for songs tat people simply would not buy if forced to choose between paying and not having a particular song, meaning that little value is actually added to the music industry by ending piracy. In addition, the lack of ISP providers stepping up to assist the RIAA is both contrary to the RIAA's statements and further evidence of the industry's failure to effectively curb pirating online (RIAA par. 13; Sandoval).
RIAA. "For Students Doing Reports." 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009. http://www.riaa.com/faq.php
Sandoval, Greg. "Six Months Later, No ISPs Joining RIAA Piracy Fight." Cnet. 3 June 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009.…
RIAA. "For Students Doing Reports." 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009. http://www.riaa.com/faq.php
Sandoval, Greg. "Six Months Later, No ISPs Joining RIAA Piracy Fight." Cnet. 3 June 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009. http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-10256481-93.html
However, it is already clear that the music industry had been irrevocably changed as the revenue potential shifts from traditional sources to those corresponding to the way music is typically enjoyed and shared by youthful consumers today (Halbert & Ingulli, 2007).
egardless of the many ways that modern technology and societies have changed the way music is produced, in many respects, music still provides many of the same functions as it always has. Music continues to be featured prominently in cultural and religious expression and it continues to be an important part of adolescent development and self-expression. Ultimately, music will likely always continue to change in superficial ways and in the manner in which it is produced and disseminated, but in its most fundamental character, it remains unchanged in it significance to human society and culture..
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World eport; June 15, 1998:48-55.…
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World Report; June 15, 1998:48-55.
Dennet D. (1997). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Downloadable, inexpensive music gives more power to listeners they had during the CD age, in which CDs were getting increasingly expensive, and consumers felt forced to purchase them, even if they liked only a few songs on the album. Technology can be empowering.
The music industry did have a point: the nature of downloadable music is not like a cassette tape or VHS, given the ease of recording and mass distribution. Its actions prosecuting individual violators in retrospect, however, were a public relations disaster and accomplished no social good. From a utilitarian standpoint and in terms of the general good, monitoring and legally sanctioning suppliers rather than focusing on the demand side of the industry seems to be the best way to ensure that file sharing is conduced in an ethical manner.
Violations will likely continue to occur, given that many nations, especially in the developing world, have a less…
Crews, Kenneth D. (2001). Case study a&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.: Implications for the Digital Music Library. Retrieved March 30, 2011 at http://dml.indiana.edu/pdf/AnalysisOfNapsterDecision.pdf
Fisher, Marc. (2007, December 30). Download uproar: Record industry goes after personal use.
Washington Post Staff Writer. Retrieved March 30, 2011 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/28/AR2007122800693.html
oles of The Program Music
Program music refers to a form of music which tries to deliver an additional musical story musically. This story involved could be rendered to its audience as program notes, causing imaginative comparisons with its music.
This concept of program music enjoys more fame and application in the European classical music world, especially during the height of romantic works in the 1800s. Program music was a very common concept in those times. It was commonly used in reference to solely instrumental music works which are music pieces that doesn't have any lyrics. However, it was also used to describe the lieder and opera music type (odgers, 2009).
The single progression orchestral program music works are symphonic poems and the complete works is produced to be enjoyed and heralded without any external references. The Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique is a suitable instance of program music…
'2016 Summer study: Teaching Music's annual listing of summer music programs' 2016, Teaching Music, 4, p. 51, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Blom, D, Bennett, D, & Stevenson, I 2016, 'The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions', Frontiers in Psychology, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Garrett, S 2010, 'The Role of Community Music in Helping Disadvantaged Young People in South Wales to Confront Social Exclusion', International Journal Of Community Music, 3, 3, pp. 371-377, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Moss, PJ 2017, 'Program Music', Notes, 3, p. 550, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Jim Cleveland introduced the nation to the 'Gospel Choir' and in 1968 organized the Gospel Music orkshop of American and due to his success has received three Grammy Awards and a star on the Hollywood alk of Fame (Moore Pp).
Leading a movement inside the Gospel music industry to go mainstream was Edwin Hawkins, who in 1969 recorded 'Oh Happy Day' which rose to number one on the Top Fifty Chart, and a new generation of Gospel was born (Moore Pp). Then other artists such as Andrae Crouch followed Hawkins' crossover success by writing gospel lyrics for more popular secular songs (Moore Pp). Beginning in the late 1980's, contemporary gospel groups such as Take 6 and the inans began to take the gospel message to an even wider audience (Moore Pp). Both groups could easily fill a concert hall as they played their new style to the sacred and the…
The Roots of Gospel Music
Petrie, Phil. "The History of Gospel Music." http://afgen.com/gospel1.html
African-American Music: Spirituals and Gospel Music. http://www.sbgmusic.com/html/teacher/reference/styles/spirituals.html
What makes indie music special in the music industry is the fact that it is produced outside the studio system. Indie artists rise up out of obscurity through their own grit and determination, their own ability to publicize themselves and gain traction, their own talent and genius, and their own development of a fan base. Unlike the many artists today who are groomed from childhood—their fans brought to them via a range of media conglomerates with overlapping boards of directorates, their music written for them by ghost writers, their look developed for them by stylists, their persona created for them by marketing specialists—indie musicians carve a name out for themselves via the tools of the 21st century—social media, streaming services, and DIY (do-it-yourself) merchandise. One of the legends of the indie music scene exemplifies the raw talent and tenacity of this particular group: Daniel Johnston, who recorded…
Vargas outlines a broader pattern in the consumer world which informs the proposal here, indicating that there is a splintering of all marketplaces between online and retail outlets which is changing the way that the latter must conduct business. These are ideas that direct the strategy here suggested for Midwest University.
Accordingly, key terms which will be considered in the proposal are those of 'file-sharing,' 'intellectual property,' and 'online piracy.' In the current online file-sharing context, everyday university students have essentially become bootleggers, according to legal research and assertion by both the music industry and the United States Congress. These are sources which appear to favor the music industry institutions, but in actuality, take a narrow perspective that is damaging to compromise for all parties. The program proposed here will be informed by a desire to overcome this hindrance to cooperation through a carefully constructed mediation whereby the university determines…
Borland, J. (April 9, 2003). Music Industry: Piracy is choking sales. CNET News. Online at http://news.com.com/2100-1027-996205.html .
Vargas, M. (2005). Cyberspace vs. Parking Mall Space. About the Retail Industry. Online at http://retailindustry.about.com/library/weekly/aa001101b.htm.
Sony Music India or SMI, is a solely retained subsidiary of SME, Sony Music Entertainment. The company initiated set-up in India from 1996 to 1997 in order to market both international and national music titles in India. Because of its success and use of state-of-the-art technologies, SMI has become one of the most advanced music companies India. Customers value the added services SMI offers especially if they decide to launch a digital platform for their music and other projects. India has already experienced a boost in sales thanks to the growing E-commerce in the country. The music industry overseas with iTunes and SoundCloud provide consumers with a variety of choices for music making companies like SMI feel a need to compete and therefore generate their own presence within the music industry. Therefore SMI began an "e-initiative" that enabled music lovers along with other users to visit the website, www.sonymusicindia.com, to…
Mani, D. (2013). Case Summary: Sony Music (India). ISBInsight. Retrieved 9 December 2014, from http://isbinsight.isb.edu/case-summary-sony-music-india/
Sony Music India,. (2014). Case Study -- Sony Music India. Retrieved 8 December 2014, from http://www.idealake.com/pdf/CaseStudy/CaseStudy-SonyMusic.pdf
Social Media on Music Marketing
The objective of this research is to examine and analyze how music artists have social media for marketing purposes. Examples will be used to illustrate the major points made in this report.
The music world has entered into a new era in marketing. Social media such as Facebook, MySpace, and others bring together individuals who are like-minded. Dave Allen reports in the work entitled: "Social Media, logs and Music: Some Philosophical Thoughts" the marketing world of music is electrified with "phrases such as "Social Media, Social Advertising, Facebook Ads, Mass Media Networking Advertising." (Allen, 2008, p.1) Allen, a panelist attending the LISA Service Seminar in Portland and the Hawaii MusicTech Conference in Honolulu. Reported is: "L.I.S.A., which is an acronym for Lessons In Social Advertising, was aimed at marketers and advertisers who [for some reason] don't understand social networks or haven't yet worked out how…
Allen, Dave Social Media, Blogs and Music: Some Philosophical Thoughts. Music Think Tank. Retrieved from: http://www.musicthinktank.com/blog/social-media-blogs-and-music-some-philosophical-thoughts.html
Buskirk, Elliott (2009) Social Media Networks are Music's Curse and Salvation. EPICENER. WIRED.com. 9 Apr 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/epicenter/20Pampelmoose.com and founding member Gang of Four.
Peters, Jackie (2008) The Effect of Social Media on Music. 8 June 2008. Heavybag Media. Retrieved from: http://heavybagmedia.com/blog/2008/06/08/the-effect-of-social-media-on-music
music is not always a vehicle for political or social commentary, it has become increasingly more so in the past several generations. Music serves often as a vehicle for community and cultural self-expression, or as a means to communicate social and political ideals as with the spirituals and blues songs of African-Americans bemoaning slavery and racism. Since the 1960s, however, music and its lyrical component has become a means by which to understand the zeitgeist of the historical epoch. Music in the 1960s was often directly and overtly political, particularly the songs of American folk musicians like Bob Dylan. It is almost easier to single out songs from the late 1960s that did not have political overtones versus those that did, because there were so many artists who used music to convey political messages. One of the most notable such songs is John Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance." This song…
Britton, L.M. (2015). Times they are a changin': Indie's apathy v pops political pursuit. The Guardian. 8 June, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jun/08/times-they-are-a-changin-indies-apathy-v-pops-political-pursuit
Burns, C. (n.d.). Lady Gaga: Performer, persona, and political advocate. Retrieved online: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1195&context=comssp
Gavish, E. (2009). Music has always been a tuneful force for political change. New York Daily News. 10 Act, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/music-arts/music-tuneful-force-political-change-article-1.381154
Hughes, D. (2013). Hip-hop in politics. ABC News. 14 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/hip-hop-politics-difference-generation-makes/story?id=18495205
The ritish Invasion: The eatles v the Rolling Stones
Two of the most influential rock bands of all time emerged from England in the 1960s during the ritish invasion. Although they came to prominence around the same time, The eatles and The Rolling Stones each developed a style that was unique to their bands. Though the two bands were opposites in many ways, they helped to establish a new sound, both in England and the United States, which would revolutionize rock and roll.
The eatles were made up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. There were many early versions of the band including the Quarreymen, which was formed in 1959, then Johnny and the Moondogs, and then the Silver eatles, the name that the band adopted before formalizing their line-up and becoming known as The eatles.[footnoteRef:1] One of the first things that the band's managers…
Szatmary, David P. Rockin' In Time: A Social History of Rock-and-Roll. Upper Saddle River:
Prentice Hall, 2000.
The initial MP3 founders backed by the open source model coded the MP3 software that speeded up the recognition of the MP3 audio format. (Behind the Files: History of MP3) at the time of writing the code for MP3 format, an array of compression intensities can be programmed. To take an example, an MP3 made with 128 Kbit compression intensity will have enhanced sound reproduction quality and bigger file size compared to a 56 Kbit compression, hence indicating that lesser the compression intensity, the lesser the reproduction of sound quality. (What is MP3, How does it work, what is (MPEG)
This accounts for growing acceptance of the MP3 format music files with the Internet devoted music enthusiasts since it is the perfect medium for receiving music files through the Internet compared to WAV/AIFF files with takes much longer time to get downloaded. (What is MP3, How does it work, what…
Allbriton, Christopher. King of All MP3 Players. 2004. Retrieved at http://popularmechanics.com/technology/audio/2002/9/king_of_mp3_players/ . Accessed on 30 September, 2004
Apple hits 100 million iTunes mark. July 13, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200407/s1152412.htm. Accessed on 30 September, 2004
Blanchette, Kasie. Effects of MP3 Technology on the Music Industry: An Examination of Market Structure and Apple iTunes. April 23, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.holycross.edu/departments/economics/website/honors/blanchette_thesis.pdf . Accessed on 30 September, 2004
Brain, Marshall. How to Break Into the Music Business. Retrieved at http://www.mp3mall.net/php/howto.php?id=9. Accessed on 30 September, 2004
Microsoft has not yet taken a stand on DRM issues nor have the defined their strategies for dealing with the intricacies of RIAA and NARAS as it relates to the content purchased. As a result, consumers vary of the RIAA and NARAS are taking a much more cautious approach to adopting the Microsoft digital music store as a result. There is a very good chance however that Microsoft will concentrate on an aggressive strategy to eventually attain DRM-free status of their downloads while also appeasing the legal entities that dominate this industry. Their challenges and the series of efforts they will need to make in order for this entire strategy to be successful will be fascinating to watch evolve over the coming years. Yet these two examples illustrate a fundamental fact about the future of Internet-based distribution of music and digital media, and that is only larger, more vertically oriented…
Apple, Investor Relations (2009). Investor Relations. Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Apple Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://www.apple.com/investor/
Anirban Banerjee, Michalis Faloutsos, Laxmi Bhuyan. (2008). The P2P war:
Someone is monitoring your activities. Computer Networks, 52(6), 1272.
Grant Buckler (2006, July). Bull from the entertainment industry. Computer Dealer News, 22(10), 11.
This is because the situational approach reinforces the basic reality that all humans have certain need whose degree varies across geography, size of company and even culture. This type of approach would enable the leader to undergo self-actualization and to develop a set of certain underpinned self-awareness. What follows is a good level of self-awareness and then mutual respect,. A high spirit of participation and democracy soon permeates. These elements are crucial for a leader in order for him/she to develop an effective organization (McGregor:1960).
The second recommendation relates to the change of leadership style at IAA to become one that is based on the motivation (Frederick Herzberg 1960).The motivational factors that are utilized are essential for the members of an organization in order to achieve a n acceptable level of job satisfaction and advancement. This can be achieved through the use of properly formulated company policies and administration. The…
RIAA (2010) "Who We Are."
Butler, S (2007).Report: Piracy Has Cost U.S. $12.5 Billion, Billboard magazine. August 21
Chemers, M.M. (2002). Meta-cognitive, social, and emotional intelligence of transformational leadership: Efficacy and Effectiveness. In R.E. Riggio, S.E. Murphy, F.J. Pirozzolo (Eds.)
Apple Inc. and Industry
Apple Inc. is global technological corporation based in California, America. The company's business operations encompass the designing, developing and retailing of computer software, electronics and also provision of online services. In particular, Apple Inc. is set within the technology industry, competing on different fronts such as the mobile sector and computer sector as well. Technology transformation and change has completely altered the mobile industry and the manner in which it used to function. The internet specifically has changed the way in which people view business and make transactions. The current business model of Apple Inc. can be categorized broadly into three sectors: etail, Software Engineering and Hardware Engineering. Apple can be said to be a multinational corporation as it is involved with three major companies; Microsoft, The Gap and Dell which lie in different industries and that makes it even more successful. The software…
Blodget, H, 2013, Apple's 'Mission Statement' Is Making People Worry That the Company Has Gone to Hell, Business Insider. Retrieved: http://www.businessinsider.com/apples-new-mission-statement-2013-8
Bohm, A, 2009, The SWOT Analysis. Berlin: GRIN Publishers.
Cole, G, 1994, Strategic Management. New York: Thomson Learning.
Fine, Lawrence, G, 2009, The SWOT Analysis: Using Your Strength to Overcome Weaknesses, Using Opportunities to Overcome Threats, New York: Independent Publishing Platform.