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Michael Genquk (nd) A Synthesis of Ethnographic Research. University of Southern California, Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research.
Lambert, Elizabeth (1990) The Collection and Interpretation of Data from Hidden Populations. NIDA Research Monograph 98. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration. National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Pierce, Todd G. (1996) Gen-X Junkie: Ethnographic Research with Young white Heroin Users in Washington, DC. Substance and Misuse. Vol. 34, Issue 14, December 1999.
Peyrot, Mark, (1985) Narcotics Anonymous: Its History, Structure, and Approach. Substance Use and Misuse. 1985 Vol. 20 No.10.
APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE
Criminal Defense Lawyer
Question 1. How did you find out about NA meetings?
Answer 1. I had surgery just as I went through my divorce and before I knew…
Generally, Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous programs also award members with sobriety chips or other methods of recognition or rewards symbolizing the successful maintenance of sobriety for specific periods of time.
The main activity of the Narcotics Anonymous meetings consists of individuals sharing their personal stories and experiences with other members of the group. In doing so, group members often become much more open and honest begin to realize that their experiences are very similar to those of many other people who have similar problems with substance abuse and other addictions.
In many cases, the effect of participation in the group has the effect of helping group members become more honest with themselves as well as with the group about their problems. Because most addicts tend to develop very similar defense mechanisms to help them deny the magnitude of their problems, the experience of hearing others describe problems and…
He reminded everybody that the most important aspect of honesty was to always be honest with one's self and he congratulated all the new potential members for making the first step in addressing their problems by taking the initiative to come to the meeting. He asked for a show of hands from new prospects and several people sitting in the back raised their hands, after which the regular members all turned in their direction and applauded briefly to congratulate them for taking the first step in their recovery.
Then, the leader asked for a show of hands from people who wished to share with the group. After four people raised their hands, he assigned an order for them to speak and the first of the group shared a story about hanging out with the wrong people. He had previously tried to drink socially, but found after several drug relapses, that…
Speech on Alcoholism and Addiction
Main Points: I. Alcoholism is an addiction, not a character flaw.
Treating alcoholism requires modern rehabilitation methods.
The "Twelve-Step" program advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
represents an extremely effective route to recovery.
Central Idea: For centuries, society has viewed addiction to alcohol and other substances as a defect in one's moral fiber, rather than a medical affliction. Modern scientific exploration into the subject of addiction has revealed that alcoholism is actually the result of neurotransmitters in the brain becoming activated, chemical responses throughout the body, genetic influences, and even environmental factors. By revising the widespread belief that addiction to alcohol is one's own "fault," and recognizing the litany of variables which determine whether somebody will be prone to addictive tendencies, the stigma placed on alcoholism may eventually be lifted.
A. For as long as mankind been aware that the actions of an individual are…
Dodes, L. (2002). The heart of addiction: A new approach to understanding and managing alcoholism and other addictive behaviors. New York, NY: Harper-Collins
Narcotics Anonymous Fellowship. (1991). An introductory guide to narcotics anonymous, revised. Narcotics Anonymous World Services, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.na.org/admin/include/spaw2/uploads/pdf/litfiles/us_english/Booklet/Intro Guide to NA.pdf
Clinical Case Management
Case management emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in an effort by professional social workers to address the broad-based social problems that followed the Industrial evolution, including most especially poverty (Aufderhaar, Giddens, Holder, et al., 2013). Since that time, case management has influenced by a wide range of evidence-based practices and social workers in virtually every field use these techniques to help their clients overcome the problems that are adversely affecting their lives. To gain a better understanding of the process, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a definition of case management, the rationale in support of its use, and a discussion concerning how case management can be useful as part of an overall treatment plan. In addition, based on a representative vignette involving a young couple and their minor daughter, this paper also examines how case management can help these clients,…
Aufderhaar, L., Giddens, B., Holder, L. A. et al. (2013). Social work case management. National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/practice / naswstandards/CaseManagementStandards2013.pdf.
Darnell, J. S. (2013, May). Navigators and assisters: Two case management roles for social workers in the Affordable Care Act. Health and Social Work, 38(2), 123-126.
Miller, E. (2011). Individual outcomes: Getting back to what matters. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic.
Perosa, L. M. & Perosa, S. L. (2010, April). Assessing competencies in couples and family therapy/counseling: A call to the profession. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 36(2), 126-130.
Covert participant anthropological observations of AA and NA meetings indicate that in practice the use of theological components of the program is even more explicit than the 12 steps might indicate. During the meeting the members hold "each other's hands, and lead the membership into a recitation of the Lord's Prayer. Affixed to the Lord's Prayer is an AA ending: 'Keep coming back; it works'" (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.7). Anthropologists and critics alike have commented upon the 'cult-like' nature of AA and NA: new adherents are encouraged to leave their jobs and cut family ties to facilitate their path to sobriety; there is a ritualistic aspect to the group's meetings; a demand for purity on the part of the membership; and required adherence to all of the group's rules (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.8). The emphasis on the need to confess and tell one's stories, the need to prioritize…
Alexander, Francesca & Michele Rollins. (1984). Alcoholics Anonymous. The unseen cult.
California Sociologist, 7(l): 33-48. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
Egelko, Bob. (2007, September 8). Appeals court says requirement to attend AA
Relapse prevention therapy breaks down the chemical dependency recovery process into specific tasks and skills, which patients must learn in order to recover; it also shows patients how to recognize when they are beginning to relapse, and how to change before they start using alcohol or drugs again (Gorski and Kelley, 2003).
In order to understand the process of relapse prevention, we will first look at the phenomena of chemical dependence, and its associated behaviors, and the phenomena of relapse, in order to be able to then look at the various ways of tackling these behaviors to induce relapse prevention in the patients.
What is Chemical Dependency/Chemical Addiction?
Chemical dependency is a disease caused by the use of alcohol and/or drugs, causing changes in a person's body, mind, and behavior: as a result of the disease of chemical dependency, people are unable to control the use of alcohol and/or drugs,…
Bell, T. (1990). Preventing adolescent relapse: A guide for parents, teachers and counselors. Independence, MO: Herald House / Independence Press.
Daley, D. (1987) Relapse prevention with substance abusers: clinical issues and myths. Social Work, 45(2), 38-42.
Gorski, T.T. Passages Through Recovery. Center City, MN. Hazelden Press, 1989.
Gorski, T.T. Understanding the Twelve Steps. New York: Prentice Hall/Parkside, 1989.
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?
About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
ather than treating their problems, the community attempts to punish them for their behaviors, placing them in systems where they rarely have access to the type of treatment that will teach them how to avoid engaging in further antisocial behaviors (Thomas & Penn, 2002). In fact, the overrepresentation of mental illness in the juvenile delinquent population as compared to the normal population suggests that the shifting of ill kids to the criminal justice system is commonplace.
Even more troubling is the idea that juveniles who are not involved in the criminal justice system but who experience significant mental health issues may not have access to mental health care. Out-of-pocket expenses for residential mental health treatment for adolescents are exorbitant, even for parents with health insurance. Copays can literally be thousands of dollars a week. However, parents who cannot afford those costs may find the state unwilling to help them; parents…
Texas Department of State Health Services. (2010, December 21). Mental health. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from State of Texas website: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/mentalhealth.shtm
Thomas, C.R. & Penn, J.V. (2002). Juvenile justice mental health services. Child Adolesc
Psychiatr Clin N. Am, 11(4), 731-48.
Another collaborator with SFPC is the Switchboard of Miami Mission. Switchboard helps connect families and people in need with existing community resources; Switchboard also offers services where there were none in existence. For example during the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew -- a category 5 hurricane that took the lives of 65 people -- Switchboard received more than 1,500 calls per day. People wanted to know where they could get help, water, medical aid and more. Post-disaster systems of communication were set up by Switchboard that linked with over 40 other local nonprofits and with the Miami-Dade County Office of Emergency Management (www.switchboardmiami.org).
Also in collaboration with SFPC is the Alcoholics Anonymous organization, the Narcotics Anonymous organization, and About Sober, which specialized in drug rehabilitation programs. All the drug rehab programs and alcohol treatment centers in South Florida are linked in collaboration with www.sober.com. The About Sober group provides a…
About Sober. (2010). Get Connected. Stay Connected. Retrieved February 9, 2010, from http://www.sober.com .
Dow, John W. (2010). From the Desk of the Executive Director. Retrieved February 8,
2010, from http://www.srpc.us/index.htm.
Florida Alcohol & Drug Abuse Association. (2010). About Us -- Mission Statement.
("hite House Drug Policy: Funding." (2006) Office of National Drug Control Policy) The lack of medical resources, however, currently available through most CAPs may make it difficult for CAPs to provide meaningful medical aid to addicted individuals. Most of the aid is likely to be directed towards hosting counseling and support groups. However, unlike federal drug efforts, CAPs, by allying themselves with faith-based community partnerships can provide psychological support by directing persons in need towards the potentially beneficial role that faith and spirituality play in the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse as conveyed through programs designed to treat and promote recovery from substance abuse such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. ("Faith Based and Community Initiatives," 2006, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration)
Relationship between CAPs and HIV / AIDS
CAPs would seem ideal to fight AIDS, given that CAPs can deploy "community-oriented primary care," or an approach…
About Us: Community Action Agencies (CAA)." (2006). Community Action
Partnership (CAP). Retrieved 2 Dec 2006 at http://www.communityactionpartnership.com/about/about_caas/default.asp
Community Action Agencies and Faith-Based Organizations: A Legacy of Productive partnerships." 2000). Community Action Partnership (CAP). Retrieved 2 Dec 2006 at http://www.communityactionpartnership.com/research/CAAs-FBOs.pdf
Community Action Agencies and Local Youth: Building a Future Together." (2003).
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
A brief overview of some prominent theoretical models relating to behavior modification is felt to be a pertinent starting point for his study, as many of these aspects can be compared to the actual interviews and case studies of the subjects. Research suggests that the recovery from drug and alcohol addictions is commonly a long-term process and can involve relapses before sustained and permanent rehabilitation is achieved. ehavioral theories have been shown to be effective in this process. Theories such as cognitive behavioral relapse prevention are a method that has been proven to have a sustained success rate. This theory relates specifically to the formations of behavioral changes in that patients are taught ways of acting and thinking that will assist them in avoiding previous addictions.
For example, patients are urged to avoid situations that lead to drug use and to practice drug refusal skills. They…
An Analysis of Behavioral Change and Addiction Recovery. Retrieved April 30, 2005.Web site: http://www.coursework.info/i/67785.html
Borges, G., Cherpitel, C.J., Macdonald, S., Giesbrecht, N., Stockwell, T., & Wilcox, H.C. (2004). A Case-Crossover Study of Acute Alcohol Use and Suicide Attempt. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65(6), 708+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Cisler, R., Holder, H.D., Longabaugh, R., Stout, R.L., & Zweben, A. (1998). Actual and Estimated Replication Costs for Alcohol Treatment Modalities: Case Study from Project MATCH. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(5), 503+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database,
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…
Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.
Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts
For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…
Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.
A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.
Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm
Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
Substance Abuse Programs in Prison
The work of Harrison (nd) reports that the 'Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program was created by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 in response to the increasing number of incarcerated individuals in the United States with substance abuse problems." (p.vi) It is reported that RSAT grants may be used to "implement or expand treatment programs for inmates in residential treatment facilities operated by State and local correctional agencies that provide individual and group treatment activities for inmates." (Harrison, nd, p. 2) The RSAT programs must be in a six to twelve month length, provide residential treatment facilities that are apart from the general prison population, be focused at the substance abuse problems of inmates, work in developing the cognitive, social, behavioral, vocational in addition to other skills that serve to bring about resolution to the…
Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.
Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=bbE6-erVr98C&dq=SUBSTANCE+ABUSE+PROGRAMS+IN+PRISON&source=gbs_navlinks_s
America has been involved in a war on drugs. Part of the reason for this, is because of the negative social impacts that they have on society. As public officials, want to limit those substances that are considered to be addictive or dangerous. This has led to increased efforts to enact and enforce laws, with the federal government spending $1 trillion in 40 years. ("After 40 Years," 2010)
However, the problem is that during the process of achieving these goals, the criminal justice system is becoming overwhelmed with the large numbers of dealers and addicts. In most situations, the courts will often try to plea bargain the majority of these cases to deal with the backlog. At which point, the system will become full of another round of dealers and users. Once this begins to occur, it means that this repeating cycle will lead to overcrowding in many prisons and…
After 40 Years. (2010). Fox News. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/05/13/ap-impact-years-trillion-war-drugs-failed-meet-goals/
Huddleston, C. (2008). Painting the Current Picture. Washington DC: National Drug Council Institute.
The National Association of Drug Court Professionals Drug Court Standards Committee. (1997). Defining Drug Courts: Ten Key Components. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Ngo, F. (2006). An Evaluation of Drug Courts. University of South Florida. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasota.usf.edu/Academics/CAS/Capstone/2009-2010/Criminology/Albritton%20-%20An%20Evaluation%20of%20Drug%20Courts.pdf
speak Holistic conceptualization considers biological, psychological, social, political, spiritual implications integrates Stage Change Model suggested treatment plan/interventions.
Holistic conceptualization: Stages of change model
The stages of change model indicates that people go through specific 'stages' when contemplating giving up a negative behavior pattern: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation/determination, action/willpower, and maintenance (Motivational interviewing and stages of change, 2014, SAMHSA). "By identifying where a person is in the change cycle, interventions can be tailored to the individual's 'readiness' to progress in the recovery process. Interventions that do not match the person's readiness are less likely to succeed and more likely to damage rapport, create resistance, and impede change" (Motivational interviewing and stages of change, 2014, SAMHSA). In the case of Shelia, who has relapsed after undergoing treatment for her heroin and cocaine addictions, she would be said to be in the 'contemplation' stage of embarking upon change once again. During the 'avoidance' phase,…
Motivational interviewing and stages of change. (2014). SAMHSA. Retrieved from:
Twenty-three-year-old Maria is unwilling to acknowledge her addiction to methamphetamines. As a consequence of her drug abuse, she has lost her son to the foster care system, she has a dysfunctional relationship with the child's father -- also a drug addict, and she has no real job or housing. Five months pregnant, she has lost the support of her family because they are tired of her behaviors. Maria is in the pre-compliance stage. She will not acknowledge that she has a drug problem, she does not want to be in a rehabilitation program, and she does not want to meet with a social worker, even though the court has ordered her to do so. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) using the Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) Model is indicated, but without acknowledgement of her drug problem, these further steps will not be possible with Maria.
Following a psychological examination, the first step…
12-step programs were somewhat mixed. On one hand, I have friends who say that they would never have recovered without Alcoholic's Anonymous (AA). I have never suffered an addiction myself so I cannot presume to judge the validity of their experiences. On the other hand, I often find the language of addiction and recovery, and its insistence upon the '12 steps' to be confining, even cultish in tone.
I attended a 'speaker's meeting' for this assignment. Although meetings are anonymous and closed to observers, at an AA speaker's meeting, a speaker with a year or more of sobriety talks to an open group to relate his or her experience, followed by discussion (Garrett 2009).
The meeting I attended was consistent with the literature I had previously read on AA: "the three important steps to sobriety are admitting powerlessness to alcohol, turning yourself over to a 'higher power' and never drinking…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs. The New York Times.
Retrieved October 4, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Garrett, Floyd P. (2009). Your first AA Meeting. Recovery and Wellness.
Retrieved October 4, 2011 at http://www.bma-wellness.com/papers/First_AA_Meeting.html#Speaker%20
group meets downstairs in a church. There are "tables" where the members sit and discuss their issues. In this group there are two tables, nearly filled with about 20 people at each table. There are mostly middle-aged to older adults here (40 years old and up), but a few that are under 30 years of age. There is a pretty even distribution of males and females at the two tables. The general interaction between the members is causal and quite friendly. After sitting at one table I wait for the meeting to get started. Once it is started there are a lot of formalities: an introduction by the leader (I am later told that this person is referred to as the chairperson and this position is a volunteer that changes weekly), the reading the stipulations of the group, a prayer, asking if there are any first time attendees (I remained…
Kelly, J.F., Magill, M., & Stout, R.L. (2009). How do people recover from alcohol dependence? A systematic review of the research on mechanisms of behavior change in Alcoholics Anonymous. Addiction Research and Theory, 17, 236-259.
Rosenberg, H. (1993). Prediction of controlled drinking by alcoholics and problem drinkers.
Psychological Bulletin, 113, 129-139.
Vaillant, G.E. (2005). Alcoholics Anonymous: Cult or cure? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(6), 431-436.
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial
Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,
no. 2, pp. 377-379.
Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse
The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.
Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…
Anton, R. "Substance abuse is a disease of the human brain: focus on alcohol." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Winter 2010: 735+. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Feldman, R.S. (2009). Understanding psychology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Mcgraw-Hill.
Drummond, D. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/09652140020016941
Oltmanns, T.F., Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Compulsive overeating or excessive eating is one of several known eating disorders. Eating disorders are rampant diseases in western cultures. Eating disorders are expressions of abnormal and nearly always harmful behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions of food and eating. They usually center around a great lack or great abundance of food entering a person's body. Eating disorders also involved distorted perceptions of oneself and the development of compulsive thoughts and behaviors. Eating disorders show up in male and female populations, when for most of the disorders' history, they were thought to only show up in women. Current psychological research shows that the degree of westernization in a culture is directly proportional to the likelihood and prevalence of eating disorders, particularly in women. Compulsive overeating is a form of binge eating disorder when people eat compulsively as a response to stress. Compulsive overeaters eat too much when they are…
Davis, C., Carter, J.C. (2009) Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence. Appetite, 53, 1 -- 8.
Lightstone, J. (2004) Dissociation and Compulsive Eating. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 5(4), 17 -- 32.
Morgan, C.M., Yanovski, S.Z., Nguyen, T.T., McDuffie, J., Sebring, N.G., Jorge, M.R., Keil, M., & Yankoski, J.A. (2002) Loss of Control Over Eating, Adiposity, and Psychopathology in Overweight Children. Eat Discord, 31, 430 -- 441.
Overeaters Anonymous. (1993) Compulsive Overeating -- An Inside View. Overeaters Anonymous, Rio Rancho: NM.
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm
Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006 http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content
National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.
McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
A "drug" is any substance, other than food, that affects our bodies or minds. Since not all drugs are bad, the book uses "substance" to clarify the issue. Substance abuse can cause temporary or long-term problems for the abuser. Dependence, tolerance or addiction can develop.
Depressants: slow the central nervous system (CNS) down. Alcohol is a CNS depressant.
Alcohol: nearly 6% of the U.S. population are heavy drinkers, some as young as 11. Men outnumber women 3:1. Ethyl alcohol is quickly absorbed in stomach and intestine. First it depresses the areas of the brain that control judgments and curbs on behavior. Next, motor control is affected. Alcohol can also interfere with both vision and hearing. As the liver metabolizes the alcohol, the blood levels drop and function gradually returns. Patterns of alcoholism vary among socio-cultural groups and by age. Alcoholism can destroy family life, sink a career, and…
How effective has the legal prohibition of alcohol been in controlling crime? A recent Department of Justice Report (U.S. Department of Justice) said that alcohol was a factor in 40% of all violent crimes and accounted for 40.9% of all traffic fatalities in the U.S.A. In the last decade. ut these figures were 34% and 29%, respectively, lower than those of the previous decade. The Report further stated that arrests conducted for driving under the influence of alcohol correspondingly declined and attributed this to the establishment of the legal and uniform drinking age in the early 1980s.
Elucidating, the Report said that, approximately 3 million violent crimes occurred each year in that decade where the offenders were drinking at the time. And although arrests were made in every age group, those made on offenders below 21 notably decreased. The rate of intoxication in fatal accidents, it said, likewise went…
1. Abbe, Winfield. Toughening Liquor Laws Will Do Little to Sober Our Drunk Culture.
Athens Banner Herald, February 2002. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.*****/stories/022202/let_letter4.shtml
2. Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcohol. (accessed 25:03:03). http://soc.qc.edu/aa/aager.html
3. Davis, George. Why Crime? Action Sunshine Coast Crime Prevention Program. Crime Prevention through Community Building, 2000. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.suncoastcentral.com/crimeprevention
All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.
1. PBS (2009). The Border
Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/
2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.
Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html
3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…
6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.
Last accessed March 2010: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/
Linguistic analyses of conversational patterns indicate that most pauses can be predicted by linguistic structures, such as clause or sentence breaks" (Levitt, 334) by eliminating some of the non-verbal factors that may tend to undermine these silences, I would find that the interviewee was far more comfortable with the nature of the interview and its opportunity for a free and informal discussion relating to treatment experience, personal history and current disposition.
The helping model, according the research which was conducted in preparation for and in light of Mr. Smith's situation, would be further illuminated by the interview. Here, firsthand interaction illustrated that individuals who have undergone such institutional experiences are sometimes eager to share details and feelings directly related thereto. The way that Mr. Smith opted to open up would be especially revealing in verifying the value of allowing one's self to fully accept and understanding the nature…
Levitt, H.M. (2002). The Unsaid in the Psychotherapy Narrative: Voicing the Unvoiced. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 15(4): 333-350.
Myers, S. (2003). Relational healing: To be understood and to understand. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 43(1): 86-104.
Myers, S. (2000). Empathetic listening: Reports on the experience of being heard. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 40(2): 148-173.
Rogers, C.R. (1995). What understanding and acceptance mean to me. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 35(4): 7-22.
Croop et al. (1997).
The overall safety profile of naltrexone is good; however, care must be taken in prescribing the drug to certain patient populations; e.g., naltrexone shows a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity (package insert) and is therefore contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic impairment, which is frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent populations.
The clinical trials of naltrexone have typically been conducted in patients without significant impairment in hepatic function. Another consequence of the hepatic impact of naltrexone is the possibility of drug-drug interactions.
Kim et al. (2001) potentially clinically significant interaction has been reported between naltrexone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; these researchers found elevated liver function tests in study participants receiving both medications, although the doses of naltrexone used in this study were higher than the typical 50 mg daily dose.
Naltrexone is not appropriate for use with patients taking prescribed or illicit opioid drugs. Antagonism of the effects of these drugs…
Ait-Daoud, N., & Johnson, B.A. (1999). Medications to treat alcoholism. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 99.
Anton, R.F., & Randall, C.L. (2005). Measurement and choice of drinking outcome variables in the COMBINE study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 104.
Bhagar, H.A., & Schmetzer, a.D. (2006). New antidipsotropics. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 9(4), 29.
Bean, P., & Nemitz, T. (2004). Drug treatment: What works? New York: Routledge.
Obesity reached epidemic proportions by the end of the twentieth century, with as many as thirty percent of adults and sixteen percent of children living in the United States being overweight ("Overweight and Obesity"). Being overweight is not just a matter of personal appearance. Rather, a range of health problems from heart disease to diabetes can be directly caused by eating too much, especially too much of the wrong foods. Fast food, junk food, and processed foods, available in huge portions for cheap prices, are driving factors in the American economy. However, because being overweight is a major cause of disease, obesity becomes an economic problem in America, taxing the medical system with unnecessary and preventable problems. Obese individuals essentially steal treatment services from individuals who suffer from diseases that could not be prevented through lifestyle changes. Overeating is also a slap-in -- the face for those who cannot…
'Overweight and Obesity." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Online at .
Man's Fate" by Andre Malraux [...] use of opium in the novel and research and critique this aspect of the novel and how it relates to the literary accuracy of the novel. Opium use is well documented in Asia, and the use of opium figures heavily in this novel. Baron de Clappique smuggles opium, and several characters use opium throughout the book. Opium and China seem to go together in history. esearch into opium, and how opium in portrayed in this novel will show that opium use was widespread in Chinese culture, and it was accepted, even if it did eventually become illegal.
Opium has a long and varied history, and it always seemed threaded through the Chinese people. There are records of opium poppies being cultivated as far back as 3400 B.C. By the Sumerians, and it had spread to China by the eighth century. By the sixteenth century,…
De Quincey, Thomas. Confessions of an English Opium-eater. Ed. William Sharp. London: Walter Scott, n.d.
Malraux, Andre. Man's Fate. New York: Random House, 1934, 1961.
McCoy, Alfred W. "2 A Critical History of the Global Narcotics Trade." Dangerous Harvest: Drug Plants and the Transformation of Indigenous Landscapes. Eds. Steinberg, Michael K., Joseph J. Hobbs, and Kent Matthewson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 24-97.
Trocki, Carl A. Opium and Empire: Chinese Society in Colonial Singapore, 1800-1910. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.
57. The Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault (Lawrence . Sherman and Richard A. Berk)
Types of data/methods: Sherman and Berk found that arresting batterers reduced by half the rate of subsequent offenses against the same victim within a 6-month followup period. However, in follow-up studies, sometimes offenders assigned to the arrest group had higher levels of (recidivism) while others showed a reduction in repeat cases.
Advantages/Disadvantages: Although the repeat nature of the offenses in a series of trials shows thoroughness, the inconsistent findings about whether mandatory arrest reduces domestic violence suggests more information about the different cases might be necessary to show if arrest helps in some cases but not in others.
Summarize the overall prevalence and incidence of the crime problem in the 1960s as portrayed by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (pg.361) and by the National Commission on…
Crime Statistics." (2006) Bureau of Justice. Retrieved 11 Jun 2006 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict.htm
Jacoby, Joseph E. (2004) Classics of Criminology. New York: Waveland Press.
Overall, the findings of Shields and colleagues (2007) suggest that religious patients entering a substance abuse treatment program will tend to seek out treatment programs that are more religious. This grouping effect will then have a positive effect on retention rates and commitment to establishing a drug-free lifestyle.
The diversity of individual religious practices is one of the main impediments to researchers attempting to define it efficacy in treatment programs (reviewed by Puffer, Skalski, and Meade, 2012). For example, the eligious Coping Scale (COPE) instrument is intended to bring some measure of standardization to the research being conducted in this area by discriminating between positive and negative religious beliefs. A positive religious coping practice would be the belief in a benevolent Higher Power and finding meaning in personal suffering. Negative religious coping, on the other hand, would be to believe personal suffering is God's punishment for past wrongs.
Borras, Laurence, Khazaal, Yasser, Khan, Riaz, Mohr, Sylvia, Kaufmann, Yves-Alexandre, Zullino, Daniele et al. (2010). The relationship between addiction and religion and its possible implication for care. Substance Use & Misuse, 45, 2357-2375.
Flynn, Patrick M., Joe, George W., Broome, Kirk M., Simpson, D. Dwayne, and Brown, Barry S. (2003). Recovery from opioid addiction in DATOS. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 25, 177-186.
Gallup, Inc. (2013). Religion. Gallup, Inc. Retrieved 8 Mar. 2013 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/1690/religion.aspx .
Magida, Arthur J. (1993, Feb. 19). Using religion to fight drugs: An interfaith task force is hoping spirituality can combat substance abuse. Baltimore Jewish Times, 34.
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.
Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana or Cannabis is actually a plant, which has the scientific name 'cannabis sativa' and was originally used for ordinary purposes such as for fabric making and cloth weaving. Some are of the view that it was also used as sails when shipping industry had not become technologically sophisticated. The plant was also once used for the treatment of psychiatric conditions but after it was banned in the country, marijuana was forced to vanish from the medical field too.
Marijuana became a problem when people started using it as a drug in the form of powder. This is because marijuana affects chemical processes in the brain and puts a person in a state of elation. But all this is temporary and a person becomes so addicted to this drug that he cannot stay away from it. The dangerous impact on marijuana on the brain is also evident…
Cannabis" Accessed online 27 April 2004: http://www.cannabis.net
Richard Rudgley, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive substances, Little, Brown and Company (1998),
Technological Challenges of Today
The objective of this study is to answer as to what challenges law enforcement officials have faced in the light of technological advances throughout the global environment and to discuss a minimum of three problems that such changes have created. This study will answer as to what the recommendations are for future action that could assist law enforcement officials in becoming more effective in the investigation and prevention of such challenges.
Organized Crime and Technology
The work of Bjelopera and Finklea (2012) reports that technological advances have created new challenges for law enforcement particularly in the area or organized crime. This is because "modern organized criminals often prefer cellular or networked structural models for their flexibility and avoid the hierarchies that previously governed more traditional organized crime groups." (p.1) These type of "fluid network structures" make it more difficult for law enforcement to "infiltrate, disrupt, and…
Bjelopera, JP and Finklea, KM (2012) Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement. 6 Jan 2012. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf
Globalization and new technologies: challenges to drug law enforcement in the twenty-first century. (nd) INCB.org. Retrieved from: http://www.incb.org/documents/Publications/AnnualReports/AR2001/AR_01_Chapter_I.pdf
How the Web Presents New Challenges for Law Enforcement Agencies (2014) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 7, Issue 1. Retrieved from: http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/01-2014/how_the_web_presents_new_challenges_for_law_enforcement_agencies.asp
Draft a company policy on use of the internet by employees. Draft it in the form of a memo to employees.
Take into consideration the following issues:
Is it realistic to believe that all personal use of the internet at work can be prohibited? How do you deal with this?
Do employees have a reasonable expectation of privacy in, e.g., an email they might send at work? A website they might visit? How could your policy deal with this?
Dear Acme employees,
It has become necessary to address the employee use of internet and internet tools for personal reasons while on company time and/or company equipment. While Acme wishes to respect your privacy and allow you to fill any idle time you might have between calls or during your lunch break, bear the following in mind:
All computers and phones on Acme property are subject to be monitored…
Mind you, the employee cannot be forced to do ANY of those things. However, unflattering comments could be construed as harassment (sexual, general harassment, bullying, etc.) and the employer would be on the hook for vicarious liability (potentially) if they stand by and do nothing. Basically, the employee does not HAVE to do anything about the blog but the company and/or people facing ridicule could take action and Acme's hand will be forced. No complaint? Technically not an issue…yet.
Michael Lauren who is struggling with drug problem. Michele Lauren is twenty-one-year-old girl, single and a resident of New York City. Michele lives with her parents and is addicted to marijuana. She was arrested on various circumstances, each time for the violation of Health & Safety Code 11357 (Samaha, 2007) that is the possession of large quantity of drugs and was locked up behind the bars on trials during the years 2002 to 2008.
Lately, she had been arrested three times in a month for the violation of such law. Michele had also encountered the problem of alcohol along with her problem of smoking pot and marijuana, but she has not been arrested for excess drinking and violation of Health and Safety laws related to alcohol. She had not been arrested for any other related crimes, as she normally filched her mother's purse for money whenever needed.
a) Casual drinks…
Samaha, J. (2007). Criminal Procedure, Seventh Edition, Cengage Learning, USA.
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:
Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent
Personal annual income
Access to mass media
Viewing behavior of TV crime programs
Kind of TV crime programs usually watch
Frequency of watching TV crime programs
Duration of crime TV-watching
Personal concern for crime and public safety
Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety
Units of Analysis
Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…
Bollhofer, B. (2006). "Screenscapes': placing TV series in their contexts of production, meaning and consumption." Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 98, No. 2.
Hennigan, K., L. Heath, and J. Wharton. (1982). "Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: empirical findings and theoretical implications." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3.
Holbert, R., D. Shah, and N. Kwak. (2004). "Fear, authority, and justice: crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 2.
Yanich, D. (2004). "Crime creep: urban and suburban crime on local TV news." Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 5.