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Much is made of his religious nature, and the fact is that he was raised a Methodist. Methodists were strongly in favor of abolition in most of the United States, and, though that message was watered down in the South, the fact is that the Turner was being taught the same religious doctrines that led white Methodists in the north to conclude it was not Christian to keep people in bondage. Turner was inspired by a religious vision in which he believed that Jesus was going to bring about judgment day. Turner believed he had a religious duty to fight against the oppression of slaves. However, the main precipitating event for his rebellions was when Turner witnessed a solar eclipse, which he believed was a sign from God that he was to rebel. The actual rebellion was triggered by a similar sign, when the atmosphere appeared an unusual color.
Oates, Stephen. The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. Harper Collins Publishers,
As to Nat Turner's rebellion occurring at the wrong time, illiam Lloyd Garrison, the quintessential abolitionist who firmly believed that moral persuasion would convince slaveholders in Virginia to recognize their sinful ways regarding slavery, flat out condemned Nat Turner and his rebel followers. Garrison also warned the South that "if slavery were not abolished peacefully, more insurrections like Turner's rebellion would be inevitable." 5 Also, some historians have argued that in 1831 the state of Virginia was on the verge of abolishing slavery and that Turner's actions destroyed any and all chances of this happening. In reality, this was not true, for it could be said that Turner's rebellion opened the way for debate in Virginia on the issue of slavery. In fact, the Governor Floyd of Virginia, "was convinced by Turner's rebellion that something had to be done to remove slavery gradually from the state." 6 Thus, it…
Goldman, Martin S. Nat Turner and the Southampton Revolt of 1831. New York:
Franklin Watts Publishing, 1992.
Turner was captured on October 30th, tried and found guilty six days later. Turner was hung on November 11th, and then his body was skinned, helping establish a tradition of mutilating blacks accused of wrongdoing, which would survive well into Jim Crow era of the 20th century.
At first blush, it seems difficult to comprehend why Virginia whites would be so distraught about an ultimately unsuccessful slave rebellion. Yes, Turner and his followers did manage to kill a relatively high number of whites, but there were certainly greater losses among the slaves in the area. The militia was able to quash the rebellion quickly, to kill the participants, and to strike sufficient fear into the hearts of the remaining slave population that further rebellion seemed unlikely. However, the people of Virginia were well aware that a similar unsuccessful slave revolt in Haiti had ultimately led to the Haitian evolution,…
Gray, T. (1831). The Confessions of Nat Turner, the leader of the late insurrection, in Southhampton (county). Retrieved April 06, 2009, from PBS.org. Web site:
Haggerty, R. ed. (1989). Haiti: a country study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
Lewis, R. (2009). Up from slavery: a documentary history of negro education. Retrieved April
Fires of Jubilee: at Turner's Fierce
In Stephen B. Oates's The Fires of Jubilee: at Turner's Fierce Rebellion, at Turner was the Black American slave who led the only useful, unrelenting slave rebellion (August 1831) in U.S. history. Spreading terror throughout the white South, his action set off a new wave of oppressive legislation prohibiting the education, movement, and assembly of slaves and stiffened proslavery, anti-abolitionist convictions that persisted in that region until the American Civil War.
His mother was an African native who pass on an ardent hatred of slavery to her son. He learned to read from one of his master's sons, and he enthusiastically absorbed severe religious training. In the early 1820s, he was sold to a neighboring plantation. During the following decade, his religious zeal tended to came close to fanaticism, and he saw himself called upon by God to lead his people out of…
Nat Turner's revolt put a stop to the white Southern belief that slaves were either satisfied with their fate or too servile to build up an armed revolt. In Southampton, county black people came to measure time from "Nat's Fray," or "Old Nat's War."
The feeling that comes out the strongest and makes the reader think repeatedly about him is the quality of Turner's Character that He is an American mystery. Was he a saint? A prophet? Was the foresight real? How could he have come from the mild Virginia Tidewater society of 1831? Oates answers these questions and more in his vibrant portrayal of Turner, the slave society that fostered him and the transformation of that society because of him.
Thus, in Stephen B. Oates's The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion (1935), readers witness the re-creation of the dramatic but short life of a black revolutionary, a slave convinced he is God's violent instrument for the salvation of his people.
Therefore, he approached the issue from the point-of-view of the common man, and was able to inspire people to the idea of revolution.
Nat Turner is the historical person of which I most disapprove. Turner led the largest antebellum slave rebellion in the United States, which included the slaughter of white civilians. It is not that I disapprove of Turner's actions. As a man wrongfully deprived of his natural right to liberty, who, from descriptions in his wanted posters, bore the scars of routine abuse, and who had undoubtedly witnessed countless atrocities against his friends and family because of slavery, it is clear that Turner had the right to use any means necessary to attain his freedom. The fact that his rebellion led to the slaughter of white civilians would not be morally troubling, given that all of those civilians benefitted from the system of slavery, whether directly or indirectly,…
Walker specifically addresses this point when he writes that "God rules the armies of heaven and among the inhabitants of earth, having his ears continually open to the cries, tears, and groans of his oppressed people; and being a just and holy Being will at one day appear fully in behalf of the oppressed." Thus, Walker's passage suggests that he knows that slave owners see God in a different way than slaves do, in addition to acknowledging that slaves believe this position to be false. Further, Walker goes on to suggest that the God of the slaves is not only opposite of this God, but is also the God of uprising and the end of slavery.
Unlike the slave owners, who understood the concept of slavery as being ordained by God as a benefit to the slaves, slaves understood the concept as a trial and tribulation through which they would…
In literature the relationship between the text and paratext is used to introduce the reader to the subject and setting of novel. As the paratext, is utilized to inform and influence their minds before they have started reading the actual book. In African-American literature before the Civil War, this was a standard way publishers used to provide some kind of insights about what people were reading. To fully understand how this is taking place requires comparing the use of this technique in The Confession of Nate Turner to the Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass. Once this takes place, it will offer specific insights as to how the paratext is used to influence the readers.
The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglas
In the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, Lloyd Garrison has written in the paratext. Inside, he discusses meeting Douglas in 1841 and…
Douglas, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass. Staten Island, NY: Forgotten Books.
Gray, T. (1856). The Confessions of Nat Turner. Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp (pp. 338 -- 347). Boston, MA: Crossman and Willet.
Still it is not completely unheard of for a name to be derived from a longer epitaph of Nat, property of man, Mr. Turner. This is how many people's last names resulted in ending with "man."
Nat Turner was born a slave in Virginia in 1800 and grew to become a slave preacher. He did not use tobacco or liquor and maintained a clean, disciplined life. He was very religious man and became passionate about the Scripture. He began preaching to slaves in and around the area of Southampton County, Virginia in 1828. As a result he became well-known and liked in the area. It was at this time he began having visions. It was these visions that inspired him to revolt. hile he waited for further signs, unrest was already evident in on plantations, in the hills and on boats in ports of call (Greenberg, 85). Gradually he built…
Short History of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. Bahia-Online. Retrieved December
10, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.bahia-online.net/history-bahia.htm .
Gates, H.L., & Appiah, K.A. (Eds.). (1994). Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad Press, Inc.
Goldman, S. (2003). Nat Turner Revolt of 1831. HistoryBuff.com. Retrieved December
47), Turner was preacher only in the sense that he was preaching to his fellows on some days about his God given mission and things to come. The causes and motifs for Turner's rebellion are still debated over. The documents written during the trial and ever since are agreeing on two facts that are certain: the very existence of the rebellion and the fact that it was organized under the leadership of Nat Turner. The facts about what happened during the day of the rebellion indicate that Turner and his acolytes who were approximately seventy people killed in cold blood almost sixty white people, regardless of their age or gender. The rebellion was indeed preceded by events that pointed toward a common cause found through Christianity and offered as a new form of freedom and a new ethnic identity offered by firm beliefs in supernatural and the power of the…
Greenberg, Kenneth S., ed. Nat Turner: A Slave Rebellion in History and Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003
Akinyela, Makungu M. Battling the Serpent: Nat Turner, Africanized Christianity, and a Black Ethos. Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jan., 2003), pp. 255-280
Reckord, Mary. The Jamaica Slave Rebellion of 1831. Past and Present, No. 40 (Jul., 1968), pp. 108-125
Society: 1800s-1850s. Resisting Slavery. 2007. American Anthropologicval Association. Retrieved: Oct 2nd, 2008. Available at: http://www.understandingrace.org/history/society/resisting_slavery.html
Woman / Plantation Mistress / Fires of Jubilee
The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. By Stephen B. Oates. (New York:
HarperPerennial, 1990). 208 pages.
Stephen B. Oates was a professor African-American and U.S. history at the University of Massachusetts for most of his academic career. His most notable works chronicle the antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction eras of American history. He is particularly well-known for his biographies of the period including his works on Lincoln. The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion chronicles the life and rebellion of Nat Turner, the famous American slave rebel. Oates offers his historical work as a companion to as well as a rebuttal of some of the existing literature on Turner, including the famous novel by William Styron. Although an academic, Oates writes in an engaging and popular manner that has made many of his historical works of literature best sellers…
Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion," by Stephen B. Oates. Specifically, it will analyze the historical value of the book, and analyze the author's assessment that "His [Nat Turner's] rebellion illustrates a profound truth" (Oates ix). This book is part novel, part biography, and part heartfelt narrative of a time and place that no longer exists. It is a compelling tale of what it was to be a slave in the South in the 1800s, and how it drove some blacks to violence and hatred. Oates has done a masterful job of introducing Turner as a man, a father, a lover, and a slave, who tried to gain his freedom the only way he knew how.
THE FIRES OF JUBILEE - REVIE
From the opening paragraph, historian and biographer Stephen B. Oates sets the stage for the slave rebellion that would shake Southampton County in Virginia on August 22,…
Oates, Stephen B. The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. New York: Harper Perennial. 1990.
The women are especially vulnerable because their children can be sent away from them, they can be the brunt of a cruel master's sexual encounters, and they often have to serve the master's family, which can make them targets of abuse.
Most of the southern women in the book are portrayed as kinder than their husbands. He writes of the wife of Mr. Epp "She had been well educated at some institution this side the Mississippi; was beautiful, accomplished, and usually good-humored. She was kind to all of us but Patsey -- frequently, in the absence of her husband, sending out to us some little dainty from her own table" (Northup 198-199). They are sometimes jealous of the slave women, as Mrs. Epp is, but for the most part, they are the gentler part of the slave experience, and they are not as cruel or vindictive as their husbands are.…
Northup, Soloman. Twelve Years a Slave. 1997. University of North Carolina. 15 Nov. 2010.
Roark, James L. Johnson, Michael P. And Cohen, Patricia Cline. Reading the American Past.
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…
Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.
Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.
Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm
Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
Kingdom of Matthias. There are three references used for this paper.
From the Quakers to the Great Awakening to Nat Turner, we have examined numerous variations of where a belief in the 'inner light' or the 'priesthood of all believers' could lead. It is important to examine the cult of Matthias to understand why he was popular, the factors which could have led to his revelations, the social and religious climates and the needs of his followers. It is also important to explore whether the cult was due to the transhistorical appeal or if it offers deeper lessons about early American religious experiences.
Robert Matthews was "a carpenter from upstate New York who, after a lifetime of finding God everywhere and economic success nowhere, rode his half-starved horse into Manhattan in 1832, proclaiming his own divinity. He presented himself as not a Christian at all, but as Matthias, the…
Brown, Lee Rust. "The Kingdom of Matthias." The New Republic. (1994): 17 October.
Johnson, Michael P. "The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century
America" The Nation. (1994): 14 November.
(The Matthias Delusion. (Accessed 27 November, 2004).
The August 1831 slave insurrection led by Nat Turner in Southampton County, Virginia is a macabre testimonial to the evils of slavery demonstrated by both the enslaved and the oppressors. The book, Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turners Fierce Rebellion, (New York: Harper and Row, 1975), by Stephen Oates., provides a historic and accurate accounting of the madness and the method behind it.
Oates is a writer more adept at historical biographical writing than most. Having obtained a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin "He is currently a professor of history at the University of Massachusetts where he teaches courses in antebellum and the art of biography."
Oates demonstrates a passion for American history that is clear to the reader from the outset. It is admirable that Oates is able to write with such clarity about events that occurred a hundred years or more…
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…
Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10
"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html
Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4
Berlin is not the first to assert that slave life in the early history of the country was far from what it became before the Civil War. Another author notes, "In his study of the poor in early America, Philip D. Morgan notes that some slaves in the Chesapeake region might have had more material benefits than some destitute whites. Nonetheless, Morgan reiterates the famous observation of the scholar, Orlando Patterson, that slavery was 'social death'" (abe). Here is where Berlin and other authors differ. Berlin acknowledges the evils of slavery at times, but his book is more like an account of social and racial class formation, and it glosses over many of the harsh realities that have been often repeated in slavery. In this, he seems to do a disservice to the black community, and to those slaves who suffered during this time. He shows how slaves were free…
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1998.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Rabe, Stephen G. "Slavery in the Development of the Americas." The Historian 67.4 (2005): 749+.
slaves rebelled against the slave system.
Why did slaves begin their resistance against the slave system?
The correspondence of one of the Kongo rulers named Nzinga Mbemba, or Afonso I, c. 1446-1543 was the earliest resistance ever documented. He wrote a letter to the ruler of Portugal, Joao III in the year 1526 demanding an immediate end to what he referred to as "the depopulation of his (Kongo) kingdom' illegally. Similar successful complaints were made by Gracia 11 who succeeded the Kongolese king (USI, 2011).
In which of the circumstances did the resistance record the greatest success?
When slaves greatly outnumbered whites, when their masters were away, during periods of massive economic meltdown, and during periods when there were cracks within the ruling class, slave revolts were often probable to be a huge success. evolts of the slave populations were equally rampant during periods when indigenous Africans were brought in…
Digital History. (2014). Slave Resistance and Revolts. Culled from Digital History: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/freedom/1609-1865/essays/slaveresist.htm
Sweet, J.H. (2015, August 24). Slave Resistance. Culled from Freedom's Story, TeacherServe. National Humanities Center:
Slavery was one, but not the only, cause of the Civil War. In fact, the institution of slavery represents a combination of social, political, and economic forces at play throughout the United States. For one, Westward expansion and the principle of Manifest Destiny gave rise to the important issue of whether to allow slavery in new territories or to leave the question of slavery up to the residents in the new territory or state. he Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, the formation of the new Republican party and the election of Lincoln, the Nat urner rebellion, the introduction of Uncle om's Cabin into popular culture, and especially Westward expansion were among the most important events that led up to the outbreak of the Civil War.
he Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights…
The Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights and civil liberties. California was admitted to the union as a free state. In exchange, other new lands gained in the Mexican War had no restrictions on whether slavery was or was not permitted. The slave trade was being phased out, but the practice slavery itself was preserved in the District of Columbia. The fugitive slave laws were enhanced too. So disastrous was the Compromise of 1850 that northerners did not take the Fugitive Slave Law seriously and did not enforce it. Another disastrous piece of legislation that preceded the Civil War, and helped spark it, was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Act overturned the Missouri Compromise and divided Kansas and Missouri into two states: one slave and one free. As Brinkley states, "No other piece of legislation in American history produced so many immediate, sweeping, and ominous political consequences," (327). Significant regarding the build-up to the Civil war, the Kansas-Nebraska Act caused the creation of the new Republican Party. Also, the Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the "bleeding Kansas" episode during which abolitionist and pro-enslavement advocates battled in pre-Civil War skirmishes.
Both the Nat Turner Rebellion and the popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin represented the darker sides of slavery and promoted the politics of liberation. However, no other event in American history illustrates so well the way racism has permeated American politics as the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision. The Supreme Court took a strong racist stance that bolstered the pro-slavery cause immediately prior to the Civil War. Clearly, the nation was divided. On the one hand, decisions like Dred Scott showed that racist Americans served in positions of power at the federal level and could forever impact the quality of the country. On the other hand, abolitionists saw the necessity for a swift end to slavery in order to preserve the Constitutional rights and ideals upon which the nation was founded. The southerners could not foresee a means to have a viable economy without free and forced labor; the northerners did.
Even Democrats were divided, leading to the eventual election of the Republican candidate for President in 1860. Lincoln, who was "not an abolitionist" but who also believed that "slavery was morally wrong" steered the United States in a direction different from what most Southern whites wanted (Brinkley 332). After Lincoln was elected, the Southern states viewed the federal government as being illegitimate and decided one by one to cede from the union. The differences between slave-owning and free states were too great to overcome at the time. The economy and lifestyle of the south depended on slavery, whereas the Northern point-of-view favored sanity and genuine freedom.
Important to note as well is that the slave narratives had many things in common with the captivity narrative. In general, those that create slave narratives suffer from being in a society that they consider alien, try to balance the desire for freedom against the danger of trying to escape, and grow both spiritually and morally as a result of the torment and the suffering that they have had to go through. This helps to provide the realism that slave narratives possess, and this realism is also showcased in much of the artwork that comes from that time period where African-Americans and slavery are concerned. Because of the realism that is seen in these slave narratives they were immensely popular during the time that they were written, and they often remain popular with schools and other groups today.
Voice of Freedom
In chapter 15 it deals a lot with resistance to slavery and of course one of these was the best known of all slave rebellions which involved was Nat Turner, who happened to be a slave preacher. This chapter was also devoted in describing the conspiracies that went into the uprisings and the rebellions that actually changed the face of slavery. This chapter gave a very vivid detail in exploring what went on behind the scenes in regards to these revolts coming together. ith that said, this essay will explore this chapter and talk about the significance of the voice of freedom.
After the Civil ar, the definitions of freedom surely changed for nation, for the freedmen, and for southern whites in a lot of ways. Southern white were fearful. It was apparent that they never wanted slavery to end because it had a huge effect on…
Arts, Martin. "The Liberty Haggadah: From Slavery to Freedom. From Exile to Independence." 1-90. Chicago: Matan Arts; Hebrew - English edition, 2011.
Chambers, Glenn A. "From slavery to servitude: The African and Asian struggle for freedom in Latin America and the Caribbean." History 21, no. 9 (2008): 23-45.
de, la Fuente. "From slaves to citizens? Tannenbaum and the debates on slavery, emancipation, and race relations in Latin America." International Labor and Working Class History 77, no. 1 (2010): 154-173.
Foner, Eric. "Give Me Liberty!: An American History." 1-584. New York City W.W. Norton & Company; Seagull Third Edition, 2009.
Robert Hayden, one of the most important black poets of the 20th Century, was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1913 and grew up in extreme poverty in a racially mixed neighborhood. His parents divorced when he was a child and he was raised by their neighbors, illiam and Sue Ellen Hayden, and not until he was in his forties did he learn that Asa Sheffey and Gladys Finn were his biological parents. During the Great Depression he was employed for two years by the Federal riter's Project, and published his first volume of poetry Heart-Shape in the Dust in 1940. He taught English at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee for twenty-three years, and then at the University of Michigan from 1969 until his death in 1980. Among his other works were The Lion and the Archer (1948), Figure of Time (1955), A Ballad of Remembrance (1962), orks in Mourning Time…
Bloom, Harold. Robert Hayden. Chelsea House Publishers, 2005.
Fetrow, Fred M. "Middle Passage: Robert Hayden's Anti-Epoch" in Bloom: 35-48.
Gates, Henry Louis and Evelyn Brooks Higgenbotham. Harlem Renaissance Lives: From the African-American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Kutzinski, Vera M. "Changing Permanences: Historical and Literary Revisionism in Robert Hayden's Middle Passage" in Bloom: 306-21.
Films and Filmmaking
As Spike Lee noted in the 25th Anniversary celebration of his film Do the Right Thing, "the only reason why my generation went to film school was we couldn't get our hands on the equipment" (Macfarlane). Do the Right Thing had an independent feel to it, largely because of Lee's hands-on oversight of production, direction, writing and editing -- but it was ultimately a Universal picture. Since its inception, the film industry had been by and for the dominant culture in society. As the technology developed (from silent shorts to silent epics to sound film and the first talkies on up to the world of independent cinema, where taboos and cultural cues were challenged and explored), so too did the face of cinema. This paper will discuss how the history of technological innovations in the filmmaking industry favored the dominant culture of the era, how social and…
Macfarlane, Steve. "Spike Lee, Cast Talk 25th Anniversary of 'Do the Right Thing' in Brooklyn." Variety, 2014. Web. 7 May 2016.
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights
Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…
In conclusion, these narratives paint a vivid picture of slave life from the 17th and 18th centuries, and illustrate why slavery was such a vicious and evil institution. Without these narratives, a historical view of slavery would be incomplete, and they illustrate a distressing and immoral element of American history. Slavery differed between the North and the South, but it shared many common characteristics, as slave narratives continue to illustrate.
Abdur-ahman, Aliyyah I. "The Strangest Freaks of Despotism": Queer Sexuality in Antebellum African-American Slave Narratives." African-American eview 40, no. 2 (2006): 223+.
Barrett, Lindon. "African-American Slave Narratives: Literacy, the Body, Authority." American Literary History 7, no. 3 (1995): 415-442.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001..
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Clayton, onnie W. Mother Wit: The Ex-Slave Narratives…
Abdur-Rahman, Aliyyah I. "The Strangest Freaks of Despotism": Queer Sexuality in Antebellum African-American Slave Narratives." African-American Review 40, no. 2 (2006): 223+.
Barrett, Lindon. "African-American Slave Narratives: Literacy, the Body, Authority." American Literary History 7, no. 3 (1995): 415-442.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001..
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Such movements, however, had a way of becoming victims of their own success, as Niebuhr argued. Insofar as they spoke to popular aspirations and needs, they attracted large followings, necessitating new structures and hierarchies. The sharp critiques of social injustice became muffled as devotees percolated up into the respectable classes. Enthusiasm waned, leaving liturgy and ritual to provide what spontaneity and spirit no longer could. Sects became churches. (Campbell 36)
Campbell syas that Methodism especially illustrates this idea beacsue this movement always possessed something of a divided soul:
On one hand, the early esleyan movement was an extraordinarily decentralized affair, that invested authority in an army of itinerant ministers and lay preachers, many with little formal religious training. On the other hand, Methodism retained a strong episcopal center that reigned supreme on questions of doctrine and discipline, finance, and ministerial appointment. The stresses implicit in this situation first became apparent…
AME Church Elects More Women Bishops." The Christian Century, Volume 121, Issue 15 (July 27, 2004), 18-19.
Black Methodist Churches Moving toward Union." The Christian Century, Volume 117, Issue 19 (June 21, 2000), 676.
Campbell, James T. Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Carroll, Bert E. The Routledge Historial Atlas of Religion in America. New York: Routledge, 2000.
John Brown's Raid On Harper's Ferry
John Brown and his raid at Harper's Ferry have a symbolic importance, as he himself was well aware, to suggest that not all white people counted themselves complicit in the persistence of slavery within the antebellum United States. In other words, Brown was engaged in what old-style Marxist revolutionaries used to refer to as "propaganda of the deed." His letters from prison were consciously intended as propaganda, as he asked for them to be circulated (and indeed published): "Please let all our friends read my letters when you can; & ask them to accept of it as in part for them."(Earle 98). And although his stated intention at Harper's Ferry -- to seize the weaponry there, arm the slaves of western Virginia, and thus begin Spartacus-style uprising -- failed, Brown craved martyrdom as justification, claiming: "I have now no doubt but that our seeming…
Earle, Jonathan. John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry: A Brief History with Documents. New York: Bedford / St. Martin's, 2008. Print.
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…
Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,
1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
She writes, "Here the slippage between animal and human invokes the Hegelian horror of slavery, a dialectic which finally reduces the master to 'brute' or a 'monster'" (Ginsberg 116). This is more than an analysis of the short story; it is an analysis of slavery and its effect on gothic literature at the time.
The significance of this article is clear. It shows that Poe was not writing simply horror fiction to shock and confuse, he was writing social commentary significant to the time. It illuminates this particular work and makes it more effective, but it is also a deep looking into other slave narratives and experiences, and how they relate to Poe's writing. The author proves her point by consistently citing other works, from texts on slavery to narratives, so the overall article is extremely effective.
Ginsberg, Lesley. "Slavery and the Gothic Horror of Poe's 'The Black Cat'."…
Ginsberg, Lesley. "Slavery and the Gothic Horror of Poe's 'The Black Cat'." American Gothic: New Interventions in a National Narrative. Ed. Robert K. Martin and Eric Savoy. Iowa City: UP Iowa, 1998. 99-125.
Mary also remembers the days of the war, when they heard stories about being set free and prayed for their freedom. Then one day all the slaves were asked to come to the Grand House. Here they were told by the master and his wife that they were no longer slaves. They were now free. "The Yankees will soon be here." The two of them then brought their chairs to the front of the house on the porch and waited. In about an hour, the Yankees arrived and repeated: "You are now free." The slaves and Yankees ate and drank together in celebration, while the owners continued to "humbly" sit on the porch and watch. This story by Mary was indeed very different from the movies, such as "Gone with the Wind" with the fires and mayhem. It is actually as if the master and his wife were glad --…
Jacobs, Harriett. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. 26 November 2008. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/jacobs/hjhome.htm
Yetman, Norman. Voices from Slavery. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1970
Equiano demonstrated that the use of the human narrative can awaken the sympathy of others, and he used his personal narrative to impress his views of abolition upon the British. Similarly, Prince Hall within Chapter two also carried the cause of abolition. Hall also advocated the continuing fight for abolition by providing hope to the African-Americans and slaves alike. Although he could only use words to motivate those in peril, the strength of his statements rests primarily in his ability to teach foundational skills to his brethren that could help them become skilled workers rather than limited by their education. Maria Stewart was another advocate of abolition; she not only fought for the doctrine of freedom for slaves, but also for the women's rights movement. All of these advocates used nonviolent means to attempt to sway the general public to turn against slavery as well as provide hope for slaves…
The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.
In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. hile the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…
Alvarez, Carlos. "Antislavery Movement: American Colonization Society." Online at http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/slavery/anti-slavery_movement/acs.htm.
Becker, Eddie. "Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism." 1999. Online at http://innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html .
Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period." African-American Odyssey. Online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart2.html .
History of Slavery in the United States." Wikipedia.com. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_United_States .
EB Du Bois
The contrast between the thought of EB Du Bois and that of his predecessor Booker T. ashington is readily apparent in the titles of the best-known works by the two men. ashington's thinking is laid out in his book Up From Slavery, and the title indicates not only an autobiography, but one which is unapologetic in the credence it lends to the typical American capitalist narrative of "rising" in the world. By contrast EB Du Bois offers his trenchant critique of ashington in a work entitled The Souls of Black Folk: the very title indicates that we are meant to be closely considering not materialistic but spiritual values in wondering how the African-American population would make their way in the United States after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment and into Reconstruction, Jim Crow, and the rest. It is worth considering closely, though, how Du Bois offers…
Du Bois, WEB. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. New York: Bantam Classic, 1989. Print.
United States is a country that thrives on the achievements of various people groups. The achievements of African-Americans in the United States are particularly significant. African-Americans have contributed greatly to the world of literature, medicine, and business. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the role that African-Americans have played in the formulation of American culture.
lacks in America
Although the history of blacks in America has been steeped in bigotry, hatred, and segregation, the culture has managed to face these adversities with courage and triumph. African-American's have fought for equal rights since their arrival in this country. Initially, they were forced to fight for the right to be free men and to end slavery. Eventually, African-Americans also struggled for integration during the civil rights movement. There were several individuals that were instrumental in ensuring that African-Americans were free from slavery and that they gained their civil rights. These…
Bennet, L. 1989. The 50 most important figures in Black American history; experts list men and women who made indispensable contributions. Ebony. Volume: 44 Issue
hat is it like to experience prejudice on a daily basis? Many, if not most, whites do not know what it is like to be a member of an underclass. It is important to understand the structural elements of prejudice in a society. It is also important to understand how to deal with prejudice on a personal level. There are many ways to deal with prejudice. One is to fight back, and direct anger and frustration outward. The problem with this method is that fighting back sometimes entails physical aggression, and can be harmful to self and others. Another method of dealing with prejudice is to internalize the sense of inferiority and come to believe in the stereotypes and biased beliefs. The problem with this method is that it only promotes prejudice and allows for its perpetuation. Furthermore, internalizing inferiority can lead to problems like mental illness and disharmony…
Angelou, Maya. "Graduation." Retrieved online: http://ap-english-language.phoenix.wikispaces.net/file/view/Maya+Angelou+Graduation.pdf
Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to be Colored Me." Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/grand-jean/hurston/chapters/how.html
Staples, Brent. "Just Walk on By." Retrieved online: http://www.myteacherpages.com/webpages/rspriggs/files/staples%20just%20walk%20on%20by%20text.pdf
The four American history-related web sites used for this paper are: United States History (http://www.u-s-history.com/index.html); American History: The Heritage of the United States (http://www.legendsofamerica.com/americanhistory.html); History (http://www.history.com/); and USHistory.org (http://www.ushistory.org/).
United States History: How much information is provided? hat sort of information is offered? In the United States History site, there is an enormous amount of specific information within each time period. For example, there are fourteen window of time (up to 1630; 1630-1763; 1763-1783; all the way through 2001), and in each window there are eight to ten links that take the reader to specific events, personalities, groups and laws. In the 1815-1860 window of time a reader can get in-depth information on the Monroe Doctrine, Nat Turner Rebellion, The Alamo, Manifest Destiny, The Compromise of 1850, and the California Gold Rush, among several other links.
Is the eb better at transmitting some kinds of information as compared…
Best of History Websites. (2013). Welcome to Best of History Websites. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.besthistorysites.net .
History.com (2013). History by Topic. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.history.com .
Legends of America. (2012). American History / The Heritage of the United States. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.legendsofamerica.com .
United States History. (2013). American History / Time Period / Historical Era. Retrieved
Racism and the American Ideals
Racial divisions in 19th century American culture excluded African-Americans and Native Americans from the American ideals of liberty and inclusion on a fundamental level. The pushing off the land (and slaughtering) of the Native American tribes by the U.S. government was an exercise in Manifest Destiny (O'Sullivan 5), which later came to be expressed in terms of New Expansionism once the borders of the frontier were at their natural limits. And as for African-Americans -- they may have been freed by Lincoln in order to help the North win the war against the South, but inclusion was never really on the table: Jim Crow laws sprang up in the South and racism continued to be expressed in terms of segregation and mob violence. Liberty was for the ASPs (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants), the ruling elite of the political, economical and social establishment. No amount of noble…
Crevecœur, J. Hector St. John de. Autobiography. Gutenberg. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Franklin, Ben. "Remarks concerning the Savages of North America." Web. 26 Feb
Civil ights: The ole of Black Churches
The audience will understand the role that black churches played in the ongoing Civil ights Movement.
In this speech, I will show that black churches -- through methods of advocacy, spiritual leadership and active participation -- play a significant role in the ongoing Civil ights Movement that began in the mid-20th century and clearly continues on into today's times.
Everyone knows of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the important role he played in the Civil ights Movement. But how many people know about or realized that King was one of many black pastors to bring black churches into the Movement, providing leadership, spiritual nourishment, and advocacy to African-Americans struggling for equality? Or that black churches continue today to be part of that ongoing struggle? Just as black churches are making an impact in cities around the country where communities are torn by racial…
African-American Registry. (n.d.). The Black Churches: A Brief History. AARegistry.
Retrieved from http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/black-church-brief-history
Calhoun-Brown, A. (2000). Upon this rock: The black church, nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(2): 168-174.
Dagan, D. (2015). Black churches led the Civil Rights Movement. Can they do it again? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/14/baltimore-black-churches-freddie-gray_n_7556560.html
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…
Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology
Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.
Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That
Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
Bioluminescence can be discovered across an extensive selection of some of the key categories of organisms. This includes classifications such as bacteria and protists and also squid as well as ?she's, with numerous phyla amid them. In many of these organisms, luminescence is made by these organisms themselves and never by bacterial symbionts. A few organisms in this category that are not considered to be self-illuminescents are (1) terrestrial vertebrates, such as birds, mammals and amphibians (2) ?owering plants. Luminescence is usually higher in deep-living species along with planktonic ones than in shallow organisms (Haddock et al., 2010).
A summary of known luminous organisms had been documented by Herring (1987). However, since that time there have been a number of new discoveries of luminous organisms. In some instances, it is very difficult to determine that the species are nonluminous. Amid ?lter-feeding species, luminescence is very difficult to inspect.…
Bush SL, Robison BH, Caldwell RL. 2009. Behaving in the dark: locomotor, chromatic, postural, and biolu- minescent behaviors of the deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron Young 1972. Biol. Bull. 216:7 -- 22
Carnevale G. 2008. Miniature deep-sea hatchet-sh (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) from the Miocene of Italy. Geol. Mag. 145:73
Fleisher KJ, Case JF. 1995. Cephalopod predation facilitated by dino-agellate luminescence. Biol. Bull. 189:263 -- 71
Fristrup KM, Harbison G. 2002. How do sperm whales catch squids? Mar. Mammal Sci. 18:42 -- 54
hen Jacobs was transferred to the Norcoms, the reality of slavery suddenly hit the author hard because prior to her being sold to them she enjoyed a relatively happy childhood in a secure home environment. Dr. Norcom frequently made advances on Jacobs and she was forced to find solace in the arms of a white lawyer to help resist Dr. Norcom. She had two children by the lawyer, and was separated from them. Being separated from her parents and then from her children is a poignant dimension of slavery that Jacobs explicates in the narrative. Moreover, Jacobs describes the insidious psychological abuse that many domestic servants endured.
Jacobs also explains what might be new information for many readers: the different types of slavery and different ways slavery manifested. Not all slaves were field workers and not all slaves were treated poorly. Some, like her parents at the outset of the…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. In Norton Anthology of American Literature, 7th Edition, Vol. B. pp. 1809.