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National Healthcare System in the

Words: 2258 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87686479

" (p.3)

Despite its problems and issues, single-payer system is still a reasonably good answer to healthcare insurance problems in the U.S. However there are some changes we might need to introduce in order improve single-payer system and to minimize the problems associated with national healthcare insurance. Instead of completely replacing it with multi-payer insurance system, countries like South Africa and Australia have adopted another measure. This measure is meant to improve single-payer system while still fully retaining it. These countries have introduced expansion in the role played by private insurance companies. This means while everyone has access to healthcare with single-payer system, if they still need additional benefits, they can buy private insurance. Preker et al. (2) explains: "Expanding the role of private insurance alongside a universal single-payer insurer is one way of balancing the tradeoffs between single and multi-payer insurance systems….Private insurance coverage can accommodate consumer needs that…… [Read More]

References

Steven R. Machlin, MS and Kelly Carper, Med. National Health Care Expenses in the U.S. Civilian Non-institutionalized Population, 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey November 2006

John C. Goodman, Gerald L. Musgrave, Devon M. Herrick, Lives at risk: National Center for Policy Analysis (U.S.) Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.; 1 edition (August 28, 2004)

Alexander S. Preker; John Langenbruner (Editor) Spending Wisely: Buying Health Services for the Poor. "World Bank Publications; 1 edition (June 2005)

Overview of the Uninsured in the United States: An analysis of the 2005 Current Population Survey. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ASPE ISSUE BRIEF September 22, 2005  http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/05/uninsured-cps/index.htm
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National Regional Approach to Innovation Donna

Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98394449

Baran and Sweezy agreed with Veblen's primary thesis about the "subdued conflict between workmanship and salesmanship," in which workmanship is being pursued in the interests of sales of often superfluous goods rather than those that are socially necessary. Baran and Sweezy went so far as to say that Veblen's view of the matter (published in 1923) "as a description of the situation in the 1950s and 1960s... is 100 per cent on target." (O'Hara, Anthony, 2004)

Under monopoly capitalism, true innovation, according to Veblen, is often separated from sales and profit. The engineers produce innovations that can be used by the whole community and the capitalists often destroy technological progress. Baran and Sweezy stress the sabotage of this industry by businesses wasting capitalism such as planned obsolescence, where engineers design a product, light globes, and other commodities that will break down after a certain length of time or use. Another…… [Read More]

References

Fahrer, Marion. (2005, February 1). "The innovation outlook: Graham Fletcher, a senior executive with IBM, one of the world's leading technology originators, examines the latest technologies and those ahead, as a new on-demand era of innovation emerges.(Innovation Supplement)," Journal of Banking and Financial Services.

O'Hara, Phillip Anthony;Sherman, Howard Jay. (2004, December 1) "Veblen and Sweezy on monopoly capital, crises, conflict, and the state.," Journal of Economic

Issues.

Report shows Europe has trouble narrowing economic gap with United States," AP
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CIBC the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce

Words: 1923 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22709913

CIBC

The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is one of the "Big Five" Canadian banks. It was founded in 1961 by the merger of the Canadian Bank of Commerce (founded 1867) and the Imperial Bank of Canada (founded 1875). Today, the CIBC is the fifth-largest of these by total revenue, earning $12.09 billion in FY2010 (PC, 2011). This report will evaluate the CIBC in terms of a number of different factors in order make a judgment about the merits of investing in the bank's stock. The analysis will comprise of an industry analysis, a company analysis, and a valuation analysis.

According to the company's 2011 Annual Report, the CIBC earned total revenue of $12.249 billion in FY2011. This was split between interest income (51.8%) and non-interest income (48.2%). From this, the bank earned a net income of $3.079 billion. The recession years of 2008 and 2009 saw a sharp…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alexander, D. (2010). CIBC may have C$211 million debt writedown in third quarter, Mihelic says. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from  http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-22/cibc-may-have-c-211-million-debt-writedown-in-third-quarter-mihelic-says.html 

CIBC 2011 Annual Report. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from  https://www.cibc.com /ca/pdf/about/ar11-en.pdf" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Commonwealth Bank of Australia Retail Banking Service

Words: 1925 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68322951

Commonwealth Bank of Australia

etail Banking Service

Premium Business Services

Wealth Management

Marketing Strategies at CBA

Suggestions

Competitor Analysis

National Australia Bank

Australian and New Zealand Banking Group

Western Pacific Bank

Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Mobile Application

One Stop Solution

Commonwealth Bank of Australia

Commonwealth Bank of Australia:

Headquartered in Sydney, Australia, Commonwealth Bank of Australia or CBA is one of the four large banks of Australia. The bank was established in 1911 as a government bank, since then, it has seen tremendous growth. Today, Commonwealth Bank of Australia is a multinational bank with operations across United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK), Fiji, New Zeeland and Asia. The bank got privatized in 1996, with issuances of shares worth 1.2 Billion USD in 1991, 1.7 Billion USD in 1993, and 5 Billion USD in 1996. As of January, 2008, Commonwealth Bank of Australia was the second largest Australian listed company…… [Read More]

References:

Anz.com. 2014. Personal - Online Banking | ANZ. [online] Available at:  http://www.anz.com/personal  / [Accessed: 29 Mar 2014].

Commbank.com.au. 2014. Personal - Commonwealth Bank. [online] Available at:  https://www.commbank.com.au  / [Accessed: 29 Mar 2014].

Commbank.com.au. 2014. Tools - Commonwealth Bank. [online] Available at:  View Full Essay -->
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Regions Bank as Well as

Words: 2345 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9592014

Making loans to high-risk borrowers, engaging in risk or faulty investments, and otherwise managing money in a sloppy way is a surefire way to get derision from regulatory bodies and/or the public. The figures for the competition bear out that remaining in proper fiscal shape in banking operations is possible even during these uncertain times and there is no reason why egions Bank cannot do the same.

Over the next twelve quarters, customer service initiatives to drive and retain recurring business are important as this is the best thing egions Bank can do to get some breathing room. Attracting high-quality borrowers that are willing to borrow money during uncertain times is also important and at a premium nowadays. A barrier to both of these ideas is that people often become paralyzed and are hesitant to make major fiscal decisions in the midst of economic uncertainty. The potential loss of a…… [Read More]

References

Annual 10(k). (2011). Birmingham, AL: Regions Bank.

Competition. (2012). Online: Bankers GPS.

Forecast With Drift. (2012). Online: Bankers GPS.

Forecast With No Drift. (2012). Online: Bankers GPS.
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Federal Reserve Bank

Words: 3511 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20291336

Federal eserve Bank

Financial services as an industry has progressed to become one of the widely transforming sectors of the global economy, having significant changes in information transference and processing, innovation in terms of commodities and processes, and rapid competition among the financial institutions -- among themselves and also among their several customers. The industry and its part in the transformations in the economy show that the supervising and regulatory structure also needs to be reevaluated periodically. The aim of bank regulation is mostly the same -- to attain maximum static and dynamic efficiency levels in the midst of a politically and economically permissible framework which is stable and equal. However the profits are always associated with a cost by means of stability and equity. A more stable and equal financial system usually need sacrifices with regard to efficiency. (Saunders, p. 3)

A properly functioning, effective banking system is necessary…… [Read More]

References

Federal Reserve System. Encyclopedia Article. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574452/Federal_Reserve_System.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005

FR 2644- Weekly Report of Selected Assets.  http://www.chicagofed.org/banking_information/financial_institute_reports_fr2644_instructions_and_worksheets.cfm  Accessed on 7 May, 2005

FR 2900 Commercial Banks -- the Federal Reserve Board.  http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/reportforms/ReportDetail.cfm?WhichFormId=FR_2900cb& ; WhichCategory=4 Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Garbade, Kenneth D. Recent Innovations in Treasury Cash Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Current Issues in Economics and Finance. Vol: 10; No; 11; pp: 2-11.
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Compensation in Wachovia Bank's Base Employee Tier

Words: 2306 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23028582

Compensation in Wachovia Bank's Base Employee Tier

Bank Teller Pay

Compensation in Wachovia Bank's Base Employee Tier

Banking Industry Practices

etention ates for Tellers

Opportunity Cost for Promotion

Enabling Cross-Selling

Consideration of Drawbacks

Compensation of tellers at Wachovia Bank is closely tied to turnover rates. Employee turnover is costly because resources must be expended to replace employees who leave. ecruitment and training can be expected to be approximately one-third of an employee's salary. In the banking industry, the turnover rate for tellers also impacts the bank's ability to efficaciously cross-sell investment products. High turnover rates of promotable employees contribute to increased expenditures by the human resources department since searches must be orchestrated with outside executive search consultants. The banking industry is in survival mode. In order for Wachovia Bank to survive in this industry, we must take care of our frontline. The frontline of Wachovia Bank is our tellers. A…… [Read More]

References

Careers: Teller, (2011). Wells Fargo / Wachovia [Web] Retrieved  https://www.wellsfargo.com/careers/fit/opportunities/teller 

Hourly rate snapshot for bank teller jobs, PayScale. (n.a., n.d.) [Web] Retrieved http;//www.payscale.com/research/U.S./Job=Bank_Teller/Hourly_Rate

Looking for research on the cost of staff turnover? (2011). LinkedIn. [Discussion] Retrieved  http://www.linkedin.com/answers/management/business-analytics/MGM_ANA/ 

612746-20209499 [Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) in the UK]
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Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb Contributions to Egypts National Development and Banking System

Words: 1698 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45079444

Contributions of Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb to Egypt’s National Development and Banking System
Brief Biography
Born on 25th November, 1867 in Cairo’s El- Gammalia, Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb is considered one among the greatest personalities who contributed to Egypt’s overall national growth and development. He studied art, science, economics, literature, and French. After acquiring a law degree, he commenced his career in the role of translator in the Royal Circuits’ Lawsuits Section, responsible for state- owned farmland. Though favoring free enterprise, he was quick to climb the rungs of the career ladder, landing the position of lawsuits section manager (53-75)3.
His subsequent posts as manager were at various organizations including Kom Ombo Company (a firm that actively reclaimed and sold land) and the Egyptian Real- Estate Company (where he ensured citizens of Egypt held most of the shares). He penned numerous books, including “The Economic Remedy of Egypt and Creating the…… [Read More]

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Forming a Bank Holding Company

Words: 14343 Length: 52 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8100572

Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations

Understanding anks

Forming and Expanding a ank Holding Company

Financial Holding Company Requirements

HC Regulations

Capital uilding Options for ank Holding Companies

Pros and Cons of Forming a ank Holding Company

Stocks and Governance

Corporate Governance and anking Law

The Role of ank and Holding Company Audit Committees

Data Gathering Method

Database of Study

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations

This research paper describes the process of forming a bank holding company in the United States. The behavior of a bank holding company is strongly linked to the success of the banks it holds. Therefore, if business leaders can pinpoint how to set up a successful holding structure, they may have a better chance of successfully progressing their business.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Over the past few decades,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Renee. Mehran, Hamid. (April 2003). Is Corporate Governance Different for Bank Holding Companies? Economic Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 1.

Bankers Online. (2003). Regulation Y. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.bankersonline.com/regs/225/225-82.html .

Baxter, Thomas. (March, 2003). Governing the Financial or Bank Holding Company: How Legal Infrastructure Can Facilitate Consolidated Risk Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York: March 2003, Volume 9, Number 3.

Clodfelter, Mark. (February 27, 2003). U.S. Department of State.
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National Identification Card a Social

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 48440996

When the Employer Sanctions provision of the Immigration Reform and Control ct of 1985 was passed by Congress, there followed widespread discrimination against foreign-looking merican workers, especially sians and Hispanics. Failure to carry a national I.D. card would likely come to be viewed as cause for search, detention or arrest of minorities. The stigma and humiliation of constantly having to prove that they are mericans or legal immigrants would weigh heavily on such groups.

On the other hand Bolton (2010) reports Senate Democratic Whip Dick Durbin (Ill.), calculates mericans have become more comfortable with the idea of a national identification card. "The biometric identification card is a critical element here," Durbin said. "For a long time it was resisted by many groups, but now we live in a world where we take off our shoes at the airport and pull out our identification. People understand that in this vulnerable world,…… [Read More]

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). 2003. 5 problems with national id cards. ACLU, 8, September,  http://www.aclu.org/technology-and-liberty-/5-problems-national-id-cards  (accessed August 4, 2010)

Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April,  http://thehill.com/homenews/senate/95235-democrats-spark-alarm-with-call-for-national-id-card  (accessed August 4, 2010)

Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April,
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Bank Insure That the Level

Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 44435249

In 2003, new procedures were created and they state that "companies accredited with receiving money relating to public subscription in securities must take all necessary measures to ensure the legality of the sources of the money used in the payment of such securities, in compliance with the provisions laid down in the Prevention and Prohibition of Money Laundering and its Implementing egulations" (Terterov and euvid, 2005).

Banking institutions are also focused on reducing money laundering and the principal actions they implement in this endeavor are those of fully complying with the regulations imposed by the central banks and the legislations in their home countries. More recently, the banks can access technological innovations to fight money laundering, such as LexisNexis's Bridger Insight XGTM (Tech 4 Law). But since the access to technologies is different at each bank, a conclusion is drawn that the internal reactions to money laundering are different. The…… [Read More]

References:

Minaeva, T., Aksenova, M., Anti-money laundering in Russia, White & Case, http://www.whitecase.ru/articles/moneylaundry.pdf last accessed on July 14, 2010

Terterov, M., Reuvid, J., 2005, Doing business with Estonia, GMB Publishing Ltd.

Walker, J., 1998, Modeling global money laundering flows -- some findings,  http://www.johnwalkercrimetrendsanalysis.com.au/ML%20method.htm  last accessed on July 13, 2010

1999, Ten years of combating money laundering, OECD Observer,  http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php?aid=63  last accessed on July 13, 2010
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National Australia Bank the Foreign

Words: 1223 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 15835778



The turnaround could only start with the restructuring of the management team. Among the different communication problems identified, one with most impact on the overall situation at the bank was the lack of communication between the managerial team and the board and, quite often, between the managerial team and the structures in its subordination (such as the auditing and risk management departments).

The new leadership had no problem to work the restructuring of the management team by simply headhunting capable people, with experience in troubleshooting, from other financial institutions. Such a complete change of the management team needed to be performed carefully, because entire personnel changes could very well have an impact on the morale of the entire bank. The challenge of the new management also became to glue together the new team.

Along with the organizational restructuring also came a need to tackle the bureaucracy that had hampered so…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Organizational Restructuring: Management & Analysis. May 2009. On the Internet at  http://www.articlesbase.com/organizational-articles/organizational-restructuring-management-analysis-945103.html . Last retrieved on May 6, 2010

2. Stevenson, William; Bartunek, Jean; Borgatti Stephen. Front and Backstage Processes of an Organizational Restructuring Effort. The Journal of Applied Behavorial Science. September 2003

3. Thomson, Diane; Jain, Ameeta. Accountability and Board Functionality: National Australia Bank's experience. September 2006. On the Internet at http://www.melbournecentre.com.au/Finsia_MCFS/Monday/Stream%202/DianneThomson_paper.pdf. Last retrieved on May 6, 2010

4. Acquaah-Gaisie, G. Enhancing Corporate Accountability in Australia. Australian Journal of Corporate Law, Vol. 11, pp 139-148. 2000
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Bank for International Settlements Bis

Words: 3026 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75432570

From its creation to 1988 it undertook banking functions and opined generally on the international banking system.

2. Starting in 1988 it began to assume the role of an unofficial international bank regulator. Although it had no official international status, its members -- central banks of the major banking countries -- were obligated by the nature of their membership to abide by its edicts and the rest of the world took them seriously.

3. Starting in the late 1990s, it began to consider itself the equivalent of an international bank regulator. Every subject of significance was within its jurisdiction and, although its legal powers were no greater, it assumed that it had a right to make rules for local banks to observe in the conduct of their businesses.

4. Sometime in the future there is a widespread anticipation that it will be given, through some treaty mechanism, the power to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, James Calvin. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

Birdsall, Nancy. "Whither the IMF in the Current Crisis? Invite the Big Emerging Economies to the Table." 2 October 2008. Center for Global Development. 26 February 2009 http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2008/10/whither_the_imf_in_the_current.php.

BIS. Bank for International Settlements (BIS). n.d. 25 February 2009  http://www.bis.org/about/index.htm .

Carl Felsenfeld, Genci Bilali. "The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Shaping the World Financial System." January 2004. Social Science Research Network Electronic Library. 26 February 2009  http://ssrn.com/abstract=496022 .
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Bank Is an Essential Organization

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44623277

The World Bank asserts that this project will also improve the quality of life for the people of Uruguay by producing skilled jobs ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").

The article reports that another purpose of the project is to support the government as it relates to strengthening the capacity of the country to produce, transfer, and adapt knowledge and new technology ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves..."). As it relates to this aim the project is designed to encourage the strengthening of the institutional framework for technology, science, and innovation. In addition the project is designed to support investments in education; technology transfer and innovation within the private sector; and research alliances and transportation/flexibility for researchers between educational institutions and the productive sector ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").

In addition to the aforementioned activities, there are many other activities that the World Bank is currently involved in that are aimed at improving living standards…… [Read More]

References

Albania: Micro-credits Support a Growing Rural Economy. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20871875~menuPK:141311~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html

Uruguay: World Bank Approves U.S.$26 Million to Promote Innovation and Improve the Country's Competitiveness. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318964~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html

World Bank Vows to Strengthen Health Systems in Poor Countries with New http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318554~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
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National Museum for Women in the Arts

Words: 2607 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25935560

Women's Museums

The National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington is a museum specifically focused on bringing a gender-focused study to the achievements of women in the different artistic fields, whether literature, visual art, or performance art. The museum highlights the achievements of women artists by collecting and showcasing paintings and sculptures (the museum boasts a collection of 4,5000 objects created by women), presenting "10 world-class exhibitions of women artists each year," operating a publishing house, programming concerts, films and staged performances, educating the public, and sponsoring committees around the world dedicated to advocating for female artists (NMWA, 2015). While the museum is thus clearly dedicated to supporting the voice of women and their artistic expressions, the museum itself does raise questions about the issue of gender within the wider scope of the total global and historical artistic/cultural experience of not only modern day society but also of…… [Read More]

References

Advocate. (2015). NMWA advocates for women artists -- and you can, too. Retrieved from  http://www.nmwa.org/advocate 

Guerilla Girls. (2012). National Museum of Women in the Arts. Retrieved from  http://www.nmwa.org/sites/default/files/media/images/general/advocate_guerilla_girls_2012.jpg 

Mulvey, L. (1975). Visual pleasure and the narrative cinema. Screen, 16(3): 6-18.

NMWA. (2015). About. National Museum of Women in the Arts. Retrieved from  http://www.nmwa.org/about
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Furniture Bank Over the Past Few Years

Words: 2073 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 82903923

Furniture Bank

Over the past few years Furniture Bank has differentiated itself from other charity organization through its commitment to industry innovation which has made it one of Canadian most famous organization (Peter & Donnelly, 2006). The marketing abilities of the Organization have enabled it to compensate for its initial otherwise tight financial circumstances to establish an excess cash record over few years of operation whose main sources were; donations from the government and other corporate entities (Slack et al., 2010). The main vision of the Furniture Bank Organization includes constant achievement of operational excellence, conducting business in a safe environmentally sustainable and economically optimum way and manufacturing and supplying furniture and other households as well as services that ensure customer satisfaction in as far as their needs are concerned (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2009). The Organization also has a few objectives that include realization of potential of their staff, maximum…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Adeniyi, M.A. (2007). Effective Leadership Management: An Integration of Styles, Skills & Character for Today's CEO. AuthorHouse.

Ahlstrom, D., and Bruton, G.D. (2009). International Management: Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. Boston, M.A.: Cengage Learning.

Peter, P.J., and Donnelly, J.H. (2006). Marketing Management: Knowledge and Skills. 8th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Slack N., Chambers S., Johnston R. (2010). Operations management. New York: Prentice
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Second Harvest Food Bank What Does Hunger

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24081610

Second Harvest Food Bank

What does hunger look like? The image many people hold of what hunger is and who it afflicts does not reflect reality. With changing economic conditions in Florida, as well as the entire country, the face of hunger now reflects the images of our friends and neighbors. It is the mission of Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida to battle hunger in Central Florida in order to achieve freedom from hunger in the region.

There are several objectives and activities established by Second Harvest in order to work toward achieving a hunger-free Central Florida. One of the most primary activities conducted by the Food Bank is the provision access to grocery items and food to individuals and families in need. ecipients of this service are diverse and do not fit into one mold, whether it be, race, age-group, or perceived social class.

Another main activity…… [Read More]

References

Krepcho (2011). Top 10 Reasons for Central Florida's Need. Retrieved 12 February 2012 from http://blogfeedhopenow.org/tag/statistics/

Living Hungry: Hunger in Central Florida (2010).  http://www.foodbankcentralflorida.org /site/DocServer/SHF_048_Hunger_Brochure_FINAL.pdf?docID=961" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Deutsche Bank Fire Reasons of

Words: 3044 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49024282



One of the main reasons that have been highlighted by the prosecutors is that the pressure to clear up the asbestos from the basement was intense and the contractors were constantly being forced to finish the work. Because of an increased pressure, the contractors and the workers working under the contractors were working in a miscalculated manner. One of the wrong decisions that were made by the contractors was to ignore the broken water pipe in one of the floors being demolished. This has been highlighted as evidence by the District Attorney Joel Seidemann in one of his closing arguments at the trial that had been going on since two months in the Manhattan Supreme Court

Other than the three contractors, the third party that had been under investigation for more than 16 months was the New York City itself. In this case, the court mentioned that the city authority…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Association Of Fire Chiefs International. Fire Inspector: Principles and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011.

Bureau of National Affairs (Arlington, Va.). Construction labor report, Volume 55, Issues 2710-2736. Bureau of National Affairs., 2009.

Eligon, John. Final Defendant Acquitted in Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011.  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/07/nyregion/final-defendant-is-acquitted-in-deutsche-bank-fire-trial.html 

Italiano, Laura. FDNY Firefighter Recalls Fatal Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011.  http://www.firehouse.com/news/top-headlines/fdny-firefighter-recalls-fatal-deutsche-bank-fire
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Abbey National Building Society

Words: 3542 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33976747

Abbey National Building Society

A 'Building Society' is in other words a Financial Institution that is owned by all its members rather than by its shareholders. The Building Society plays the role of paying interests on the deposits made by the members, and also of lending money to its members by proposing to keep the property as security in order to enable them to buy a house of their own. When compared to a Bank, the Building Society offers a lesser range of financial services, but at a lower cost than the Bank. (Finance: Glossary B) However, the Building Society is owned by the members who borrow and deposit money in it, whereas the Bank is not owned as such by any particular group of members. (A UK Mortgages Website) The innate benefit of the members is more important than any other function of the Building Society, and it is…… [Read More]

References

A UK Mortgages Website. http://www.a-mortgages-website.co.uk/glossary/mortgage-jargon-b.asp Accessed on 21 November, 2004

About Abbey: 1989 to 1999. Retrieved From

http://www.aboutabbey.com/home/group_info/group_info-history/group_info-history-1989_1999.htm Accessed on 21 November, 2004

Consolidation in the Swedish Banking Sector: A Central Bank Perspective. Retrieved From
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Securitization and Bank Liquidity the

Words: 4798 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13613783

.." The Federal Reserve continues to keep a watch on both "current and potential exposures..." And are in the process of a review of the collateral valuation methods of the banking industry." (Kohn, 2008)

Kohn states that disruptions in liquidity in some financial markets have resulted in banking organizations facing challenges and specifically at present "significant liquidity demands can emanate from both the asset and liability of the bank's balance sheet." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn relates that when liquidity is reduced in the markets specifically for "certain structured credit products the creation of challenges and concerns relating to valuating spreads into other sectors and "illiquidity in some credit markets may make it difficult for some market participants, including banking organizations, to hedge positions effectively." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn states that the banking industry in the U.S. is up against some very serious challenges however, the Federal Reserve in cooperation with banking agencies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, Allen N.; and Bouwman, Christa H.S. (2007) Bank Liquidity Creation. 15 Jan 2007

Brown, Ellen (2008) April Fools: The Fox to Guard the Banking Henhouse 30 Mar 2008. Online 'The Web of Debt' available online at  http://www.webofdebt.com/articles/banking-henhouse.php 

Buiter, Willem (2008) Lessons from Northern Rock: Banking and Shadow Banking. VOX. 4 March 2008. Online available at  http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/960 

Estrella, Arturo (2002) Securitization and the Efficacy of Monetary Policy. Economic Policy Review. Vol. 8 No.1 Federal Reserve Board Bank of New York. Online available at  http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/epr/02v08n1/0205estr/0205estr.html#chart1
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Pacific Coast Banking School the Premier National

Words: 1835 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24665319

Pacific Coast Banking School

The Premier National Graduate School of Banking™

Credit Risk Management Extension Assignment Grade Sheet

Group a: Due February 23, 2012

FOR GRADER USE ONLY:

Graded by Christine Corso for John Barrickman

GRADE:

CREDIT RISK Management

Extension Assignment

2011 Session Instructor:

John Barrickman

Group A: Due February 23, 2012

Biographical Summary

Add a brief biographical paragraph about your background

Certificate of Originality

"I certify that this paper represents and contains my own work. I have placed all quotations from other sources in a form to indicate that they did not originate with me and I have cited the work from which the material was taken. I have included footnotes for all information and ideas that I have taken from other sources. I have not shared and will not share my completed work with any other PCBS student nor have I read the completed work of any other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altman, E. (2008). MANAGING CREDIT RISK: THE CHALLENGE FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM. Retrieved from Stern School of Business:  http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~ealtman/2-%20CopManagingCreditRisk.pdf 

Bedell. (2009, September). TCM Guide: Holistic Risk Management. Retrieved from Global Finance:  http://www.gfmag.com/archives/104-september-2009/2372-tcm-guide-holistic-risk-management.html#axzz1sMx8vpCj 

Coen, W. (1999, July). Principles for the Management of Credit Risk - consultative document. Retrieved from Bank for International Settlements:  http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs54.htm 

LaCapra, L. (2012, April 17). UPDATE 5-Goldman dials back risk, profit falls. Retrieved from Reuters:  http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/17/goldman-idUSL2E8FH5XC20120417
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Desk Staffing Trends Banks J And Pracht

Words: 1566 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73832228

Desk Staffing Trends

Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). eference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. eference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.

Banks and Pracht (2008) carried out a quantitative research to investigate the current staffing trends at reference desks of academic libraries. The research is conducted from a theoretical framework perspective asserting that there have been changes in libraries, as services are merged and eliminated, users are taught on information literacy, provision of web-based and online reference databases threatening the traditional reference desk. The researchers' main question is whether these changes are causing a change in staffing patterns for reference desk employees. To investigate this problem, survey questions were administered via the internet to respondents comprising of librarians from 191 academic libraries across the U.S. The study results indicate that of those interviewed, 44% show that there was a decrease in questions asked at the reference desks, which linked…… [Read More]

References

Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). Reference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. Reference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.

Boynton, P.M. (2004). Selecting, Designing, and Developing your Questionnaire, BMJ publications, 328-396.
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Motivations of Multi-National Companies Those

Words: 1789 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36143527



The United States government did a number of things to prop up failing/failed companies to the detriment of the United States deficit and through the enabling of companies that were clearly doing wrong. However, they did so because NOT doing so would have been much, much worse. company like IG or General Motors falling into the abyss (the latter in particular) would have probably damaged the United States automotive industry for years to given that Chrysler is now longer United States owned, technically (owned by Fiat, an Italian company) and that only leaves Ford as the lone large domestic car company.

The Cyprus situation is no less a moral hazard than the government moral hazard of the United States. Even further, much the same thing happened when GM's bankruptcy was coordinated by the United States government with investors getting talked to like children and otherwise getting the short end of…… [Read More]

A moral hazard is a situation where there is a risk but the person taking said risk will not tend to feel the aftermath or effects if the risk goes wrong. For example, a person betting, in any form, on the collapse of the housing market that occurred in the United States from 2007 to 2009 would be an example of someone that would either not be hurt or would specifically gain from that prediction coming to pass yet many people would feel poor effects of that same event happening, including the people who bet on strength and the customers who lost their homes or were otherwise impacted.

The United States government did a number of things to prop up failing/failed companies to the detriment of the United States deficit and through the enabling of companies that were clearly doing wrong. However, they did so because NOT doing so would have been much, much worse. A company like AIG or General Motors falling into the abyss (the latter in particular) would have probably damaged the United States automotive industry for years to given that Chrysler is now longer United States owned, technically (owned by Fiat, an Italian company) and that only leaves Ford as the lone large domestic car company.

The Cyprus situation is no less a moral hazard than the government moral hazard of the United States. Even further, much the same thing happened when GM's bankruptcy was coordinated by the United States government with investors getting talked to like children and otherwise getting the short end of the stick while GM itself and its union made out like bandits. In the case of Cyprus, high depositors are feeling the brunt of the poor choices of others (including the government and the bank itself) and this will lead to money (from all sources) going overseas or under the mattress. That all being said, the shift from all taxpayers/the government shouldering the burden of the bailout to the high depositors, while not a perfect solution, is better from a moral hazard standpoint than any of the other alternatives. Not doing anything was simply not an option because the banks failing and/or a run occurring on the banks would have been much more disastrous.
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Euro Banks to Adopt Rules Reluctantly

Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26961030

International elations

Euro Banks

This is a paper on Euro Banks adopting rules. There is one reference used for this paper.

There are a number of changes occurring in the international money markets today. It is important to look at an article concerning the reluctance of Euro banks to adopt rules and determine its pertinence to international business.

New ules

There is pressure for European banks to adopt "new global bookkeeping rules by 2005-the target date for European Union (EU) adoption (http://money.cnn.com/2004/04/05/news/international/eurobank.reut/index.htm)." Those in favor of the rules point out this will be good for international trade, as these rules are like those used by the United States. While some say they will adopt the measures, they stress they are doing so only due to pressure, not because they feel the rules are good. The French are strongly opposed because the "new international rules could be out of line with…… [Read More]

References

Unknown. 05 April, 2004. "Euro banks to adopt rules reluctantly." (accessed 12 April 2004).  http://money.cnn.com/2004/04/05/news/international/eurobank.reut/index.htm
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Business National or Regional Innovation

Words: 2520 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50882768

MESIC's have been singularly unsuccessful, and have been deemphasized in recent years.

Related to this are: State-sponsored venture capital investments. Countries and regions invest in venture capital funds as Limited Partners, meaning that they have the same or similar financial returns as all other investors in a Fund. In many cases, such state investments require some conditions on the privately-run venture fund. The most popular conditions include:

fixed percentage threshold of investment in the region or country, or certain number of jobs to be generated by their investments, or Attracting a certain multiple of investment from outside the state or region into the fund, or Limiting the venture investments to the types of technologies and industries which are of greatest interest to that state or region.

Examples of the above can include the Indiana Futures Fund, in which the State of Indiana invested $100 million in several venture funds. Among…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.

Balzac, M. "Recent Trends in the Research on National Innovation Systems." REPEC. November 26, 2007.  http://ideas.repec.org/p/aug/augsbe/0254.html  (Accessed November 28, 2007).

Birch, D.L. MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987.

Christensen, C. The Innovator's Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.
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Architectural Styles Between the National

Words: 1924 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21177711

Above the roundel is a frieze from a monument to Trajan depicting a battle scene, and the west end contains an image of Luna, the moon goddess, in a chariot" (Sullivan, 2005, p.1). In contrast, the more modest, but still impressive, single-barreled Valley Forge structure is resoundingly secular in its images, as befits a national, American structure in a nation where freedom of religion reigns. (Interestingly, Constantine would later become famous as the first Christian emperor, despite the fact that his triumphal arch contains images of pagan gods and goddesses. The left hand roundel on the north face of the structure even shows Constantine in the form of a recut head of an older emperor, sacrificing to the god Apollo) (Sullivan, 2005, p.2).

In the past, triumphal arches were almost exclusively used to commemorate either great men or great victories, or both in war. The Arch of Constantine thus may…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sullivan, Mary Ann. "Arch of Constantine." Rome, Italy. 2005. 5 Apr 2008.  http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/italy/rome/archconstantine/arch.html 

National Memorial Arch." U.S. National Park Service. 5 Apr 2008.  http://www.nps.gov/vafo/historyculture/arch.htm 

The National Memorial Arch." Valley Forge FAQs. 5 Apr 2008.  http://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/youasked/064.htm
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Evidence and Analysis The National Guardsmen Violated

Words: 4614 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50702392

evidence and analysis: "The national guardsmen violated the Students right of assembly at Kent State University on May 4, 1970." The paper will describe the evidences and circumstances of May 4, 1970 in details, the analysis and the observation of the relative facts will be included in the paper so that the readers can gain effective information regarding the day in which the nation lost four lives. The paper will initially describe the Kent State University, its formation and the relative subjects, which the university offers to the students.

THE INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIVERSITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE:

Kent State University, among top colleges and universities, offers educational opportunities ranging from certificate programs, associate's, bachelor's, master's, educational specialist and doctoral degrees. Kent State, located in Northeast Ohio, is the second largest among Ohio universities. Kent State, regarded as one of the nation's top 90 public research universities, serves more than 36,000…… [Read More]

Works Cited

As retrieved from The May 4th Deaths: Kent State 30 Years Ago by Murray Polner  http://www.antiwar.com/orig/polner.php?articleid=1856 On May 18,2004

As retrieved from THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/LEWIHEN.htm. On May 18,2004

As retrieved at http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/lewihen.htm. THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY On May 18,2004

As retrieved from May 4th, 1970 - General Information
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Role of Office of National Coordinator

Words: 877 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98616144

Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) was created by George W. Bush in 2004 through an executive order and the congress mandated associated legislation. The ONC is an entity within the US Department of Health and Human Services. The main purpose of the ONC is basically to promote the national health information technology (HIT) infrastructure and oversee its development. In the context of the healthcare providers, the ONC is seen as a close associate to the nationwide push to have electronic health records to the patients in different hospitals all with the aim of curbing errors in the medical field and to do away with paper records.

The mission of the ONC is wide in scope and aimed at meeting the demands of HIT and includes coordination of policies, establishing governance for the eHealth Exchange, strategic planning for the adoption of the health IT as well as health information exchange…… [Read More]

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Business Plan for a Multi-National Enterprise That

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56540164

Business plan for a Multi-National Enterprise that conducts Foreign Direct Investment

Description of the MNE

Paradise Baby Food Company (PBFC) proposes to invest in a factory in India, one of the countries where Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is growing at a momentous pace, and from there not only create its unique product but also have access to a growing market that is interested in western products. PBFC intends to develop a complete line of health food products for children, using minimal processing techniques. All products will contain wholesome ingredients such as herbs and naturally derived vitamins, minerals, and other supplements. They will be free of chemicals and additives. The herbs are more plentiful in, and cheaper to gain and process, from India. Other companies claim to sell healthy and nutritious baby food, but their herbs are either processed so finely that little remains, or they are imported from long distance…… [Read More]

References

GoingGlobal.com.

 http://www.going-global.com/articles/understanding_foreign_direct_investment.htm 

IBEF. Foreign Direct Investment (May, 2011)  http://www.ibef.org/india/economy/fdi.aspx  iloveindia.com

Merinews.com. Fast Food Industry in India on the Rise.
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Al QA'ida Trans-National Terrorist Network'

Words: 3610 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14718642

"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."

Jenkins 3)

This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.

Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.

There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005  http://www.questia.com/ .

AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005.  http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html 

AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005.  http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm 

Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
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Globalization and National Differences in

Words: 3446 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87098019

But when the village is being rebuilt, consensus is not easy (Kurup)." This is a pointed criticism of using a U.S. model where the financial sector is doing well (the speculative economy) as opposed to the "real" economy on the street. Dr. Kurup feels that the infrastructural problems that have dogged India for years need to be solved as well so the recovery is even and across the board. He further remarked in the article that "You have to see the context. Just because we were not affected by the crisis, it does not imply we are safe. One has to look at what is the purpose behind the changes. There is a perception if you develop the bond market, infrastructure will develop. Infrastructure will not develop if the bond market alone is developed. In fact, no country in the world, except for partly the U.S., developed infrastructure through the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Globalization in India." Economy Watch. Economy Watch.com, n.d. Web. 21 Nov 2010.

.

Comparison Studies." I Watch. Wake Up Call for India, 2010. Web. 22 Nov 2010.

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Hsbc Bank USA Efforts in

Words: 8176 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29350266

It is highly unlikely that they would become involved with illegal activities knowingly. However, the complicated nature of compliance risk and the high expectations within the banking industry make it possible that some legal manner might be overlooked.

Chief Compliance Officers are at particular risk due to the nature of their position and should be increasingly diligent to maintain a proper understanding of the expectations of compliance. Additionally, Chief Compliance Officers and the operations department should be aware of the current weaknesses within their own AML programs.

In an effort to minimize these risks, HSBC Bank USA has recognized the need for more purposeful measurement and management of compliance risk.

Legal and operational risk can quickly and efficiently hamper the activities of any bank. However, it is reputational risk that poses the greatest risk to HSBC Bank USA. Banks that are associated with money laundering, terrorism, and criminal activity in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bagla, Deepak, and Vinay Mendonca. "Anti-Money Laundering: Payments Filtering." HSBC's Guide to Cash and Treasury Management in the Asian Pacific. 2006. 13 January 2007 .

Bank Compliance: Controlling Risk and Improving Effectiveness. Economist Intelligence Unit, June 2006. 13 January 2007 .

Banking Department Enters Into Written Agreement with HSBC Bank USA. 30 Apr. 2003. 13 January 2007 .

Beaumier, Carol M. "Auditing anti-money-laundering compliance: insufficient transaction testing, inadequate testing of automated monitoring systems and deficient follow-up are typical shortcomings.(Regulatory Outlook)." Bank Accounting & Finance 19.1 (Dec 2005): 31(4). Expanded Academic ASAP. Thomson Gale. Denver Public Library. 12 Jan. 2007 .
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Foreign Banks India Foreign Banks in India

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31292855

Foreign Banks India

Foreign Banks in India

It was recently announced that foreign banks, for the first time in decades, will be allowed to enter into the Indian banking industry and "set up 'wholly owned subsidiaries' in India." ("India Eases ules for Foreign Banks") Since the nation obtained independence in the late 1940's, the Indian banking system has undergone radical changes, none more so than in the late 1960's when then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi began to nationalize the entire banking system. The effort was an attempt to change the focus of Indian banks from institutions of profit to ones that could aid in the economic transformation of the Indian economy, primarily the development of rural areas. This system of government direction for the banking system kept Indian banks somewhat isolated from the international banking industry. In 2008, when the collapse of the American banking giant Lehman Brothers precipitated a…… [Read More]

References

Bandyopadhyay, Tamal. (11 Sept. 2013). "How India's Banking Sector Weathered the Global Storm." The Live Mint and the Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from  http://www.livemint.com/Specials/Jz0STkDuhEehFlOb6kVfoM/How-Indias-banking-sector-weathered-the-global-storm.html 

Big Banking Reforms Coming Soon: Raghuram Rajan." (13 Oct. 2013). The Hindu.

Retrieved from  http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/big-banking-sector-reforms-coming-soon-raghuram-rajan/article5231410.ece 

"India Eases Rules for Foreign Banks." (13 Nov. 2013). BBC News: Business. Retrieved from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24846760
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Foreign Banks in China

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 64184634

Foreign Investments

The banking industry in China is essentially run by the state. All of the major banks are state-owned enterprises, and all are heavily regulated by the central government There is a central bank, the People's Bank of China, and a regulator for merchant and retail banks. There are13 national-level banks along with over one hundred city-level banks. Most banks today compete with each other, even if they had niches when they were founded -- for example, the names Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank, etc. reflect the roots of those banks, but they have long since expanded out of those niches. But because they are all state-owned banks that are ultimately overseen by the central government, they do not compete intensely with each other.

The biggest factor that attracts foreign banks to China is the size of the market. Even though there are many restrictions for foreign banks in China,…… [Read More]

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Case Study in Bank Statistics

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84284145

Unemployment Rate

Personal Bankruptcy Filings Rates (All Counties)

Total Housing Permits

Unemployment rate: one would expect the correlation coefficient between the unemployment rate and the demand for bank loans to be negative. This would show an inverse relationship whereby an increase in the unemployment rate will lead to a decrease in the demand for bank loans. The economic explanation for this would be that as the unemployment rate rises, aggregate income decreases and fewer individuals are able to afford a bank loan.

bankruptcy rate: on the same logical path, bankruptcy rate and demand for bank loans will move in different directions: as the bankruptcy rate increases, the demand for bank loans decreases, because more people have declared bankruptcy and no longer have the necessary income to apply and obtain bank loans. Thus, demand for bank loans will fall.

c. growth rate in housing permits: one would expect the correlation coefficient…… [Read More]

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Saxonville Sausage Ann Banks Should

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 59392607

The marketing research highlighted a number of facts about the perceptions and the demographics of the target customer groups. This concerned the position of Saxonville products in the ethnic Italian market and the loop holes that the company could exploit to increase its revenues from sales of its products. additionally to the above, the values held dear by the customers with family connections and clever cooking emerging at the top of the table on the values and attributes held dear by Saxonville's target customers. The key findings with regard to women's "ideals" of family life indicated that very high percentage of women valued family connections and clever cooking as the most important aspects of a fun filled family set-up. These were also revealed as the core product attributes that are revered by a woman as performing a good job and being a successful homemaker (ibid.).

On the very basis of…… [Read More]

References

Moore, K. (2007). Saxonville sausage company. (pp. 1-17). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing.
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Indian History the Indian National

Words: 3378 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30426316

It was also discovered that the Moderates did not have sufficient representation in Congress. The Moderates were aware of Tilak's loyalty to the Congress but did not appreciate it. They even thoroughly resisted his entry and that of his friends to it. Tilak then cooperated with Annie esant in forming two home rule leagues, one in Maharashtra and the other in Madras. Their Lucknow Congress in 1916 healed the division. oth sides wanted to restore the old and honorable conditions. After agreeing on some membership conditions, the Moderates accepted the extremists. The Lucknow Congress honored and recognized Tilak as a the sole political hero of the time. The Moderates could have offered Tilak the presidency of the Congress but Tilak was known to have a pledge of self-denial. He withdrew his name from the 1907 Nagpur Congress and suggested that it be replaced by the name of Lala Laipat Rai.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

British Broadcasting Corporation. Mohandas Gandhi. Historic Figures. BBC.Co.Uk, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gandhi_mohandas.shtml 

Edidin, Peter. 1947: the End of the Raj. New York Times Upfront: the Scholastic, Inc., January 30, 2006

Indian National Congress. The Congress and the Freedom Movement. AICC, 2004. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at  http://aicc.org.in/the_congress_and_the_freedom_movement.htm 

Leathem, Rebecca. Mahatma Gandhi. Business Asia: First Charlton Communications Pty, Ltd., February 15, 1999
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Money & National Political Elections

Words: 2903 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37535214

17).

The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…… [Read More]

References

Austen-Smith, D. (1993) Information and Influence: Lobbying for Agendas and Votes. American Journal of Political Science, 37(3): 799-833.

Bartels, L.M. (2005) Economic Inequality and Political Representation. Unpublished paper. Retrieved on February 15, 2001, from http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf

Derek, C., ed. (2002) the Best Elections Money Can Buy. U.S. PIRG Education Fund Report. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from  http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/_8MuDgm1AnavpYKIfwgxSA/bestelections10_02.pdf .

Farman, T.W., & Eggen, D. (2010) Republican Congressional Candidates Race Ahead in Fundraising. Washington Post. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/16/AR2010101603236.html
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2000 the National Reading Panel Developed and

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60963147

2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic awareness, 2) Phonics, 3) Fluency, 4) Vocabulary, and

Comprehension (National eading Panel, 2012). Too, we must realize that not all children become phonemically aware at the same age or grade level. Some preschool children can segment and even understand multi-syllabic words, which some even in 2nd grade cannot. However, using the 5 basic steps, it is possible to provide a standards-based program that logically defines and emphasizes basic reading skills (Neuman and Dickinson, 2006). We can think of each portion of the 5 steps as building blocks towards fluency, with one logically contributing to the other through a series of exercises, drills, and finally mastery of each level.

Phonemic Awareness -- Is the ability to notice and cognate discreet sounds in…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Boost Vocabulary and Spelling. (2012). Learnthat.org. Retrieved from:  http://www.learnthat.org/ 

Teaching Phonics. (2012). A to Z. Phonics.com. Retrieved from:  http://www.atozphonics.com/teaching-phonics.html 

What are the Five Essential Elements of Reading? (2009). Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University. Retrieved from:  http://www.nhpirc.org/files/Five%20elements%20of%20Reading%20Tip%20Sheet.pdf 

Cunningham, P. (2008). Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing. Allyn And Bacon.
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Macroeconomics -- Inflation Domestic and National News

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15925191

Macroeconomics -- Inflation

Domestic and national news are constantly talking about the rapid changes and increases in prices of basic commodities today. Prime commodities for a specific economy or country are discussed with the same intensity as changes in the global market prices for important, universal necessities such as oil. Prices of basic commodities are not the only ones susceptible to increasing in value. Services, too, particularly wages, are subjected to increases ultimately driven by union power or collective bargaining agreements between manufacturing companies and corporations and its workforce. Changes in the supply of raw materials used to produce products and commodities and services required to mass produce these products or to provide services on a large scale are the drivers that serve as catalysts to price increases. This increase in prices and costs of products and services over time, respectively, is called inflation (Maunder et al., 2000, p. 147).…… [Read More]

References

Maunder, P. (2000). Economics Explained. UK: Collins Education.

Tymkiw, C. (2012). "Food prices on the rise as drought worsens." CNN Money Website. Retrieved 23 July 2012. Available at:  http://money.cnn.com/2012/07/25/investing/corn-food-prices/index.htm?iid=Popular
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E-Learning Platforms According to National

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 9045116

462). The pattern of adjusting to the feelings and needs of the advisor rather than the advisor adjusting to meet the needs of the advisee is seen repeatedly in the different types of relationships between women who are pursuing doctoral studies on college campuses and their female advisors.

One type of advisor was described as an iron maiden, while the advisee assumed the role of handmaiden. In this type of relationship, the advisors support the goals of the student, but they have little time for interpersonal communications or sympathy for the advisee's personal issues. The advisees who worked under the tutelage of such women often found themselves sacrificing "their own personal power and their own work for iron maiden advisors" (p. 454).

The inadequate advisor-over adequate advisee relationship was in direct contrast to the iron maiden/handmaiden relationship. In this scenario, the advisor was too focused upon the interpersonal relationship and…… [Read More]

Young, a. & Perrewe, P. (2004). The role of expectations in the mentoring exchange: an analysis of mentor and protege expectations in relation to perceived support. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16(1), 103-126. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from ProQuest.

Similarities and Differences between EBSCO and ProQuest

EBSCO and ProQuest differ in their search engines. ProQuest has a basic and an advanced search feature. The basic feature allows the reader to look for articles by database, while the advanced search feature provides the options of browsing by features such as citation and abstract, author, subject and language of origin. Much like ProQuest, EBSCO's search engine is set up to allow the reader to choose documents based upon features such as author, Unlike ProQuest EBSCO does not have an advanced feature, but the reader can filter documents based upon whether the article is peer-reviewed, what educational level the document was written for and who the intended audience is, as well as by ERIC number and publication type.
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Managerial Hubris of Farrow Bank

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 17552421

Managerial Hubris: Case Study of Farrow Bank

Instances of leaders and managers portraying overconfidence as far as their managerial behavior is concerned are not rare. This excessive overconfidence is referred to as managerial hubris (Brown, 2006). The individual overwhelmingly believes they cannot wrong. In most part, this behavior emanates from a sustained period of success, which makes the individual unrealistically perceive themselves as somewhat prone to error. Hubristic behavior can be costly to an organization, sometimes even leading to downfall (Hollow, 2014). This was particularly true for Farrow Bank, a booming bank in the early 20th century. The bank collapsed in 1920, with managerial hubris on the part of its founder and CEO, Thomas Farrow, being the major contributing factor. Focusing on the failure, this case study explores the implications of managerial hubris on organizational success. The case study particularly pays attention to four issues: how corporate culture, leadership, power,…… [Read More]

References

Brown, R. (2006). CEO overconfidence, CEO dominance and corporate acquisitions. Retrieved 20 October 2016 from:  https://research.mbs.ac.uk/accounting - finance/Portals/0/docs/2007/Raynabrownmanchester.pdf

Hollow, M. (2014). The 1920 Farrow's bank failure: a case of managerial hubris? Journal of Management History, 20(2), 164-178.
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Financial Standards and Reporting Process of Germany and Its Effects on Deutsche Bank

Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92236307

Financial Standards

eporting standards for financial transactions have been varied with regard to countries and companies across the globe for many years. This fact has made it difficult for transactions to be reported with any great degree of accuracy. This was especially true in Germany where there was no true German GAAP. What the rest of the world has considered the German GAAP, the GoB, was actually comprised of here say and opinion gleaned from many different sources. With the advent of the IASB that the European Union adopted in 2007, Germany has finally decided on a single standard with which to govern financial reporting. Large companies within the country, such as Deutsche Bank, have had to make adjustments to the new standards, but this does not seem to have caused a problem. Since the country has loosely used international standards for many years, the new IASB is not new…… [Read More]

References

Bonthrone, R. (2000). German financial accounting and reporting. Translation Journal, 4(3). Retrieved from  http://translationjournal.net/journal/13finan.htm 

Deutsche Bank. (2011). Company. Deutsche Bank. Retrieved from  http://www.db.com/en/content/company/company.htm 

Feige, P. (1997). How "uniform" is financial accounting in Germany? European Accounting Review, 6(1), 109-122.

Gornik-Tomaszewski, S., & McCarthy, I.N. (2003). Cooperation between FASB and IASB to achieve convergence of accounting standards. Review of Business, 24(2), 52-61.
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Arctic FOX National Geographic Online

Words: 3067 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94471525

Like most other animals, the artic fox's cot changes to reflect the summer arctic habitat, becoming a brown or gray color that matches the summer environment (National Geographic, 2008). The photograph by Norbert Rosing (National Geographic, 2004), demonstrates the usefulness of the animal's camouflage: (Norbert Rosing, National Geographic, October, 2004, online at http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/finaledit/0410/,2008).

The artic fox contributes to the balance of nature because its diet includes rodents, which have a tendency to multiply rapidly in any conditions; birds, and fish (National Geographic, 2008). However, rodents are more plentiful during the summer months in the artic. During the winter months, when its food sources are scarcer, the fox will be follow the trail of the polar bears, acting as a scavenger to the remains of the larger animal's kills (National Geographic, 2008). The arctic fox also eats some amounts of vegetation, usually vegetables (National Geographic, 2008).

The arctic fox is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Fox in World Literature: Reflections on a "Fictional Animal." Asian Folklore Studies 65.2 (2006): 133+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2008  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5018927838" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Education in the Promotion of National Economies

Words: 1329 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 35049520

education in the promotion of national economies. Investing in higher education is a critical investment that any country should undertake in anticipation of greater national return. A body of research suggests that education is an important tool in the promotion of both local national regional as well as international economies; it is a tool for eradication of poverty and related issues. Therefore, challenges need to be taken into consideration and these include inequality in admission into institutions of higher learning as well as inequality in higher education based on social and demographic groups. The themes selected here in touch on the significance of education and more so higher education and focusing on developed and less developed countries. Some studies have revealed that graduates actually contribute to economy and society in developing countries, but much more research is needed on this topic. There is a need to open up this area…… [Read More]

References

Diasa, R., Mattosb, C., & Balestieria, J. (2004). Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers. Energy Policy, 32, 1339 -- 1347.

Godoy, R., O'Neill, K., McSweeney, K., Wilkie, D., Flores, V., Bravo, D., et al. (2000). Human

capital, wealth, property rights, and the adoption of new farm technologies: the Tawahka Indians of Honduras. Human Organization, 59 (2 ), 222-233 .

Grootaert, C., & Narayan, P. (2004). Local institutions, poverty and household welfare in Bolivia. World Development, 32, 1179 -- 1198.
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Macro Vision of Jefferson vs

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12612725



Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank

Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.

Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…… [Read More]

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Credit Risk in Banking in Agreement With the Basel Accords

Words: 13816 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 65664414

Credit isk Management

Banks are an important part of the economy of any nation. Traditionally, the banks operate as financial intermediaries serving to satisfy the demand of people in need of various forms of financing. Through this, banks enable people to purchase home and businesses to expand. These financial institutions therefore facilitate investment and spending that are responsible for fueling the growth of the economy. In spite of their vital role in the economy, they are nevertheless prone to failure and just like other types of businesses, they also go bankrupt. Unfortunately, the failure of banks can have many and significant implications than any other type of business. As witnessed during the great depression, and in recent times following the global economic crisis and recession, the stability or lack of it in the banking system could trigger economic epidemics that would impact millions of people. With respect to this, it…… [Read More]

References

Bank for International Settlements (BIS). (2001). Consultative Document -- Overview of The New Basel Capital Accord. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (1988) "International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards" (www.bis.org/publ/bcbs04A.pdf).

Benston, G.J. (1998) "Regulating Financial Markets: A Critique and Some Proposals." Hobart Paper no. 135. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Blundell-Wignall, A., Atkinson, P. And Roulet, C. (2013). Bank Business Models and the Basel System: Complexity and Interconnectedness. OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends, Issue 2.
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Opportunities to Improve Relationship Banking at Al

Words: 4847 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36667476

Opportunities to Improve elationship Banking at Al ajhi Bank

In an increasingly globalized and competitive marketplace, many banking professionals today are faced with the need to develop informed and timely responses to changes in consumer demand, as well as fluctuations in the global economy that can have a positive or negative effect on investments. In affluent nations, this need has become especially pronounced as billion-dollar deals are routinely involved, and bankers working relationship banking operations stand to assist banks in attracting and retaining wealthy private and highly fluid commercial enterprises as long-term clientele. The enormous amounts of money that are involved make it important to formulate such responses in ways that add value to the banking operation including providing a competitive advantage. In some banks, relationship banking at this level is termed "privilege banking" or "prime account management," but the common feature of these business units is targeting high net…… [Read More]

References

About Us. (2012). Al Rajhi Bank. Retrieved from http://www.alrajhibank.com.my/corporate_

about_al_rajhi.shtml.

Constantinides, G.M., Harris, M. & Stulz, R.M. (2003). Handbook of the economics of finance.

Boston: Elsevier/North-Holland.
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Matching Terms Writ of Mandamus

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58268701



8. State the "law of the case" of each of the following: (10) a) Gonzales v. Raisch: ffirmed Oregon statute allowing doctors to prescribe controlled substances in assisted suicide and invalidated ttorney General's statutory interpretation that assisted suicide does not constitute practicing medicine..

b) First National Bank v. Bellotti: Invalidated Massachusetts law criminalizing corporate use of corporate funds to promote political agenda as a violation of corporations right to Free Speech under the 1st mendment..

c) Kelo v. New London: State power of eminent domain properly used even though taking of property inured to benefit of one private entity over another, because its effect was beneficial to the community..

d) darand v. Pina: Overturned Metro v FCC and decided that any type of racial classification used by any government agency triggers strict scrutiny.

e) Cole v. Burns International Security Systems: Employers may require employees to waive their right to litigate…… [Read More]

A b) Cole v. Burns International Security Company: D.C. District Court applies SCOTUS ruling in Gilmer, to uphold pre-employment arbitration agreements that meet the 5 elements of fairness articulated in Gilmer.

10. Respond to a colleague who asserts that we need to get rid of these liberal activist judges and replace them with conservative judges who interpret the law and do not make the law. (5)

The 2000 SCOTUS decision terminating the by-hand vote count then underway in Florida is a perfect example that "conservative" justices with no prior history of "liberal" statutory interpretation, in fact, make law, as evidenced in the way five "conservative" Republican justices effectively awarded the presidency to George W. Bush by their whim under the color of "judicial interpretation."
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Modernity the Discourse of Modernity

Words: 3436 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63570272

The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.

From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.

Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]

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ECB Can Be Successful at Emulating the

Words: 16733 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36972206

ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems as it is still in the developmental phases. The investigation will seek to detemine whethe the tools of the Bundesbank can povide suppot fo the ECB in achieving economic stability in the Euopean Monetay Union.

Reseach about this paticula topic is impotant because the Euopean Union is expected to expand in the yeas to come. In addition, many membes of the Euopean Union have opted to have a single cuency. This means that economic stability is even moe essential in ensue that the Euopean Monetay System is economically efficient.

The methodology fo this eseach will encompass seveal foms. Fistly, the eseach will contain backgound infomation about the ECB and the Bundesbank. In addition, the eseach will contain a liteatue eview to…… [Read More]

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Small Business - Banking Start-Up

Words: 7548 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8891230

Video Tape and Disc ental

entals

Catalog/Mail Order

etailing

Health and Personal Care Stores

etailing

Table 2: Comparisons of Most isky Small Business (BizStats.com, cited by Telberg, 2003)

An Engine of Economic Growth

More and more, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) argue, policymakers perceive the small business sector "as a potential engine of economic growth. Policies to promote small businesses include tax relief, direct subsidies, and indirect subsidies through government lending programs." These authors stress that encouraging lending to small business purports the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) primary policy objective of the loan-guarantee program. In their study, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) implement empirical research to focus on SBA-guaranteed lending, utilizing a panel data set of SBA-guaranteed loans, they assess whether SBA-guaranteed lending discernibly impacts local economic performance. Ultimately, these authors cautiously conclude that "There is a positive (although small) and significant relationship between the level of SBA-guaranteed lending in…… [Read More]

References

Authority, purpose and scope. (2002). EXTENSIONS of CREDIT by FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (REGULATION a). Retrieved November 10, 2007, at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=57016e116171461106934124459aa8aa&rgn=div5&view=text&node=1-2:2.0.1.1.1&idno=12#12:2.0.1.1.1.0.1.1  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=108945401" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Merger Activity Due in Large

Words: 7696 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57391917

Finance-dominated proponents also maintain that boom economic periods generate a more varied divergence of valuations that fuel merger activity (Medlen 2007). In this regard, Medlen concludes that, "Taken collectively, these understandings may explain some of the merger activity in booms, but they involve certain asymmetries that undercut their explanatory power. High stock valuations allow stock to be utilized as currency and collateral for takeovers; yet stock booms also make targets expensive" (p. 202). Moreover, despite the commonly held perception that mergers are a "quick and dirty" way to grow a business and achieve organizational goals, there remains a lack of convincing empirical evidence in support of this perception (Medlen 2007). As Medlen points out, an "anomalous fact about mergers concerns the lack of evidence that mergers are profitable. This fact begs the question: why then are mergers carried out with such frequency and with such large levels of capitalization?" (p.…… [Read More]

References

Ahern, K.A. & Weston, J.F. (2007). 'M&as: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.' Journal

of Applied Finance, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 5-7.

Babbie, E. (1990). Survey Research Methods (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Publishing Company.
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John Pierpont Morgan 1837 -- 1931 Is

Words: 2647 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77414068

John Pierpont Morgan (1837 -- 1931) is one of the more controversial figures in the history of America and the world of finance. Described as a sui generis, a colossus (McCallum, p. 2), "the organizer" (Miller, 2003), "banker of last resort" (Andrews, 1999), and "the man of the hour" (Corey, p. 348), John Pierpont Morgan has also been called a "robber baron" (Andrews, 1999). Thus, it is evident that J.P. Morgan was a man who was as much praised for his actions in saving the American economy during the 1895 and 1907 crises, as he was criticized and derided for what was seen as his calculated control of the financial world and American business. Viewed from the lens of financial history, however, there can be little doubt that no person, either before or since, has left "upon the great art of money getting so important an influence." (Flynn, p. 452)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1000 Management Giants. "John Pierpont Morgan." Treasury of Investment Wisdom.

1999. Accessed April 30, 2005: http://www.ultimatebusinessresource.com/downloads/uk/giantscigar.pdf.

Andrews, J. "American Financier." Insight on the News. June 28, 1999. Vol. 15: 24

42.