National Football League Essays (Examples)

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NFL Foundation

Words: 3936 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26156103

Their activities and support of the foundation; enable the league to demonstrate a higher purpose which is of greater social value. (Ferriter)

In the majority of cases, the NFL is using the various high profile marketing events to illustrate the importance of sports in promoting various charity related events. The Super Bowl is the biggest event with it using the game as an avenue to help the community which is hosting it. At the same time, it is an avenue for helping to promote social responsibility. Evidence of this can be seen with Babiak & Wolfe (2006) saying, "The NFL is becoming progressively more invested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in an effort to establish itself as a socially conscious organization, one based on the twin pillars of football and the community. As the proverbial jewel in the NFL's crown, the Super Bowl is an institution composed of many interlinked parts: the league, competing teams, corporate entities, governments, and nonprofit organizations. Increasingly, the NFL is investing its efforts around the Super Bowl on social issues and concerns in cities that host the event. It is more than just a game to the National Football League (NFL) and the communities…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Community." NFL Foundation, 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2014. < http://www.nflfoundation.org/community >

"Kirk Cousins of Washington Redskins Says He'd 'Welcome' Gay Teammate: 'Nobody's Perfect." Huffington Post, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

"NFL Foundation Kicks Off Summer With Nearly $700,000 in Grants to Youth Football Camps." NFL Communications, 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2012

Babiak, Kathy and Wolfe, Richard. "More than Just a Game? Corporate Social Responsibility and Super Bowl XL." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15.4 (2006): 214-222. Print.
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Analyzing the NFL and Its Contributions to the American Society

Words: 2060 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19636911

National Football League refers to professional football league based in the U.S. And forms the major professional football sport leagues in the U.S. The league comprises of the 32 teams that are divided equally between the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference. Formed in the 1920, the league has expanded to become one of the largest and most renowned football leagues across the world. The organization rewards its champions using three trophies and rewards that include the Brunswick-Balke Collender Cup (1920), Ed Thorp Memorial Trophy (1934-1969), and Vince Lombardi Trophy that is currently used. Organizational success is attributed to the excellent leadership structure that aims at ensuring the adoption of activities that contribute to the realization of the desired organizational objectives (Layden, 2006).

Structure of the essay

This research paper analyzes various issues related to the National Football League. In specific, it describes the nature, structure, products, and services provided by the organization alongside its salient stakeholders basing on its roles and relationships with the company. The paper also explains the various ways in which the stakeholders influence the performance of the organization, controversial social responsibility concerns of the organization alongside a plan of a coalition force for…… [Read More]

References

Bass, T. (2007). National Football League: between the lines reader. New York: Scholastic.

Hancock, J. (2005). Investing in corporate social responsibility: a guide to best practice, business planning & the UK's leading companies. London: Kogan Page.

John, H. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility CSR Case Studies.. (2005). Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada.

Layden, J. (2006). 2006 National Football League megastars. New York: Scholastic.
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Is Roger Goodell Competent to Reform the NFL's Policies

Words: 1097 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47936652

NFL and Decision Making

The National Football League (NFL), probably the most popular and richest sports league in America, has been in the news a lot lately. The issues involving the NFL have not been about football per se -- and about what teams are dominant early in the season -- but rather about wrongdoing by football players and incompetence and poor decision-making by the commissioner of the NFL, Roger Goodell. This paper reviews the domestic violence issues that have made headlines over the past few weeks and months, and the wrongheaded attempt at leadership the public has witnessed from the commissioner.

A History of Lenience by the NFL

It was April, 2007, and in the previous season more than 50 NFL players had been arrested for various crimes, so Commissioner Roger Goodell got tough on these players by instituting a "newly stringent personal conduct policy" (Pennington, et al., 2014). Goodell insisted that he could handle the wave of criminal activity by players himself, and that was installing himself as "…the judge and jury presiding over every case" (Pennington, p. 1). Goodell was quoted saying, "It is my job -- not law enforcement's job -- to protect the National Football…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boitnott, J. (2014). 5 Mistakes by Roger Goodell Every Entrepreneur Should Avoid. Inc.

Retrieved September 23, 2014, from  http://www.inc.com .

Carter, C.J. (2014). Roger Goodell's news conference: 5 things to know. CNN. Retrieved

September 23, 2014, from http://www.cnn.com.
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NFL Overtime Rule the NFL

Words: 1663 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56510636

Justification is an important part of the game and a number of fans say that if a team's defense cannot stop the opposite team from launching a drive into the end zone, they are worthy of being given the loss. In spite of everything, it could have just as simply gone the other way. Unmistakably it is to a team's difficulty to misplace the coin toss and have to deal with catastrophic consequences in case they fail, but supporters of defensive football claim that it is a genuine way to decide the game. The NCAA and the CFL work in the perfect way, according to followers of equal-opportunity overtime; every team is arranged an equal number of possessions ahead of the winner being determined. If, though the primary team to have the ball scores and the second team does not, it is game over. In case the first team does not score and the second team does, after that it is game over. However, if both teams score, they do it once more. Nevertheless is it common sense to have the first team score, say 'Well, that is it!' And just finish the game? A lot of people would say…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Easton, S., & Rockerbie, D. Overtime! Rules and Incentives in the National Hockey League. Journal of Sports Economics, Vol6, 2005.

Fort, Rodney and James Quirk. Optimal Competitive Balance in a Season Ticket League Working Paper. 2009. Print.

Longley, Neil and Swaminathan Sankaran. The Incentive Effects of Overtime Rules in Professional Hockey. Journal of Sports Economics Vol. 8 No. 5, 2007. Print

N.F.L. Ponders Changing How Overtime Is Played. New York Times, Section D, Page 5. 2003. Print
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Equipping for the Future National

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72161874

Selecting diverse staff members who are technically astute with a command of world languages and cultures will make NOV a company for the 21st, not simply the 20th century and ensure that the company does not become left behind in an environmentally conscious global environment.

NOV's approach to training was similarly far-thinking and far-reaching as its recruiting efforts. Eschewing specialization, it tried to create a leadership team with a thorough knowledge base of every facet of the company. The chosen new managers spent an entire year rotating different jobs, almost like a doctor has a residency in different facets of medicine, to broaden his or her area of expertise. Talent management itself is a many-layered process at NOV. The 'old boys club' of a relatively small number of homogeneous management staff had been expanded by the recruiting and training effort. The mentoring received by the candidates during their orientation year ensured that a consistent company philosophy was still infused into every segment of the organization. Finally, after the one-year rotation, NOV created a final 'draft' process modeled on the National Football League (NFL) in which each business unit recruited specific members.

Conclusion

NOV considers its program to be successful, given…… [Read More]

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Regulation of the NFL From

Words: 10136 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85830645

On the other hand, we might be able to "incubate" a cable network by playing a Thursday night series of cable games, and such a network could be a long-run success that would strengthen our product as well." (Tagliabue, 2004)

Tagliabue states that prior to proceeding with a new package it is necessary to ensure that this new package is based on "sound television premises and that it is structured to complement our other television packages rather than to cannibalize our Sunday and Monday night audiences and move us down the road to commoditization. As previously mentioned, commoditization is ultimately very negative in a 400-channel universe, and the challenge we face is how to balance the need for revenue and viewers to ensure the long-run success of our sport. In theory, greater revenues are available from cable television, which is both advertiser and subscriber supported, than from broadcast television, which is only ad-supported, but despite cable channels' gains in viewership over the years; more viewers are still available from traditional broadcast television." (2004)

The third stated consideration is the NFL's ownership structure and Tagliabue states that there are some unique rules which include "...debt ceiling limits and clear limitations in…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Badenhausen, Kurt, Ozanian, Michael K. And Rondey, Maya (2006) The Business of Football. Forbes. 31 Aug 2006. Online available at:  http://www.forbes.com/lists/2006/30/06nfl_NFL-Team-Valuations_land.html 

Barros, Carlos Pestana and Barrio, Pedro Garcia-del (nd) Efficiency Measurement of the English Football Premier League with a Random Frontier Model. Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia.

Brenner, Adam (2004) Welcome to the Club. The Business of Football. Forbes 2 Sept 2004. Online available at: http://www.forbes.com/2004/09/02/cz_ab_0902nflclubseats.html

English Football and its Governance (2009) All Party Parliamentary Football Group. April 2009. Online available at: http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/federation/01/05/04/18/apfgreportonenglishfootballanditsgovernanceapril2009.pdf
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Clean Hits The NFL and

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83823168

In that case, the NFL will, naturally, take the position that if they do not want to be included in a profit-making activity, the NFL will gladly take the profits without them. Whether this is truly collusion is perhaps the decision of the individual to whom the thought strikes; but certainly it seems to appear as collusion when in fact it is not by any means deliberately collusive. Players' claims notwithstanding, it is very unlike the NFL to procure less-than-maximum television revenues simply because they must split them with another group; in fact it goes contrary to all other signs that the NFL shows and actions that it takes.

I do not like Roger Goodell, the Commissioner of the NFL -- who does?

-- but it is not in my interests to claim that he is overseeing an organization characterized by collusion when in reality it is clean in that regard. That the NFL is a wealthy industry and that the owners have more than the players -- more money, more education, more culture, and hence more resources to draw on -- is well beyond dispute. That it pursues strong-arm tactics and is not clean as a whistle is likewise…… [Read More]

http://www.sportscity.com/NFL/Cincinnati-Bengals-Salaries

http://sports.yahoo.com/nfl/players/4262/gamelog;_ylt=AmSIMv1NcfJaacFLpJE.HyH.uLYF

(Accessed May 9, 2011)
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American Sports of NFL and NBA and Their Influence in Popular Culture

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70386722

Sports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)

Prelude

Pop Culture

Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:

Newspapers

Radio

Magazines

Music

Books and Cartoons and comics

Advertising

It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:

Classical music

Artworks

Conventional theatre

In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).

Sports

The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure activities. These activities consisted of hunting and war-like nature as well as dancing and other activities. The romans admired games that had gladiatorial and military effect to them while the Greeks loved the human body and its beauty. Later on in the Middle Ages, they had religious festivals and knight…… [Read More]

Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).

Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).

In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
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Change Management in the NFL

Words: 8314 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85473156

Leadership and Organizational Change Potential in the NFL

Organizational Problem or Opportunity

Description of the Problem or Opportunity

Purpose of the Investigation

Management/Business

Audience

Summary of Section Highlights

Problem or Opportunity Background

• Current State of the Target Organization

• Relevant Organizational Processes or Systems or Functions

• Relevant Theory

Risk Management

Organizational Change

Lewin's Change Management Model

McKinsey 7-S Model

Kotter's 8 Step Change Model

Leadership

Corporate Social Responsibility

Investigative Steps

Investigative Approach and Design Strategies

• Investigative Approach

• Theory Thread Strategies

• Data Collection and Preparation Strategies

Investigation Parameters or Limitations

Summary

Findings of the Investigation

Introduction

Relevant Analysis

Overall Findings: A Synthesis

Summary

Interpretation and Recommendations 34

Organizational Implications 34

Recommendations 34

• Implications for Decision Makers 35

• Future Research 35

Summary 36… [Read More]

References

Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.

Benta, D. (2011). On Best Practices for Risk Management in Complex Projects. Informatica Economica, 142-152.

Business Dictionary. (N.d.). Change Management. Retrieved from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/change-management.html
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Major League Football Teams

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55337928

league football teams with higher salaries win more frequently than other teams?

The wages of football players have risen noticeably over thirteen fold for the highest paid player from the season that ended in 1985 to that which ended in 2011. This improvement together with the mutually beneficial relationship between the sport and media has brought about an interesting field that has attracted academic scholars to do research on the impacts between different amounts of salaries and its influence on personal and team performance. (Fullard, 2012)

The matter of remunerations of professional players has always attracted public interest for a long time. There are many non-academic reading materials on the issue of salaries of professional players. Remunerations have shifted for the better from 1950's into the 21st century. Research has been done on different kinds of sports to find out the relationship between wages and performance. The most used model for these studies has been the tournament theory; however opposing outcomes have been noted in other studies on hockey. This particular paper examines wage allocation and its link to personal and team performance amongst National Football League (NFL) clubs. (Fullard, 2012)

Hypothesis

The Teams that give higher remunerations for their…… [Read More]

References

Borghesi, R. (2008). Allocation of scarce resources: Insight from the NFL salary cap. Journal of Economics and Business 60.6: 536-550.

Frick, B., Prinz, J., & Winkelmann, K. (2003). Pay inequalities and team performance: Empirical evidence from the North American major leagues. International Journal of Manpower, 24(4), 472-488.

Fullard, J. (2012). Investigating Player Salaries and Performance in the National Hockey League. Masters Theses

Haugen, J. (2004).Team Success and Personnel Allocation under the National Football League Salary Cap. The Park Place Economist, Vol. XIV, 56-62
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Kurt Warner NFL Christian and

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92971226

Today, when they go out to eat it is not unusual for the Warners to pay for the meal of another family in a restaurant, to show their seven young children the value of charity (Battista 2010). Warner has also unapologetically proclaimed his devout Christian faith throughout his long career, crediting God with his success. This has earned him the respect of even his non-believing teammates.

Brenda, a former Marine, is known for being a strict yet loving parent. The Warners are determined to instill humble Midwestern values in their children: one reason that Warner's faith is accorded such respect is because of his sincerity and lack of hypocrisy. Before every meal, the family prays, and children must obey certain rules such as "after ordering at a restaurant, be able to tell Mom the server's eye color," and "throw away your trash at the movie theater and stack plates for the server at restaurants" (Crouse 2008).

After retirement, Warner will continue to work for the many charities that he has supported in the past, including Habitat for Humanity and the Special Olympics. Warner "believes that his career has gone the way it has for a reason, that he was meant…… [Read More]

References

Battista, Julia. (2010, January 10). Cardinal's Warner walks away after 12 improbable years.

The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/30/sports/football/30warner.html

Crouse, Karen. (2008, September 26). The rules of the family.

The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/26/sports/football/26rules.html
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NFL Retirement Benefits Issues and

Words: 2086 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16664641

12

Furthermore, ERISA issues aside, according to Linda Sanchez (D-California), "It concerns me when those who work hazardous jobs don't get the care they deserve, whether a coal miner, tire factory worker or football player... " referring to the questionnaire distributed to the NFLPA requesting medical data pertaining to their retirees, she said, "I look forward to timely responses to our questions so we can determine what steps might be necessary that those who made football great aren't neglected."13

AP, 2007

Carpenter, 2007

Conclusion:

Professional football is, by all accounts, a violent sport whose participants frequently suffer significant physical injuries on the playing field. Because of the nature, frequency, and intensity of the collisions inherent to the game, especially at the professional level, the effects of football injuries often persist long after retirement. Most insidious are the cumulative effects of repeated cerebral concussions, only recently identified as a specific injury when they occur, especially with regard to the delayed after-effects of some of those collisions.

The recent deaths of several high-profile retired former NFL stars at relatively early ages and the disclosure of the debilitating physical condition of others have increased attention to the need to improve retirement benefits. In…… [Read More]

References

Associated Press. 10/24/07 NFL Adds $10 Million to Medical Fund, Latest Step in Dispute Concerning Retirees and Pensions. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from CBSonline at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/10/24/ap/sportsline/main3404035.shtml?source=search_story

Associated Press. 5/31/07-35 NFL Players Qualify for Dementia-Alzheimer's Assistance Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from FoxNews Web site, at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,276617,00.html

Carpenter, L. 10/13/07 Congress Presses NFL, Union on Benefits. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from WashingtonPost.com at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/12/AR2007101202059.html 

Conrad, M. (1999) Sportslaw History: The John Mackey case. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, at http://www.sportslawnews.com/archive/history/HT8.html
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Player Restraints in Professional Sports

Words: 3014 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30447372

NFL & PLAYER MOBILITY RESTRICTIONS

National Football League (NFL) free agency and player mobility restrictions

Sports have managed to become gradually a lucrative business, which has seen to the interest by investors to protect this business. Team owners, who are the main stakeholders, have imposed rather extreme measures or approaches to protect their teams from supposed manipulation from their players. Through the NFL, team owners have imposed the mobility restrictions on the players to retain them and generate revenue from the players, and subsequently retain them in the team.

The intention of the study is to critique relevant literatures on the topic, and provide credible data about the aspects of NFL, free agency and mobility restrictions on players.

Methods

This study relied on prior literatures. The search strategy employed used terms such as "NFL and mobility restrictions on players" to find relevant studies. The main exclusion imposed in the studies is the literatures submitted by students, for example, dissertations and thesis.

Results

It is apparent that information from the studies suggests that the team owners generate revenue at the expense of their players. The main and consistent suggestion from most of them is that there is a need of free…… [Read More]

References

Chalian, S.C. (2012). Fourth and goal: Player restraints in professional sports, a look back and a look ahead. St. John's Law Review, 3(7), 1-46.

Depken, C. (2000). Wage disparity and team productivity: Evidence from Major League baseball. Economic Letters 67:87 -- 92.

Depken, C.A. (2002). Free Agency and the Concentration of Player Talent in Major League baseball. Journal of Sports Economics, 3(4), pp. 335-353.

Eckard, E.W. (2001). Free Agency, Competitive Balance, and Diminishing Returns to Pennant contention. Economic Inquiry, 39(3), 430-443.
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Legal Structure and Management of a National Level Sporting Organization

Words: 2976 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85378424

Legal Structure and Management of a National Level Sporting Organisation

Sports activities in the world today are becoming more popular and are attracting huge crowd. This is one of the reasons that have made sponsors to come in so as to help such clubs that are not able to support themselves financially. Through sponsoring, the sponsor is able to market and advertise its products within the stadium where the club is playing among other benefits. It is worth noting that sports are viewed as a means of income to each stakeholder including the players. Essendon football club has made Australia to be known worldwide because of the good performance the club has exhibited over the years.

Essendon Football Club is rated as a dynamic world class club in the Australian sporting arena. The success and competitiveness of the club is dependant on its set legal structure and proper management that foresees its functioning among its members. A stringent analysis is carried out by the club and all the proposed approvals are considered for the future success of Essendon Football Club as these will facilitate the process of retaining its image and position in the sporting industry of Australia (Lloyd, 2011).…… [Read More]

References

Books, H. 2011. Articles on Essendon Football Club Including: List of Essendon Football Club, Honours, Anzac Day Class. America, AM: Hephaestus Books.

Bools, L., & LLC, G.B. 2010. Essendon Football CLub: Essendon Football Club, List of Essendon Football CLub Honours. United States, U.S.: General Books LLC.

Clark, T. 2007. Stick This in Your Memory Hole. Doncaster East Victoria, VIC: aduki independent press.

Devaney, J.P. 2009. Full Points Footy: Encyclopedia of Australian Football Clubs. Lincoln, LN: Lulu.com.
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Sociology and Sports

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62554587

Football

American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (Bellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.

The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of team members on the playing field changed from 15 members to 11. Walter created the quarterback and the center positions. The forward pass was also implemented as well as numerical scoring. Walter created the safety, interference, penalties, and the neutral zone. Tackling as low as the knee was permitted starting…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm

Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central:  http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php
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HR Problem in Organization

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96857827

National Football League (NFL) is a powerful organization that has become embedded in American culture. The 2013 Super Bowl, the culminating event for the 2012-2013 season, captured more television viewers than any other televised event ever. Professional football is big business that brings billions of dollars in revenues to many different businesses worldwide. The NFL is primarily an entertainment outlet that relies on public opinion and massive sponsorship to maintain its powerful status within the business world.

There are many reasons therefore that the NFL stays conscious of public opinion as the fickle tastes of its consumers may drift if certain expectations are not met. In 2003 the NFL, facing the threat of many potential lawsuits, enacted what has become known as the Rooney Rule. This rule, named after the owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers Dan Rooney, mandated that for all coaching and general managing job openings a minority candidate had, at a minimum receive an interview for those positions. Teams that disregarded this rule may be assessed a fine. This program is the NFL's version of affirmative action being played out in a media-promoted business sector that has far reaching implications.

Unfortunately, the Rooney Rule has fallen under much…… [Read More]

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Athletic Training Whether to Win Marathons or

Words: 2909 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85890629

Athletic Training

Whether to win marathons or to make it to the state football championships, all athletes need some form of training. Lately, increased focus has been placed on the specific importance of weight, or strength, training for the overall conditioning of a casual or professional athlete. The terms "weight training" and "strength training" are technically different, but often the two terms are often used interchangeably. Typically, weight training implies the use of materials such as barbells, dumbbells, and specialized machines, whereas strength training also employs isometric or callisthenic exercises like push-ups and sit-ups. An athletic conditioning regime will generally incorporate aspects of both weight and strength training and therefore the terms can be easily used interchangeably. Much physiological research has focused on the efficacy of weight training on the performance and physical conditioning of athletes. Weight training programs can be tailor-made for an individual depending on his or her goals, and the sports he or she plays. Today, most coaches and athletic trainers will advise some type of strength training for their clients. Strength and weight training, when applied properly, go a long way toward improving the well-being, specific strength, endurance, power, and performance of any athlete and therefore…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barwis, Mike, Director of Strength and Conditioning, West Virginia University, Personal Interview, 15, June, 2005.

Bauer, G. (1996). B.F.S. isn't (a) H.I.T. Coach and Athletic Director, 65(8), 70-73.

Bouche, J. (1996). Making a H.I.T. In your weight room. Coach and Athletic Director,

66(3), 28-31.
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Sports Marketing

Words: 4268 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16731856

Sports Marketing

NFL or the 'National Football league' as it is referred to, is America's pride and cause for the inculcation of the inherent patriotic spirit in the heart of the American. The NFL conducts football games as a part of the tradition every year, and every year Americans gather at the stadium where patriotism is at its height and nationalistic fervor is at its peak. In the game that was conducted on September 24, 2001, soon after the attack on the World Towers by an Islamic militant group that left more than thousands dead and severely injured, the national spirit was at its ultimate peak, and the Americans gathered there underwent heightened emotions and feelings, and this was the time when pamphlets were distributed among the audience with the words of the 'Star Spangled Banner', and the 'God Bless America', and 'America the Beautiful'. Small American flags, almost a million of them in number, were also brought to the stadium to be distributed among the audience. There were a lot of tears and memories of the injured and the dead in the attacks were brought up and shared among the large number of people gathered there. (Patriotism abounds as…… [Read More]

References

"CBS, Fox clash over the marketing of NFL packages" (30 October, 2003) Retrieved From http://www.usatoday.com/sports/columnist/martzke/2003-10-30-martzke_x.htm Accessed on 24 December, 2004

Collinsworth, Cris. "Celebrations about Marketing, not Team" Retrieved From

http://www.nfl.com/news/story/6935064 Accessed on 24 December, 2004

'13 Lessons in Marketing, Super Bowl Style" Retrieved From
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Steroid Use Controversies of the

Words: 5176 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32219224

e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.

Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.

The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in steroid use. A major limitation of the study is that Norwegian youth behavior may not co-relate with that of other Western countries.

Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game (1987)

This is a general article about steroid use by Miller (1987) that gives an overview of the history of steroids,…… [Read More]

References

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592

Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf

Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
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Why Is Emmitt Smith Important to Our Culture

Words: 3449 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4441398

Emmitt Smith

(Schwartz)

I have been a big fan of the Dallas Cowboys and especially Emmitt Smith for many years. For example, one of the most difficult moments in my appreciation of sports occurred when the Dallas Cowboys released Smith and he ended up on a lackluster Arizona Cardinals. This was after he had just surpassed the late great Walter Payton to become the number one rushing running back in the history of the National Football League. "They are the two most punitive judgments that can be handed down for a running back: Too small, too slow. And yet that was the harsh assessment of Emmitt Smith, 5-foot-9 and 199 pounds, by the pro-scouts although he was an All-American at Florida. That same Emmitt Smith who skittered and stutter-stepped his way past the NFL rushing record held by his idol, Walter Payton, and finished with 18,355 yards." (Schwartz) There are some who say that he is only a football player and that should certainly not lay a foundation of any significance in our culture. But, this essay aims to prove otherwise -- Emmitt Smith is and should continue to be a cultural icon for his many achievements.

When an individual,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edensor, Tim. National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life. Oxford: Berg, 2002.

Gonzalez, John. "Smith Blarney." Dallas Observer October 17 (2002): Retrieved on 22 Apr. 2005, from .

Owens, Kerry. "Cowboys." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. 2002 ed. Retrieved on 22 Apr. 2005, from .

Rich, Wilbur C. The Economics and Politics of Sports Facilities. New York: Quorum, 2000.
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Competitive Balance Theory Evolution and

Words: 1975 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87984386

This is in direct contrast to the efforts afforded by the leagues to try to reduce competitive advantage all around. One reason why the teams with larger media and crowd resources do well could be the fact that as more talented players are able to move into free agency, they seek higher and higher compensation and attention through larger media and crowd outlets (Grant, 1991). A very talented player may not want to play in a small town because there would theoretically be less exposure to media and fans, and as a marketable good or commodity, that player knows that his or her talent would not be compensated for as well as it could be in a larger town.

The basis for argument with Rottenberg's presentation of competitive advantage mitigation lies in the basic economic theories that govern other markets. It is only logical that these theories be applied to labor markets within sports leagues. Although many fans and sports enthusiasts were happy to see that changes intended to increase the competitive balance were enacted in many different sports leagues within the U.S., it remains to be see whether or not these change have resulted in much more than higher…… [Read More]

References

Coase, Ronald H. 1960. "The Problem of Social Cost." Journal of Law and Economics. Vol. 3,

No. 1. Pp. 1 -- 44.

Demsetz, Harold. 1972. "When Does the Rule of Liability Matter?" Journal of Legal Studies.

Vol. 31, No. 5. Pp. 13-28.
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Sirius and Xm Satellite Radio Satellite Radio

Words: 5676 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52214969

Sirius and XM Satellite Radio

Satellite radio has emerged in the past few years as the hot new trend in broadcasting. Operating similar to DirecTV, satellite radio companies bounce their signals off satellites to beam high-quality digital service coast-to-coast, offering exclusive ad-free programming. Satellite radio offers listeners the opportunity to hear any show anywhere in the United States, combining the benefits of premium quality sound and convenience when traveling on the road. Research indicates that similar to the way FM radio grew against dominant AM radio, satellite radio is becoming known for "edgier" alternative programming (McCarthy, at http://www.usatoday.com/money/media/2004-10-6-radio-compare_x.htm). The entire satellite radio industry is currently made up only two companies, XM Radio, which started broadcasting in 2001 and has 2.5 million customers, and Sirius, with 600,000 subscribers since going live in 2002. This paper will offer a comparative analysis of the two companies and a general overview of the satellite radio industry itself.

Overview of Satellite Radio

Just as many TV viewers have come to consider cable TV a life necessity, so too is satellite radio becoming a mainstream replacement for traditional AM/FM listening. Similar to cable, this service has to be paid for, but just as with cable, you…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Deitz, C. "A Step-by-step Comparison of XM and Sirius Satellite Radio Features." Radio.

2005. About. < http://radio.about.com/od/satelliteradio/ss/blsatstepbystep.htm >.

Gustafson, C.J. "Sirius Satellite Radio vs. XM Satellite Radio- Which Streams Should You

Choose?" Ezine Articles. 2005. Ezine Articles. 21 Mar. 2005 <
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Components of Sport Marketing and

Words: 2675 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17471111

The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.

Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows marketers to make intelligent choices about the fit between their company and the products and needs of each segment (Bonoma & Shapiro, 1983). "Those segments that fit the organization's capabilities are chosen for penetration. Those segments that do not suit the company's capabilities are left for others to serve" (Bonoma…… [Read More]

Wann, D.L., Hamlet, M.A., Wilson, T.M., & Hodges, J.A. (1995). Basking in reflected glory, cutting off reflected failure, and cutting off future failure: The importance of group identification. The Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 377-388.

Zimbalist, A. (1992). Baseball and Billions. New York: Basic Books.

Larengectomy
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Australian Sport Industry What Is Sport Review

Words: 1851 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6225316

Australian Sport Industry

What is sport? Review relevant definitions of sport and build a definition that you can justify and apply to the evolution of the sporting industry and the evolution of the management of it.

In my understanding, sport usually includes all types of physical activities that are competitive which aim (through-organized participation or casual) to improve, maintain, and use physical ability and provide recreation for participants. There is a wide variety of sports ranging from those that require two participants to those that include hundreds of participants competing individually or in teams (Loy, 2007). Evidently, sporting activities are found in the physical dexterity or physical athletic. Other organizations like the Council of Australia use dimensions of preventing activities that do not have physical element categorized as sports. Nevertheless, some competitive activities, which are not physical must be recognized in a category of mind sports. Through ARISF, the international Olympics committee recognizes both bridge and chess as bona fide sports, and the international sports federation association, sport accord recognize five sports that do not include physiques although constraints the number of mind games that are taken in as sports (Beisser, 2007).

Sports are usually regulated by a set of…… [Read More]

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2001). Volunteer Work, Australia. Retrieved From

http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/

Beisser, A. (2007). The Madness In Sports. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

Bernie, E. (2008). Games People Play. New York: Grove Press
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Leadership Situation Situational Approach to Leadership Issues

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5537552

Leadership Situation:

Situational approach to leadership issues and challenges is one of the most commonly recognized approaches to leadership. This approach was developed in 1969 by Hersey and Blanchard and based on concepts from 3D management style theory by Reddin in 1967 (Northouse, 2010, p.89). As the name suggests, situational leadership emphasizes on leadership in situations based on the fact different conditions require different types of leadership. This implies that an effective leader needs to be an individual that adapt his/her leadership style and skills to the demands of various situations. This approach to leadership emphasizes that leadership consists of a directive and supportive dimension, and that each dimension has to be applied effectively in a particular situation. Notably, when addressing a leadership situation through this approach, the process usually involves applying development level and style in the particular issue or situation.

Example of Leadership Situation:

An example of a contemporary leadership situation is the leadership vacuum that occurred in Miami Dolphins team in the National Football League. The situation involves the troubled relationship between Richie Incognito and Jonathan Martin, the team's offensive linemen. This troubled relationship has had tremendous impacts on the team, which is in turmoil while the…… [Read More]

References:

Northouse, P.G. (2010). Situational Approach. In Leadership theory and practice (5th ed., chap

5, pp.89-109). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Wine, S. (2013, November 6). Leadership Vacuum? Ex-players Wonder Why No Players

Intervened in Dolphins Case. The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2014, from  http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/11/06/leadership-vacuum-ex-pla_n_4227157.html
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Sports Surfing and Other Underrated

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79210256

In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.

Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike the higher-profile team sports, surfing requires little equipment besides a surfboard and no facilities other than access to an appropriate beach; nor is an individual dependent on the participation of others to enjoy the sport.

Conclusion:

In terms of the talents and abilities it requires, surfing is just as legitimate…… [Read More]

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Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Words: 3144 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41892521

Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Among High School Athletes

Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.

Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his wins in the seven (7) Tour de France bicycle races that had previously been awarded as wins because he was found to have doped his blood. Mark McGwire has not been voted into the Professional Baseball Hall of Fame, and many suspect it is because he admitted using the substance…… [Read More]

References

Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.

Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf

Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.

Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
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Men Will Be Boys by Salley Jenkins

Words: 477 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64825396

Boys

Men Will Be Boys"

Sally Jenkins

In "Men Will Be Boys," Sally Jenkins takes her readers behind the scenes of the male dominated world of sports from the female perspective. Although much of the book is filled with humorous observances, Jenkins also touches on the serious and dark side of the sports world.

Jenkins has written a book that is apropos for anyone, male or female, who is a sports enthusiast or who lives with one, whether personally or by association. Parents of athletes or daughters who are dating an athlete would find this an appropriate gift or recommended reading. Jenkins points out the differences between males and females and their perspective view of sports and that neither is more right or wrong than the other.

For over four months out of the year, Jenkins estimates that approximately forty million women watch the NFL football games every Sunday and Monday (Jenkins 1996). In fact a "variety of recent surveys cited by the National Football League have discovered that a full forty percent of the league's television audience is female" (Jenkins 1996). And moreover, women are not only spectators of sports, they are playing sports. According to Jenkins, "In 1971,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jenkins, Sally. Men Will Be Boys. Doubleday. 1996.
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Sports Nutrition the Stuff of

Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70597020



Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).

Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1

Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited

ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1

Mannie, K (2001). The six basic nutrients of sound nutrition for athletes. Coach and Athletic Director: Scholastic, Inc. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOFIH/is_14_71/ai_n18612653/?tag=content;col1

Wellman, a.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1

Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited

ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
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Collective Bargaining Situation Within the Past 12 Months

Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65952397

Elliott, H. (2013, January 6). NHL, players reach tentative deal on new collective bargaining agreement. LA Times [Los Angeles], pp. 1-3.

Collective bargaining can occur in a variety of fields, from sports, to politics. It enables settlement of disputes that can benefit both parties as well as produce a result that isn't too one-sided. Collective bargaining is "the negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employees" (Beal, Wickersham, & Kienast, 1972, p. 5). In an article by LA Times, collective bargaining arises in contract disputes of the NHL.

The collective bargaining dispute stems from the NHL players Association and their laor dispute with the NHL. "Kings fans had waited 45 years for their beloved team to win the Stanley Cup last June, so it seemed cruel that a labor dispute between the National Hockey League and the NHL Players' Assn. delayed their chance to see the Kings raise their championship banner at Staples Center. "(Elliott, 2013, p.1). The players wish to be paid more for their work in the NHL while the NHL want to keep a salary cap on players salaries below the suggested limit by the NHL players Association. Consequences of such…… [Read More]

References

Beal, E.F., Wickersham, E.D., & Kienast, P. (1972). The practice of collective bargaining. Homewood, Ill: R.D. Irwin.

Elliott, H. (2013, January 6). NHL, players reach tentative deal on new collective bargaining agreement. LA Times [Los Angeles], pp. 1-3. Retrieved from  http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jan/06/sports/la-sp-nhl-lockout-20130107
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Health Advocacy Campaign

Words: 2657 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62348941

Health Advocacy Campaign - Childhood Obesity

Childhood Obesity

Most of the health issue that people face on a day-to-day basis do not become pandemics. But this is not the case with obesity. Over a billion people are affected by obesity worldwide (Miller, et al., 2004). The statistics are particularly discouraging for children who are obese. Children who have a body mass index (BMI) that is greater than the figures in the 85th percentile for their age and gender are considered to be obese (Miller, et al., 2004). During the past three decades, the number of children identified as obese under that standard has tripled (Miller, et al., 2004). In the United States, more than 30% of the children are overweight or obese, with BMI measurements greater than the 95th percentile (Miller, et al., 2004). The International Obesity Task Force has estimated that, across the globe, 22 million children under five years of age are obese (Miller, et al., 2004). Incredibly, in some parts of Africa, obesity has replaced malnutrition, such that, the incidence of being overweight or obese is four times that of malnutrition (Miller, et al., 2004).

White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity

Solving the problem of childhood…… [Read More]

References

ANA Code of Ethics Retrieved  http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume122007/No1Jan07/tpc32_216091.html 

Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., and Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic perspectives on childhood obesity. Economic Perspectives. Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.

Artz, M. (2006). The politics of caring: Ask not what nursing can do for you. The American Journal of Nursing, 106(9) 91.

Chapter 3 of Health Policy and Politics: A Nurse's Guide (3rd ed.)
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Sports Apparel

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4402580

Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf

In this work, Aspara investigates the psychological motivations underlying stock ownership and its influence on brand loyalty as well as finding empirical evidence to support the explication of these motivations. The author points out that, although consumption and investment psychologies, respectively, have been seen as separate realms, the study reveals that they can have a significant mutual influence. Indeed, the author has found that many individuals who become stockowners in a company also experience a positive and increased motivation towards brand loyalty for that company. Positive word-of-mouth has also been found among individuals becoming stock owners in a company.

What this means for the study to be conducted on brand loyalty among the youth in the United States and Kenya may not be considered in terms of stock ownership specifically among the young people being investigated, since it is unlikely that they will have the means to invest significant amounts of money in such stockownership. One might, however, consider the positive attitudes of the youth in terms of stockownership among their parents.

Bae, S. And Miller, J.…… [Read More]

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How Is Financial Risk Management Applied Effectively by a Sports Business

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54995465

Financial Risk Management: The Sports Industry

Financial risk management is the process of reducing a firm's exposure to various risks. According to Emery (2011), it is a process that enables organizations to reduce failures and increase their profitability by carefully evaluating the risks they are exposed to and developing strategies to manage them. The sports industry can learn a lot from the business industry in regard to risk management as it is often prone to issues such as corruption and drug abuse, which it is often insufficiently prepared/equipped to deal with. The office of Sport and Recreation Tasmania (as cited in Emery, 2011) claims that today, risk management is a central part of sports organizations' strategies because it enables management result to balanced and responsible decision making. This text examines risks sports businesses are exposed to, how financial risk management can be applied, and the strategies that should be applied to protect business finances.

Risks faced by sports businesses

Finance risks

Most major leagues operate under the constant threat of financial instability. Bankruptcies distort products and interfere with the financial capability of an entire league. The American National Football League (NFL), for instance, is known to be the most successful…… [Read More]

References

Emery, P. (2011). The Sports Management Toolkit. New York, NY: Routledge

Frigo, M.L. (2008). When Strategy and ERM Meet. Strategic Finance. Retrieved 24 January 2015 from  https://driehaus.depaul.edu/about/centers-and-institutes/center-for-strategy-execution-and-valuation/center-sev-initiatives/Documents/11When_Strategy_and_ERM_Meet.pdf 

Troelsen, T. & Kupperman, B. (2006). What sport can learn from business about risk management. The Olympic Capital Quarterly, Vol. 1(3): 1-7
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Hooliganism When Good Blokes Go

Words: 2649 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75429996

Hooliganism, like other forms of violent and aggressive behavior, can be traced to frustrated male needs for assertion, and the staunch identification with a sports team gives at once a sense of belonging and a clearly demarcated territory to "protect" (Farrington 1994). In this way, hooliganism fulfills a need that males who feel culturally disenfranchised experience in a sharp way (Farrington 1994).

Other scholars take a more historical view of hooliganism, tracing its origins and development in the twentieth century as a means of constructing a series of cause-and-effect sequences that led to the height of hooliganism and associated violence in the 1980s, and is possibly leading to a second rise today (Dunning 2000). Also included in this particular piece of research were interviews and other recorded statements made by hooliganism participants, and these demonstrated from a different perspective many findings similar to those of Farrington (1994): many men were feeling increasingly disillusioned and disenfranchised by ongoing political events, and these feelings were becoming increasingly evidenced in violent manners that hooliganism gave a direction and a sense of purpose to (Dunning 2000). The 1980s in Great Britain was typified by Thatcherism, which included the privatization of many formerly state-controlled operations,…… [Read More]

References

Dunning, E. (2000). Towards a Sociological Understanding of Football Hooliganism as a World Phenomenon. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 8(2): 141-62.

Farrington, D. (1994). Childhood, adolescent, and adult features of violent males. In Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.

Kerr, J. (1994). Understanding Soccer Hooliganism. New York: Open University Press.

Johnston, I. (2010). Should fans fear British soccer hooligans? MSNBC. Accessed 6 December 2010. http://worldblog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/06/11/4496159-should-fans-fear-british-soccer-hooligans
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Film Analysis Field of Dreams and Any Given Sunday

Words: 3709 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48034903

Sport in Two Films: Any Given Sunday and Field of Dreams

Sport has been a significant part of society for centuries. In part, sport is a recreational activity, a social activity, and a means of competing. However, sport also holds greater significance for many people. It represents something that goes beyond just competing or just winning and says something about the way people interact and work together to achieve their dreams. At the same time though, the meaning of sport has been lost over the years. Winning has become so important to some that the joy of sport has been lost. For others, sport has become so intertwined with making money that the meaning has eroded. In today's society, the joy and meaning in sport has begun to be lost. Two films that deal with these issues are Any Given Sunday and Field of Dreams. Both films offer a view of sport that attempts to remind the viewer of the meaning inherent in sport, showing the viewer that sport is something scared and suggesting that people need to remember what sport once was and not allow it to erode further. While this overall message is shared by the two films,…… [Read More]

References

Any Given Sunday. Dir. Oliver Stone. Warner Bros, 1999.

Field of Dreams. Dir. Phil Alden Robinson. Universal, 1989.
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Analysis of a New Story

Words: 1318 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31289227

Erik Kramer Story

Erik Kramer is a man that has been surrounded by a major tragedy and has himself been majorly tragic. Between the drug-related death of his son and his attempted suicide that may or may not be tied to head trauma induced during his time in the National Football League, Erik Kramer is a man that is obviously very tortured and may not be acting under his own devices. The burning question is whether he is more like Chris Benoit in that his mind and his faculties are leaving him or if there is any hope for Kramer after the tragedy, trauma and pain he has endured for much of his life. He is a hero in the sense in that he is the only man to win an NFL playoff game for the Detroit Lions since the 1950's but so much of the rest of his life has been an unmitigated mess. While some may disagree with the emotional and tragedy-related rhetoric of the story, the methodology used in the story works quite well at evoking an emotional response.

Analysis

One of the major themes of the Detroit Free Press article is whether Mr. Kramer has endured…… [Read More]

References

Fainaru-Wada, M., Avila, J., & Fainaru, S. (2013). Study -- Junior Seau's brain shows chronic brain damage found in other NFL football players. ESPN.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://espn.go.com/espn/otl/story/_/id/8830344/study-junior-seau-brain-shows-chronic-brain-damage-found-other-nfl-football-players

Nolo. (2015). Homicide: Murder and Manslaughter -- Nolo.com. Nolo.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/homicide-murder-manslaughter-32637.html

USA Today. (2015). Report: Ex-Detroit Lions QB Kramer survives apparent suicide attempt. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://www.freep.com/story/sports/nfl/lions/2015/08/20/detroit%C2%ADlions%C2%ADerik%C2%ADkramer/32043849/%
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Sports Are an Enormous Part

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47331115

" Meanwhile the networks have critics cornered; if a reviewer says attractive women are on the sidelines to stimulate libidos in male viewers, those critics are sexist. Although it is obvious in a brutally violent game, an attractive, well-spoken female brightens up the broadcast aesthetically, it is also sexist to assume beautiful women don't understand football. As Andrew writes, "I love it when my wife talks about zone defense."

Meanwhile a research article ("College students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women") reported two experiments that examined "how tawdry media sexualizations of… women athletes influence the perceived gender-role orientation of athletes" (Harrison, et al., 2010). The findings revealed that when female basketball players were presented to 85 students (64 women, 24 men) in "tawdry sexualization" scenes, the perception was that they were "feminine" (read that heterosexual). However, female athletes that are beautiful and sexy "violate traditional expectations that athletes have masculine characteristics, such as strength and determination" and hence the research showed the non-sexualized women were perceived as being better athletes, and participants would be more apt to pay to see the non-sexualized women play than the attractive sexualized players (Harrison, p. 11).

Conclusion: The media will do whatever it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harrison, Lisa a, and Secarea, Ashley M. (2010). College Students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 403-427.

Levitt, Steven D., and Dubner, Stephen J. (2010). Why Are Most of Football's Sideline

Reporters Women? Freakonomics. The New York Times. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com.
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Vince Lombardi and the Concept

Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12279690

He never suggested that individual effort was not crucial to the success of teams; rather, the coach taught that it is the context of individual effort that makes all the difference in the world. By the phrase "Individual commitment to a group effort -- that is what makes a team work, a company work, a society work, a civilization work," Coach Lombardi meant that individual effort is always important but that its value and importance increases exponentially when that work is contributed by the individual to a group effort. Individual contribution is important; individual contribution to the group effort is better; individual contribution as part of a team of equally qualified and equally dedicated individuals in synch with one another is ideal, whether in sports or other human endeavors.

Coach Lombardi also recognized the connection between individual motivation and greater commitment to a team. Specifically, the coach described his championship Green Bay Packers team as exemplifying that concept. According to Lombardi, "Teamwork is what the Green Bay Packers were all about. They didn't do it for individual glory. They did it because they loved one another."

Therefore, in addition to the importance of individual effort within the context of team…… [Read More]

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Child and Elderly Abuse Cases

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60173450

Child Abuse Elder Abuse)

Abuse in the contemporary society

There is much controversy regarding child and elderly abuse in the contemporary society. Even with the fact that the general public agrees with regard to the negative effect such actions have on victims and on the world as a whole, numerous cases are still being reported every year and it seems that in many communities there is a type of silent acceptance of the occurrence. In most cases, the perpetrators motivate their behavior by relating to the stress that their victims inflicted on them previous to the violent event and to how their actions were largely owed to the fact that they could no longer control themselves. The following two cases of abuse demonstrate the degree to which violence pervades the social order and makes it difficult and almost impossible for anyone to intervene.

The American football running back for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League, Adrian Peterson, has been indicted for child abuse as a consequence of physically abusing his child by grabbing a branch from a tree and taking its leaves off. He beat his four-year-old boy, who was at the time living with his mom in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Haynes, V. "Stoughton police: Woman charged in 'worst case of elder abuse'." Retrieved February 25, 2015, from  http://www.wcvb.com/news/stoughton-police-woman-charged-in-worst-case-of-elder-abuse/24713294 

"Vikings star Adrian Peterson avoids jail time in child abuse case," Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/11/04/adrian-peterson-to-return-to-court-in-felony-child-abuse-case / http://www.tmz.com/2014/09/12/adrian-peterson-indicted-for-child-abuse / http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregorymcneal/2014/09/16/adrian-petersons-indefensible-abuse-of-a-4-year-old-likely-violates-texas-law / http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/18/sports/football/nfl.html

https://books.google.ro/books?id=ZYf8QfXPNWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=physical+abuse+effects+on+children&hl=en&sa=X&ei=483tVPbaJcX7UI-QgagJ&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=physical%20abuse%20effects%20on%20children&f=false https://books.google.ro/books?id=s5PGZsq-oL0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Child+abuse+trauma+and+effects&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TJ_tVLGcA8nDOfb4gMgI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
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Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34103176

Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).

Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter back position and all his endorsement deals over the years earned $16,004,840 in 2006.

One would think to believe that modern day prizes have become much more formalized and structured. Athletic programs such as the NBA have structured pay-scale caps for their players and coaches. He NFL also adheres to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at:  http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.

Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.

Oxford University Press. 1935.

Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
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History of the Virgin Islands

Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64695771

St. Croix has the largest amount of land under cultivation. Sugarcane was once the most important crop but its importance has declined. Manufacturing is most developed on St. Croix, where rum, refined petroleum and watches are produced.

Tourism is the islands' leading industry. St. Thomas and St. John are the chief tourist centers. Among attractions are the pleasant climate, beautiful scenery, and water sports. Another attraction is the free port, which sells at bargain prices goods imported from all over the world.

Famous People from the Islands

Kelsey Grammer (born 1955), actor was born in St. Thomas. Kelsey grew famous with roles in 'Cheers' and 'Frasier'. He trained at the Juilliard School located in New York City.

Hanik Milligan was born 1979 in St. Croix, is an American football safety for the National Football League. He was originally drafted by the San Diego Chargers in the sixth round of the 2003 NFL Draft.

Sports and Pastimes

Sport fishing is very popular. Blue marlin, sailfish and wahoo are abundant in the waters off the islands. Sailing is a great way to explore the islands. If you're an experienced sailor then you can rent a boat for a day or two of…… [Read More]

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Steroids -- an Introduction to Purpose Uses

Words: 3029 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80463870

Steroids -- an Introduction to Purpose, Uses and Abuses

TYPES OF STEROIDS

HOW STEROIDS WORK

USERS OF STEROIDS

MEDICAL USE OF STEROIDS

HOW ARE STEROIDS ABUSED

EFFECTS OF STEROIDS ON HEALTH

EFFECTS OF STEROIDS ON BEHAVIOR

PREVENTION & TREATMENT OF STEROID ABUSE

Steroids are used for many purposes. This paper highlights the introduction of steroids i.e. its basic function. It also explains the multiple uses of steroids by people from different fields of profession. Normal perception of people is that it is used by athletes and sportsmen as a drug but there are other uses discussed in the paper as well. Advantages and disadvantages are also stated in the essay.

Steroids are short for corticosteroid drugs. It is a substance which is used to reduce swelling and inflammation quickly. These drugs are a close copy of cortisol and aldosterone i.e. A hormone produced on adrenal gland, it is also secreted by ovaries and testes. Steroids belong to the class of lipids. They have a distinguished molecular ring structure called "thecyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene" ring system. The basic difference among steroids is due to change in several side chains and additional rings. They are present in both animals and plants. There is a wide…… [Read More]

References

Bahrke, M.S., Yesalis-III, C.E., & Wright, J.E. (1990). Psychological and Behavioural Effects of Endogenous Testosterone Levels and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Among Males: A Review. Retrieved Feb 11, 2013, from MESO-Rx: http://www.mesomorphosis.com/articles/bahrke/bahrke09.htm

Clayton, L. (1998). Steroids. New York, USA: The Rosen Publishing Group.

Coleman, D.L., & Coleman, J.E. (2008, April ). The Problem of Doping. Duke Law Journal, 57 (6), 1743.

Columbia Encyclopedia Editors. (2012). Steroids. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th . The Columbia University Press.
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Does Mass Media Reflect or Shape Culture

Words: 2980 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87546360

Mass Media & Values

The author of this report has been asked to answer a rather broad but still important question. The question at hand is whether the mass media is simply a representation of the broader cultural values, attitudes and stereotypes of a society or whether the mass media is involved with shaping the same rather than just being a reflection or representation. The author of this response does not mean to be non-committal or waffling but the answer is actually a little of both. There are some instances where mass media is simply just groveling to the masses but there are some instances where narratives are being established and cultural trends are being written. What is true in a given situation usually depends on the situation but it is not entirely hard or difficult to tell which is happening in a given instance. While mass media output is usually an instance of reflection, there are different instances where the forces and powers that by are trying to strike and guide a new cultural trend, for whatever reason.

Analysis

As noted in the introduction, mass media is usually just a representation and reflection of what "the people want" as…… [Read More]

References

ABC News. 'Fox's Temptation Island Draws Fire'. ABC News. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.

Al-Jazeera. 'Hungary Journalist To Sue Syrian Refugee She Tripped'. Aljazeera.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.

Cassell, Paul. 'The Physical Evidence In The Michael Brown Case Supported The Officer [Updated With DNA Evidence]'. Washington Post. N.p., 2014. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.

Darren O. 'What's In A Name: Do MTV, History, And TLC Have Branding Issues?'. starcasm.net. N.p., 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
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United States the So-Called Cult

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97110819



Even before the civil trial where it was determined that he did, in fact, kill two people, there was substantial evidence to any objective observer that Simpson obviously was responsible for the gruesome crime scene at his ex-wife's house. He fled the state the next morning, left traces of his own blood at the murder scene, and even managed to drip his ex-wife's blood into the interior of his vehicle. Meanwhile, as he led California police on a nationally-televised slow-speed highway chase, thousands of supporters came out with signs and banners supporting him. Because he once ran fast holding a ball.

During the time that Simpson was on trial for murder, the public also learned that he had an extensive history of physically abusing his ex-wife for years prior to their divorce and even saw Polaroid pictures of her bloody and swollen face that she had preserved in her safety deposit box for evidence in case Simpson eventually killed her. Instead of rejecting Simpson for being an abuser who killed two people, the public actually embraced him and sought to emulate him even more. News reports showed that many people defended his innocence even with all of the obvious evidence…… [Read More]

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Strategic Challenges Cingular-At& t and Sprint

Words: 1271 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97085564

This company's reach extends across the vast properties of the two companies from which it originated. America Online brought its flagship online service, Netscape, and several interactive services to the merger. The threat of new competitors can be applied to the telecommunications industry in that new competitors will always emerge, as more companies are sure to be formed. The threat of substitutes can be applied to the medium of the Internet, because the cost of switching Internet providers and Internet service in general is very cheap. The presence of this type of substitute products can lower industry attractiveness and profitability because it can limit price levels. The bargaining power of buyers is greater in the telecommunications industry when there are few dominant buyers and products are standardized. Finally, the intensity of rivalry between competitors in the telecommunications industry is at an all-time high. This is a result of the structure of the telecommunications industry - since there are many equally sized competitors, as in the phone companies, the rivalry is more intense. It is in this instance where a company's success largely depends on its business plan, revenue models, core competencies, and competitive advantage.

Company Strengths and Weaknesses & Strategic…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AT&T. (2006). Cingular Wireless Reports Fourth Quarter 2006 Results. Retrieved February 22, 2007 at  http://cingular.mediaroom.com .

America Online. (2005). Retrieved February 22, 2007, at http://www.corp.aol.com/.

Sprint. (2007). Sprint Nextel: Aiming to be No. 1 in Customer Experience. Retrieved February 22, 2007 at http://www.sprint.com/companyinfo/history/.

Stiglitz, J. 2002, Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
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Change Case Apple CEO Tim Cook Comes Out

Words: 2128 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49012752

Tim Cook

"So let me be clear: I'm proud to be gay, and I consider being gay among the greatest gifts God has given me."

APPLE CEO, TIM COOK (Brand, 2013)

Tim Cook, the CEO of Apple since Steve Jobs passed away in 2011, has recently come out publically as gay. He is the first Fortune 500 chief executive to ever publicly state that he is homosexual. This will likely have some implications for Apple one many levels. While most people feel that this is a personal choice that Tim Cook has made and has no relevance for his position as CEO, others will likely be dismayed by Apple and its leader. Some conservatives have announced that Tim Cook has a right to be gay, but announcing his personal sexual preferences publically is a new story. This puts the CEO and by affiliation Apple into a political debate that will likely stir up some resentment. Apple should respond to these debates by standing behind their leader and the advantages of diversity in general. This report will analyze the situation and offer some recommendations for Apple moving forward.

Background

Apple Inc. Chief Executive Tim Cook said recently that he was "proud…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Apple. (N.d.). 2nd Vote. Retrieved from iTunes: https://iTunes.apple.com/us/app/2nd-vote/id593149524?mt=8

Brand, A. (2013, October 22). Apple CEO Tim Cook comes out as gay: I'm proud. Retrieved from MSNBC: http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/apple-ceo-tim-cook-comes-out-gay-im-proud

Cook, T. (2014, October 30). Tim Cook Speaks Up. Retrieved from Bloomberg: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-10-30/tim-cook-im-proud-to-be-gay

Feintzeig, R., & Wakabayashi, D. (2014, October 30). Apple CEO Says He's 'Proud to Be Gay'. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_26833222/cook-proud-be-gay
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History of Rock and Roll Analyzing Songs

Words: 1356 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27755874

Rock History -- Analyzing Songs

Since I Don't Have You -- the Skyliners

The arrangement by the Skyliners is very effective and fairly typical of 1950s music, in that there is an strong orchestra opening -- dramatically powering the listener into the mood of the song -- for a few seconds. And suddenly the group's harmony comes blasting in, joining the orchestra, and musically informing listeners that this is a slow dance tune. This is Do-Wop dance music from heaven, for lovers that don't want to dance fast but love clinging on to each other in a slow dance. The beat is strong but slow, and as the lead voice reaches high for emotional impact, other members of the group join in harmony by "Ahhhhh-ing" wordlessly along with the lead singer.

The arrangement is extremely friendly to the listener. As the lead singer Jimmy Beaumont rockets high notes, going into falsetto in the third stanza, the song reaches its most dramatic and lofty point. At the close of the song Beaumont's passionate calling out, "Since I don't have…. You-oh, You-oh, You-oh, You-oh…" is joined by Janet Vogel, soaring even higher than Beaumont to a very high C, giving Beaumont's interpretation…… [Read More]

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Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum Advertisement in

Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68235191

Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum advertisement in the recent issue of Miami New Times is dark. A black candle on a black candlestick smolders in the air, presenting one of only three traces of light colors via its cream colored smoke, billowing about. Directly above it, the white phrasing of "Introducing a darker, bolder spiced rum" leaps out at the viewer, in stark contrast to the opal shades that characterize the rest of the advertisement. The final light shade on the ad, the label for the bottle of Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum, displays a grinning, sword clutching captain standing on a barrel mounted atop the distant cliffs of some shore. Other than the warm, reddish tinged liquor cooling on a couple of ice cubes in a transparent glass, everything else depicted in this ad is black. The table containing the bottle, the glass and the candle is black, a chair, looking as though it were recently pushed back, is so dark it is hard to discern in the room that is undeniably ebony.

These simple, stark colors and the haunting, smoke filled imagery of piracy and hard liquor they contain are all a very clever, well-designed marketing tools attempting…… [Read More]

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Economics Major League Baseball's Antitrust

Words: 1720 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51801969

Of course, in recent years, this power has been diluted somewhat thanks to the rise of collective bargaining. Nonetheless, the fact that for so many years baseball has been characterized as a game rather than interstate commerce worked to the benefit of the industry as a whole.

If the exemption were repealed, apparently only possible through act of Congress, players and teams could sue the league if their movements were restricted and limitations placed on their ability to conduct business for themselves (Rovell). MLB could still manage how teams and players moved, but the repeal of the exemption would eliminate their absolute control over these movements. Obviously, this would have a significant impact on the baseball industry, but would not be necessarily devastating. Other sports have persisted despite not having antitrust exemptions, so there is little reason to expect that baseball couldn't adapt as well.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belth, Alex. "Ending Baseball's Antitrust Exemption." Baseball Prospectus. 26 Nov. 2001. 15 July 2008 http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Courses/econ352jpw/readme/Baseball%20Prospectus%20-%20Ending%20Baseball%27s%20Antitrust%20Exemption.htm.

Greenberg, David. "Baseball's Con Game." Slate. 19 July 2002. 15 July 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2068290/.

Morrissey, Mo. "Baseball Labor Relations: Anti-Trust Exemptions & the Reserve Clause." Associated Content. 19 Oct. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/421296/baseball_labor_relations_antitrust.html.

Rovell, Darren. "Baseball's Antitrust Exemption: Q & a." ESPN: Baseball. 6 Dec. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://espn.go.com/mlb/s/2001/1205/1290707.html.
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Twentieth Century the Brazilian National Character Had

Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96413377

twentieth century, the Brazilian national character had shed the veil of colonialism in favor of its own unique personality, one of the religiously historic samba, celebratory carnival, and a universal passion for soccer. The athletic fanaticism was steered at the helm by Edsom Arantes de Nascimento, the famous Pele. One of the most famed athletes in international sports, Pele was born to a poor Brazilian family in 1940.

While the samba music of the cities gained international attention, the burgeoning soccer star honed his kick on a stuffed sock. Years later, after scoring his 1,000th goal and garnering national love and world-wide hype, Pele's biggest contribution to the Brazilian people was clear. Through soccer, the beloved national pastime, Brazil surmounted many of the complex hurdles in developing a modern identity, navigating race relations, and becoming an important part of an international focus.

Unlike other popular colonial sports brought to the New World by the English, soccer was a great equalizer. While rugby required a cadre of expensive paraphernalia and polo could not be played without a horse, soccer only requires a ball. Additionally, like basketball has become in many urban areas throughout North America, soccer finds its popular prowess as…… [Read More]

Lever, 147.

Pele, p .121.

Associated Press dispatch from Sao Paolo, Brazil, to the Denver Post, 8 December, 1968.