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National Football League is the most profitable sports enterprise. The industry boasts over 100 teams and grosses billions in profits each year. The purpose of this discussion is to analyze this industry using Porter's five forces. We will also provide a company analysis of the Cincinnati Bengals. In addition, the discussion will focus on an analysis between the United States Army and the National Football league.
Industry Analysis of the National Football League using Michael Porters 5 Forces:
The national football league has grown tremendously since the time of its inception. Although the NFL is known today as the premier entity for football in America, it is not the first professional football league. The first league was the American Professional football league, which was founded in 1920. (NFL History Guide) The national football league came into being in 1922. (NFL History Guide) According to the NFL history guide, once the…
The 12 Stories to Watch. (2002, September 5). The Washington Times, p. E18.
Arena Football Quietly Flourishes. (2004, March 21). The Washington Times, p. C03.
Bengals Can't Change Stripes. (2003, September 8). The Washington Times, p. C01.
Cimini, M.H., & Behrmann, S.L. (1993). Five-Year Impasse Ends in Football. Monthly Labor Review, 116(3), 50+.
The National Football League (NFL) is a high profile sports organization that contributes to the large and growing sports business market and is one of the most recognized corporate brands in America. Every Sunday millions of people watch professional football presented by this organization. Commercial slots for these games provides incredible amounts of revenue as products such as jersey's, cable packages and season tickets contribute to this powerful organization. Integral to this corporation is the National Football Players Association (NFLPA) which is the labor union that supplies the league with players. The purpose of this essay is to examine the relationship between the NFL and the NFLPA to identify legal issues and obstacles that arise in their interaction in order to better understand the implications that unionized organizations promote in their business models.
Professional football is a very dangerous occupation and its players literally risk their lives…
Coenen, Craig R. (2005). From Sandlots to the Super Bowl: The National Football League, 1920-1967. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.
Johnston, S. (2010). Union Organization Process. Practical Law Company,2010. Retrieved from http://www.velaw.com/uploadedFiles/VEsite/Resources/UnionOrganizationProcess% [HIDDEN] %29.pdf
NFL Player Association Constitution. Viewed on 12 Feb 2013. Retrieved from https://images.nflplayers.com/mediaResources/images/oldImages/fck/NFLPA%20Constit ution%20-%20March%202007.pdf
NFLPlayers.com (2008). History of the NFLPA. 15 April, 2008. Retrieved from https://www.nflplayers.com/Articles/CBA-News/History-of-the-NFLPA-Part-1/
Their activities and support of the foundation; enable the league to demonstrate a higher purpose which is of greater social value. (Ferriter)
In the majority of cases, the NFL is using the various high profile marketing events to illustrate the importance of sports in promoting various charity related events. The Super Bowl is the biggest event with it using the game as an avenue to help the community which is hosting it. At the same time, it is an avenue for helping to promote social responsibility. Evidence of this can be seen with Babiak & olfe (2006) saying, "The NFL is becoming progressively more invested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in an effort to establish itself as a socially conscious organization, one based on the twin pillars of football and the community. As the proverbial jewel in the NFL's crown, the Super Bowl is an institution composed of many…
"Community." NFL Foundation, 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.
"Kirk Cousins of Washington Redskins Says He'd 'Welcome' Gay Teammate: 'Nobody's Perfect." Huffington Post, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
"NFL Foundation Kicks Off Summer With Nearly $700,000 in Grants to Youth Football Camps." NFL Communications, 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2012
Babiak, Kathy and Wolfe, Richard. "More than Just a Game? Corporate Social Responsibility and Super Bowl XL." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15.4 (2006): 214-222. Print.
National Football League refers to professional football league based in the U.S. And forms the major professional football sport leagues in the U.S. The league comprises of the 32 teams that are divided equally between the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference. Formed in the 1920, the league has expanded to become one of the largest and most renowned football leagues across the world. The organization rewards its champions using three trophies and rewards that include the Brunswick-Balke Collender Cup (1920), Ed Thorp Memorial Trophy (1934-1969), and Vince Lombardi Trophy that is currently used. Organizational success is attributed to the excellent leadership structure that aims at ensuring the adoption of activities that contribute to the realization of the desired organizational objectives (Layden, 2006).
Structure of the essay
This research paper analyzes various issues related to the National Football League. In specific, it describes the nature, structure, products, and…
Bass, T. (2007). National Football League: between the lines reader. New York: Scholastic.
Hancock, J. (2005). Investing in corporate social responsibility: a guide to best practice, business planning & the UK's leading companies. London: Kogan Page.
John, H. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility CSR Case Studies.. (2005). Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada.
Layden, J. (2006). 2006 National Football League megastars. New York: Scholastic.
Justification is an important part of the game and a number of fans say that if a team's defense cannot stop the opposite team from launching a drive into the end zone, they are worthy of being given the loss. In spite of everything, it could have just as simply gone the other way. Unmistakably it is to a team's difficulty to misplace the coin toss and have to deal with catastrophic consequences in case they fail, but supporters of defensive football claim that it is a genuine way to decide the game. The NCAA and the CFL work in the perfect way, according to followers of equal-opportunity overtime; every team is arranged an equal number of possessions ahead of the winner being determined. If, though the primary team to have the ball scores and the second team does not, it is game over. In case the first team does…
Easton, S., & Rockerbie, D. Overtime! Rules and Incentives in the National Hockey League. Journal of Sports Economics, Vol6, 2005.
Fort, Rodney and James Quirk. Optimal Competitive Balance in a Season Ticket League Working Paper. 2009. Print.
Longley, Neil and Swaminathan Sankaran. The Incentive Effects of Overtime Rules in Professional Hockey. Journal of Sports Economics Vol. 8 No. 5, 2007. Print
N.F.L. Ponders Changing How Overtime Is Played. New York Times, Section D, Page 5. 2003. Print
Selecting diverse staff members who are technically astute with a command of world languages and cultures will make NOV a company for the 21st, not simply the 20th century and ensure that the company does not become left behind in an environmentally conscious global environment.
NOV's approach to training was similarly far-thinking and far-reaching as its recruiting efforts. Eschewing specialization, it tried to create a leadership team with a thorough knowledge base of every facet of the company. The chosen new managers spent an entire year rotating different jobs, almost like a doctor has a residency in different facets of medicine, to broaden his or her area of expertise. Talent management itself is a many-layered process at NOV. The 'old boys club' of a relatively small number of homogeneous management staff had been expanded by the recruiting and training effort. The mentoring received by the candidates during their orientation year…
On the other hand, we might be able to "incubate" a cable network by playing a Thursday night series of cable games, and such a network could be a long-run success that would strengthen our product as well." (Tagliabue, 2004)
Tagliabue states that prior to proceeding with a new package it is necessary to ensure that this new package is based on "sound television premises and that it is structured to complement our other television packages rather than to cannibalize our Sunday and Monday night audiences and move us down the road to commoditization. As previously mentioned, commoditization is ultimately very negative in a 400-channel universe, and the challenge we face is how to balance the need for revenue and viewers to ensure the long-run success of our sport. In theory, greater revenues are available from cable television, which is both advertiser and subscriber supported, than from broadcast television, which…
Badenhausen, Kurt, Ozanian, Michael K. And Rondey, Maya (2006) The Business of Football. Forbes. 31 Aug 2006. Online available at: http://www.forbes.com/lists/2006/30/06nfl_NFL-Team-Valuations_land.html
Barros, Carlos Pestana and Barrio, Pedro Garcia-del (nd) Efficiency Measurement of the English Football Premier League with a Random Frontier Model. Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia.
Brenner, Adam (2004) Welcome to the Club. The Business of Football. Forbes 2 Sept 2004. Online available at: http://www.forbes.com/2004/09/02/cz_ab_0902nflclubseats.html
English Football and its Governance (2009) All Party Parliamentary Football Group. April 2009. Online available at: http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/federation/01/05/04/18/apfgreportonenglishfootballanditsgovernanceapril2009.pdf
In tat case, te NFL will, naturally, take te position tat if tey do not want to be included in a profit-making activity, te NFL will gladly take te profits witout tem. Weter tis is truly collusion is peraps te decision of te individual to wom te tougt strikes; but certainly it seems to appear as collusion wen in fact it is not by any means deliberately collusive. Players' claims notwitstanding, it is very unlike te NFL to procure less-tan-maximum television revenues simply because tey must split tem wit anoter group; in fact it goes contrary to all oter signs tat te NFL sows and actions tat it takes.
I do not like Roger Goodell, te Commissioner of te NFL -- wo does?
-- but it is not in my interests to claim tat e is overseeing an organization caracterized by collusion wen in reality it is clean in tat…
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
Reebok NFL Replica Jerseys: A Case for Postponement
Reebok International Ltd. (Reebok) is an American sportswear and apparel company. With its headquarters in Canton, Massachusetts, the company designs, manufactures, and markets a broad range of sports apparel and footwear brands worldwide. Under the leadership of Paul Fireman, the company has grown over the years to become one of the largest players in the global sportswear and apparel industry. In 2000, Reebok entered into a 10-year agreement with the National Football League (NFL) to manufacture and market NFL licensed merchandise, including an NFL-branded apparel line, footwear, practice apparel, sideline apparel, and on-field uniforms. With 32 teams, NFL is the leading professional confederation for American football.
Licensed Apparel Business
Whereas the licensed apparel market is a lucrative market, retailers face a number of concerns since demand is influenced by factors beyond their control. Retailers rely on Reebok to deliver merchandise on time…
Leadership and Organizational Change Potential in the NFL
Organizational Problem or Opportunity
Description of the Problem or Opportunity
Purpose of the Investigation
Summary of Section Highlights
Problem or Opportunity Background
• Current State of the Target Organization
• elevant Organizational Processes or Systems or Functions
• elevant Theory
Lewin's Change Management Model
McKinsey 7-S Model
Kotter's 8 Step Change Model
Corporate Social esponsibility
Investigative Approach and Design Strategies
• Investigative Approach
• Theory Thread Strategies
• Data Collection and Preparation Strategies
Investigation Parameters or Limitations
Findings of the Investigation
Overall Findings: A Synthesis
Interpretation and ecommendations 34
Organizational Implications 34
• Implications for Decision Makers 35
• Future esearch 35
The National Football League (NFL) is currently the most popular sport with American adults, however this position is…
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Benta, D. (2011). On Best Practices for Risk Management in Complex Projects. Informatica Economica, 142-152.
Business Dictionary. (N.d.). Change Management. Retrieved from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/change-management.html
league football teams with higher salaries win more frequently than other teams?
The wages of football players have risen noticeably over thirteen fold for the highest paid player from the season that ended in 1985 to that which ended in 2011. This improvement together with the mutually beneficial relationship between the sport and media has brought about an interesting field that has attracted academic scholars to do research on the impacts between different amounts of salaries and its influence on personal and team performance. (Fullard, 2012)
The matter of remunerations of professional players has always attracted public interest for a long time. There are many non-academic reading materials on the issue of salaries of professional players. emunerations have shifted for the better from 1950's into the 21st century. esearch has been done on different kinds of sports to find out the relationship between wages and performance. The most used model…
Borghesi, R. (2008). Allocation of scarce resources: Insight from the NFL salary cap. Journal of Economics and Business 60.6: 536-550.
Frick, B., Prinz, J., & Winkelmann, K. (2003). Pay inequalities and team performance: Empirical evidence from the North American major leagues. International Journal of Manpower, 24(4), 472-488.
Fullard, J. (2012). Investigating Player Salaries and Performance in the National Hockey League. Masters Theses
Haugen, J. (2004).Team Success and Personnel Allocation under the National Football League Salary Cap. The Park Place Economist, Vol. XIV, 56-62
Today, when they go out to eat it is not unusual for the Warners to pay for the meal of another family in a restaurant, to show their seven young children the value of charity (Battista 2010). Warner has also unapologetically proclaimed his devout Christian faith throughout his long career, crediting God with his success. This has earned him the respect of even his non-believing teammates.
Brenda, a former Marine, is known for being a strict yet loving parent. The Warners are determined to instill humble Midwestern values in their children: one reason that Warner's faith is accorded such respect is because of his sincerity and lack of hypocrisy. Before every meal, the family prays, and children must obey certain rules such as "after ordering at a restaurant, be able to tell Mom the server's eye color," and "throw away your trash at the movie theater and stack plates for…
Battista, Julia. (2010, January 10). Cardinal's Warner walks away after 12 improbable years.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/30/sports/football/30warner.html
Crouse, Karen. (2008, September 26). The rules of the family.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/26/sports/football/26rules.html
Furthermore, EISA issues aside, according to Linda Sanchez (D-California), "It concerns me when those who work hazardous jobs don't get the care they deserve, whether a coal miner, tire factory worker or football player... " referring to the questionnaire distributed to the NFLPA requesting medical data pertaining to their retirees, she said, "I look forward to timely responses to our questions so we can determine what steps might be necessary that those who made football great aren't neglected."13
Professional football is, by all accounts, a violent sport whose participants frequently suffer significant physical injuries on the playing field. Because of the nature, frequency, and intensity of the collisions inherent to the game, especially at the professional level, the effects of football injuries often persist long after retirement. Most insidious are the cumulative effects of repeated cerebral concussions, only recently identified as a specific injury…
Associated Press. 10/24/07 NFL Adds $10 Million to Medical Fund, Latest Step in Dispute Concerning Retirees and Pensions. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from CBSonline at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/10/24/ap/sportsline/main3404035.shtml?source=search_story
Associated Press. 5/31/07-35 NFL Players Qualify for Dementia-Alzheimer's Assistance Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from FoxNews Web site, at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,276617,00.html
Carpenter, L. 10/13/07 Congress Presses NFL, Union on Benefits. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from WashingtonPost.com at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/12/AR2007101202059.html
Conrad, M. (1999) Sportslaw History: The John Mackey case. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, at http://www.sportslawnews.com/archive/history/HT8.html
Legal Structure and Management of a National Level Sporting Organisation
Sports activities in the world today are becoming more popular and are attracting huge crowd. This is one of the reasons that have made sponsors to come in so as to help such clubs that are not able to support themselves financially. Through sponsoring, the sponsor is able to market and advertise its products within the stadium where the club is playing among other benefits. It is worth noting that sports are viewed as a means of income to each stakeholder including the players. Essendon football club has made Australia to be known worldwide because of the good performance the club has exhibited over the years.
Essendon Football Club is rated as a dynamic world class club in the Australian sporting arena. The success and competitiveness of the club is dependant on its set legal structure and proper management that…
Books, H. 2011. Articles on Essendon Football Club Including: List of Essendon Football Club, Honours, Anzac Day Class. America, AM: Hephaestus Books.
Bools, L., & LLC, G.B. 2010. Essendon Football CLub: Essendon Football Club, List of Essendon Football CLub Honours. United States, U.S.: General Books LLC.
Clark, T. 2007. Stick This in Your Memory Hole. Doncaster East Victoria, VIC: aduki independent press.
Devaney, J.P. 2009. Full Points Footy: Encyclopedia of Australian Football Clubs. Lincoln, LN: Lulu.com.
American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (ellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.
The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of…
Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm
Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central: http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php
This free essay discusses the National Anthem Protest which was first started by Colin Kaepernick in the NFL and has now spread to many players both in the NFL and other major sports. We will provide you with example titles, related topics, an outline as well as all the major parts of an essay (thesis statement, essay hook, introduction, body, conclusion, works cited). This can be used as a template/guideline/reference in helping you write your own paper. If you need help writing, please review our "how to write an essay" tutorial.
In 2016, a football player with the NFL named Colin Kaepernick made the decision to stop standing for the National Anthem as a means of protesting the fact that unarmed African Americans are killed by police in disproportionate numbers, usually without any repercussions for the officers who engaged in the killings. After hearing from a veteran that he found…
National Football League (NFL) is a powerful organization that has become embedded in American culture. The 2013 Super Bowl, the culminating event for the 2012-2013 season, captured more television viewers than any other televised event ever. Professional football is big business that brings billions of dollars in revenues to many different businesses worldwide. The NFL is primarily an entertainment outlet that relies on public opinion and massive sponsorship to maintain its powerful status within the business world.
There are many reasons therefore that the NFL stays conscious of public opinion as the fickle tastes of its consumers may drift if certain expectations are not met. In 2003 the NFL, facing the threat of many potential lawsuits, enacted what has become known as the Rooney Rule. This rule, named after the owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers Dan Rooney, mandated that for all coaching and general managing job openings a minority candidate…
e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.
Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.
The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…
Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592
Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf
Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
The Chinese sport has been identified as one of the most dynamic sectors in China based on the market value of the sports industry. In 2013, the market value of the Chinese sports industry was more than $2.91 Billion and increased to $3.44 Billion in 2014 revealing an increase of 18.01%. Typically, Chinese sports industry also recorded the market values of $3.43 Billion at the end of 2015 fiscal year. Although the Chinese sports industry only contributes to 0.63% of the GDP in 2013, however, since 2000, the sports industry has recorded more than 4% annual growth rate based on the increase in the household spending. After the Olympic game in 2008, the market value of the Chinese sports industry has increased by 20%. A report by the Chamber of Commerce (2015) shows that before the success of Lina's, the CSSM ("Chinese Sports Sponsorship Market") value (p 1) was approximate…
I have been a big fan of the Dallas Cowboys and especially Emmitt Smith for many years. For example, one of the most difficult moments in my appreciation of sports occurred when the Dallas Cowboys released Smith and he ended up on a lackluster Arizona Cardinals. This was after he had just surpassed the late great alter Payton to become the number one rushing running back in the history of the National Football League. "They are the two most punitive judgments that can be handed down for a running back: Too small, too slow. And yet that was the harsh assessment of Emmitt Smith, 5-foot-9 and 199 pounds, by the pro-scouts although he was an All-American at Florida. That same Emmitt Smith who skittered and stutter-stepped his way past the NFL rushing record held by his idol, alter Payton, and finished with 18,355 yards." (Schwartz) There are…
Edensor, Tim. National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life. Oxford: Berg, 2002.
Gonzalez, John. "Smith Blarney." Dallas Observer October 17 (2002): Retrieved on 22 Apr. 2005, from .
Owens, Kerry. "Cowboys." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. 2002 ed. Retrieved on 22 Apr. 2005, from .
Rich, Wilbur C. The Economics and Politics of Sports Facilities. New York: Quorum, 2000.
Sirius and XM Satellite Radio
Satellite radio has emerged in the past few years as the hot new trend in broadcasting. Operating similar to DirecTV, satellite radio companies bounce their signals off satellites to beam high-quality digital service coast-to-coast, offering exclusive ad-free programming. Satellite radio offers listeners the opportunity to hear any show anywhere in the United States, combining the benefits of premium quality sound and convenience when traveling on the road. Research indicates that similar to the way FM radio grew against dominant AM radio, satellite radio is becoming known for "edgier" alternative programming (McCarthy, at http://www.usatoday.com/money/media/2004-10-6-radio-compare_x.htm). The entire satellite radio industry is currently made up only two companies, XM Radio, which started broadcasting in 2001 and has 2.5 million customers, and Sirius, with 600,000 subscribers since going live in 2002. This paper will offer a comparative analysis of the two companies and a general overview of the satellite…
Deitz, C. "A Step-by-step Comparison of XM and Sirius Satellite Radio Features." Radio.
2005. About. < http://radio.about.com/od/satelliteradio/ss/blsatstepbystep.htm >.
Gustafson, C.J. "Sirius Satellite Radio vs. XM Satellite Radio- Which Streams Should You
Choose?" Ezine Articles. 2005. Ezine Articles. 21 Mar. 2005
This is in direct contrast to the efforts afforded by the leagues to try to reduce competitive advantage all around. One reason why the teams with larger media and crowd resources do well could be the fact that as more talented players are able to move into free agency, they seek higher and higher compensation and attention through larger media and crowd outlets (Grant, 1991). A very talented player may not want to play in a small town because there would theoretically be less exposure to media and fans, and as a marketable good or commodity, that player knows that his or her talent would not be compensated for as well as it could be in a larger town.
The basis for argument with ottenberg's presentation of competitive advantage mitigation lies in the basic economic theories that govern other markets. It is only logical that these theories be applied to…
Coase, Ronald H. 1960. "The Problem of Social Cost." Journal of Law and Economics. Vol. 3,
No. 1. Pp. 1 -- 44.
Demsetz, Harold. 1972. "When Does the Rule of Liability Matter?" Journal of Legal Studies.
Vol. 31, No. 5. Pp. 13-28.
The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.
Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows…
Wann, D.L., Hamlet, M.A., Wilson, T.M., & Hodges, J.A. (1995). Basking in reflected glory, cutting off reflected failure, and cutting off future failure: The importance of group identification. The Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 377-388.
Zimbalist, A. (1992). Baseball and Billions. New York: Basic Books.
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…
Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.
Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf
Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.
Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
Situational approach to leadership issues and challenges is one of the most commonly recognized approaches to leadership. This approach was developed in 1969 by Hersey and Blanchard and based on concepts from 3D management style theory by eddin in 1967 (Northouse, 2010, p.89). As the name suggests, situational leadership emphasizes on leadership in situations based on the fact different conditions require different types of leadership. This implies that an effective leader needs to be an individual that adapt his/her leadership style and skills to the demands of various situations. This approach to leadership emphasizes that leadership consists of a directive and supportive dimension, and that each dimension has to be applied effectively in a particular situation. Notably, when addressing a leadership situation through this approach, the process usually involves applying development level and style in the particular issue or situation.
Example of Leadership Situation:
An example of a…
Northouse, P.G. (2010). Situational Approach. In Leadership theory and practice (5th ed., chap
5, pp.89-109). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Wine, S. (2013, November 6). Leadership Vacuum? Ex-players Wonder Why No Players
Intervened in Dolphins Case. The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/11/06/leadership-vacuum-ex-pla_n_4227157.html
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
Men ill Be Boys"
In "Men ill Be Boys," Sally Jenkins takes her readers behind the scenes of the male dominated world of sports from the female perspective. Although much of the book is filled with humorous observances, Jenkins also touches on the serious and dark side of the sports world.
Jenkins has written a book that is apropos for anyone, male or female, who is a sports enthusiast or who lives with one, whether personally or by association. Parents of athletes or daughters who are dating an athlete would find this an appropriate gift or recommended reading. Jenkins points out the differences between males and females and their perspective view of sports and that neither is more right or wrong than the other.
For over four months out of the year, Jenkins estimates that approximately forty million women watch the NFL football games every Sunday and…
Jenkins, Sally. Men Will Be Boys. Doubleday. 1996.
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…
Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1
Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited
ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
Elliott, H. (2013, January 6). NHL, players reach tentative deal on new collective bargaining agreement. LA Times [Los Angeles], pp. 1-3.
Collective bargaining can occur in a variety of fields, from sports, to politics. It enables settlement of disputes that can benefit both parties as well as produce a result that isn't too one-sided. Collective bargaining is "the negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employees" (Beal, Wickersham, & Kienast, 1972, p. 5). In an article by LA Times, collective bargaining arises in contract disputes of the NHL.
The collective bargaining dispute stems from the NHL players Association and their laor dispute with the NHL. "Kings fans had waited 45 years for their beloved team to win the Stanley Cup last June, so it seemed cruel that a labor dispute between the National Hockey League and the NHL Players' Assn. delayed their chance to…
Beal, E.F., Wickersham, E.D., & Kienast, P. (1972). The practice of collective bargaining. Homewood, Ill: R.D. Irwin.
Elliott, H. (2013, January 6). NHL, players reach tentative deal on new collective bargaining agreement. LA Times [Los Angeles], pp. 1-3. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jan/06/sports/la-sp-nhl-lockout-20130107
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
In this work, Aspara investigates the psychological motivations underlying stock ownership and its influence on brand loyalty as well as finding empirical evidence to support the explication of these motivations. The author points out that, although consumption and investment psychologies, respectively, have been seen as separate realms, the study reveals that they can have a significant mutual influence. Indeed, the author has found that many individuals who become stockowners in a company also experience a positive and increased motivation towards brand loyalty for that company. Positive word-of-mouth has also been found among individuals becoming stock owners in a company.
What this means for the study to be conducted on brand loyalty among the youth in the United States and Kenya may not be considered in terms of…
Hooliganism, like other forms of violent and aggressive behavior, can be traced to frustrated male needs for assertion, and the staunch identification with a sports team gives at once a sense of belonging and a clearly demarcated territory to "protect" (Farrington 1994). In this way, hooliganism fulfills a need that males who feel culturally disenfranchised experience in a sharp way (Farrington 1994).
Other scholars take a more historical view of hooliganism, tracing its origins and development in the twentieth century as a means of constructing a series of cause-and-effect sequences that led to the height of hooliganism and associated violence in the 1980s, and is possibly leading to a second rise today (Dunning 2000). Also included in this particular piece of research were interviews and other recorded statements made by hooliganism participants, and these demonstrated from a different perspective many findings similar to those of Farrington (1994): many men were…
Dunning, E. (2000). Towards a Sociological Understanding of Football Hooliganism as a World Phenomenon. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 8(2): 141-62.
Farrington, D. (1994). Childhood, adolescent, and adult features of violent males. In Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.
Kerr, J. (1994). Understanding Soccer Hooliganism. New York: Open University Press.
Johnston, I. (2010). Should fans fear British soccer hooligans? MSNBC. Accessed 6 December 2010. http://worldblog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/06/11/4496159-should-fans-fear-british-soccer-hooligans
Sport in Two Films: Any Given Sunday and Field of Dreams
Sport has been a significant part of society for centuries. In part, sport is a recreational activity, a social activity, and a means of competing. However, sport also holds greater significance for many people. It represents something that goes beyond just competing or just winning and says something about the way people interact and work together to achieve their dreams. At the same time though, the meaning of sport has been lost over the years. Winning has become so important to some that the joy of sport has been lost. For others, sport has become so intertwined with making money that the meaning has eroded. In today's society, the joy and meaning in sport has begun to be lost. Two films that deal with these issues are Any Given Sunday and Field of Dreams. Both films offer a view…
Any Given Sunday. Dir. Oliver Stone. Warner Bros, 1999.
Field of Dreams. Dir. Phil Alden Robinson. Universal, 1989.
Erik Kramer Story
Erik Kramer is a man that has been surrounded by a major tragedy and has himself been majorly tragic. Between the drug-related death of his son and his attempted suicide that may or may not be tied to head trauma induced during his time in the National Football League, Erik Kramer is a man that is obviously very tortured and may not be acting under his own devices. The burning question is whether he is more like Chris Benoit in that his mind and his faculties are leaving him or if there is any hope for Kramer after the tragedy, trauma and pain he has endured for much of his life. He is a hero in the sense in that he is the only man to win an NFL playoff game for the Detroit Lions since the 1950's but so much of the rest of his life…
Fainaru-Wada, M., Avila, J., & Fainaru, S. (2013). Study -- Junior Seau's brain shows chronic brain damage found in other NFL football players. ESPN.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://espn.go.com/espn/otl/story/_/id/8830344/study-junior-seau-brain-shows-chronic-brain-damage-found-other-nfl-football-players
Nolo. (2015). Homicide: Murder and Manslaughter -- Nolo.com. Nolo.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/homicide-murder-manslaughter-32637.html
USA Today. (2015). Report: Ex-Detroit Lions QB Kramer survives apparent suicide attempt. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 5 October 2015, from http://www.freep.com/story/sports/nfl/lions/2015/08/20/detroit%C2%ADlions%C2%ADerik%C2%ADkramer/32043849/%
" Meanwhile the networks have critics cornered; if a reviewer says attractive women are on the sidelines to stimulate libidos in male viewers, those critics are sexist. Although it is obvious in a brutally violent game, an attractive, well-spoken female brightens up the broadcast aesthetically, it is also sexist to assume beautiful women don't understand football. As Andrew writes, "I love it when my wife talks about zone defense."
Meanwhile a research article ("College students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women") reported two experiments that examined "how tawdry media sexualizations of… women athletes influence the perceived gender-role orientation of athletes" (Harrison, et al., 2010). The findings revealed that when female basketball players were presented to 85 students (64 women, 24 men) in "tawdry sexualization" scenes, the perception was that they were "feminine" (read that heterosexual). However, female athletes that are beautiful and sexy "violate traditional expectations that athletes have…
Harrison, Lisa a, and Secarea, Ashley M. (2010). College Students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 403-427.
Levitt, Steven D., and Dubner, Stephen J. (2010). Why Are Most of Football's Sideline
Reporters Women? Freakonomics. The New York Times. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com .
He never suggested that individual effort was not crucial to the success of teams; rather, the coach taught that it is the context of individual effort that makes all the difference in the world. By the phrase "Individual commitment to a group effort -- that is what makes a team work, a company work, a society work, a civilization work," Coach Lombardi meant that individual effort is always important but that its value and importance increases exponentially when that work is contributed by the individual to a group effort. Individual contribution is important; individual contribution to the group effort is better; individual contribution as part of a team of equally qualified and equally dedicated individuals in synch with one another is ideal, whether in sports or other human endeavors.
Coach Lombardi also recognized the connection between individual motivation and greater commitment to a team. Specifically, the coach described his championship…
Child Abuse Elder Abuse)
Abuse in the contemporary society
There is much controversy regarding child and elderly abuse in the contemporary society. Even with the fact that the general public agrees with regard to the negative effect such actions have on victims and on the world as a whole, numerous cases are still being reported every year and it seems that in many communities there is a type of silent acceptance of the occurrence. In most cases, the perpetrators motivate their behavior by relating to the stress that their victims inflicted on them previous to the violent event and to how their actions were largely owed to the fact that they could no longer control themselves. The following two cases of abuse demonstrate the degree to which violence pervades the social order and makes it difficult and almost impossible for anyone to intervene.
The American football running back for the…
Haynes, V. "Stoughton police: Woman charged in 'worst case of elder abuse'." Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.wcvb.com/news/stoughton-police-woman-charged-in-worst-case-of-elder-abuse/24713294
"Vikings star Adrian Peterson avoids jail time in child abuse case," Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/11/04/adrian-peterson-to-return-to-court-in-felony-child-abuse-case / http://www.tmz.com/2014/09/12/adrian-peterson-indicted-for-child-abuse / http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregorymcneal/2014/09/16/adrian-petersons-indefensible-abuse-of-a-4-year-old-likely-violates-texas-law / http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/18/sports/football/nfl.html
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…
Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.
Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.
Oxford University Press. 1935.
Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
St. Croix has the largest amount of land under cultivation. Sugarcane was once the most important crop but its importance has declined. Manufacturing is most developed on St. Croix, where rum, refined petroleum and watches are produced.
Tourism is the islands' leading industry. St. Thomas and St. John are the chief tourist centers. Among attractions are the pleasant climate, beautiful scenery, and water sports. Another attraction is the free port, which sells at bargain prices goods imported from all over the world.
Famous People from the Islands
Kelsey Grammer (born 1955), actor was born in St. Thomas. Kelsey grew famous with roles in 'Cheers' and 'Frasier'. He trained at the Juilliard School located in New York City.
Hanik Milligan was born 1979 in St. Croix, is an American football safety for the National Football League. He was originally drafted by the San Diego Chargers in the sixth round of the…
The significance of rebranding in a stiffly competitive environment cannot be overemphasized. Organizations often undergo a change in logo, product line, packaging, advertising and other aspects of marketing with the aim of differentiating themselves from competitors, restoring image, and regaining lost market share (Khaund, 2014). Rebranding may also be informed by the need to adapt to change and remain relevant as well as reflect a shift in business strategy, focus, and target market. Reebok, a multinational fitness and sportswear company, recently underwent rebranding to reflect its shift of focus to the fitness industry. Focusing on the company, this paper describes the previous image as a brand, the reason for rebranding, as well as the rebranding undertaken and its effectiveness.
Founded in the 1 ate 1890s, Reebok is one of the largest sportswear companies in the world. With its headquarters in Canton, Massachusetts, the company designs, manufactures, and markets sportswear and…
Mass Media & Values
The author of this report has been asked to answer a rather broad but still important question. The question at hand is whether the mass media is simply a representation of the broader cultural values, attitudes and stereotypes of a society or whether the mass media is involved with shaping the same rather than just being a reflection or representation. The author of this response does not mean to be non-committal or waffling but the answer is actually a little of both. There are some instances where mass media is simply just groveling to the masses but there are some instances where narratives are being established and cultural trends are being written. What is true in a given situation usually depends on the situation but it is not entirely hard or difficult to tell which is happening in a given instance. While mass media output is…
ABC News. 'Fox's Temptation Island Draws Fire'. ABC News. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Al-Jazeera. 'Hungary Journalist To Sue Syrian Refugee She Tripped'. Aljazeera.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Cassell, Paul. 'The Physical Evidence In The Michael Brown Case Supported The Officer [Updated With DNA Evidence]'. Washington Post. N.p., 2014. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Darren O. 'What's In A Name: Do MTV, History, And TLC Have Branding Issues?'. starcasm.net. N.p., 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Even before the civil trial where it was determined that he did, in fact, kill two people, there was substantial evidence to any objective observer that Simpson obviously was responsible for the gruesome crime scene at his ex-wife's house. He fled the state the next morning, left traces of his own blood at the murder scene, and even managed to drip his ex-wife's blood into the interior of his vehicle. Meanwhile, as he led California police on a nationally-televised slow-speed highway chase, thousands of supporters came out with signs and banners supporting him. Because he once ran fast holding a ball.
During the time that Simpson was on trial for murder, the public also learned that he had an extensive history of physically abusing his ex-wife for years prior to their divorce and even saw Polaroid pictures of her bloody and swollen face that she had preserved in her safety…
This company's reach extends across the vast properties of the two companies from which it originated. America Online brought its flagship online service, Netscape, and several interactive services to the merger. The threat of new competitors can be applied to the telecommunications industry in that new competitors will always emerge, as more companies are sure to be formed. The threat of substitutes can be applied to the medium of the Internet, because the cost of switching Internet providers and Internet service in general is very cheap. The presence of this type of substitute products can lower industry attractiveness and profitability because it can limit price levels. The bargaining power of buyers is greater in the telecommunications industry when there are few dominant buyers and products are standardized. Finally, the intensity of rivalry between competitors in the telecommunications industry is at an all-time high. This is a result of the structure…
AT&T. (2006). Cingular Wireless Reports Fourth Quarter 2006 Results. Retrieved February 22, 2007 at http://cingular.mediaroom.com .
America Online. (2005). Retrieved February 22, 2007, at http://www.corp.aol.com/ .
Sprint. (2007). Sprint Nextel: Aiming to be No. 1 in Customer Experience. Retrieved February 22, 2007 at http://www.sprint.com/companyinfo/history/ .
Stiglitz, J. 2002, Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Rock History -- Analyzing Songs
Since I Don't Have You -- the Skyliners
The arrangement by the Skyliners is very effective and fairly typical of 1950s music, in that there is an strong orchestra opening -- dramatically powering the listener into the mood of the song -- for a few seconds. And suddenly the group's harmony comes blasting in, joining the orchestra, and musically informing listeners that this is a slow dance tune. This is Do-Wop dance music from heaven, for lovers that don't want to dance fast but love clinging on to each other in a slow dance. The beat is strong but slow, and as the lead voice reaches high for emotional impact, other members of the group join in harmony by "Ahhhhh-ing" wordlessly along with the lead singer.
The arrangement is extremely friendly to the listener. As the lead singer Jimmy Beaumont rockets high notes, going into…
Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum advertisement in the recent issue of Miami New Times is dark. A black candle on a black candlestick smolders in the air, presenting one of only three traces of light colors via its cream colored smoke, billowing about. Directly above it, the white phrasing of "Introducing a darker, bolder spiced rum" leaps out at the viewer, in stark contrast to the opal shades that characterize the rest of the advertisement. The final light shade on the ad, the label for the bottle of Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum, displays a grinning, sword clutching captain standing on a barrel mounted atop the distant cliffs of some shore. Other than the warm, reddish tinged liquor cooling on a couple of ice cubes in a transparent glass, everything else depicted in this ad is black. The table containing the bottle, the glass and the candle is black, a…
Of course, in recent years, this power has been diluted somewhat thanks to the rise of collective bargaining. Nonetheless, the fact that for so many years baseball has been characterized as a game rather than interstate commerce worked to the benefit of the industry as a whole.
If the exemption were repealed, apparently only possible through act of Congress, players and teams could sue the league if their movements were restricted and limitations placed on their ability to conduct business for themselves (Rovell). MLB could still manage how teams and players moved, but the repeal of the exemption would eliminate their absolute control over these movements. Obviously, this would have a significant impact on the baseball industry, but would not be necessarily devastating. Other sports have persisted despite not having antitrust exemptions, so there is little reason to expect that baseball couldn't adapt as well.
Belth, Alex. "Ending…
Belth, Alex. "Ending Baseball's Antitrust Exemption." Baseball Prospectus. 26 Nov. 2001. 15 July 2008 http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Courses/econ352jpw/readme/Baseball%20Prospectus%20-%20Ending%20Baseball%27s%20Antitrust%20Exemption.htm .
Greenberg, David. "Baseball's Con Game." Slate. 19 July 2002. 15 July 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2068290/ .
Morrissey, Mo. "Baseball Labor Relations: Anti-Trust Exemptions & the Reserve Clause." Associated Content. 19 Oct. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/421296/baseball_labor_relations_antitrust.html .
Rovell, Darren. "Baseball's Antitrust Exemption: Q & a." ESPN: Baseball. 6 Dec. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://espn.go.com/mlb/s/2001/1205/1290707.html .
UEFA Certificate in Football Management -- The Turkish Edition
Each participant is expected to submit his/her assignment for Module 1, 2 & 3 by the 07.05.2017 directly to IDHEAP project manager. Participants should provide concrete evidence facts and references) to consolidate observations and assess the feasibility of the recommendations made. We emphasise the fact that these observations should be personal ones, drawn from their own assessment and not necessarily reflecting those of their institution. You are expected to write 250 words or more) for each of the questions.
Criteria for Grading Assignments
Assignment grades will be communicated three weeks after they have been submitted which will give participants ample opportunity to take into consideration the constructive feedback they have been given and use this to improve their subsequent submission. The criteria for grading are listed in the table below.
Criteria for Grading Written Assignments
(Hughen, Lulseged, & Upton, 2014)
(Jimoh & Danlami, 2011)
Colonial Authorities in Africa and Their Attempts to Curb Leisure Activities through the Law: The Conflict between African Identity and British Rule
The British colonial administrators in Africa viewed Africans like “children” in need of training in terms of how to be more masculine ala the Western tradition: for that reason, Oliver Bell, president of the British Film Institute, wrote “the native must be treated as we treat a ten-year-old white child, i.e….he must be shown films of action of the Western type” (Burns, 2002, p. 103). While it was true that Africans enjoyed cowboy films, in the years that followed Bell’s recommendation, there occurred among the settlers the sense that cowboy films were inspiring a violent attitude among the Africans and should therefore be banned. This attempt on the one hand to cultivate a Western ethic in the African and on the other to curtail aggressive or perceived hostile…
Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."
Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.
According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes…
Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at http://kidshealth.org .
Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.
Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.
National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
Philadelphia/New York Compare
New York vs. Philadelphia:
ho Claims the Top Spot in Sports?
If you're a sports fan, the East Coast is a great place to live. Many cities in the East boast great sports teams, but no one can beat Philadelphia and New York for the variety and quality of sports entertainment. The question, then, is who can claim the top spot for sports entertainment on the East Coast -- Philadelphia or New York? In order to decide victor of this metropolitan heavyweight fight, we must look at several factors that contribute to a city's sports greatness.
Let's look first at Philadelphia. In the introduction to his history of Philadelphia sports, Rich escott claims that "nothing defines the City of Philadelphia more than its passion for sports" (ix). This passion can be seen in the variety of professional sports played in and around the city. The city boasts…
Ianello, Joe. "5 Reasons Philadelphia Owns New York." Bleacherreport. http://bleacherreport.com/articles/593264-5-reasons-why-philadelphia-owns-new-york#page/6
Vencil, Mark, and Alfred Santasiere. Yankees Stadium: The Official Retrospective. New York: Pocket Books, 2008.
Wescott, Rich. A Century of Philadelphia Sports. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001.
I'm here today to discuss a topic many of you may be passionate about, and the rest of you probably have no interest in. hat's the bad news. he good news is; I'm going to try to help you get a little excited about hockey, even if you don't know the difference between a stick and a puck. In May 2009, the Phoenix Coyotes of the National Hockey League, claimed bankruptcy. As a result, two competitive offers to finance the team emerged. One was from a Canadian businessman, the other from the NHL itself. his month, a judge ruled against both parties, leaving the hockey team in limbo, and outrage in the hockey fan community. (Yes, there is such a thing, and not just in Canada.) Here's what happened.
he sources of the conflict were the inability of the Coyotes to maintain operating costs and continue playing with…
There were numerous parties involved, of course, from the NHL league itself, to the fans, creditors, and the courts. Officially, it was the National Hockey League vs. Jim Balsillie, who wanted to move the team to Hamilton, Ontario Canada. However, there were several other parties involved in the conflict that often don't come into mind. First were the fans. Yes, there are hockey fans just as passionate and devoted as any fanatic football or basketball fans, and with the judge's decision, they were robbed of their favorite sport. Another contingent that doesn't get much press are all the people that work either full-time or part-time for the hockey teams across the country. These people, the ones you don't think about when you attend any athletic event, are the backbone of the fan experience. Ticket takers, announcers, fan store clears, food vendors, and the maintenance crews, all depend on the sports season for their income or extra income. With no games comes no pay, and these low-paid, part-time people may have been the biggest victims of the judge's ruling, and received the least recognition. Also, the team owner and team coach were not considered creditors for some reason, and did not receive their pay, another interesting twist to the story.
But, I digress. The issues at hand here were all to do with money and budgeting. The main issue at play in the conflict was the bankruptcy of the team, the payments to creditors, and where the team would end up. The league wanted to take over the team, and probably leave it in Phoenix. The judge ruled that the league's offer did not go far enough, but left the door open for them to make another offer. On the other hand, he closed the door on the businessman, saying that the court would not hear another offer from him. So, the team my still stand a chance of surviving, if the NHL ups the ante and comes back with a stronger offer the judge approves.
What tactics did these parties use in their negotiations? Well, they weren't exactly nasty, but they were firm. At first, both parties said they had absolutely no intention of backing down. The NHL said they had actually been in control of the team since November 2008, and that the team owner did not have the right to declare bankruptcy. The judge's ruling seems to back up the NHL in their claims, and makes it clear that moving the franchise to Canada, no matter how big the offer, is simply not acceptable. The two sides allowed the court to make the decision, and it clearly did not end the way any of the parties anticipated it would. Currently, the Coyote players are in training camp for the upcoming season, while the fate of the franchise is still up in the air. So, are you enthralled yet? Are you on the edge of your seat? Good, my job is done. Now, here's how the situation resolved itself..
There can be national championships that have been organized between the teams that won in respective teams in a particular area. These teams in that particular area can be maybe football teams of universities in a particular region of a country. These teams then face each other at national football championship event.
This include events that have been put in place or specifically organized within individuals, groups or teams with a common interest in a particular sport .this include a wide range of clubs that are competitive. This clubs travel and play in competitions that are of high level. This can also involve instructional clubs that are involved in organizing activities such as tournaments that are in-house or instruction of basic skills. Examples of club sports include a youth club that plays soccer, a swimming club, a basketball club and many more clubs that are popular within the…
Ross, C. (2004). Recreational Sports Management: R324 Grad Proficiency Exam Study Guide. Indiana University. Retrieved September 25, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~sportmgt/sport_mgmt/r324.html
Ellyn, S. (2012). Tennis Rules and Skills | LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, Nutrition & Fitness Tools | LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved September 25, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/136110-tennis-rules-skills
Instead, the EDC focused its efforts on attracting new businesses to the area and helping the businesses that were already operating in the area to at least sustain their present production.
The success of the Bloomington economy in the face of a struggling national economic situation must be partially, at least, attributed to the fact that the area enjoyed a population increase. hether the population increase was the result of good economic conditions or that the population increase caused the good economic conditions is an interesting question but it is likely that there was a correlation.
For a community the size of Bloomington the success and aggressiveness of its privately funded Economic Development Council is a wonderful blessing. The Council has worked tirelessly to promote the area and these efforts must be at least partially credited with allowing the area to prosper in difficult times.
The City of Bloomington still…
City of Bloomington . "Parks and Recreation ." 2009. City of Bloomington. 7 May 2011 .
City of Bloomington. "Community Development." 6 May 2011. City of Bloomington . 7 May 2011 .
City-Data.com. Bloomington, Illinois. 2009. 8 May 2011 .
Department of Housing and Urband Development. Analysis of the Bloomington-Normal, Illinois Housing Market. Economic Research. Washington, D.C.: Department of Housing and Urband Development, 2004.
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…
Baskin, Joy Surratt; Surratt, Jim. "Student Privacy Rights and Wrongs on the Web" School Administrator. Vol: 35; No: 2; pp: 102, 114-116
Beth Givens, (February 2000) "Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World" Computer and High Technology Law Journal. Retrieved from http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm Accessed on 14 April, 2005
'Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy" (17 July, 2001) North Sanpete School District Policy. Number V-30. Retrieved from http://www.nsanpete.k12.ut.us/~nshs/nslibrary/accuse.html Accessed on 14 April, 2005
Brooks-Young, Susan. (November-December, 2000) "Internet usage update" Today's Catholic Teacher. Vol: 17: No: 2; pp: 53-56
Labor When it's Flat on its Back," by Thomas Geoghegan.
Specifically, it will discuss whether I agree or disagree with Geoghegan's question and title of his book.
THE LABO MOVEMENT
Geoghegan is a labor lawyer who has a dim view of the modern American labor movement. He believes it is past its prime and usefulness, and will eventually dwindle away, dying a lingering and painful death, and leaving millions of Americans unrepresented in its wake. He believes this will occur if total labor union membership falls below 10% in the United States. "U.S. manufacturing has gone down the drain, and with it, it seems, the entire labor movement. Just 16% of the workforce now , down from 20-25% ten years ago. Maybe it will drop to 12. Once it drops to 10, it might as well keep dropping to zero" (Geoghegan 3).
Unfortunately, the author's predictions seem to be coming…
Author not available. "An Interview With Labor Lawyer and Author Tom Geoghegan." All Things Considered (NPR). 25 Oct. 1995.
Editors. "U.S. Union Membership." The Labor Research Association. 2002. 6 Dec. 2002. http://www.lraonline.org/charts.php?id=29
Geoghegan, Thomas. Which Side are You on? Trying to be for Labor When it's Flat on its Back. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1991.
Lowery, James. "Do We Need Labor Unions in America?" Resources for Labor Union Organizing (RLUO). 2001. 6 Dec. 2002. http://union-organizing.com/edit.html
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…
Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.
Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.
Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.
Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com
products or service of your chosen organization, and two (2) key factors in the organization's external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale.
De Beers is the world's famous diamond company, established in 1888, with proficiency in exploration, mining and marketing of diamonds. More than 20,000 employees make contribution to the communities in which we work. De Beers carries out profitable business which helps the government reach their aims of turning natural resources into natural wealth and is working to provide good long-term development for Africa. Anglo American and the Government of the epublic of Botswana are the two shareholders of De Beers, 85% and 15% respectively. This company is made up of fully owned partnerships, investments and subsidiaries. It is involved in most of the diamond chain value such as exploration in four continents, mining in Namibia, Canada, South Africa and Botswana; valuation, arrangement,…
Austin JE (2000) The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Baker, R (2010). Pepsi Reveals Sustainable Business Plan', Marketing Week U.K., 19 October. Available from: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/sectors/sustainability/pepsico-reveals-sustainable-businessplan/3019459.article
Barkay, T. (2013). When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology, 39: 277.
Bieri1, F. And Boli, J. (2011). Trading Diamonds Responsibly: Institutional Explanations for Corporate Social Responsibility. Eastern Sociological Society.
company British Petroleum, its products and services, the critical success factors for its operations and its salient stakeholders. It also discusses ways in which the primary stakeholders affect an organisation's financial performance. Then it evaluates the controversial corporate social responsibility issue of Deepwater Horizon Accident of 2010 and the formation of a stakeholder coalition to address this issue, including plans to address the challenges in persuading the affected stakeholders in forming the coalition.
British petroleum is a company with worldwide operations. It provides energy products and services to customers around the world to meet their modern energy demands. Its upstream segment is responsible for discovering oil and gas products around the world. The downstream segment is associated with energy products and services such as fuels, petrochemicals and lubricants (BP, 2014). BP has a range of products and services to cater energy demands of customers.
Air BP: This is the aviation…
BP (2014). Gulf of Mexico restoration. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/gulf-of-mexico-restoration.html . [Last accessed 14 January 2014].
BP (2014). Press. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/press.html . [Last Accessed 14 January 2014].
BP (2014). Products and Services. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/products-and-services.html . [Last Accessed 13 January 2014].
Larson et al., (2000). Stakeholder Collaboration. Washington, DC: WWF-U.S..
Social Performance Of Organizations
BP PLC (famous as British Petroleum PLC) is a multinational company from Britain. The company's headquarters is located in London, England, United Kingdom. The company mainly deals in the production and distribution of oil and gas. BP PLC stands as the sixth largest company in the global oil and gas market-by-market capitalization and fifth in terms of revenue. BP PLC is vertically integrated, which in microeconomics refers to a common style of growth and management control in a variety of related industries. This is when a company expands its operation into levels that are located different points along the same production path.
From this arrangement, BP PLC owns separate companies that are engaged in the production, processing, and distribution of oil and gas and able effectively to reduce operational costs to achieve efficiency (Hotte, Sumaila, & University of British Columbia, 2013). As a global…
Grant, R, et al. (2011). Contemporary Strategic Management: An Australian Perspective. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.
Hotte, N., Sumaila, U.R., & University of British Columbia. (2013). Potential economic impact of a tanker spill on ocean-based industries in British Columbia. Vancouver, B.C: Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.
Simpson, J., & Taylor, J. (2013). Corporate governance, ethics, and CSR. London: Kogan Page.
Octagon Sports Organization Structure
Octagon Sports Organizational Structure
The most fundamental aspect and/or tool for establishing a successful organization is the organizational structure. Organizational structure is a typical and hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, rights, duties, and communications within an organization, thereby defining how powers, roles, and responsibilities are assigned, coordinated, and controlled, and how information flows between the diversified levels of management. All these aspects are thereby directed towards the attainment or achievement of an organization's aims and/or goals. An organization's structure depends on the organization's core objectives and strategies. There are two categories of organizational structure comprising (i) centralized structure, and (ii) decentralized structure. Within a centralized structure, the top management owns, if not all then, most of the decision making powers, as well as staunch control over the organization's departments and divisions. On the contrary, in a decentralized organizational structure, the power for decision making is…
Hoffer, C.W., Hunt, C. & Collins, W. (2009). Strategic approach to sports globalization.
Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57-74.
Job, P., Woods, J. & Howard, C. (2008). Description of roles of sports agencies, operational and educational programs to prepare for a successful organizational and field performance. Journal of Sports and Entertainment, 45, 27-34.
Octagon Worldwide, (2013). Octagon executive biographies. Retrieved on 15th March, 2014