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The debate of nature vs. nurture has persisted with intensity over time. Some scholars contend that this debate can be traced back to the times of ancient Greece. In the debate, nature may be referred to as nativism, or innatism. The side of nature contends that a person's natural, in-born, or innate qualities have more of an influence over the person's life. Nurture refers to personal experience, context, and environment (physical and social) with respect to what has a greater influence over a person's character as well as the general outcome of his/her life. It is a debate that has engaged those in the social sciences, such as sociologists, anthropologists, and psychologists, as well as debated by political scientists and philosophers. Nurture may also be referred to as behaviorism or empiricism in the context of this debate. It is the position of the paper that though both…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., & Bornstein, M.H. (2000). Contemporary Research on Parenting -- The Case for Nature and Nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2), 218 -- 232.
Lewkowicz, D.J. (2011). The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy and What it Means for the Study of Infancy. Infancy, 1 -- 37.
Sameroff, A. (2010). A Unified Theory of Development: A Dialectic Integration of Nature and Nuture. Child Development, 81(1), 6 -- 22.
Position paper; Nature verses Nurture in children which is strong.
Objects are the same size, obviously, whether they are near or far, but our minds perceive size relative to surroundings. The dogs appear much larger the closer they get. They may seem huge to a person who is afraid of dogs.
3) Depressants, Stimulants, and Hallucinogens
Depressants numb one's feelings. They act as anesthetic to one's nervous system. One loses energy, almost as if very fatigued. A person under the influence of a depressant will feel very apathetic towards everything. It is all too much effort. Alcohol acts as a depressant, with real physiological effects in addition to the psychological effects. Heavy alcohol consumption decreases metabolization of fat in the liver and also suppresses movement of white blood cells, making one more prone to infections. Heavy alcohol consumption causes the stomach to produce more digestive acids, which can lead to ulcers or acid reflux disease.
Nicotine is a stimulant. Nicotine…
nature/nurture in the development of children. The author presents the argument that nature has a lot to do with development but that nurture has a larger influence. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
There has been a long-standing debate on what is more important to a child's development; nature or nurture. Those who believe it is nature think that one can provide an optimum environment and the child will still develop with genetically programmed traits, both good and bad. Those who advocate for nurture winning out believe the environment is the major factor in how a child develops. The debate has raged on for many years and both sides have their points but nurture seems to win out if the statistics are accurate.
Every once in awhile a case makes the headlines about a child who grows up to be violent and he or she turns out…
Author not available (1998). Nature vs. Nurture: Do parents really shape a child?., The Dallas Morning News, pp 36A.
McCall, William (1998). Born to be bad: Why do some kids kill?., AP Online,.
Born to be bad: Why do some kids kill?
Providing more effective and less painful treatments would indeed be a very large step in the right direction. The study results indicated by the above authors provide significant hope in this direction.
Jaffee, S.. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. etrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf
Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses egarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/
oth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/
utter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. etrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/utter_2010_D%26A.pdf
Wermter, A-K., Lauch, M., Schimmelmann, B.G., Banaschweski, T., and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). From nature vs. nurture, via nature…
Jaffee, S.R. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. Retrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf
Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/
Roth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/
Rutter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. Retrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/Rutter_2010_D%26A.pdf
That is simply because individual in the same family are much more likely than unrelated individuals to share similar foundational experiences by virtue of their exposure to similar parenting and resources in their immediate environment throughout their early lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). Just as hesus monkeys tend to adopt maternal behaviors and elements of personalities of their mothers irrespective of their genetic inclinations, so do human infants and growing children and adolescents internalize and adopt various aspects of the behaviors and reactions exhibited by their parents and other significant adult behavioral role models in their lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).
The quality of resources available to siblings (such as food, medicine, educational opportunities, etc.) is generally very similar within biological families (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). To the extent these factors contribute to the development of behavior, it is extremely difficult if not impossible…
Gerrig, R., and Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. Prentice Hall.
Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and Behavior: Nature - Nurture Interplay Explained. Wiley-
Steen, R.G. (1996). DNA and Destiny: Nature & Nurture in Human Behavior. De Capo.
In several well documented instances, the twins pursued identical courses of academic study and career, married spouses of the same name, and even exhibited identical habits, such as their preference for a type of clothing, a brand of beer, and even a unique style of opening a beer can (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).
However, that environmental influences have a significant effect on the development of behavior is equally evident, even in animal studies, such as experiments involving chimpanzees exposed to various environments that produce behavior that appears contrary to their known genetic predisposition (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). Ultimately,
both "nature" and "nurture" likely play approximately equal roles in shaping behavior.
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, . (1994). Abnormal
Psychology and Human
Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, ., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal
Psychology and Human
Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
It is what we know, because that which we understand from the experience of the vision quest finds no words to express it, and if we cannot express it, hear it said, we question and fear it. But we continue to long for the escape, to shed the body like the snake that sheds its skin.
We try to share our experience, the knowledge that nature has imparted upon us -- but it is difficult, and often times seems to fall upon deaf ears. But we cannot pace others, only ourselves, and we cannot make them hear what they resist; perhaps they just are not ready. Enlightenment through nature comes to people at their own pace through life. Often times, I think, it is later in life, when the noise of youth subsides. It is then, for some, that the distant mountain beckons us to our individual vision quest, and…
Needleman J., and Lewis, D. (Eds.). (1976). On the Way to Self-Knowledge. New York,
Perluss, Bessy, (2008). Climbing the Alchemical Mountain. Psychological Perspectives, 51/1, 87-107.
Perluss, Betsy, (2007). Touching Earth, Finding Spirit: A Passage into the Symbolic Landscape. Spring Journal, 76/2, 201-222
(O'Neill, 2001, p. 34)
Thee is gowing evidence to suppot the claim that cetain behavios ae in found hadwied in you DNA. Conventional thinking had usually been that childen ae always poducts of thei envionment and it is this ecological suoundings that often is at the oot cause of eithe good o bad behavio. But looked at fom anothe viewpoint, it could be possible that thei envionment, which is geneated in lage pat by thei paents, is a consequence of paental genetics as well and not the simply the envionmental cause of the behavio. A ecent eseach study at the Univesity of Viginia concluded that:
naughty youngstes aen't simply copying behavio they may have been subjected to at home. Instead, taits such as bullying, lying, o being agumentative could be passed on in the genes. The eseach, fom the Univesity of Viginia, indicates that some childen would be badly behaved…
references and You: What 'Innate' Behaviors and Perceptions Tell Us about Ourselves and Our World. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 6(4), 28-37.
O'Neill, M.E. (2001). Stalking the Mark of Cain. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(1), 31-38.
Strickland, S.J. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 100-110.
Tremblay, T., & Gagne, F. (2001). Beliefs of Students Talented in Academics, Music and Dance concerning the Heritability of Human Abilities in These Fields. Roeper Review, 23(3), 173.
Vander Zander, James W. (2003). Human development. (Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell
(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.
Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/rs/SMH.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.time.com/time/poy2000/mag/venter.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
The problems that the men in Allison's family face may have been a bit personal, but they were probably more social than anything. She grew up in the south during an era where women weren't a liberated as they are today. She never gives any indication that there were strong male role models in her family for her uncles. Given this, the men in her family probably did not have any guidance and this goes back to the personal level. On a social level the author notes how many people in the south could say that their descendants own a plantation and that her family could not say such a thing because they were so poor. It is evident from this short narrative that the poor were treated differently than those who weren't poor. There was a definite distinction between the social classes which is not much different than it…
Allison, Dorothy. Two or Three Things I Know for Sure. New York: The Penguin Group, 1995.
Nature vs. Nurture
The nature vs. nurture argument is one that has been around for many years—especially since the behavioral sciences emerged in the 20th century with the experiments of Skinner and Bandura. It was Bandura’s (1977) theory of social learning that viewed all behavior as learned from one’s environment. Skinner (1957) likewise postulated that it was the “nurturing” side of one’s experience that shaped human activity, thought and expression. Galton (1883) on the other hand felt differently. He predated both Skinner and Bandura and was himself a student of Darwin. He thus postulated that “nature” was responsible for the development of human behavior—that some people were simply born with greater gifts, such as intellectual ability, than others. Galton was a 19th century philosopher and scientist and his views aligned with ideas like the Great Man Theory, which articulated the position that great leaders are born, not made. This paper…
Strike has ethics, as shown in his behavior towards his 'boss' Roscoe, and his mentoring of the younger, more vulnerable young men. In a different social situation, Strike would likely have put his moral impulses to different and better use. Strike obeys the moral logic of his urban society with the same kind of adherence that an upstanding citizen might, who had been afforded ways to make a decent living in a law-abiding way. But Strike grew up in a neighborhood where the most noble and respectable persons were all drug dealers, and the person one could aspire to be like, at the highest level, was a criminal. Thus, although he does not wish to kill, and seeks an escape from the limits of his existence, because he has no role models around him (and unconsciously provides a bad example to younger members of his neighborhood) Strike becomes a dealer,…
Ellison, Ralph. (1995) Invisible Man. New York: Vintage.
Faulkner, William. (1991) Absalom, Absalom. New York: Vintage Reissue.
Price, Richard. (2001) Clockers. New York: Harper Paperbacks.
Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…
sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. e base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. e present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.
One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…
Walker PL and Cook DC.(1998) Gender and sex: vive la difference. Am J. Phys Anthropol 106: 255 -- 259,.[CrossRef]
Nature vs. Nurture?
The nature versus nurture debate should not be viewed as an 'either/or debate.' Clearly, genes have an effect upon human behavior, shaping everything from our physical appearance to our gender to our tendency to inherit specific diseases and characteristics. But that genetic foundation is also always in interaction with the wider social environment. As noted by the Jungian psychoanalyst Maxson McDowell, as soon as a baby is born, his or her cognitive structure is being affected by the environment. Even before birth, the environment of the womb can affect the baby's development. A child born in a stimulating household will be better able to develop his or her innate intellectual gifts than a child that is born in an abusive and neglectful one.
A good example of the interaction between nature and nurture is that of height: parents who are genetically predisposed to be tall are likely…
Cherry, K. (2015). What is nature versus nurture? About.com. Retrieved from:
Hurley, D. (2013). Grandma's experiences leave epigenetic mark on your genes. Discover Magazine. http://discovermagazine.com/2013/may/13-grandmas-experiences-leave-epigenetic-mark-on-your-genes
McLeod, S. A. (2016). Bandura - social learning theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
The monster knows right from wrong and he choice is one of desperation. Victor never realizes the difference between right and wrong because it is not within his nature to do so.
Frankenstein will always be closely examined when it comes to matters of humanity because of its subject matter. Victor has every opportunity to do something good with his life and the most he can muster is achieving his own dreams of glory by attempting to recreate life. Despite his education and loving family, Victor swerves off the normal path and skids onto the freakish one. The monster he creates encompasses more goodness than he does but he cannot see this because he is just like the rest of humanity - unable to see beyond the monster's appearance. The monster tried everything within his power to remove himself from the freakish path that Victor placed him on and gain…
Bloom, Harold. "An excerpt from a study of Frankenstein: or, the New Prometheus." Partisan Review. 1965. Gale Resource Database. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.comInformation Retrieved December 4, 2008.
Bloom on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." Bloom's Classic Critical Views. 2008. Bloom's Literary Reference Online. Information Retrieved December 4, 2008. http://www.fofweb.com
Gould, Stephen. "The Monster's Human Nature." Natural History. 1994. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 4, 2008. http://search.epnet.com/
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Bantam Books. 1981.
It is possible that my personality is a function of my mother's genes but it is impossible to know how much of the similarities between us are the result of my imitation and modeling of her behavior during my formative years. My older sister and I are very similar except that she is much more nervous than I am, just like my mother. According to my parents, they purposely tried to help me not become as nervous as my sister by correcting some of the mistakes they made in that regard with her. For example, she became very frightened of thunder storms and other loud noises as an infant. Therefore, when I was a baby, my parents pretended that thunder was a fun game and they made me laugh whenever there was thunder. They did the same thing with my younger brother. As a result, neither of us are nervous…
David's life calmed down, but there were years of mixed-messages and confusion that plagued him the rest of his life. He eventually married as a male, but later committed suicide.
From a sociological perspective, the case shows how perceptions can be influenced by incomplete research. Dr. Money reported the decision as a success, despite Brenda/David's clear uncomfortability during childhood. Dr. Money's beliefs were used as a basis to 'assign' gender to hundreds of boys born with extremely small sexual organs, or a lack of a penis, and raised as girls. The relevency of the book, however, goes beyond the scientific. It is a clear account for those who are interested in transgender issues, who either know someone or are feeling uncomfortable themselves in gender related issues. The human issue centers around comfortability -- an individual's right to live in a way that is most productive for them. Certainly, it is…
Baron-Cohen, S. The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Perseus Book Group, 2003.
Blackless, M, et.al. "Atypical Gender Development - A Review." International Journal of Transgenderism 9.2 (2003): 29-44.
Colapinto, J. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York:
In this Nature vs. Nurture essay example, we will offer topics, titles, an outline, and what it takes to make a great paper. We begin with a strong introduction and thesis statement, followed by body paragraphs that offer in depth analysis of the topics as well as current evidence. We end the essay with a succinct recap of everything under the conclusion section. In critical essays, the main thing to focus on is development of a strong perspective to offer readers a unique and interpretive analysis of a text or topic(s).
What came first, the chicken or the egg? Is Nurture more influential than Nature?
To be or not to be: Nature versus Nurture
The Eternal Debate: Nature versus Nurture
Selected Title: Understanding Origins: Nature versus Nurture
Background on the Debate of Nature vs. Nurture
Interaction of Genes and Environment
Personality Traits and Genetics
nurture and nature dichotomy, people are born with certain traits and tendencies. However, the incidents and people in their lives will also significantly impact the directions they choose in life. Such was the case with Anne Moody. She may not have realized it then, but even early in her life Moody's path was chosen: she would do whatever it took to help end the degradation of blacks, especially in Mississippi.
Anne Moody (Essie May) became greatly aware of the differences between whites and blacks as a young child:
had never thought of them as white before. Now all of a sudden they were white, and their whiteness made them better than me. I know realized that not only were they better than me because they were white, but everything they owned and everything connected with them was better than available to me. (26)
It did not take Moody long to…
Work Cited: Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dial Press, 1968.
Sangster, DeLillo, Nature and God
hat is the opposite of Nature? There are a number of different answers we could give in playing the game of finding an antonym. e are accustomed to speaking of "nature vs. nurture," but "nature" here is a shorthand for the phrase "human nature." In referring to Nature in its environmental sense, we are more likely to speak of "nature vs. culture" or "nature vs. art" -- environment is defined as something which stands apart from human habitation or cultivation. In this sense, it is paradoxical to approach the subject of nature in a work of art -- the fact of its being art serves to remove us in some way from the realm of Nature. I would like to examine the treatment of Nature as a concept in two very different works: the nineteenth-century Canadian poem "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay" by Charles…
Bentley, DMR. The Gay[Grey Moose: Essays on the Ecologies and Mythologies of Canadian Poetry. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1992. Print.
Buell, Lawrence. "Toxic Discourse." Critical Inquiry 24 (3): 639-665. Web. Accessed online at: http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2637816/Buell_ToxicDiscourse.pdf?sequence=4
DeLillo, Don. White Noise. New York: Penguin, 1986. Print.
Sangster, Charles. "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay." Web. Accessed online at: http://canadianpoetry.org/longPoems/Sangster_Charles/St_Lawrence_and_Saguenay/The_St_Lawrence_and_Saguenay.html
human nature that people like to categorize and have thinks set clearly to them in 'black and white'. People have always liked to think in terms of dualisms: there is the Cartesian 'body and soul' and 'paradise and hell', and "good and evil' amongst so many other dualisms. Either one category or the other exists. Belonging to that same schematic order of pattern is 'man and woman'. Shades of grey such as sexless individuals perplex and disturb people. They are bound to react with intolerance when faced with these exceptions. Nonetheless, differences of sex are not so clear. This essay is an elaboration on just that, showing that the popular view that there are only two genders in a dichotomous relationship need not necessarily be so. Gender and biological differences of gender are not so clear.
As part of our evolutionary background, people tend to categorize and think in terms…
Human rights defence Eunuchs of India - Deprived of Human Rights http://www.humanrightsdefence.org/eunuchs-of-india-deprived-of-human-rights.html
Nagle, J. (1998) constructing ethnicity.... In New Tribalisms by MW Hughey. NY: NY Univ. Press Vicinus, Martha, ed. Suffer and Be Still: Women in the Victorian Age. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.
Jane Eyre: an authoritative text / Charlotte Bronte; edited by Richard J. Dunn. New York: Norton, c2000.
NATUE VS. NUTUE
This report will discuss the six main tenets of personality. Each one will be defined and scholarly research will be used to back up and prove what is being asserted in this report. The six tenets that will be discussed are going to be nature vs. nurture, the unconscious, the view of self, development, motivation and maturation. Each of those six has a different part to play in how people develop and change from a personality standpoint. There is a lot of debate as to whether someone's personality and "lot in life" is tied to supposedly "winning the genetic lottery" or if there is much more to it. There are others that say that while some genetic precursors exist, the environment and people that do (or do not) surround a person has a larger effect. This report shall explore that topic using scholarly sources that are from…
Almeida, J., Pajtas, P.E., Mahon, B.Z., Nakayama, K., & Caramazza, A. (2013). Affect
of the unconscious: visually suppressed angry faces modulate our decisions. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 13(1), 94-101.
BARRICK, M.R., THURGOOD, G.R., SMITH, T.A., & COURTRIGHT, S.H. (2015).
Nature vs. Nurture
The author of this report has been asked to cover the topic that is known as "nature vs. nurture." Basically, it is the question of whether people are pre-destined for their fate in terms of personality, life outcomes and so forth or if that is influenced or even created by the environment in which a child grows and experiences events in their life. This brief essay will describe the basic questions in play and will also compare and contrast two different studies that focus on the nature vs. nurture argument. While nature and nurture both certainly play a part in many to most lives, there is usually a combination of the two rather than one or the other when it comes to most people.
As noted in the introduction above, there are two basic arguments when it comes to how people become what they are, act…
Cherry, K. (2015). The Age Old Debate of Nature vs. Nurture. About.com Education. Retrieved 23 June 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/nindex/g/nature-nurture.htm
McLeod, S. (2015). Nature Nurture in Psychology | Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 23 June 2015, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html
PBS. (2015). Nature vs. Nurture Revisited. Pbs.org. Retrieved 23 June 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/nature-versus-nurture-revisited.html
Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Happiness
Nature vs. Nurture
How happy we feel is determined both by our genetic makeup and the way we live our lives. A significant body of research has shown that close ties to family and friends may overcome a genetic disinclination towards feelings of happiness and well-being. There are other steps that individuals can take to improve how happy they feel, including improving diet, exercise, spiritual practices, and cognitive therapy. Science may have thus provided enough options that any genetic shortcoming towards feeling happiness may have become irrelevant.
Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Happiness
Nature vs. nurture is a way of contrasting the genetic and environmental contributions to an individual's personality, disposition, and behavioral repertoire (The Open University, 2007, p. 104). Although the term 'nature vs. nurture debate' is still used today, it isn't much of a debate any longer. Countless genetic and behavioral studies…
Davidson, R.J., Jackson, D.C. And Kalin, N.H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context and regulation: perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890 -- 906.
Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zinn, J. et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564 -- 570.
Lane, R.E. (2000). The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven, CT; Yale
Langer, E. And Rodin, J. (1976). The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: a field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 191 -- 198.
Perhaps other animals also have this capacity for understanding, but they have not accessed it because it has not yet been required of them. Furthermore, viewing the Bonobos' and other animals' together, one can make the claim that learning is a highly specific process that requires not only biology -- or connections in the brain, but also culture or nurture.
While this information is certainly interesting in its application to primates, it is perhaps even more important when generalized to apply to humans. First, it is possible that early humans used their incredible talent for learning like the Bonobos do when attempting to adapt to humans. Perhaps learning was somehow involved in the adaptation process, allowing humans to grasp greater heights. Further, the Bonobos' ability to learn in such a way suggests that humans, too, have the ability to continue growing and learning, perhaps someday evolving into something even greater…
Schwartz, Jeffrey M. And Begley, Sharon, (2002) the Mind and the Brain:
Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York, NY: HarperCollins
Susan Savage-Rumbaugh on Apes. Retrieved August 17, 2009, from TED:
These hidden issues influence our conscious decisions. So, people may have both conscious and unconscious reasons for behaving as they do. People might be able to give what seem like rational reasons for behavior. Someone who sets fires might say he or she enjoys seeing the flames and likes watching the fire department put the fire out. Those may be the factors the individual is conscious of, but a psychologist might find that there were other reasons driving the person's behavior as well.
One of the things that often makes it hard for one person to understand another person's actions is that we have only observable behavior to go on. We can't examine the internal mental processes that take place. This makes it easy to judge people as acting in ways that suggest a moral flaw or lack of character. A woman who dresses very suggestively might be considered to…
Academic Success for Children
hat are some best practices that can improve the academic performance of children? This journal entry reviews scholarly literature that presents ideas for best practices regarding how children can achieve academic success. Also, the reasons for the statistical diversity within the diverse student population -- what causes the gap between achievers and those who struggle?
Is it Nature or Nurture?
There is no shortage of opinions when it comes to this issue, but an article in the New Scientist suggests it is more nature than nurture. Journalist Andy Coghlan reports on a study of twins conducted by the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College in the UK that claims academic success is based more on a child's genetic makeup than the environment the child is growing up in. The researchers tested 5,474 sets of twins -- 2,008 of those sets were identical -- and determined that…
Coghlan, A. (2013). Nature more than nurture determines exam success. New Scientist,
Retrieved April 27, 2014, from http://www.newscientist.com .
Jensen, E. (2009). Chapter 2: How Poverty Affects Behavior and Academic Performance.
ASCD. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from http://www.ascd.org .
Mother of Life: Developing an Ecological Conscience
The greatest assignment and commitment for the world in the 21st century is to ensure that we re-discover the lost connection we have with nature. We have to see ourselves as biological beings and as part of the intricate web of life .we also have to understand more fully compared to any generation before us how we came about along with other living creators out of the universe fabric and to know that we are supposed to remain woven into that same fabric as long as we are here on earth in a bond which is inseparable since it is who we are.in short this implies that we have to nurture in all the diverse cultures that exist in our world a shift of consciousness is held in one eternal and fundamental reality which is that humanity and nature can never…
Falk, C., (2010).Cultivating an Ecological Conscience: Essays from a Farmer Philosopher.pg 8-10.Retrieved February 28,2014 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=r9TJxRxwbOMC&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=importance+of+developing+an+%22ecological+conscience&source=bl&ots=Tev_9KoZMw&sig=6LIq0s7qziQn0W3HcF04B-IVpZc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=D9IQU72sO8LQ7AbRqID4Cw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=importance%20of%20developing%20an%20%22ecological%20conscience&f=false
Sage, J., (2005). Gardening and the Cultivation of an Ecological Conscience. Retrieved February 28,2014 from http://www.uwsp.edu/philosophy/FacultyStaffDocs/jSage/Sage%20Gardening%20and%20The%20Cultivation%20of%20an%20Ecological%20Conscience.pdf
Schola Ministries, (2010). The Ecological Conscience -- Merton Essay. Retrieved February 28,2014 from http://www.scholaministries.org/lectory/the-ecological-conscience/
Worldpress.com, (2013).Ecology: Developing Ecological Consciousness. Retrieved February 28,2014 from http://grandparentsforthefuture.wordpress.com/2013/06/17/ecology-developing-ecological-consciousness/
It should be comforting for parents to know that if their child develops a serious psychological disorder it does not mean they are terrible parents. It would also be important for them to know that how they raise a child with a psychological or psychiatric can make a difference in the outcome. The research indicates that parenting alone cannot solve significant psychological problems, but that by combining good science with good parenting, children with psychological problems can be helped.
ouchard, Jr., Thomas J.; Lykken, David T.; McGue, Matthew; Segal, Nancy L., and Tellegen, Auke. 1990. "Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota study of twins reared apart." Science, Oct. 12. Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://www.mugu.com/gic-bin/Upstream/bouchard-twins?/embedded=yes&cumulative_category...
Macindoe, Ian, Ph.D. 2004. "Happiness: What studies on twins tell us about nature, nurture, and the happiness set point." Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/ageing/thot04dec03.html
Mota-Castillo, Manuel, and Auvil, Erica, MSW 2004. "ipolar…
Bouchard, Jr., Thomas J.; Lykken, David T.; McGue, Matthew; Segal, Nancy L., and Tellegen, Auke. 1990. "Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota study of twins reared apart." Science, Oct. 12. Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://www.mugu.com/gic-bin/Upstream/bouchard-twins?/embedded=yes&cumulative_category...
Macindoe, Ian, Ph.D. 2004. "Happiness: What studies on twins tell us about nature, nurture, and the happiness set point." Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05. http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/ageing/thot04dec03.html
Mota-Castillo, Manuel, and Auvil, Erica, MSW 2004. "Bipolar Disorder and Genetics: Beyond Question." Psychiatric Times, June.
Pietrantonio, Anna Marie, M.D.. 2004. "How important is permanency planning for children? Considerations for pediatricians involved in child protection." Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, August.
This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.
From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…
Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.
Worth Publishers, 2004.
This is the result of the child's physical and cognitive growth. Nature pursues a given path. One asks how does the world surrounding the child help or hinder the child's development. This is the question that is answered by Bronfenbrenner's theory (Paquette & yan, 2001).
Bronfenbrenner believed that the family suffered from the change in society from industrial to technological. Families were still locked into the normal 40-hour work week. Mothers were very often in the workforce, leaving the children with less parental influence at home. Bronfenbrenner thought that the schools were being called upon to fill the gaps left by parents. He thought that society should step in to provide support for the new family structure brought on by technology (Paquette & yan, 2001).
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, ., Widom, C., Browne, K., et…
1. Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston. McGraw-Hill
2. Gilbert, R., Widom, C., Browne, K., et al. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet. 373(1). pp. 9657.
3. Maschi, T., Morgen, K., Hatcher, S., et al. (2009). Maltreated children's thoughts and emotions as behavioral predictors. Social Work. 54(2).
4. Murrell, a., Christoff, K., & Henning, K. (2007). Characteristics of domestic violence offenders: Associations with childhood exposure to violence. Journal of Family Violence. 22. pp. 523-532.
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
person develops as the results of a multitude of factors including those that are inherited and those that are environmental. The nature-nurture controversy is that nature's heredity is the most important factor in one's life, while others hypothesize that the environment imposes the crucial influence. The objective is to reflect on your experiences and evaluate your character.
Your answers to the following questions can provide greater insight to who you are.
hat is your name **KURT**? hat is the meaning or significance of your name ***Reference***?
My name is Kurt. The meaning or significance of the name "Kurt," is, according to the web article "Behind the Name: The Etymology and History of First Names," one of Germanic origin, and in fact a German contracted version of another, less common (at least in America) name, "Conrad." The name "Conrad" itself is, according to that web article:
derived from the Germanic elements…
Kurt." Behind the Name: The Etymology and History of First Names. Retrieved July 27, 2005, from: http://www.behindthename.com/php/view.php?name= Conrad.htm>.
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…
Consciousness: Section PS13D
Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.
Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
Module 5 Case -- the esearch Essay
For nearly the entirety of human civilization, thinkers, philosophers, and indeed most human beings, have struggled to determine the most elusive aspects of identity. Balancing the essence of human nature against the effects of environmental influence eventually formed the foundation of the ongoing debate concerning nature vs. nurture. With the advent of remarkable technology capable of mapping the human genome, most people in today's modern world believe that their genetic makeup holds the key to their future health, personality traits, intelligence quotient, and even their fears. The unique confluence of factors that combine to form the personality traits, behavioral patterns, and ethical boundaries exhibited by every human being has spawned two distinctly divergent theories, with the majority of people advocating the influence of genetics over external environment. Proponents of the "nature" point-of-view assert a person's physical…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M., & Bornstein, M.H. (2000).
Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2), 218-231. Retrieved from http://digilib.bc.edu/reserves/py518/lent/py51802.pdf
Kelland, K. (2012, July 31). Does nature or nurture make a top sprinter?. Reuters.
Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/31/oly-athl-m100m-package-genes -
Like most people, I have experienced ups and downs, highs and lows. The major upheavals in my life have revealed some of the core personality traits that have been with me since childhood. I believe that crisis and stress challenge us, and also bring to light our true selves. However, I also believe strongly in the power of each person to change. I used to have anger management problems and other emotional issues, just like most people. Mainly these problems were related to my not having in place a set of established coping mechanisms in my life. Part of this is related to the culture and upbringing, and part also to personality traits. Yet after I was divorced from a husband of 22 years, it was a shock. I did not feel like myself because my emotions were getting the best of me. Knowing this, I…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L. & Hetherington, E. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting. American Psychologist 55(2): 218-232.
Jussim, L. (2012). Social Perception and Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A. (2011). Retrospective memory bias for the frequency of potentially traumatic events: A prospective study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol 3(2), Jun 2011, 165-170.
Lewkowitz, D.J. (2011). The biological implausibility of the nature-nurture dichotomy and what it means for the study of infancy. Infancy 16(4): 331-367.
Not all humans exhibit the same jealously levels, behaviors, etc.); and, 2. Today, instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all (like aggression and sex). but, there is still a strong instinct perspective in the study of animals (ethology) (p. 2).
Notwithstanding this lack of consensus, there have been much attention directed to the relationship between instinct theory and the various dimensions of the human experience, which are discussed further below.
elationship of Instinct Theory to Dimensions of Human Experience.
A) Paradoxes in Human Experience. Indeed, in their book, Psychologies of 1925: Powell Lectures in Psychological Theory, Madison Bentley (1928) asked early on, "By what theory can it be explained how it comes about that an individual can exhibit so many and such extreme and even seemingly paradoxical phases, or alterations of his character, and such contrasting contradictory traits and behavior?" (p. 259). The duality…
Adler, a., Bentley, Boring, E.G. et al. (1930). Psychologies of 1930. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Alic, M. (2001). McDougall, William (1871-1938). In Gale encyclopedia of psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group.
Alvarado, C.S. (2003). Reflections on Being a Parapsychologist. The Journal of Parapsychology, 67(2), 211.
Arieti, S. (1974). The foundations of psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
the toys themselves had a distinctly gendered feel.
While the author recalled Legos as gender-neutral, they did not appear
gender neutral in the toy-store setting. Instead, the Lego products were
based on action movies, such as tar Wars and Indiana Jones or else
featured something called a Bionicle, which appeared to be some type of
robot. There were some Legos called Clickits, which were pink and white
and featured teenage-looking cartoon-character girls. However, the Lego
sets from the author's youth, which featured blocks and other features to
build gender-neutral items like towns, simply were not present. Instead,
the Legos seemed less free-form and more structured, and came in boxes to
build specific designs, almost all of them masculine in stereotyping.
The other building materials were similarly gender-differentiated.
While the toy store had apparently gender-neutral building toys like Tinker
Toys and Mega Blocks, they also managed to capitalize on stereotyping.…
Sex Roles, 54 (9/10), 717-726).
Green, V.A., Bigler, R., and Catherwood, D. (2004). The variability and
flexibility of gender-
typed toy play: A close look at children's behavioural responses to
counter-stereotypic models. Sex Roles, 51 (7/8), 371-386.
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community
An Analysis of the Benefits of Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community and Strategies for Effective Implementation
The success of any counterinsurgency operation depends largely on the effectiveness and appropriateness of intelligence gathered. Human subjects are a crucial source of intelligence for counterinsurgency operations. Several years back, the U.S. Armed Forces opened up opportunities for women to occupy specific positions in counterintelligence/human intelligence (CI/HUMINT) discipline. However, women still remain underrepresented in the same, and researchers remain largely divided on whether their participation in the same ought to be increased. esearchers have raised concern that the decision to integrate women into HUMINT units could cost the country dearly in the long-term as it is likely to ruin unit cohesion and impede on overall effectiveness. Proponents of the whole idea of integration have, however, argued that the inclusion of women in HUMINT units will actually enhance…
Alderman, M. I. (1993). Women in Direct Combat: What is the Price for Equality? School for Advanced Military Studies Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Al-Ali, N. & Pratt, N. (2009). What Kind of Liberation: Women and the Occupation of Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bartone, P.T. Johnsen, B.H. Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg, J.C. (2002). Factors Influencing Small-Unit Cohesion in Norwegian Navy Officer Cadets. Military Psychology, 14(1), 1-22.
Beal, D.J. Cohen, R.R. Burke, M.J. & McLendon, C.L. (2003). Cohesion and Performance in Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification of Construct Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (6), 989-1004.
It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.
Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.
ehavior may change, he states, as a…
Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association. http://www.snc.edu/psych/korshavn/natnur02.htm (March28, 2002).
Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/children/05/30/born.bad.wmd/ (March28, 2002).
Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ. http://www.iusb.edu/~ffujita/Documents/nn.html (March28, 2002).
Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,
Transformation Leadership: Nature vs Nurture
Transformational Leadership: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate
Transformational Leadership: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate
Spain's famous football club, eal Madrid, has a history of changing managers as often as players change their socks (Clegg, 2010). The hope that this pattern would end with the hiring of the Portuguese manager, Jose Mourinho, was well deserved, given the great deal of respect he has earned among footballers across Europe and in the Americas. Aside from being exacting and detail oriented, Mourinho is the epitome of a transformational leader. Many experts believed that Mourinho would be the best person for reining in the massive millionaire egos on the team, thereby improving the team's performance on and off the field. Leadership experts equated the challenges Mourinho was facing with those any executive would face in a boardroom.
According to Clegg (2010), Mourinho is more manager than leader…
Caldwell, C., Dixon, R.D., Floyd, L.A., Chaudoin, J., Post, J., & Cheokas, G. (2012). Transformative leadership: Achieving unparalleled excellence. Journal of Business Ethics, 109, 175-87.
Clegg, J. (2010, June 2). The way Mourinho Manages: Real Madrid's new manager's attention to detail and teamwork can apply in many areas. Wall Street Journal [Online]. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703961204575280851972332526
Garman, A.N., Davis-Lenane, D., & Corrigan, P.W. (2003). Factor structure of the transformational leadership model in human service teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(6), 803-12.
Hopwood, C.J., Donnellan, M.B., Blonigen, D.M., Krueger, R.F., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G. et al. (2011). Genetic and environmental influences on personality trait stability and growth during the transition to adulthood: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(3), 545-56.
Psychological tests are commonly used to establish individual capabilities and characteristics. Such inference is derived as a result of collecting, integrating and interpreting information about a person (Marnat, 2009). It constitutes measuring variables through the use of procedures and devices crafted to demonstrate a person's behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Assessment of personality is, ideally, the measuring and evaluating of psychological aspects such as one's values, states, world view, personal identity, acculturation, behavior styles, sense of humor and the related characteristics of an individual (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Personality tests are designed to determine the character of a human being or their disposition. The initial personality tests were designed to examine and predict disorders of clinical nature. The tests are still useful today and are applied to determine cases in need of counseling. The latest personality tests are used to measure normal characteristics (Miller, Mclntire, & Lovler, 2011).…
Cattell, H. E., & Mead, A. D. (2008). The sixteen-personality factor questionnaire (16PF). The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, 2, 135-178.
Cohen, R. & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Friedman, M. (1996). Type A Behavior: Its Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press (Kluwer Academic Press)
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
isk Taking Behavior between Teenage Boys and Girls
Significant evidence reveals that women/girls and men/boys have differing propensity to engage in risky behaviors. The difference in their decision to engage in risky behaviors is attributed to the variation in their innate preferences that are modified by internal and external pressure to conform to gender stereotypes. Empirical evidence points that women and men have different preferences and risk attitudes that influence their decision to engage in risky behaviors (Kotchick et al., 2001). Greca, Prinstein, and Fetter (2001) assert that a significant proportion of the studies show men/boys to be involved more in risk taking activities than the girls. However, this assertion has never been proved by a significant proportion of studies conducted in the past. Therefore, this study will aim at identifying the differences in the ability of teenage boys and girls aged 10 and 11 years to engage in risky…
Booth, A.L., & Nolen, P. (2012). Gender Differences in Risk Behavior: Does Nurture Matter? The Economic Journal, 122(558), F56 -- F78. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2011.02480.x
Greca, A.M.L., Prinstein, M.J., & Fetter, M.D. (2001). Adolescent Peer Crowd Affiliation: Linkages With Health-Risk Behaviors and Close Friendships. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(3), 131 -- 143. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/26.3.131
Huebner, A.J., & Howell, L.W. (2003). Examining The Relationship Between Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking And Perceptions Of Monitoring, Communication, and Parenting Styles. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33(2), 71 -- 78. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X (03)00141-1
Kotchick, B.A., Dorsey, S., Miller, K.S., & Forehand, R. (1999). Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior In Single-Parent Ethnic Minority Families. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(1), 93 -- 102. doi:10.1037/0893-3220.127.116.11
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x
Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340
Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.
Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).
The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…
Ackerman, N.W. (1958). The psychodynamics of family life. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962), Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The Implications of Difference. Family Process, 1: 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962). Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The implications of difference. Family Process, 1(1): 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1966). Treating the troubled family. New York, NY: Basic Books.
He also discusses certain terms, these being epithymia, pathos, and orexis, terms that denote "the inclination of the will that leads to same-sex acts." Paul uses the terms in different passages, showing negative connotations. Other words are also examined for what they say about Paul's meaning and the view he takes toward homosexuality. The passage is thoroughly explored in this chapter, leaving the reader with some question as to how much emphasis the different ideas should really have and how much weight should be given to those statements in terms of creating and enforcing a moral code.
Chapter 5, "From Sodom to Sodom," discusses the scriptural references to Sodom and the fate of Sodom, presumably destroyed because of unnatural sex. Revisionists see the Sodomites as guilty not of homosexuality but of inhospitality, though Schmidt cites evidence that their sin was sexual in nature. The fate of Sodom has been given…
Schmidt, Thomas E. Straight and Narrow? Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1995.
Thomas E. Schmidt, Straight and Narrow? (Madison, Wisconsin: Inter-Varsity Press, 1995), 11.
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…
American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University
Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian approach, organ donation does provide good for others; and, when managed appropriated, can provide a greater good for society at large. However, utilizing a population for organ harvesting, or changing the model so that organ donation is seen as a profit-center as opposed to a humanitarian endeavor, certainly muddies the waters a bit.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. etrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/EICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&EICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNT 2-eteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. etrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. eligion and Globalization. The eview of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. Retrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNTR 2-Reteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202R%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. Religion and Globalization. The Review of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Nilsen, D., Kowske, B., Anthony, K. Managing a Diverse, Global Environment is Critical. HR Magazine Review. 50 (8): 41-9. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Publications / hrmagazine/EditorialContent/Pages/0805tools.aspx
For example, the individual has developed a serviceable way to tie his or her shoes they therefore do not need to learn alternative ways to do so. Yet, when the individual is faced with a broken finger he or she must learn a new way to do the task, and in doing so they change a pathway that was previously set. Now because recovery is imminent they are likely to retain the old way of doing the task but if the finger is permanently injured then the new task process must be set. There is also some evidence that lacking major neurological damage, many of the old pathways still exist in adults as they adapt to new ways of doing things where in children they often disappear, or get used for another learning task as new pathways are formed. Yet, this is challenged in the research as well and often…
Alm, H., Scholz, B., Fischer, C., Kultima, K., Viberg, H., Eriksson, P., et al. (2006). Proteomic Evaluation of Neonatal Exposure to 2, 2'4, 4'5-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(2), 254.
Arnstein, P.M. (June 1997) the neuroplastic phenomenon: a physiologic link between chronic pain and learning. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing.
Becker, H.C. (2000). Animal Models of Alcohol Withdrawal. Alcohol Research & Health, 24(2), 105.
Capaldi, E., Robinson, G., & Fahrbach, S. (1999). NEUROETHOLOGY of SPATIAL LEARNING: The Birds and the Bees. 651.
Healthy People 2020; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity
The Healthy People 2020 initiative looks at a n umber of different health issues which face the American population and sets out some goals for improving the current health status of the nation. One of the topics is nutrition, physical activity and obesity.
The consumption of a healthy diet and a sufficient level of activity are for the maintenance of a healthy weight. A major issue in the use is an increasingly level of obesity; with problems leading this is a failure including the consumption of excessive calories, high intakes of saturated and trans fats as well as high intakes of other unhealthy inputs such as sugar, cholesterol, salt and alcohol (Healthy People, 2012). This is further aggravated by lower levels of physical activity to burn off the calories consumed, which leads to the body storing the energy and weight gain taking…
CDC, (2012), U.S. Obesity Trends, retrieved 5th April 2-12 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html
Faith MS, Kral TVE. (2006), "Social Environmental and Genetic Influences on Obesity and Obesity-Promoting Behaviors: Fostering Research Integration" In Hernandez LM, Blazer DG, (eds.), (2006), Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.).
Healthy People, (2012), retrieved 6th April 2012 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx
Nutrition.gov, (2012), retrieved 6th April 2012 from http://www.nutrition.gov/
A brief overview of some prominent theoretical models relating to behavior modification is felt to be a pertinent starting point for his study, as many of these aspects can be compared to the actual interviews and case studies of the subjects. Research suggests that the recovery from drug and alcohol addictions is commonly a long-term process and can involve relapses before sustained and permanent rehabilitation is achieved. ehavioral theories have been shown to be effective in this process. Theories such as cognitive behavioral relapse prevention are a method that has been proven to have a sustained success rate. This theory relates specifically to the formations of behavioral changes in that patients are taught ways of acting and thinking that will assist them in avoiding previous addictions.
For example, patients are urged to avoid situations that lead to drug use and to practice drug refusal skills. They…
An Analysis of Behavioral Change and Addiction Recovery. Retrieved April 30, 2005.Web site: http://www.coursework.info/i/67785.html
Borges, G., Cherpitel, C.J., Macdonald, S., Giesbrecht, N., Stockwell, T., & Wilcox, H.C. (2004). A Case-Crossover Study of Acute Alcohol Use and Suicide Attempt. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65(6), 708+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Cisler, R., Holder, H.D., Longabaugh, R., Stout, R.L., & Zweben, A. (1998). Actual and Estimated Replication Costs for Alcohol Treatment Modalities: Case Study from Project MATCH. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(5), 503+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database,
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.
Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri
ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.
According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…
Blunden, Andy. (2001, February). "The Vygotsky School." Spirit, Money and Modernity Seminar. http://home.mira.net/~andy/seminars/chat.htm
Blunden, Andy (1997). "Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method."
Domitrovich, Celene E. (2001, April). "Parenting practices and child social adjustment: Multiple pathways of influence" In Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Wayne State University Press
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Race/Ethnicity or Sex/Gender as Socially Constructed Categories
Sociological ethnicity and race theories have been dictated by the social construct metaphor, which indicates that these theories are ideological groups that serve to conceal the actual social structural principles. The above notion is a problematical one as it ignores the context wherein ethnicity and race function as bases of social significance as well as working material exclusion principles (Smaje, 1997). While gender and sex are words that are frequently employed interchangeably, their meanings are, in fact, different. Sex represents a categorization on the basis of biological dissimilarities -- for instance, dissimilarities between females and males grounded in their physiology or anatomy. On the other hand, gender represents a categorization on the basis of the societal creation and preservation of cultural differences between females and males. That is, gender denotes a social concept pertaining to culture-bound conduct, rules, and roles for, and relations…
Ford, C. L., & Harawa, N. T. (2010). A new conceptualization of ethnicity for social epidemiologic and health equity research. Social Science & Medicine, 1-8.
Frable, D. E. (1997). Gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, and class identities. Annual Review of Psychology.
LM, H., & DG, B. (2006). Sex/Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Health. In Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health.
R., A. (1990). Sex, gender and the individual. In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 486-526.
Nature vs. Nurture
To any decently educated or aware person, the "nature versus nurture" argument is nothing new. Something else that is not new is the idea that while there are arguments for both, there always seems to be one idea that is more prevalent and "true" than the others. Such is the case with the microcosm of "nature versus nurture" that is in play when it comes to the work of Patricia Greenfield. Her initial statements in a recent article are very much a framing of a "nature versus nurture" argument and then she provides her version of the answer. While some might disagree with what Ms. Greenfield has to say, it is fairly clear that she is rather spot-on in her analysis and decision when it comes to the subject in question.
The primary so-called battlefield of nature versus nurture that Ms. Greenfield approaches and talks about…
Gaynor, M. (2016). Genes, Depression, and Anxiety. Psychology Today. Retrieved 25 October 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/your-genetic-destiny/201411/genes-depression-and-anxiety
Greenfield, P. (1997). YOU CAN'T TAKE IT WITH YOU: Why Ability Assessments Don't Cross Cultures.
ecdgroup.com. Retrieved 25 October 2016, from http://www.ecdgroup.com/download/ sa1yctii.pdf#search='cross%20cultural%20psychology%20and%20intelligence
Nature vs. Nurture
Much has been made as of late about whether and to what extent offenders should be held liable for their actions when they grow up around illegal or morally depraved activity. Such activity can include domestic assault, child abuse, child rape or molestation, emotional abuse and so forth. Quite often, child offenders below a certain age are not held liable or held as liable as they would be if they were adults or at least close to being eighteen years old. Indeed, the old saying "the apple does not fall far from the tree" proves itself in many situations. However, while forgiving some transgressions due to poor upbringing may sound good on paper, it would open a Pandora's box of problems and would not work in practice.
The idea that a child below a certain age, although that age tends to vary based on the offense…
O'Connor, C. (2013, July 30). How Much Would A Big Mac Cost If McDonald's Workers Were
Paid $15 Per Hour? (Updated, Corrected). Forbes. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2013/07/30/how-much-would-a-big-mac-cost -
Russell, J. (2014, July 13). Career Coach: Bringing spirituality to work. Washington Post.
Criminals -- Born or Made
Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…
Akers, R, and C. Sellers. Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications.
4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co., 2004. xx-xx. Print.
Anderson, C, L Berkowitz, E Donnerstein, and R. Huesmann. "The Influence of Media violence on Youth." American Psychological Society. 4.3 (2003): 81-110. Print.
Eysenck, H.J.. "Personality and Crime." Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent
Twin Studies and the Acquisition of Human Intelligence
The question of nature vs. nurture has been a topic of conversation, a hotly debated issue and reason for researchers to gather copious amounts of material for thousands of years. Philosophers discussed whether a child was mainly constructed of inborn (nature) or learned/observed traits (nurture) before Alexander the Great had conquered anything. Nature refers what is commonly called genetics today; nurture, conversely, is what an individual picks up from the environment. Many have been in one camp or another, but only recently have scientists had the ability to truly assess which is more correct.
One facet of this study, that of intelligence, may be the single greatest issue of discussion among scientists and lay persons. Intelligence as nature has taken a beating in the public arena due to such publications as "The Bell Curve." Many did not appreciate the findings,…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M., and Bornstein, M.H., 2000. Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2). pp. 218-232.
Farber, S.L., 1981. Identical twins reared apart: A reanalysis. New York: Basic Books.
Gander, E., 2003. On our minds: How evolutionary psychology is reshaping the nature- versus-nurture debate. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Mackintosh, N.J., 1998. IQ and human intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.