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Nature Versus Nurture
Words: 393 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21674740
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It is possible that my personality is a function of my mother's genes but it is impossible to know how much of the similarities between us are the result of my imitation and modeling of her behavior during my formative years. My older sister and I are very similar except that she is much more nervous than I am, just like my mother. According to my parents, they purposely tried to help me not become as nervous as my sister by correcting some of the mistakes they made in that regard with her. For example, she became very frightened of thunder storms and other loud noises as an infant. Therefore, when I was a baby, my parents pretended that thunder was a fun game and they made me laugh whenever there was thunder. They did the same thing with my younger brother. As a result, neither of us are nervous…

Settling the Nature Versus Nurture Debate
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19157261
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Nature vs. Nurture?

The nature versus nurture debate should not be viewed as an 'either/or debate.' Clearly, genes have an effect upon human behavior, shaping everything from our physical appearance to our gender to our tendency to inherit specific diseases and characteristics. But that genetic foundation is also always in interaction with the wider social environment. As noted by the Jungian psychoanalyst Maxson McDowell, as soon as a baby is born, his or her cognitive structure is being affected by the environment. Even before birth, the environment of the womb can affect the baby's development. A child born in a stimulating household will be better able to develop his or her innate intellectual gifts than a child that is born in an abusive and neglectful one.

A good example of the interaction between nature and nurture is that of height: parents who are genetically predisposed to be tall are likely…


Cherry, K. (2015). What is nature versus nurture? Retrieved from: 

Hurley, D. (2013). Grandma's experiences leave epigenetic mark on your genes. Discover Magazine. 

McLeod, S. A. (2016). Bandura - social learning theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:

Nature and Nurture Nature vs
Words: 2285 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90428827
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(O'Neill, 2001, p. 34)

Thee is gowing evidence to suppot the claim that cetain behavios ae in found hadwied in you DNA. Conventional thinking had usually been that childen ae always poducts of thei envionment and it is this ecological suoundings that often is at the oot cause of eithe good o bad behavio. But looked at fom anothe viewpoint, it could be possible that thei envionment, which is geneated in lage pat by thei paents, is a consequence of paental genetics as well and not the simply the envionmental cause of the behavio. A ecent eseach study at the Univesity of Viginia concluded that:

naughty youngstes aen't simply copying behavio they may have been subjected to at home. Instead, taits such as bullying, lying, o being agumentative could be passed on in the genes. The eseach, fom the Univesity of Viginia, indicates that some childen would be badly behaved…

references and You: What 'Innate' Behaviors and Perceptions Tell Us about Ourselves and Our World. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 6(4), 28-37.

O'Neill, M.E. (2001). Stalking the Mark of Cain. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(1), 31-38.

Strickland, S.J. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 100-110.

Tremblay, T., & Gagne, F. (2001). Beliefs of Students Talented in Academics, Music and Dance concerning the Heritability of Human Abilities in These Fields. Roeper Review, 23(3), 173.

Vander Zander, James W. (2003). Human development. (Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell

Nature Verses Nurture One of
Words: 1792 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88332443
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(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.


Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.


Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…


Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.

Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Sex vs Gender and Nature vs Nature
Words: 3220 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4959495
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sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. e base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. e present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.

One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…

Walker PL and Cook DC.(1998) Gender and sex: vive la difference. Am J. Phys Anthropol 106: 255 -- 259,.[CrossRef]

Psychology the Nature or Nurture
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 83480353
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Perhaps other animals also have this capacity for understanding, but they have not accessed it because it has not yet been required of them. Furthermore, viewing the Bonobos' and other animals' together, one can make the claim that learning is a highly specific process that requires not only biology -- or connections in the brain, but also culture or nurture.

While this information is certainly interesting in its application to primates, it is perhaps even more important when generalized to apply to humans. First, it is possible that early humans used their incredible talent for learning like the Bonobos do when attempting to adapt to humans. Perhaps learning was somehow involved in the adaptation process, allowing humans to grasp greater heights. Further, the Bonobos' ability to learn in such a way suggests that humans, too, have the ability to continue growing and learning, perhaps someday evolving into something even greater…


Schwartz, Jeffrey M. And Begley, Sharon, (2002) the Mind and the Brain:

Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York, NY: HarperCollins

Susan Savage-Rumbaugh on Apes. Retrieved August 17, 2009, from TED:

Nature Nurture and Mental Illness the
Words: 1720 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 60650767
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Providing more effective and less painful treatments would indeed be a very large step in the right direction. The study results indicated by the above authors provide significant hope in this direction.


Jaffee, S.. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. etrieved from:

Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses egarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. etrieved from:

oth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. etrieved from:

utter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. etrieved from:

Wermter, A-K., Lauch, M., Schimmelmann, B.G., Banaschweski, T., and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). From nature vs. nurture, via nature…


Jaffee, S.R. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. Retrieved from:

Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Retrieved from: 

Roth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. Retrieved from: 

Rutter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. Retrieved from:

Nature and Nurture the Relatively
Words: 1287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38447121
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That is simply because individual in the same family are much more likely than unrelated individuals to share similar foundational experiences by virtue of their exposure to similar parenting and resources in their immediate environment throughout their early lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). Just as hesus monkeys tend to adopt maternal behaviors and elements of personalities of their mothers irrespective of their genetic inclinations, so do human infants and growing children and adolescents internalize and adopt various aspects of the behaviors and reactions exhibited by their parents and other significant adult behavioral role models in their lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).

Twin Studies

The quality of resources available to siblings (such as food, medicine, educational opportunities, etc.) is generally very similar within biological families (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). To the extent these factors contribute to the development of behavior, it is extremely difficult if not impossible…


Gerrig, R., and Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. Prentice Hall.

Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and Behavior: Nature - Nurture Interplay Explained. Wiley-


Steen, R.G. (1996). DNA and Destiny: Nature & Nurture in Human Behavior. De Capo.

Nature in Shelley's Frankenstein Mary
Words: 1680 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 31964037
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The monster knows right from wrong and he choice is one of desperation. Victor never realizes the difference between right and wrong because it is not within his nature to do so.

Frankenstein will always be closely examined when it comes to matters of humanity because of its subject matter. Victor has every opportunity to do something good with his life and the most he can muster is achieving his own dreams of glory by attempting to recreate life. Despite his education and loving family, Victor swerves off the normal path and skids onto the freakish one. The monster he creates encompasses more goodness than he does but he cannot see this because he is just like the rest of humanity - unable to see beyond the monster's appearance. The monster tried everything within his power to remove himself from the freakish path that Victor placed him on and gain…

Works Cited

Bloom, Harold. "An excerpt from a study of Frankenstein: or, the New Prometheus." Partisan Review. 1965. Gale Resource Database. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.comInformation Retrieved December 4, 2008.

Bloom on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." Bloom's Classic Critical Views. 2008. Bloom's Literary Reference Online. Information Retrieved December 4, 2008. 

Gould, Stephen. "The Monster's Human Nature." Natural History. 1994. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 4, 2008. 

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Bantam Books. 1981.

Nature Made Him in Psychology
Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76854687
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David's life calmed down, but there were years of mixed-messages and confusion that plagued him the rest of his life. He eventually married as a male, but later committed suicide.

From a sociological perspective, the case shows how perceptions can be influenced by incomplete research. Dr. Money reported the decision as a success, despite Brenda/David's clear uncomfortability during childhood. Dr. Money's beliefs were used as a basis to 'assign' gender to hundreds of boys born with extremely small sexual organs, or a lack of a penis, and raised as girls. The relevency of the book, however, goes beyond the scientific. It is a clear account for those who are interested in transgender issues, who either know someone or are feeling uncomfortable themselves in gender related issues. The human issue centers around comfortability -- an individual's right to live in a way that is most productive for them. Certainly, it is…

Works Cited

Baron-Cohen, S. The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Perseus Book Group, 2003.

Blackless, M, "Atypical Gender Development - A Review." International Journal of Transgenderism 9.2 (2003): 29-44.

Colapinto, J. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York:

Harper, 2006.

Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Happiness Nature
Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63287110
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Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Happiness

Nature vs. Nurture

How happy we feel is determined both by our genetic makeup and the way we live our lives. A significant body of research has shown that close ties to family and friends may overcome a genetic disinclination towards feelings of happiness and well-being. There are other steps that individuals can take to improve how happy they feel, including improving diet, exercise, spiritual practices, and cognitive therapy. Science may have thus provided enough options that any genetic shortcoming towards feeling happiness may have become irrelevant.

Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Happiness

Nature vs. nurture is a way of contrasting the genetic and environmental contributions to an individual's personality, disposition, and behavioral repertoire (The Open University, 2007, p. 104). Although the term 'nature vs. nurture debate' is still used today, it isn't much of a debate any longer. Countless genetic and behavioral studies…


Davidson, R.J., Jackson, D.C. And Kalin, N.H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context and regulation: perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890 -- 906.

Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zinn, J. et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564 -- 570.

Lane, R.E. (2000). The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven, CT; Yale

Langer, E. And Rodin, J. (1976). The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: a field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 191 -- 198.

Sangster Delillo Nature and God What Is
Words: 2481 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3808565
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Sangster, DeLillo, Nature and God

hat is the opposite of Nature? There are a number of different answers we could give in playing the game of finding an antonym. e are accustomed to speaking of "nature vs. nurture," but "nature" here is a shorthand for the phrase "human nature." In referring to Nature in its environmental sense, we are more likely to speak of "nature vs. culture" or "nature vs. art" -- environment is defined as something which stands apart from human habitation or cultivation. In this sense, it is paradoxical to approach the subject of nature in a work of art -- the fact of its being art serves to remove us in some way from the realm of Nature. I would like to examine the treatment of Nature as a concept in two very different works: the nineteenth-century Canadian poem "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay" by Charles…

Works Cited

Bentley, DMR. The Gay[Grey Moose: Essays on the Ecologies and Mythologies of Canadian Poetry. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1992. Print.

Buell, Lawrence. "Toxic Discourse." Critical Inquiry 24 (3): 639-665. Web. Accessed online at: 

DeLillo, Don. White Noise. New York: Penguin, 1986. Print.

Sangster, Charles. "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay." Web. Accessed online at:

Psychology the Roles of Nature
Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11986076
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These hidden issues influence our conscious decisions. So, people may have both conscious and unconscious reasons for behaving as they do. People might be able to give what seem like rational reasons for behavior. Someone who sets fires might say he or she enjoys seeing the flames and likes watching the fire department put the fire out. Those may be the factors the individual is conscious of, but a psychologist might find that there were other reasons driving the person's behavior as well.

One of the things that often makes it hard for one person to understand another person's actions is that we have only observable behavior to go on. We can't examine the internal mental processes that take place. This makes it easy to judge people as acting in ways that suggest a moral flaw or lack of character. A woman who dresses very suggestively might be considered to…

Is Nature More Predominant in Learning Than Nurture
Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 951983
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Academic Success for Children

hat are some best practices that can improve the academic performance of children? This journal entry reviews scholarly literature that presents ideas for best practices regarding how children can achieve academic success. Also, the reasons for the statistical diversity within the diverse student population -- what causes the gap between achievers and those who struggle?

Is it Nature or Nurture?

There is no shortage of opinions when it comes to this issue, but an article in the New Scientist suggests it is more nature than nurture. Journalist Andy Coghlan reports on a study of twins conducted by the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College in the UK that claims academic success is based more on a child's genetic makeup than the environment the child is growing up in. The researchers tested 5,474 sets of twins -- 2,008 of those sets were identical -- and determined that…

Works Cited

Coghlan, A. (2013). Nature more than nurture determines exam success. New Scientist,

Retrieved April 27, 2014, from .

Jensen, E. (2009). Chapter 2: How Poverty Affects Behavior and Academic Performance.

ASCD. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from .

Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment
Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91836586
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Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…


Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.

Nurture vs Nature -- How
Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77896558
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Strike has ethics, as shown in his behavior towards his 'boss' Roscoe, and his mentoring of the younger, more vulnerable young men. In a different social situation, Strike would likely have put his moral impulses to different and better use. Strike obeys the moral logic of his urban society with the same kind of adherence that an upstanding citizen might, who had been afforded ways to make a decent living in a law-abiding way. But Strike grew up in a neighborhood where the most noble and respectable persons were all drug dealers, and the person one could aspire to be like, at the highest level, was a criminal. Thus, although he does not wish to kill, and seeks an escape from the limits of his existence, because he has no role models around him (and unconsciously provides a bad example to younger members of his neighborhood) Strike becomes a dealer,…

Works Cited

Ellison, Ralph. (1995) Invisible Man. New York: Vintage.

Faulkner, William. (1991) Absalom, Absalom. New York: Vintage Reissue.

Price, Richard. (2001) Clockers. New York: Harper Paperbacks.

Six Parts of Psychology
Words: 2250 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73246535
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This report will discuss the six main tenets of personality. Each one will be defined and scholarly research will be used to back up and prove what is being asserted in this report. The six tenets that will be discussed are going to be nature vs. nurture, the unconscious, the view of self, development, motivation and maturation. Each of those six has a different part to play in how people develop and change from a personality standpoint. There is a lot of debate as to whether someone's personality and "lot in life" is tied to supposedly "winning the genetic lottery" or if there is much more to it. There are others that say that while some genetic precursors exist, the environment and people that do (or do not) surround a person has a larger effect. This report shall explore that topic using scholarly sources that are from…


Almeida, J., Pajtas, P.E., Mahon, B.Z., Nakayama, K., & Caramazza, A. (2013). Affect

of the unconscious: visually suppressed angry faces modulate our decisions. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 13(1), 94-101.



What Makes Us How We Are
Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89272990
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Nature vs. Nurture

The author of this report has been asked to cover the topic that is known as "nature vs. nurture." Basically, it is the question of whether people are pre-destined for their fate in terms of personality, life outcomes and so forth or if that is influenced or even created by the environment in which a child grows and experiences events in their life. This brief essay will describe the basic questions in play and will also compare and contrast two different studies that focus on the nature vs. nurture argument. While nature and nurture both certainly play a part in many to most lives, there is usually a combination of the two rather than one or the other when it comes to most people.


As noted in the introduction above, there are two basic arguments when it comes to how people become what they are, act…


Cherry, K. (2015). The Age Old Debate of Nature vs. Nurture. Education. Retrieved 23 June 2015, from 

McLeod, S. (2015). Nature Nurture in Psychology | Simply Psychology. Retrieved 23 June 2015, from 

PBS. (2015). Nature vs. Nurture Revisited. Retrieved 23 June 2015, from

Can'skill'surveys cross cultures
Words: 878 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72791553
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Nature vs. Nurture

To any decently educated or aware person, the "nature versus nurture" argument is nothing new. Something else that is not new is the idea that while there are arguments for both, there always seems to be one idea that is more prevalent and "true" than the others. Such is the case with the microcosm of "nature versus nurture" that is in play when it comes to the work of Patricia Greenfield. Her initial statements in a recent article are very much a framing of a "nature versus nurture" argument and then she provides her version of the answer. While some might disagree with what Ms. Greenfield has to say, it is fairly clear that she is rather spot-on in her analysis and decision when it comes to the subject in question.


The primary so-called battlefield of nature versus nurture that Ms. Greenfield approaches and talks about…


Gaynor, M. (2016). Genes, Depression, and Anxiety. Psychology Today. Retrieved 25 October 2016, from

Greenfield, P. (1997). YOU CAN'T TAKE IT WITH YOU: Why Ability Assessments Don't Cross Cultures. Retrieved 25 October 2016, from sa1yctii.pdf#search='cross%20cultural%20psychology%20and%20intelligence

Upbringing Excuse for Criminal Behavior
Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89659108
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Nature vs. Nurture

Much has been made as of late about whether and to what extent offenders should be held liable for their actions when they grow up around illegal or morally depraved activity. Such activity can include domestic assault, child abuse, child rape or molestation, emotional abuse and so forth. Quite often, child offenders below a certain age are not held liable or held as liable as they would be if they were adults or at least close to being eighteen years old. Indeed, the old saying "the apple does not fall far from the tree" proves itself in many situations. However, while forgiving some transgressions due to poor upbringing may sound good on paper, it would open a Pandora's box of problems and would not work in practice.


The idea that a child below a certain age, although that age tends to vary based on the offense…


O'Connor, C. (2013, July 30). How Much Would A Big Mac Cost If McDonald's Workers Were

Paid $15 Per Hour? (Updated, Corrected). Forbes. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from -


Russell, J. (2014, July 13). Career Coach: Bringing spirituality to work. Washington Post.

Evolution of Psychology Rationality the
Words: 2796 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12933369
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Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.

Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.

While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…


Consciousness: Section PS13D

Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology

Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.

Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.

Psychology Theories and Models of
Words: 3348 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26105035
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There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).

A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.

As one discovers how much they like…


Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from -


Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from 

Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from

Human Biological Variation Is Human
Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55012786
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Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…

Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, .

Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;

Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, .

Behavior Development Three Developmental Theories That Provide
Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49446206
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Behavior Development

hree developmental theories that provide interesting research for those seeking knowledge concerning this particular field of study include the theory of nature vs. nurture, continuous vs. discontinuous development and critical and sensitive periods of development during those periods in life when either critical or sensitive development is taking place. Comparing and contrasting these three developmental theories should lead the researcher to a better understanding of not only the three theories, but a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the field as well.

For instance, a recent study determined that "genetic and environmental factors provides a potential explanation of the individual differences in responses to environmental influences" (Wermter, Laucht, Schimmelmann, Banaschweski, Sonuga-Barke, Rietschel, Becker, 2010, p. 200). Additionally, the study determined that children exposed to an environment stressor known to increase risk for a certain psychiatric disorder (e.g. high family adversity) are at a higher risk for that disorder…

This is another study that provides data on both spectrums and seems to come to no strong resolution regarding whether the critical or sensitive theory is more viable than the other.

Wermter, A.K.; Laucht, M.; Schimmelmann, B.G.; Banaschweski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Rietschel, M.; Becker, K.; (2010) From nature vs. nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene x environment interaction in mental disorders, European Child and Adolescent Pscyhiatry, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 199-210

This article assists the researcher in understanding that the field is moving beyond the theory of nature vs. nurture and that it is growing into a field that understands that it just might be nature in conjunction with nurture that can be the most positive, or negative (as the case may be) of influences.

Difficulties That Elderly People Encounter and Their
Words: 1028 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26561840
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Difficulties that Elderly People Encounter and Their Life Satisfaction," which was published within the scholarly journal Social Behavior and Personality in 2008, social scientists Kasim Karatas and Veli Duyan analyze the level of life satisfaction experienced by elderly residents of the Ankara region of Turkey, while also exploring the various factors which may negatively influence one's life satisfaction. According to the authors, "the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of elderly people and the effects that difficulties they encounter in daily life have on their life satisfaction" (2008), with the dually overriding objectives of determining a causal relationship between life satisfaction and either sociodemographic characteristics or hardships experienced. Relying on the tried and true methodology of administering a detailed survey and questionnaire combination, in this case to a sample of 109 females and 76 males between the ages of 60 and 98 living in the Kocatepe…

Motivation and Emotion
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47749159
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personality has been influenced both by nature and by nurture, considering that I have come to identify in it a series of factors that originate in my genetic background and that come from the environment that I grew up in. Even with the fact that I would prefer to consider myself as being a unique individual, I am well aware that there are numerous individuals who think and behave relatively similar to me. There are a lot of traits in me that I observe to be similar to the same traits in my parents, thus meaning that I have genetically inherited their behavior.

While most people would prefer to believe that their personalities are only shaped by themselves, I know that genetics and the surrounding environment both played an important role in my upbringing and in developing my personal identity.

My self-esteem has been significantly influenced by nurture, taking into…

Enduring Concern and Its Historical Conceptions
Words: 1891 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85204314
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Conceptions of an Enduring Issue

elationship between Body and Mind/Soul - Aristotle and Descartes

Aristotle modeled hylomorphism as a fusion of form and matter or soul and body as two elements of one solid being. Aristotle viewed the body's form to be the soul and the soul's matter to be the body. Descartes' dualism separates matter and mind (also soul) and recognizes that the two constitute a person. The two philosophies both subscribed to the view that the mind or soul was located centrally in a person. Aristotle believed that the soul resided in the heart while Descartes believed that the mind was located in the brain. The mind and soul were seen to be interacting with the rest of the body, albeit not clearly in Descartes' case. Aristotle's theory advanced a deep connection between the two and it is probable that he considered the faculty of the soul called…


Chaffee (2011).The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas. Retrieved from 

Cohen, S.M. (2008). Aristotle on the Soul. Retrieved from 

Eltagouri, M. (2009). Immanuel Kant: Last Influential Philosopher of the Theory of Knowledge of the Enlightenment Era. Retrieved from 

Fleming, J.S. (2008). The Nature of Human Nature: Philosophical Perspectives on Human Development. Retrieved from

Criminal Propensity There Is a
Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66130055
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In the meantime, new brain cells are constantly being developed, even into old age, but such alterations in the brain are largely contingent on what the individual has experienced in his or her environment" (Wright et al., 2008). Therefore, one of the factors that can impact adult propensity to commit violence is whether the brain had the opportunity to develop normally in very early childhood. Of course, both social and biological factors can impact early brain development.

In many ways, criminals are not thought to respond to external stimuli in the same manner as non-criminals, and it is believed that there may be an underlying biological basis for these differences. The auto-nomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system beyond the conscious control of the individual and is split into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for…


Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the Making . Thousand Oaks:

Sage Publications Inc. .

Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences
Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14840903
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The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.

4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?

The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…

Psychology Applied
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50942775
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The nervous system is a part of an animal's body which is responsible for the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions as well as the transmission of signals between different parts of the body. It is responsible for sending, receiving and the processing of nerve impulses all over the body. All the organs and muscles within the body rely upon the nerve impulses in order for them to function. The nervous system receives information from sense organs regarding the environment by means such as hearing, sight, smell, pressure, taste and pain. The nervous system consists of tow main parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the bone-skull and the vertebrae. The peripheral nervous system comprises of numerous neurons which are its functional units. The central nervous system is responsible for…


Farr, G. (2002). The Nervous System - Advanced Version / What is the Nervous System?. Become healthy now. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from

Powell, K. (2014). Nature vs. Nurture . about parenting. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from

Foundations of Leadership
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Foundations of Leadership

The Fielder Contingency Model of Leadership is one of the most popular leadership models in the literature and it emerged in the 1960s. The model is flexible and able to accommodate many different scenarios which are one of the primary factors responsible for its popularity. The model makes the claim that the group's performance is contingent on the interaction of the leader and the group. The models major contribution to the field of research is that it allows for a leader orientation as well as ways to measure it as well as situational factors that will influence the leaders as well as the group's performance. The two most fundamental leadership orientations are either relationship oriented or task oriented; with a range of possible combinations in-between. The primary measurement for a leader's evaluation on this scale is known as the LPC score. A high LPC score represents…

Works Cited

Cruz, M., Nunes, A., & Pinheiro, P. (2011). Fiedler's Contingency Theory:. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 7-26.

Hanisch, B., & Wald, A. (2012). A Bibliometric View on the Use of Contingency Theory in Project Management Research. Project Management Journal, 4-23.

Rice, R., & Chemers, M. (2013). Predicting the Emergence of Leaders Using Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 281-287.

Theoretical Dimensions Involving Criminal Behavior
Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43899327
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Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior

Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior

Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).

There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…


Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.

Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.

Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.

Psychology Thinking & Intelligence How
Words: 976 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53853690
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These stores then send information into Short-Term memory stores, which then send information into Long-Term memory stores. The believed that control process were performed in short-term memory which allowed information to be put into long-term memory and then recalled from it as well (Baddeley, 1997).

6. Suppose a two-year-old child believed every object a person can go into with a roof is called a house. One day the child refers to the family car as a house. The parent corrects him and says this is a car not a house. Based on Piaget's theory, what will this child have to do in order to correctly process this material and not make a similar error in the future?

According to Piaget the child would have to assimilate and accommodate the information in order to not make the same mistake in the future. Assimilation is the process by which a person takes…

Works Cited

Baddeley, Alan D. (1997). Human Memory. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from Google Books Web


2 NXAXYC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=Atkinson+and+Shiffrin%27s+(1971)+model+of

+memory&source=bl&ots=jLZi5KhHLo&sig=7Xk6Pz5i8SK3njg7lPGVsXSsIBE&hl=e n&ei=qk9TSv-MLoG6NfKlmOgI&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1

Naturalistic Observations the Advantages of
Words: 903 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 49203286
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This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.

Chapter 6

From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…

Works Cited

Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.

Worth Publishers, 2004.

Psychology of Gender
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Psychology of Gender

In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. efore the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.

Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…


Berenbaum, S.A. (2006). Psychological Outcome in Children With Disorders of Sex Development: Implications for Treatment and Understanding Typical Development. Annual Review of Sex Research, 171. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Colapinto, J. (2000). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Crooks, R., & Baur, K. (2008). Our Sexuality 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Oltmanns, T.F., & Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal Psychology 6th ed. International. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Running Head Gender in a
Words: 2572 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33753194
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the toys themselves had a distinctly gendered feel.
While the author recalled Legos as gender-neutral, they did not appear
gender neutral in the toy-store setting. Instead, the Lego products were
based on action movies, such as tar Wars and Indiana Jones or else
featured something called a Bionicle, which appeared to be some type of
robot. There were some Legos called Clickits, which were pink and white
and featured teenage-looking cartoon-character girls. However, the Lego
sets from the author's youth, which featured blocks and other features to
build gender-neutral items like towns, simply were not present. Instead,
the Legos seemed less free-form and more structured, and came in boxes to
build specific designs, almost all of them masculine in stereotyping.
The other building materials were similarly gender-differentiated.
While the toy store had apparently gender-neutral building toys like Tinker
Toys and Mega Blocks, they also managed to capitalize on stereotyping.…

Sex Roles, 54 (9/10), 717-726).
Green, V.A., Bigler, R., and Catherwood, D. (2004). The variability and
flexibility of gender-
typed toy play: A close look at children's behavioural responses to
counter-stereotypic models. Sex Roles, 51 (7/8), 371-386.

Depressive Disorder Is it Caused
Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52021775
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orks Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at

Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette

smoking, stages of change, and major depression in the Canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(3), 204-8. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical

Library database. (Document ID: 1673587981).

Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.

Retrieved April 27, 2009 at

Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…

Works Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at 

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at