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The general public has come to accept the sway of almighty genes in the human personality and destiny (De Waal).
Studies of the behaviors of chimpanzees and bonobos illustrate striking similarities to human behaviors and suggest evolution and kinship (De Waal 1999). These range from politics, child rearing to violence and morality. There is no place for a blank slate. Human beings are naturally selfish and aggressive or they have evolved into cooperative and loving creatures. At the same time, the resemblance rejects genetic or biological determinism. Genes are merely biological inputs into the personality, powerless to dictate the course of its development. And the environment contributes passing stimulations, which eventually fade out. Oncoming researches promise to integrate developmental, genetic, cultural and evolutionary approaches into one integrated perspective. These developments will incline students and advocates of animal behavior towards environmental effects on human behavior, as in the case of primates…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
ADHD as an Example of Nature vs. Nurture
There are several schools of thought that address the way in which human beings develop their personality and behavioral traits. Some psychologists believe that traits tend to be innate, written into the individual's genetic code and thus inborn and largely predicted from conception (Gonzales-Mena, 2009). On the other hand, other psychologists believe that while individuals have genetic traits that may predispose them toward certain conditions and behaviors, the demonstration of those traits is the result of the way in which they were raised, and the way in which they interacted with the world at a young age (Gonzales-Mena, 2009). Both theories are based in observational and clinical data, and both seem to have equal support in the scientific community (Lippa, 2002). It seems likely that neither nature nor nurture are, in and of themselves, responsible for human behavior. Rather,…… [Read More]
The process of problem solving is therefore enhanced whenever the learner is able to gain access to, and manipulate, concepts and knowledge representations of problem-solving procedures. According to Lee, Baylor and Nelson (2005) "Potential instructional uses of external knowledge representations include the following: (a) clarification or elaboration of a learner's own conceptual understanding of a problem space…(b) communication of a learner's conceptual understanding to others… and, (c) evaluation of a learner's conceptual understanding. The focus here is the first use: that is, the learners' use of external representations to aid in their interpretation and understanding of concepts and procedures, as a way to facilitate problem solving" (p. 118).
Structures vs. Processes: Memory Models And Processes
The term "structures" refers to the contents attributes and products of the human brain, while the term "processes" denotes the manners in which knowledge is absorbed and recalled. Studies of memory processes are usually divided…… [Read More]
Since personality disorders are inherited, it can be assumed that overall personality traits are inherited from parents. Generally, people with similar characteristics have similar personalities since it's hereditary.
The question on whether people are born with self-confidence or they are taught on developing this aspect is a fundamental issue about the nature vs. nurture debate. In the view of self-confidence being developed from environmental influences, it's basically stated that an individual's psychological traits that form confidence are developed mostly by parenting (William, 2009). Some of the parenting attributes that contribute to self-confidence are the parents' beliefs, expectations, and modeling. Moreover, the initial efficacy experiences are usually based on the family as peers become increasingly important to a person's development of self-knowledge of their capabilities as their social world expands in their growth processes. However, self-confidence is regarded as more of a genetic predisposition than a state of mind and…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture:
The modern field of psychology has been characterized by various significant questions including the concern regarding nature vs. nurture. This concern can also be described as the determination of the extent with which biology influences an individual's psychology as compared to cultural constructs or factors. Based on his analysis, Herdt (2004) presents an evaluation of Freudian and development psychology in which he explains the progression of adolescent development through a more culturally-informed means. To support his claims, article states that traditional theories of adolescent development have focused on the person and the formation of adult self on the basis that it existed outside of culture as presented in Freudian and biological discussions of psychology. The article consists of several important points including the following
Isolation of Adolescent Development from the Community:
According to historical analyses on sexuality, policies have constantly focused on the individual not culture to…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
This paper argues that my affinity for basketball is the result of both heredity and environment. Being good at the playing basketball requires certain traits, including physical agility, speed, strength, hand-eye coordination, and so forth, as well as intangible characteristics such as mental toughness, work ethic, basketball IQ etc. There is ongoing debate as to whether the influence of heredity or environment is greater in determining basketball skill, and this paper examines that debate from the perspective of genetics and evolution.
My genetic heritage, or genoytype, includes DNA contributions from both parents. These coded instructions determine my phenotype, the observable characteristics I display. Together they account for my basketball abilities.
While it seems straightforward to argue that genetics determine many physical basketball skills, my environment was also a factor. I grew up watching basketball games with my father, and shooting hoops in the driveway and at the…… [Read More]
They should not just give them toys, they should also play with them. There are age-appropriate toys available in the market. For instance, Lego is an excellent toy for developing attention and concentration. However, if you leave a child alone with a Lego set, he will probably just throw the pieces around, as he will not understand what he is supposed to do with them. Parents should demonstrate how to use Lego to their children and also show their keenness towards the toy. If parents are going to sit around and watch movies and expect their children to play on their own, there is no point. Children need parental involvement and guidance."
In conclusion, whether nature or nurture influences intelligence remains a matter of debate between scientists. However, it appears that nurture outweighs nature when it comes to intelligence. Changes in our environment early on may effect gene expression and…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
Upon researching the issue of nature vs. nurture both elements direct influence upon human development, it is clear that there is no definite way to argue if one plays a greater or not. Upon further understanding it is only fair to propose that both play a significant role in human development and shaping his or her character. At this point in discovery, it is only safe to comment that there are a number of different factors that come into play given the randomness of our society. The paragraphs below establish a strong argue for equal influence in one's development. However, there is one important detail to note at this time in that throughout human development there are periods of time where one may play a greater emphasis than the other depending on the stage. There are times in one's life where nurture will be more important and…… [Read More]
(Myers, 2006, p. 99)
The clone's adult personality would still likely closely resemble that of the donor, but would not likely be an exact match of the other. The issue of temperament has a great deal to do with decisions, as when certain offerings are made to the individual infant, the individual infant will likely respond in a consistent manner according to his or her temperament. Temperament, according to Myers, is the least variable aspect of the individual, as seen by adoptive studies associated with what adoptive parent's can influence or change and what they can not. (p. 98)
The adult personality of monozygotic twins clearly differs, despite the fact that they share exactly the same DNA and presumably grew up in the same household. Where such individuals grew up in different households, such as is the case in adoptive twin situations the two individuals still share certain basic personality…… [Read More]
Nature vs. nurture debate has been the center of discussion for many years. Some believe that human behavior is created naturally while others believe that human behavior evolves over time.
The purpose of this discussion is to discuss both sides of issue and to develop an opinion about which side seems more accurate. Let's begin our discussion by explaining the nature vs. nurture debate.
Nature vs. Nurture
The first recorded experiment concerning nature vs. nurture occurred in the 13th Century. The experiment was conducted by King Frederick II who wanted to see what language a child would pick up if they were not spoken to. He wanted to see if they would just naturally learn language. Steen (1996) asserts that the King was curious as to whether children would teach themselves the Hebrew language, which was the oldest language extant in Europe at the time, or one of the more…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
An Age Old Debate
Nature vs. nurture is one of the age old debates primarily within psychology but also within other social sciences such as sociology. Intelligence is often one of the aspects in which the argument hinges upon. There has been some evidence that the first born child in any family is more likely to possess traits consistent with intelligence and aptitude. This would suggest that nurture is a key component in the equation since siblings have relatively similar genetic composition. A strong correlation between being the first born and such measurable personality traits as intelligence would indicate that the manner in which one is raised in regards to their status may influence personal development.
However at the same time it is hard to dispute the role that nature plays. Examples will be provided about cases involving eye sight and depth perception in which the biological…… [Read More]
A personal identity is constructed of the social norms, beliefs, and aesthetic values in the society. Moreover, traumatic and pleasurable memories alike become part of who we are as adults. How a person deals with stress, and what stressors enter their world, are also determined in part by nature and in part by nurture.
It is impossible to escape either DNA or experiences. Both leave indelible marks on human beings. A person can have plastic surgery to change his or her appearance but can never change the underlying cellular structures in their bodies. Similarly, a person can undergo psychological counseling to work on childhood trauma issues but can never extricate the memory from consciousness. The ways nature and nurture interact in the human being does not stop after childhood, either. Even as adults, people continue to absorb their environmental stimuli. Their genes may even determine how well they live and…… [Read More]
For just one example, clinical depression in humans has been linked to early traumatic experiences; it has also been linked to specific genetic markers. esearchers have been able to plot the respective likelihood of developing the disease among individuals with either contributing factor in comparison to individuals with both contributing factors, demonstrating that the combination of biological and environmental influences is a much stronger predictor of depression than either factor on its own (Gerrig
The Significance of Extreme (Deviant) Human Behavior and Identical Twin Studies:
Some of the most dramatic evidence of the significance of external environment and experience on personality development comes in the form of the common experiences that criminologists and criminal psychological profilers have identified as playing a role in the evolution of profoundly deviant human behavior. That evidence is relevant by virtue of its extreme departure from 'normal" human behavior as well as the…… [Read More]
To deal with the 'fallout' of these neurological particularities may require treating anxiety, depression, and teaching him or her to psychologically compensate for certain deficits through intensive therapy. The fact that autism is not 'caused' by conventional psychological causes like bad parenting or 'refrigerator mothers' as was once assumed does not mean that psychology and orchestrating the child's environment does not have a role in treating the illness.
The two different approaches can also have a vital function in suggesting the source of specific components of what is considered a psychological illness. Autistic children often have difficulty identifying persons based upon their faces in a manner that is 'normal.' A neuroscientist will study the "specific brain systems" which "allow each person to recognize a face… Social psychologists, by contrast, take the ability to recognize faces and their expressions as a starting point and might ask how each stranger uses that…… [Read More]
nature vs. nurture theory. The author uses two books to draw information supporting the arguments presented in the paper. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
For many years experts in the fields of biology, physics and chemistry have argued the elements of nature vs. nurture. Experts have remained divided on what drives a person to do, think, act and feel the way he or she does.
Those who believe in the nurture theory argue that it is in the raising of the child and the lessons he or she is taught that ultimately shapes the end result. Those who favor the nature side of the argument disagree, and believe that the genetic component is much more important than anyone realizes when it comes to the eventual adult creation.
Two experts in the field of science when it comes to human nature believe that nature is the underlying…… [Read More]
nature vs. nurture has been a significant topic for discussion throughout the entire history of human civilization, starting with the Greek philosophers and continuing with the Biblical Judeo-Christian tradition. This paper aims to look at this debate from a Biblical perspective. It analyzes components of human psychology, look at foundations and progression of psychology. It takes into consideration a diverse portfolio of research papers that have been written on this topic, so as to conclude that the nature part is favored by the Bible, but that this is not an exclusive approach. The nurture component is recognized and the Christian faith actually proposes a nuanced model, in which the two are complementary.
The nature vs. nurture discussion has been ongoing even before the Christian period, with Greek philosophers like Plato addressing the issue. The idea whether individuals are shaped by their society and environment or by the genes that…… [Read More]
How epigenetics impacts nature nurture debate
Both nature and nurture matter for multiple traits and tendencies. Physical and psychological outcomes can be traced to both genetics and to environmental factors. Recent research has shown that nature and nurture are equally as important in determining outcomes (Cooper-White, 2015). However, the relationship between genetics and the environment is complex. Genetic traits may predispose individuals towards certain behaviors, which in turn moderate or enhance genetic predispositions. Similarly, environmental factors could trigger or repress specific heritable responses to stimuli.
The field of epigenetics may offer greater clarity regarding the complex relationship between nature and nurture. Epigenetics shows how genes can be turned on or off according to either environmental stimuli or the presence of other genetic features (“A Super Brief and Basic Explanation of Epigenetics for Total Beginners,” n.d.). Epigenetics shows how nature and nurture are inextricably interrelated in the human experience. As genetic…… [Read More]
Bleidorn, W., Kandler, C., Hulsheger, U.R., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., & Spinath, F.
M. (2010). Nature and nurture of the interplay between personality traits and major life goals. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 99(2), 366-379.
The first article is written by Bleidorn and a few other authors. Per the title, it pertains to the interplay and correlation between a person's personality traits and their life goals as they progress through life. The author's thesis centers on a question asked by a research study done about fifteen years ago when it was asked whether or what the conceptual relationship between personality traits and goals happens to be. The introductory statement also talks about how motivational constructive have long been considered part and parcel of a person's personality and how the personality then manifests and displays (Bleidorn et al., 2010).
The article goes on to talk about major life goals…… [Read More]
Outliers: The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell (2008)
In statistics, an outlier is a point that is far distant from other number sets, and Malcolm Gladwell applies the concept to exemplary individuals who set themselves apart from others through their actions and behaviors and who generally do things that are out of the ordinary. In his book, Outliers: The Story of Success, Gladwell describes some of the attributes he believes are responsible for some people becoming outliers compared to their peers, and cites a number of examples as being proof positive that some people take nature and nurture and run with it. To determine what Gladwell has to say about these and other issues, this paper provides a review of his book, Outliers: The Story of Success, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Success does not just fall out…… [Read More]
General Motors and Ford have both had their issues with cars being sold with glaring and known safety problems. Ford's issues with the Pinto are legendary (not to mention notorious) while General Motors (GM) is having their own issues right now with the ignitions and steering systems on their vehicles. While the amount of deaths with the Pinto were starkly higher, the GM travails and missteps of today are hauntingly similar and there seems to be too much focus on putting a public relations spin on things and not enough on making sure that the cars built are both competitive and the marketplace but also safe. Fortunately, GM is not incurring sales hits as a result of the kerfuffle but they are absolutely taking hits to be bottom line in the form of recall and litigation costs for people that have been hurt, injured or affected financially by…… [Read More]
In several well documented instances, the twins pursued identical courses of academic study and career, married spouses of the same name, and even exhibited identical habits, such as their preference for a type of clothing, a brand of beer, and even a unique style of opening a beer can (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).
However, that environmental influences have a significant effect on the development of behavior is equally evident, even in animal studies, such as experiments involving chimpanzees exposed to various environments that produce behavior that appears contrary to their known genetic predisposition (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). Ultimately,
both "nature" and "nurture" likely play approximately equal roles in shaping behavior.
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, . (1994). Abnormal
Psychology and Human
Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, ., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Shapiro,…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
The nature vs. nurture argument is one that has been around for many years—especially since the behavioral sciences emerged in the 20th century with the experiments of Skinner and Bandura. It was Bandura’s (1977) theory of social learning that viewed all behavior as learned from one’s environment. Skinner (1957) likewise postulated that it was the “nurturing” side of one’s experience that shaped human activity, thought and expression. Galton (1883) on the other hand felt differently. He predated both Skinner and Bandura and was himself a student of Darwin. He thus postulated that “nature” was responsible for the development of human behavior—that some people were simply born with greater gifts, such as intellectual ability, than others. Galton was a 19th century philosopher and scientist and his views aligned with ideas like the Great Man Theory, which articulated the position that great leaders are born, not made. This paper…… [Read More]
It is possible that my personality is a function of my mother's genes but it is impossible to know how much of the similarities between us are the result of my imitation and modeling of her behavior during my formative years. My older sister and I are very similar except that she is much more nervous than I am, just like my mother. According to my parents, they purposely tried to help me not become as nervous as my sister by correcting some of the mistakes they made in that regard with her. For example, she became very frightened of thunder storms and other loud noises as an infant. Therefore, when I was a baby, my parents pretended that thunder was a fun game and they made me laugh whenever there was thunder. They did the same thing with my younger brother. As a result, neither of us are nervous…… [Read More]
In this Nature vs. Nurture essay example, we will offer topics, titles, an outline, and what it takes to make a great paper. We begin with a strong introduction and thesis statement, followed by body paragraphs that offer in depth analysis of the topics as well as current evidence. We end the essay with a succinct recap of everything under the conclusion section. In critical essays, the main thing to focus on is development of a strong perspective to offer readers a unique and interpretive analysis of a text or topic(s).
What came first, the chicken or the egg? Is Nurture more influential than Nature?
To be or not to be: Nature versus Nurture
The Eternal Debate: Nature versus Nurture
Selected Title: Understanding Origins: Nature versus Nurture
Background on the Debate of Nature vs. Nurture
Interaction of Genes and Environment
Personality Traits and Genetics
I.…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture?
The nature versus nurture debate should not be viewed as an 'either/or debate.' Clearly, genes have an effect upon human behavior, shaping everything from our physical appearance to our gender to our tendency to inherit specific diseases and characteristics. But that genetic foundation is also always in interaction with the wider social environment. As noted by the Jungian psychoanalyst Maxson McDowell, as soon as a baby is born, his or her cognitive structure is being affected by the environment. Even before birth, the environment of the womb can affect the baby's development. A child born in a stimulating household will be better able to develop his or her innate intellectual gifts than a child that is born in an abusive and neglectful one.
A good example of the interaction between nature and nurture is that of height: parents who are genetically predisposed to be tall are likely…… [Read More]
(O'Neill, 2001, p. 34)
Thee is gowing evidence to suppot the claim that cetain behavios ae in found hadwied in you DNA. Conventional thinking had usually been that childen ae always poducts of thei envionment and it is this ecological suoundings that often is at the oot cause of eithe good o bad behavio. But looked at fom anothe viewpoint, it could be possible that thei envionment, which is geneated in lage pat by thei paents, is a consequence of paental genetics as well and not the simply the envionmental cause of the behavio. A ecent eseach study at the Univesity of Viginia concluded that:
naughty youngstes aen't simply copying behavio they may have been subjected to at home. Instead, taits such as bullying, lying, o being agumentative could be passed on in the genes. The eseach, fom the Univesity of Viginia, indicates that some childen would be badly behaved…… [Read More]
(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.
Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…… [Read More]
sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. e base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. e present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.
One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…… [Read More]
Perhaps other animals also have this capacity for understanding, but they have not accessed it because it has not yet been required of them. Furthermore, viewing the Bonobos' and other animals' together, one can make the claim that learning is a highly specific process that requires not only biology -- or connections in the brain, but also culture or nurture.
While this information is certainly interesting in its application to primates, it is perhaps even more important when generalized to apply to humans. First, it is possible that early humans used their incredible talent for learning like the Bonobos do when attempting to adapt to humans. Perhaps learning was somehow involved in the adaptation process, allowing humans to grasp greater heights. Further, the Bonobos' ability to learn in such a way suggests that humans, too, have the ability to continue growing and learning, perhaps someday evolving into something even greater…… [Read More]
Providing more effective and less painful treatments would indeed be a very large step in the right direction. The study results indicated by the above authors provide significant hope in this direction.
Jaffee, S.. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. etrieved from: http://www.biostat.sdu.dk/courses/f11/TwinAnalysis/papers/Gene%20Environment%20interaction/jaffee2007.pdf
Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses egarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819309/
oth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. etrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779706/
utter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. etrieved from: http://www.moffittcaspi.com/Documents/utter_2010_D%26A.pdf
Wermter, A-K., Lauch, M., Schimmelmann, B.G., Banaschweski, T., and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). From nature vs. nurture, via nature…… [Read More]
That is simply because individual in the same family are much more likely than unrelated individuals to share similar foundational experiences by virtue of their exposure to similar parenting and resources in their immediate environment throughout their early lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). Just as hesus monkeys tend to adopt maternal behaviors and elements of personalities of their mothers irrespective of their genetic inclinations, so do human infants and growing children and adolescents internalize and adopt various aspects of the behaviors and reactions exhibited by their parents and other significant adult behavioral role models in their lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).
The quality of resources available to siblings (such as food, medicine, educational opportunities, etc.) is generally very similar within biological families (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). To the extent these factors contribute to the development of behavior, it is extremely difficult if not impossible…… [Read More]
The monster knows right from wrong and he choice is one of desperation. Victor never realizes the difference between right and wrong because it is not within his nature to do so.
Frankenstein will always be closely examined when it comes to matters of humanity because of its subject matter. Victor has every opportunity to do something good with his life and the most he can muster is achieving his own dreams of glory by attempting to recreate life. Despite his education and loving family, Victor swerves off the normal path and skids onto the freakish one. The monster he creates encompasses more goodness than he does but he cannot see this because he is just like the rest of humanity - unable to see beyond the monster's appearance. The monster tried everything within his power to remove himself from the freakish path that Victor placed him on and gain…… [Read More]
David's life calmed down, but there were years of mixed-messages and confusion that plagued him the rest of his life. He eventually married as a male, but later committed suicide.
From a sociological perspective, the case shows how perceptions can be influenced by incomplete research. Dr. Money reported the decision as a success, despite Brenda/David's clear uncomfortability during childhood. Dr. Money's beliefs were used as a basis to 'assign' gender to hundreds of boys born with extremely small sexual organs, or a lack of a penis, and raised as girls. The relevency of the book, however, goes beyond the scientific. It is a clear account for those who are interested in transgender issues, who either know someone or are feeling uncomfortable themselves in gender related issues. The human issue centers around comfortability -- an individual's right to live in a way that is most productive for them. Certainly, it is…… [Read More]
Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Happiness
Nature vs. Nurture
How happy we feel is determined both by our genetic makeup and the way we live our lives. A significant body of research has shown that close ties to family and friends may overcome a genetic disinclination towards feelings of happiness and well-being. There are other steps that individuals can take to improve how happy they feel, including improving diet, exercise, spiritual practices, and cognitive therapy. Science may have thus provided enough options that any genetic shortcoming towards feeling happiness may have become irrelevant.
Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Happiness
Nature vs. nurture is a way of contrasting the genetic and environmental contributions to an individual's personality, disposition, and behavioral repertoire (The Open University, 2007, p. 104). Although the term 'nature vs. nurture debate' is still used today, it isn't much of a debate any longer. Countless genetic and behavioral studies…… [Read More]
Sangster, DeLillo, Nature and God
hat is the opposite of Nature? There are a number of different answers we could give in playing the game of finding an antonym. e are accustomed to speaking of "nature vs. nurture," but "nature" here is a shorthand for the phrase "human nature." In referring to Nature in its environmental sense, we are more likely to speak of "nature vs. culture" or "nature vs. art" -- environment is defined as something which stands apart from human habitation or cultivation. In this sense, it is paradoxical to approach the subject of nature in a work of art -- the fact of its being art serves to remove us in some way from the realm of Nature. I would like to examine the treatment of Nature as a concept in two very different works: the nineteenth-century Canadian poem "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay" by Charles…… [Read More]
These hidden issues influence our conscious decisions. So, people may have both conscious and unconscious reasons for behaving as they do. People might be able to give what seem like rational reasons for behavior. Someone who sets fires might say he or she enjoys seeing the flames and likes watching the fire department put the fire out. Those may be the factors the individual is conscious of, but a psychologist might find that there were other reasons driving the person's behavior as well.
One of the things that often makes it hard for one person to understand another person's actions is that we have only observable behavior to go on. We can't examine the internal mental processes that take place. This makes it easy to judge people as acting in ways that suggest a moral flaw or lack of character. A woman who dresses very suggestively might be considered to…… [Read More]
Academic Success for Children
hat are some best practices that can improve the academic performance of children? This journal entry reviews scholarly literature that presents ideas for best practices regarding how children can achieve academic success. Also, the reasons for the statistical diversity within the diverse student population -- what causes the gap between achievers and those who struggle?
Is it Nature or Nurture?
There is no shortage of opinions when it comes to this issue, but an article in the New Scientist suggests it is more nature than nurture. Journalist Andy Coghlan reports on a study of twins conducted by the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College in the UK that claims academic success is based more on a child's genetic makeup than the environment the child is growing up in. The researchers tested 5,474 sets of twins -- 2,008 of those sets were identical -- and determined that…… [Read More]
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]
Strike has ethics, as shown in his behavior towards his 'boss' Roscoe, and his mentoring of the younger, more vulnerable young men. In a different social situation, Strike would likely have put his moral impulses to different and better use. Strike obeys the moral logic of his urban society with the same kind of adherence that an upstanding citizen might, who had been afforded ways to make a decent living in a law-abiding way. But Strike grew up in a neighborhood where the most noble and respectable persons were all drug dealers, and the person one could aspire to be like, at the highest level, was a criminal. Thus, although he does not wish to kill, and seeks an escape from the limits of his existence, because he has no role models around him (and unconsciously provides a bad example to younger members of his neighborhood) Strike becomes a dealer,…… [Read More]
NATUE VS. NUTUE
This report will discuss the six main tenets of personality. Each one will be defined and scholarly research will be used to back up and prove what is being asserted in this report. The six tenets that will be discussed are going to be nature vs. nurture, the unconscious, the view of self, development, motivation and maturation. Each of those six has a different part to play in how people develop and change from a personality standpoint. There is a lot of debate as to whether someone's personality and "lot in life" is tied to supposedly "winning the genetic lottery" or if there is much more to it. There are others that say that while some genetic precursors exist, the environment and people that do (or do not) surround a person has a larger effect. This report shall explore that topic using scholarly sources that are from…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
The author of this report has been asked to cover the topic that is known as "nature vs. nurture." Basically, it is the question of whether people are pre-destined for their fate in terms of personality, life outcomes and so forth or if that is influenced or even created by the environment in which a child grows and experiences events in their life. This brief essay will describe the basic questions in play and will also compare and contrast two different studies that focus on the nature vs. nurture argument. While nature and nurture both certainly play a part in many to most lives, there is usually a combination of the two rather than one or the other when it comes to most people.
As noted in the introduction above, there are two basic arguments when it comes to how people become what they are, act…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
To any decently educated or aware person, the "nature versus nurture" argument is nothing new. Something else that is not new is the idea that while there are arguments for both, there always seems to be one idea that is more prevalent and "true" than the others. Such is the case with the microcosm of "nature versus nurture" that is in play when it comes to the work of Patricia Greenfield. Her initial statements in a recent article are very much a framing of a "nature versus nurture" argument and then she provides her version of the answer. While some might disagree with what Ms. Greenfield has to say, it is fairly clear that she is rather spot-on in her analysis and decision when it comes to the subject in question.
The primary so-called battlefield of nature versus nurture that Ms. Greenfield approaches and talks about…… [Read More]
Nature vs. Nurture
Much has been made as of late about whether and to what extent offenders should be held liable for their actions when they grow up around illegal or morally depraved activity. Such activity can include domestic assault, child abuse, child rape or molestation, emotional abuse and so forth. Quite often, child offenders below a certain age are not held liable or held as liable as they would be if they were adults or at least close to being eighteen years old. Indeed, the old saying "the apple does not fall far from the tree" proves itself in many situations. However, while forgiving some transgressions due to poor upbringing may sound good on paper, it would open a Pandora's box of problems and would not work in practice.
The idea that a child below a certain age, although that age tends to vary based on the offense…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…… [Read More]
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…… [Read More]
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…… [Read More]
hree developmental theories that provide interesting research for those seeking knowledge concerning this particular field of study include the theory of nature vs. nurture, continuous vs. discontinuous development and critical and sensitive periods of development during those periods in life when either critical or sensitive development is taking place. Comparing and contrasting these three developmental theories should lead the researcher to a better understanding of not only the three theories, but a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the field as well.
For instance, a recent study determined that "genetic and environmental factors provides a potential explanation of the individual differences in responses to environmental influences" (Wermter, Laucht, Schimmelmann, Banaschweski, Sonuga-Barke, Rietschel, Becker, 2010, p. 200). Additionally, the study determined that children exposed to an environment stressor known to increase risk for a certain psychiatric disorder (e.g. high family adversity) are at a higher risk for that disorder…… [Read More]
Difficulties that Elderly People Encounter and Their Life Satisfaction," which was published within the scholarly journal Social Behavior and Personality in 2008, social scientists Kasim Karatas and Veli Duyan analyze the level of life satisfaction experienced by elderly residents of the Ankara region of Turkey, while also exploring the various factors which may negatively influence one's life satisfaction. According to the authors, "the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of elderly people and the effects that difficulties they encounter in daily life have on their life satisfaction" (2008), with the dually overriding objectives of determining a causal relationship between life satisfaction and either sociodemographic characteristics or hardships experienced. Relying on the tried and true methodology of administering a detailed survey and questionnaire combination, in this case to a sample of 109 females and 76 males between the ages of 60 and 98 living in the Kocatepe…… [Read More]
personality has been influenced both by nature and by nurture, considering that I have come to identify in it a series of factors that originate in my genetic background and that come from the environment that I grew up in. Even with the fact that I would prefer to consider myself as being a unique individual, I am well aware that there are numerous individuals who think and behave relatively similar to me. There are a lot of traits in me that I observe to be similar to the same traits in my parents, thus meaning that I have genetically inherited their behavior.
While most people would prefer to believe that their personalities are only shaped by themselves, I know that genetics and the surrounding environment both played an important role in my upbringing and in developing my personal identity.
My self-esteem has been significantly influenced by nurture, taking into…… [Read More]
Conceptions of an Enduring Issue
elationship between Body and Mind/Soul - Aristotle and Descartes
Aristotle modeled hylomorphism as a fusion of form and matter or soul and body as two elements of one solid being. Aristotle viewed the body's form to be the soul and the soul's matter to be the body. Descartes' dualism separates matter and mind (also soul) and recognizes that the two constitute a person. The two philosophies both subscribed to the view that the mind or soul was located centrally in a person. Aristotle believed that the soul resided in the heart while Descartes believed that the mind was located in the brain. The mind and soul were seen to be interacting with the rest of the body, albeit not clearly in Descartes' case. Aristotle's theory advanced a deep connection between the two and it is probable that he considered the faculty of the soul called…… [Read More]
In the meantime, new brain cells are constantly being developed, even into old age, but such alterations in the brain are largely contingent on what the individual has experienced in his or her environment" (Wright et al., 2008). Therefore, one of the factors that can impact adult propensity to commit violence is whether the brain had the opportunity to develop normally in very early childhood. Of course, both social and biological factors can impact early brain development.
In many ways, criminals are not thought to respond to external stimuli in the same manner as non-criminals, and it is believed that there may be an underlying biological basis for these differences. The auto-nomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system beyond the conscious control of the individual and is split into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for…… [Read More]
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…… [Read More]
The nervous system is a part of an animal's body which is responsible for the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions as well as the transmission of signals between different parts of the body. It is responsible for sending, receiving and the processing of nerve impulses all over the body. All the organs and muscles within the body rely upon the nerve impulses in order for them to function. The nervous system receives information from sense organs regarding the environment by means such as hearing, sight, smell, pressure, taste and pain. The nervous system consists of tow main parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the bone-skull and the vertebrae. The peripheral nervous system comprises of numerous neurons which are its functional units. The central nervous system is responsible for…… [Read More]
Foundations of Leadership
The Fielder Contingency Model of Leadership is one of the most popular leadership models in the literature and it emerged in the 1960s. The model is flexible and able to accommodate many different scenarios which are one of the primary factors responsible for its popularity. The model makes the claim that the group's performance is contingent on the interaction of the leader and the group. The models major contribution to the field of research is that it allows for a leader orientation as well as ways to measure it as well as situational factors that will influence the leaders as well as the group's performance. The two most fundamental leadership orientations are either relationship oriented or task oriented; with a range of possible combinations in-between. The primary measurement for a leader's evaluation on this scale is known as the LPC score. A high LPC score represents…… [Read More]
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…… [Read More]
These stores then send information into Short-Term memory stores, which then send information into Long-Term memory stores. The believed that control process were performed in short-term memory which allowed information to be put into long-term memory and then recalled from it as well (Baddeley, 1997).
6. Suppose a two-year-old child believed every object a person can go into with a roof is called a house. One day the child refers to the family car as a house. The parent corrects him and says this is a car not a house. Based on Piaget's theory, what will this child have to do in order to correctly process this material and not make a similar error in the future?
According to Piaget the child would have to assimilate and accommodate the information in order to not make the same mistake in the future. Assimilation is the process by which a person takes…… [Read More]
This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.
From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…… [Read More]
Psychology of Gender
In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. efore the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.
Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…… [Read More]
the toys themselves had a distinctly gendered feel.
While the author recalled Legos as gender-neutral, they did not appear
gender neutral in the toy-store setting. Instead, the Lego products were
based on action movies, such as tar Wars and Indiana Jones or else
featured something called a Bionicle, which appeared to be some type of
robot. There were some Legos called Clickits, which were pink and white
and featured teenage-looking cartoon-character girls. However, the Lego
sets from the author's youth, which featured blocks and other features to
build gender-neutral items like towns, simply were not present. Instead,
the Legos seemed less free-form and more structured, and came in boxes to
build specific designs, almost all of them masculine in stereotyping.
The other building materials were similarly gender-differentiated.
While the toy store had apparently gender-neutral building toys like Tinker
Toys and Mega Blocks, they also managed to capitalize on stereotyping.…… [Read More]
Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.
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Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm
Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette
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Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.
Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://depressiongenetics.med.upenn.edu/DLResearch/Levinson_GeneticsDepression.pdf
Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…… [Read More]