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Hitler defined Das Volk (The ation) as the highest creation of a race, and therefore any polluting of that race was an act of betrayal. For many Germans during Weimar, the Jews controlled industry, banking, and suffered less in many ways due to their connections with international finance. Of course, this was just a small portion of Jews, but it became a mythos that many could believe in since it absolved Germany of fault and pointed it at a vast conspiracy. This was really the central core of the message delivered in schools, newspapers, over the radio and, after hearing it again and again, some accepted it as fact. Hitler went as far as declaring that racial conflict against Judaism was vital in order to save Germany: "We may be inhumane, but if we rescue Germany we have achieved the greatest deed in the world. We may work injustice, but…
Nazism needed a scapegoat in order to lay blame for Germany's loss in World War I, the inefficiency of the fiscal system under the Weimar government, and the economic crisis that confronted them throughout the 1920s. The Nazis claimed that the Jews were the greatest threat to the German nation and the Aryan race. Their doctrine, so elaborated in Hitler's Mein Kampf, considered Jews a race of parasites that, throughout history, attached itself to various cultures and ideologies in order to preserve itself. Examples of this were wide and varied, for the Nazis could legitimately find Jews in numerous countries at numerous historical times espousing liberalism, democracy, capitalism, industrialism, Marxism, socialism, and even trade unionism (Ibid., 24; Dawidowicz, 1975).
One very seminal question often arises regarding this vast paranoid conspiracy. How did the Nazi Party manage to convince the German people of its veracity? The idea of a master-race was certainly not something new, there was plenty of literature to support that theory, and anti-Semitism in the form of pogroms existed all over Europe. Hitler defined Das Volk (The Nation) as the highest creation of a race, and therefore any polluting of that race was an act of betrayal. For many Germans during Weimar, the Jews controlled industry, banking, and suffered less in many ways due to their connections with international finance. Of course, this was just a small portion of Jews, but it became a mythos that many could believe in since it absolved Germany of fault and pointed it at a vast conspiracy. This was really the central core of the message delivered in schools, newspapers, over the radio and, after hearing it again and again, some accepted it as fact. Hitler went as far as declaring that racial conflict against Judaism was vital in order to save Germany: "We may be inhumane, but if we rescue Germany we have achieved the greatest deed in the world. We may work injustice, but if we rescue Germany then we have removed the greatest injustice in the world. We may be immoral, but if our people are rescued we have opened the way for morality" (Hitler in: Koenigsberg, 2007, 21).
This fervent hatred was quite unbelievable to many Jews who considered themselves to be "good Germans," who were doctors, lawyers, and professors -- some even in governmental service. Hertha Nathroff, Albert Einstein's niece, wrote in her diary on the Jewish boycott and mounting tensions, "This day is engraved in my heart in flames. To think that such things are still possible in the twentieth century" (Nathroff, 2000, 179). Explaining that even the kindnest gentiles who had been friends and colleagues prior to the 1933 Jewish boycott, Marta Apple, wife of a rabbi in the city
Following their dramatic loss in the First orld ar, the people of Germany were suffering greatly, both emotionally and physically during the period of the 1920s and into the 1930s. The harsh stipulations of the Treaty of Paris forced the German government into a fragile and fragmented institution which was ripe for the abuse of power-hungry would-be tyrants. The people, eager for a strong figure to look up to, would have accepted almost anyone with perhaps any political agenda so long as the person said the right things and gave the people hope. Enter onto the world stage one Adolph Hitler. Between 1932 and 1933, Adolph Hitler was able to rise from the position of relative insubordinate in the government, to fuehrer and leader of the entire country of Germany. The only way that one man could have achieved such political success in so quick a time has…
Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2007. Print.
Bessel, Richard. Life in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University, 1989. Print.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. "To the German Nation." Modern History Sourcebook. 1806. Print.
Goebbels, Joseph. "Our Hitler: a Radio Speech to the German People in Honor of the Fuhrer's
Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)
Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…
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The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…
Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi
Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.
Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:
Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
The authorities in charge of Lodz sought to completely separate the Jewish population from the non-Jewish population. Business were marked with the nationality and ethnic identity of the proprietors, which made it easier for Germans to target Jewish-owned stores and Jews were required to wear arm bands and forbidden to leave their houses between 5:00pm and 8:00am. In fact, Lodz was the first area to institute the armbands that would distinguish Jews from non-Jews. Jews could not use public transportation, public parks, or work at non-Jewish businesses. Furthermore, Jewish property was pillaged and taken, with official sanction. If the Jews abandoned any real property, that property went into receivership. Jews were prohibited from withdrawing substantial sums of money from their bank accounts or from keeping substantial sums of money in their homes. The government confiscated raw materials from Jewish workshops and prohibited them from engaging in certain trades. People began…
Bauer, Y. (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Browning, C. (1992). The path to genocide: essays on launching the final solution. Cambridge:
Browning, C. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution. Omaha:(University of Nebraska Press.
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. (2007). The Lodz ghetto. Retrieved February
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…
Aly, Gotz and Jefferson Chase. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Holt Paperbacks, 2005.
Caplan, Jane and Nikolaus Waschmann (eds). Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories. Routledge, 2010.
Collier, Martin and Philip Pedley (eds). Hitler and the Nazi State. Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2005.
Gassert, Philipp and Alan F. Steinweiss. Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975. Berghahn Books, 2006.
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…
Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458
Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388
Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
Subversion: The Role of Politics and Pressure in the Nazi Rise to Power
Following the end of World War I, the people of Germany felt the consequences of their loss coupled with the reverberations of the American stock market crash. The effects of the Great Depression only trickled down slowly to the small German town of "Thalburg," the fictitious name of a real town whose privacy William Sheridan Allen wishes to protect throughout his work, The Nazi Seizure of Power. Attempting a democratic state in early twentieth century Germany was difficult at best, futile at worst. Using Thalburg as a microcosmic example of German social and political realities, Allen describes the Nazi rise to power as a function and result of divisions among the general populace. "In the wake of defeat came a revolution led by the working class which overthrew the Kaiser and established a republic in Germany," (p.…
Pre-Nazi Germany exhibits the kind of delicate yet poignant tension that precipitates major calamity or revolution. Contemporary art, music, and literature capture the social and political atmosphere and all its nuances, especially as it impacts the lives of individuals from various social spheres. Heinriche Heine employs the medium of poetry to subversively satirize the seeds of political and social oppression that were being planted during this critical period in German history. In “Germany: A Winter’s Tale,” Heine draws on the age-old tradition of epic poetic narrative to frame parallels with Teutonic history, all the while capitalizing on the ability of poetic devices like metaphor and imagery to deliver effective and bitter political satire. Christopher Isherwood comes at pre=Nazi Germany from a whole other perspective and point of view. As an outsider looking in, Isherwood offers a mode of inquiry from a temporary looking glass in his collection of short stories…
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…
German Propaganda Archive. (2013). Es Lebe Deutschland. Bytwerk.com.
History Learning Site (HLS). (2012). Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Historylearningsite.co.uk.
Welch, D. (2011). Nazi Propaganda. BBC History.
The churches provided open opposition to Hitler, particularly as he had declared a form of war on them as he wanted the state to take over the churches and to direct them in ways compatible with National Socialism. Various religious leaders were arrested, hundreds of them, eventually resulting in a diminishing of the resistance from that front. Shirer notes that this persecution of religion did not arouse the German people as it should have: "A people who had so lightly given up their political and cultural and economic freedoms were not, except for a relatively few, going to die or even risk imprisonment to preserve freedom of worship" (Shirer 240).
hile a large proportion of the intellectual class has rightly been blamed for failing in its responsibility to criticize the rise of National Socialism, there were also leading men in philosophy and education, history, jurisprudence, economics, physics, and other disciplines…
Rothfels, Hans, the German Opposition to Hitler. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1962.
Shirer, William L., the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.
Friends of mine were killed for their beliefs. Of course, by that time I had distanced myself from them because our beliefs no longer matched, and talking with them about the great country that Hitler was going to create had become uncomfortable. So I put on the brown uniform of the SA and joined fellow Germans in doing everything we could to ensure that Hitler's dream of what Germany could be would become a reality in the near future.
One of the reasons that I and the rest of the SA admired Hitler so much was because of his childhood. He was frequently whipped by his father and mistreated, but he did not become defeated because of it; he instead grew stronger and more determined (Nardo, 2002). With that being the case, it was easy to see how the adversity that he would face as a leader would also help…
Dufner, a. (2003). Rise of Adolf Hitler. Greenhaven Press
Gogerly, L. (2003). Adolf Hitler. Heinemann/Raintree.
Nardo, D. (2002). Adolf Hitler. Lucent Books.
Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi leader of the SS. Specifically, it will discuss his direct involvement with the concentration camps and the extermination of the Jewish people. Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was an unsuccessful chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman who became a leader in the Nazi party in the mid-1920s. As head of the SS as well as the Gestapo, he was a cold, efficient, ruthless administrator. He was the organizer of the mass murder of Jews, the man in charge of the concentration and death camps.
HIMMLE THE EXTEMINATO
Heinrich Himmler was born in 1900, and studied agriculture. He fought in the very end of World War I, and never seemed to make much of himself until he met Hitler. "Himmler was a passionate farmer. He had studied agriculture for several years, had a degree in agriculture, and was later the chairman of the board of the Organization of Agricultural Graduates"…
Devine, Carol, and Carol Rae Hansen. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Editors. "Who was Heinrich Himmler?" Holocaust History Project. 31 Dec. 1998. 17 Nov. 2002. http://www.holocaust-history.org/short-essays/heinrich-himmler.shtml
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Eisenhower, John. "Juxtaposed with History, Inquiry into why the Nazis Did What They Did." The Washington Times. 9 June 2002.
Even though the Gypsies in prewar Germany consisted of a very limited per capita population they received massive amounts of attention from the Regime and were left ripe for further marginalization and destruction.
Though they made up less than 0.1% of the German population (between 20,000 and 30,000), Gypsies, like Jews, received disproportionate attention from the authorities as the various agencies of the state sought to transform Germany into a racially pure society. etween 1934 and the outbreak of World War II, a series of laws and regulations created a web of restrictions that set Gypsies apart and severely restricted their ability, individually and collectively, to survive. In July 1934, a decree forbade intermarriage between Germans and Gypsies. 4 the same year, the law permitting the deportation of aliens was extended to foreign Gypsies. 5 in September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws declared the Gypsies "an alien People" 6 and restricted…
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe,. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Csepeli, Gyorgy, and David Simon. "Construction of Roma Identity in Eastern and Central Europe: Perception and Self-Identification." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30, no. 1 (2004): 129.
Csepeli, Gyrgy, and Antal rkeny. "The Changing Facets of Hungarian Nationalism." Social Research 63, no. 1 (1996): 247-286.
Epstein, Eric Joseph, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of the Holocaust: Biography, Geography, and Terminology. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.
orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.
According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.
Members of the movement believed…
Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=79117010
Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97937045
The movie also portrays how far humans will go to save their life, their reputation, or even salvage their ideals. Yet again, it humanizes some of the most detestable villains of, some would argue, all time, including the harshest and most hateful of Hitler's 'hitmen.'
3) Was there another possible outcome for Germany other than the creation/fall of the Nazi party and Adolf Hitler? Is it possible to have a similar outcome in the U.S. Or another country today or in the future or is the case of Nazi Germany limited to Adolf Hitler and the German nation?
Because of the fact that Germany had basically come out of a depression, defeated and without any confidence, the rise of the Nazi party was perhaps the most logical thing that could happen to the country. With the advent of the party came prosperity, or at least a segment of it in…
The picture shows a larger-than-life gigantic bearded and very hairy naked man wearing a kippah (Hebrew head-covering) with the Star of David on it. He has a large and crooked nose and a ferocious, rather frightening grin as he appears to be gleefully tearing up railroad tracks and wreaking destruction on a city. There is something round, perhaps a large city water-storage tank, which has railroad tracks wrapped around it. Many of the details of the poster are slightly obscured by the glare of the lights, so one cannot be quite sure of what one is looking at. The sketchy 'city' seems to be broken, obviously destroyed by the monster, and this is well-illustrated with broken lines intended to be railroad tracks bent and strewn at random all over the city. At the very bottom of the picture, people are shown running away as they look back fearfully.…
This split has been growing since the poor performance of the party in the Euro elections earlier this year and mirrors the difficulties they had in 1995 after the massive wave of public sector strikes threw the party into disarray."
We have seen how the success of this right-wing party, the National Front, is closely tied to the popularity of its leader, Jean Marie Le Pen. In most cases involving right-wing politics this is the case. However, it is not always so. An examination of the National Socialist party reveals that it still has many supporters in different parts of the world, and has been making a resurgence in Germany. Hitler has been dead for many years, but his party lives on, in fact growing throughout other parts of the world.
Extreme right movements will always be with us. Since they are usually based upon a focus of negative aspects…
Jamey Keaten. "A Million French Rally vs. Le Pen." Common Dreams Newscenter. May 1, 2002. April 20, 2005. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-09.htm .
Jepps, Jim. "French National Front Split over Successor to Le Pen." August 2004. April 23, 2005. http://www.socialistunitynetwork.co.uk/news/fn.htm .
Jones, Alan. "France Polarized by Elections." 2002. April 20, 2005. http://www.socialistalternative.org/justice30/20.html .
Margolis, Eric S. "Le Pen Earthquake in France." Big Eye. Apr. 28, 2002. April 20, 2005. http://www.bigeye.com/042802.htm .
The free election of Hitler as a ruler was soon adopted by the Nazis' philosophy and Hitler was presented as a man of the people. The Nazis inoculated into people's mind the idea that since they had chosen Hitler as their ruler, he must be the right man.
All in all, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was aimed at subjugating and controlling the people and it was done through the manipulation of people into achieving the Reich's goals. As such, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was that of eliminating all individual features and unifying the population's objectives in the direction desired by the Nazis.
3. The Gleichschaltung philosophy as applied by the Gestapo and the SS
In order to gain control over the people, the Nazi thinkers needed the support of military and police forces. The necessary aid came from the Geheimes Staatspolizei-Amt or Gestapo and from the Schutzstaffel, or the SS. The…
Feuchtwanger, E., Nazi Gleichschaltung, Volume 7, Number 2, History on the Web, http://www.history-ontheweb.co.uk/concepts/concept72_gleichschaltung.htm , last accessed on October 19, 2007
Orlow, D., the History of the Nazi Party: 1933-1945, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 7, No.3, Sept 1974
Evans, J.R., the Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939, New York, Penguin, 2005
Browder, G.C., Hitler's Enforces: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution, the American Historical Review, Vol. 103, No. 3, June 1998
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…
1. Eher, Franz. On the German People and Its Territory.Nazi Propaganda: 1933-1945. 2007. Retrieved: Oct. 21, 2007. Available at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/hjhandbuch.htm
2. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany a History 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. 2004
3. Welch, David. The Third Reich Politics and Propaganda 2nd edition. London. Routledge. 2002.
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
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Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
Accordingly "the Hitler Youth movement emphasized activism, physical training, NAZI ideology, especially nationalism and racial concepts, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the NAZI Party. Indoctrinating children in National Socialist ideology was a key goal of the NAZI Party. Once Hitler assumed control over the German state, he used the Government to make the Hitler Youth the country's all encompassing youth movement" (HBU1, 1) The racial elements of the Hitler Youth indoctrination were also of critical importance to the Nazi movement as these propelled the aggressive social isolation and abuse of groups such as Jews, gypsies and homosexuals. The Hitler Youth would gain a sense of pride in the propaganda designed to project them as the future leaders of Germany. Essentially granted the right to defy those of any age who differed with the party's values, the Hitler Youth would be primed for a distinct level of enthusiasm based on…
Associated Press (AP). (2005). New Pope Defied Nazis As Teen During WWII. The New York Times. Online at http://bc.edu/research/cjl/meta-elements/texts/cjrelations/topics/new_pope_defied_nazis.htm
The History Place (HP). (1999). The History Place: Hitler Youth. Historyplace.com.
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU). (1998). German Boys Scouts/Pfadfinderen. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/sco/country/ger/scoutger.ht
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU1). (1998). Hitler Youth. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/nat/hitler/hitler.htm
Nevertheless, in the immediate period, due to the increasing prosperity, the Republican left started to benefit from the people's trust and this was proven as well by the elections in 1928. Moreover, the coalition formed by the German's people Party with the three Republican parties was undoubtedly considered a change. However, the situation was not to last long and one year afterwards in Germany the first signs of an economic depression have made themselves felt. As a consequence, people started to mistrust the political change they had sustained and that allowed the left-wing and right-wing radicalism to gain legitimacy, a fact which led to tensions of the parties which sustained those currents of thought on the political scene. In this situation, one of the logical measures, which later determined the appearance of Fascism, was that the Socialists, under the pressure of the fear that their sustainers would embrace Communism, became…
Felix GILBERT, The end of the European Era: 1890 to the Present," W.W. Norton Company, New York, 1981 pp. 270;
AJ.P. TAYLOR, "The origins of the Second World War," Oxford university Press, 1999, 246 pp;
Stanley G. PAINE, "Fascism. Comparison and definition', Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980;
Arthur O. LOVEJOY, "The meaning of Romanticism for the Historian of Ideas," in Franklin L. BAUMER (ed.), "Intellectual Movements in Modern European History,"New York: Macmillan, 1965;
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).
As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from…
Buckser Andrew. After the Rescue. New York: MacMillan, 2003
Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University, 2001
Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979
Kische, Conrad. The Jewish Community in Denmark: History and Present Status.
Based on what is present in the essay, it seems as if you do not really have a problem finding beauty in the work of the Nazis, or benefiting from their atrocities, but rather maintained a false sense of ambivalence throughout the essay in order to make it more compelling. However, it also seems likely that you would attempt to maintain a distinction between finding your essay entertaining and finding beauty in Pernkopf's book, if only because the essay's ambiguity points towards an unwillingness to follow your own positions to their logical, if sometimes uncomfortable, ends. The question your essay poses is a crucial one, and it is regrettable that you were unwilling to answer it sufficiently.
Assignment 4: Making a Scene
Reading about the Holocaust is a little bit like reading science fiction, because everything is at once familiar and entirely alien. Movies and television have made almost…
Angetter, Daniela C. "Anatomical Science at University of Vienna 1938-45." The Lancet
355.9213 (2000): 1454-7.
C, Raina MacIntyre, Catherine L. King, and David Isaacs. "Ethics and Access to Teaching
Materials in the Medical Library: The Case of the Pernkopf Atlas." Medical Journal of Australia 184.5 (2006): 254-5.
Likewise, the heroes are those who took actions to prevent the amassing of victims. Clearly, the individual Nazis do not fit into this category. (Arendt, 2006: p. 74).
Thus, Arendt leaves the question as to whether the individual Nazis were bystanders or murderers. To be a bystander, Arendt argues that the Nazi soldiers would have to be completely free of any act that perpetuated the actions. However, because the Nazis made numerous choices, from joining the party, from giving up their individuality and morals, and for following the theory of the final solution, it would seem that one would conclude that they are not innocent bystanders, as would be community members who did nothing in the face of their neighbors being taken away to their deaths. (Arendt, 2006: p. 57).
ased on this thinking, one would think that Arendt would conclude that all Nazis were guilty of crimes against humanity…
Based on this thinking, one would think that Arendt would conclude that all Nazis were guilty of crimes against humanity due to their direct role in carrying out the final solution and murder of the one and only victims of the Holocaust- the Jews and others persecuted by the Nazi regime. However, this in fact is not the conclusion reached by Arendt, at least as to the Nazi leader Eichmann.
Arendt was actually present at Eichmann's trial held in Jerusalem. According to her account of the trial and Eichmann's testimony, it is her conclusion that Eichmann in fact is not a murder but, more appropriately, an innocent bystander and thus not guilty of the Nazi crimes against humanity. Arendt's thinking is that Eichmann, at heart, was not a Nazi and thus did not really know of Hitler's program when he joined the Nazi party. Further, she argues that he had nothing to do with the death camps, which in fact grew out of Hitler's euthanasia program and that, all in all, Eichmann was a modest and innocent bystander. (Arendt, 2006; et. al.)
In conclusion, Arendt essentially argrees with the Nazi arguments for their innocence, that in fact they had no choice due to the political pressures of the era and that, regardless of their actual actions, they did not agree with the goal internally. Unless they were internally in agreement with their actions, according to Arendt, Nazis such as Eichmann are innocent bystanders and the only true murderer is Hitler himself.
I saw them digging up potatoes...while the farmer...watched them in despair and the local policeman looked on gloomily from the distance...What did it remind me of? Of the war, of the worst period of starvation in 1917 and 1918, but even then people paid for the potatoes.|...|
Hauser does not agree with Ostwald that times are finally returning to normal and in fact has his own moral message about the events of the day, as gangs of many men overtake well intentioned farmers by stealing their crops, without recourse and whole families, rather than just unemployed men roam the streets seeking food and refuge. The two, living in the same time see things froma very different perspective, and yet both harbor undertones of morality as a breaking point in the culture of the nation.
It is also important to mention that Germany was seeking and finding solutions in more than…
Hauser, Heinrich. "The Unemployed" (April 1933) in the Weimar Republic Sourcebook, ed. Anton Kaes, Martin Jay, and Edward Dimendberg, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994. 84-85.
Kroner, Friedrich. "Overwrought Nerves." In the Weimar Republic Sourcebook, ed.
Anton Kaes, Martin Jay, and Edward Dimendberg, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994. 63- 64.
Luxemburg, Rosa. "Founding Manifesto of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD)"
The country had been defeated in this war, it had lost all its colonies and many of its European lands, as well as being forced to pay a large sum of money to the winning allies. It could no longer have a navy or aircrafts and its army and number of soldiers, as well as armaments, was kept under strict supervision by the allied powers. Summarizing all this, in the period after the First World War and equivalent to the ascension of the Nazi Party, Germany was thoroughly defeated and, even more importantly, its national pride was put to great test. This may explain in part why a party that would promise to revive a great Germany that would take back its place among the world powers would gain popular support in the country.
On the other hand, the war, as well as the Depression that followed throughout the 1920s…
Apparently Brandt handled the medical needs of Bruckner well because Hitler made him "…his personal physician" and in time Brandt was given the rank of "major-general in the affen-SS" (Spartacus Educational).
Brandt helped establish the "Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health," which was a smokescreen for "compulsory sterilization" -- and in fact Brandt was in charge of the program ("Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenially-Based Diseases") that basically was established to kill those who were "insane" and the "physically handicapped" (Spartacus Educational). The JVL explains that Brandt's euthanasia program began in 1939, and deformed children along with the very old and insane were murdered by gas or lethal injections in "…nursing homes, hospitals and asylums" (JVL, 1).
During the Nuremberg Trials the prosecutors were "caught off guard by the numerous affidavits submitted by the defense" that testified to the quality of Brandt's "personal character"…
Bryant, Michael. (2009). "Only the National Socialist": Postwar U.S. And West German
Approaches to Nazi "Euthanasia" Crimes, 1946-1953. Nationalities Papers, 37(6), 861-888.
Glaser, Edmund. (2008/09). Ulf Schmidt's Karl Brandt -- the Nazi Doctor: Medicine and Power in the Third Reich and Justice at Nuremberg: Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial.
Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), 109-116.
It is popularly thought that most Jews went to their deaths 'as sheep to the slaughter'. This is a misconception. What is surprising, as Bauer (1982) notes, is not how little resistance there was ut rather, given the conditions that the Jews of Eastern Europe endured, how much.
Altschuler, D. Hitler's War Against the Jews, New York: Behrman House, l978
Bauer, Y.A History of the Holocaust. New York: F. Watts, 1982
Gilert, M. The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy. London: St. Edmundsury Press, 1986
Groman, G. The Holocaust. UK: Harper Perennial, 1990
Gutman, Y. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939-43: Ghetto Underground Revolt. UK: Brighton, 1982.
Johnson, P.A History of the Jews, UK: Harper Perennial, 1987
Rohrlich, R. (ed.) Resisting the Holocaust. Oxford and New York: Berg Pulishers, 1998.
Suhl, Y. (ed.) They Fought Back. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1975.
1. Johnson, 508.
3 Gilert, 426-7
4 Altschuler, 192
15 the organization was called the "Comite de Defence des Juifs." It was assisted by Yvonne Nevejean, head of the O.N.E. (Office National de l'Enfance)
Imagine being a time traveler, and returning to England during the Middle Ages; the swastika was called "fylfot" in England and it represented something positive. And then upon arriving at an ancient temple in China the time traveler again would see the swastika. In China the swastika was called "wan" and meant "good luck" -- so to use the symbol in China one would be hoping for health and happiness and prosperity. That culture in China respected the swastika and any visitor to that era would be expected to understand that. But if the time travelers would punch a button on the time machine, set the clock to June 1920, and "fly" to Germany, the traveler would learn that the swastika was the "official emblem of the German Gymnasts' League" (About.com). The swastika was also uses in "a multitude of places such as the emblem for the andervogel, a German…
British Broadcast Company. (2005). Origins of the Swastika. Retrieved July 14, 2009,
From http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk .
Rosenberg, Jennifer. (2008). The History of the Swastika. Retrieved July 14, 2009, from About.com, http://history1900s.about.com/cs/swastika/a/swastikahistory.htm .
Yronwode, Cat. The "Lucky W" Amulet Archive: The Swastika. Lucky Mojo. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from http://www.luckymojo.com/swastika.html .
This included the
annexation of Czechoslovakia. He reneged on areas in Poland which had been
ceded from German in the Versailles treaty. While Britain and the Soviet
Union were unable to come to an alliance, Germany was able to develop a non-
aggression pact with Stalin, negotiated over the partitioning of Poland.
Hitler continued to work against significant disbelief on the part of the
general European public and conquered France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg
and Belgium. Hitler took advantage of Europeans disbelief that another war
to the extent degree of World War I was possible, and certainly not
possible under the restrictions placed on Germany by the Treaty of
Versailles. Hitler's victory brought France and Italy to his side.
Hitler was unable to obtain air superiority over Britain, despite
blistering attacks on British cities. The ability of the British to hold
out against the rest of Europe was a rallying cry…
Second orld ar and how the Allied Powers were able to defeat the Axis Powers, ending Nazism, the Holocaust, and Japan's stranglehold on the Pacific. However, fewer people are truly knowledgeable about the beginning of the war. For the United States, orld ar II officially began on December 7th, 1941 with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. For the rest of the world, the war began much earlier and had already produced massive damage of property and people. The series of events that would lead to a world at war began in the early 1930s with the invasion of Manchuria by Japan and the seizing of power in the nation of Germany by Third Reich leader Adolf Hitler.
After the First orld ar, Germany was suffering from a massive depression. Losing the war left the people destitute; many were jobless and many were homeless. hen things are their bleakest, it can…
Paxton, Robert O. Europe in the Twentieth Century. 5th. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College,
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.
Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany
etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.
. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…
Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last
updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667 .
Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty
That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
The latter was an important member of this party, and also a staunch anti-Semite. The association with Eckart therefore further solidified Hitler's prejudice against Jews and other non-Aryan races (Fuchs 12)
Like many Germans, Hitler was deeply shocked by Germany's surrender. At the time, he was lying in a military hospital, recovering from a mustard gas attack. Recalling the anti-Semitic and political pamphlets he read as a teenager, Hitler came to believe that Jewish politicians had signed the armistice, thereby surrendering Germany at the point of victory (Schwaab 46).
The German surrender thus served as a catalyst for Hitler's entry into politics
Hitler believed that these Jewish politicians were preparing the way for a communist takeover of the German nation.
Shortly after meeting Eckart, Hitler produced his first anti-Semitic writing, advocating for a solution to the growing German problem. Hitler's solution involved "rational anti-Semitism." He vowed not to use traditional…
Fuchs, Thomas. A Concise Biography of Adolf Hitler. Boston: Berkly, 2000
Haffner, Sebastian. The Meaning of Hitler.
Boston: Harvard University Press, 2004
Housden, Martyn. Hitler: Biography of a Revolutionary? New York: Routledge, 2000.
It started in the fall of 1932, Evans explains; Jewish businesses were bombed, Jewish synagogues and other Jewish places were destroyed. In the weeks after Hitler's appointment as Reich Chancellor "…stormtroopers broke into synagogues and desecrated the religious furniture, smashed the windows of Jewish shops, and subjected Jews to random acts of humiliation," like forcing them to drink castor oil and shaving their beards forcibly in public, Evans goes on.
The Jewish judges and lawyers were not spared from this violence. All over Germany, the Nazi stormtroopers "burst into courthouses… dragged Jewish judges and lawyers out of the proceedings and beat them up…" (Evans). It is hard to imagine the horror that participants must have experience during court proceedings, to have armed storm troopers burst in and grab the judge, drag him into the street and beat him. Of all the outrageously violent and terrifying events in Nazi Germany --…
Barsam, Richard Meran. 1975. Filmguide to Triumph of the Will. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
Evans, Richard J. 2005. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Books.
Hegi, Ursula. 2000. Stones from the River. Madison, WI: Demco Media.
Hitler, Adolph. 1926. Mein Kampf. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.hitler.org /writings/Mein_Kampf.
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on a single project -- typically the major "goal" of a regime such as war.
Complete government control on weapons, although not an exclusive characteristic of totalitarian governments precludes the chances of successful uprisings.
Case Studies: Specific Examples of Totalitarian egimes
The Soviet Communist regime under Joseph Stalin, the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy and Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler are typical examples of totalitarian regimes.
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin: As observed earlier, it is debatable whether Karl Marx had clearly envisaged the formation of totalitarian governments by the application of his Communist theory. However, the first country to adopt Communism, i.e., the Soviet Union soon degenerated into the worst type of totalitarian government imaginable under Joseph Stalin who…
Arendt, Hannah. (1966). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23477515
Blum, G.P. (1998). The Rise of Fascism in Europe (R. M. Miller, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Characteristics of Totalitarianism." (n.d.) From: Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, by Carl Friedrick and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://plato.newarka.edu/~labbey/ap_total_charac.html
Kreis, Steven. (2004) "The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler." Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe: The History Guide. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture10.html
Steeped in controversy and tainted by his legacy as Hitler's personal architect and close friend, Albert Speer is a difficult historical figure to portray and to pinpoint. Gitta Sereny explores the life and the mind of this complex man with brilliant insight, historical awareness, and sensitivity, as she examines the surprising moral conflicts that Speer faced later in his life, especially after the Nuremberg trials. As the only member of Hitler's inner circle to be spared from the death penalty, Speer had ample time before his death in 1981 to reflect on his role in Nazi atrocities. Although Speer ostensibly never killed a soul, nor did he outwardly perform any act of violence or hatred, he nevertheless supported and loved the man who ordered the brutal deaths of millions of Jews as well as Catholics, gypsies, and homosexuals. Fascinated by this period in history because of her first-hand experiences during…
The Germany Army also condoned what had happened in the purging of the Night of the Long Knives, showing that their side was with Hitler and thus they began their association with him that would nearly lead them to a world conquest (1996). The two-hour, highly emotional speech that Hitler gave at the Reichstag explaining his behavior to the German people as well as to the disbelieving foreign press would be one of the most important speeches of his career (1996). The "brownshirts" were either brought into Hitler's army or they just simply disappeared while the would become Hitler's main tools of mass murder that would go on for another eleven years (1996).
ection E: Conclusion.
The Night of the Long Knives was absolutely vital in Hitler's consolidation of power. Before the purge, Hitler had opposition in the A party who were still interested in some of the original ideas…
Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power. New York, NY: Penguin, 2006.
History Place. The Night of the Long Knives. World War II in Europe, 1996. Retrieved on October 28, 2010, from the Website,
Maracin, Paul R. The Night of the Long Knives: Forty-Eight Hours That Changed the History of the World. Guilford, CT: First Lyons Press Paperback Edition, 2007.
The result was an inflation rate that brought the value of the German mark down to virtually zero and for nine long months the country languished in a state of economic starvation, hoping for leniency from the Allies. ith none forthcoming, the present regime resigned and the new "Reich" coalition party assumed control of the government under the helm of Gustav Stresemann (127).
Germany's Return to Prominence?
The rise of Stresemann was evidence of the failure of the 1918 German Revolution. The effort lacked popular support, economic acumen or diplomatic ability. Germany in 1923 was perhaps worse off than it was in 1918. In order to begin a true rebuilding process, the new coalition first set out to stabilize the German mark.
The period of the eimar from 1924 through 1930 is seen as the "golden years" (139). In 1924 the mark had stabilized and the communist and Nazi parties…
Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany. Prentice Hall, 5th ed. (2001).
He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential position. A closer look to Goering's life of luxury shows that he was more than enjoying his success, his arrogance and extravagance being by now well-known.
Goering had good organizational skills and he was appointed in charge of so many different positions because he had the capability to follow the Nazi ideology with more belief than many others. Goering was truly dedicated to the Nazi cause, although not entirely unmotivated.
Goering was the man that stood behind the elimination of the Jewish community from German economic life, as he fined the German Jewish community a billion marks and order their exclusion from economy, their properties, even schools, parks, or forests. Goering was one of the leading figures that planned the "Aryanisation"…
Hermann Goering, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring ;
Hermann Goering, Jewish Virtual Library, available at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Holocaust/goering.html;
Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 1), available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_%28World_War_1%29 ;
Manvell, Roger and Franenkel, Heinrich, Goering, Greenhill Books, London UK, 2005;
Meanwhile, Adolf Hitler took advantage of the people's dissatisfaction with the treaty and in the hands of the Nazis, this issue was used to rationalize brutal persecution of entire ethnic minorities and political groups. This effort against previous international settlements enabled a junction of their political programs, war aims, and racist ideologies.
Hitler has also decreed that the SS were to be treated as "organizations in the service of the State," and thus, achieved a very high status in the society. The special position of the SS man meant that he must be dealt with in a special way. With that, no state court, nor even a Nazi Party court, had the right to judge an SS man. If so, this was to be the sole privilege and responsibility of SS judges and high ranking officers.
It was so obvious that because of the privileges that were granted to the…
Hofer, Walther (ed.). Der Nationalsozialismus Dokumente 1933-1945 (Frankfurt (I am Main: Fischer Bucherei KG, 1957), p. 71.
Oath of Loyalty." Taken at http://ddickerson.igc.org/oath-of-loyalty.html, Retrieved on November 15, 2006
Snyder, Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich (New York: Paragon House, 1989), pp.
156 and 257.
As displayed in the movie, Hitler has put an end to the Depression by bringing German pride back, and by having Germans work again in a prosperous society. This time, the swastika is put next to wheat on banners.
Probably uninspired at a certain moment in editing the film, when Hitler asks various laborers where they are from, Riefenstahl first shows an individual who is from Friesenland, a location of little importance for Germans.
Hitler presumably wants to put an end to discrimination between classes, as he claims that all German people should consider themselves as their Fuhrer's people. The process he wants to make work in order to unite people is none other than that of work. Hitler's strategies, along with that of Riefenstahl's make it possible for the movie to be a very convincing material. When being combined with political propaganda, art is more effective than it could…
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
Glimpse Into the Mind of a Genius
Vladimir Nabokov wrote about the world in which he lived. His world was the first half of the twenty first century, and was filled with mistrust and double standards. His world was one of death and the darker side of human nature. It is this side of human nature that intrigued Nabokov and also something that his life had led him to experience first hand. In a world at war one is surrounded by death and death was a central theme of Nabokov's work. Nabokov's work reflected the world in which he lived. Nabokov uses stereotypical references to paint a clear picture of life during orld ar II."
Many consider Nabokov to be a literary genius who weaves complex plots and rich characters together in ways that can seem incomprehensible at times. No one will argue with his clever command of the English…
Nabokov, Vladimir. "Conversation Piece" Retrieved at http://ruslit.virtualave.net/nabokov/conversationl.html Accessed August, 2002.
Brian Boyd. Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. Alfred A Knopf Publishers. March,
Grossman, Lev. The gay Nabokov. Salon Media group, Inc. Salon.com. 2000. Retrieved at http://dir.salon.com/books/feature/2000/05/17/nabokov/index.html Accessed August
Thorpe, Vanessa. Gay brother 'is key to Lolita author" The Observer. Sunday May 21, 2000.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_World_War_II).If one is asked to choose a single cause for the war it would have to be the desire to have power, as was demonstrated by various invasions and attacks on countries that did not invite them.
The immediate Causes of World War II are generally held to be the German invasion of Poland, and the Japanese attacks on China, the United States, and the British and Dutch colonies. In each of these cases, the attacks were the result of a decision made by authoritarian ruling elites in Germany and Japan (Causes of World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_World_War_II)."
Interestingly, the Nazi Party came to rule through the Democratic process, but once in a position of power the party quickly moved to stomp out any hint of freedom or democracy anywhere in its path.
The Nazi's capitalized on the mob mentality when it worked to unite Germans into believing that they were…
Summary of the Causes of World War II
Causes of World War II http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_World_War_II
Causes of World War II. HOW WERE the EFFECTS of WORLD WAR I RELATED to the CAUSES of WORLD WAR II? The economic collapse, and the political instability...www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/causeww2.html
Nevertheless, Hitler was also perceptive enough to accept full credit for the economic turnaround and the German people readily considered Hitler to be the source.
The political success of Hitler in the years leading up to the beginning of the Second orld ar was unprecedented. He acquired territory after territory through the appeasement efforts of the leaders from the other European nations. Germany entered the 1930's a defeated and demoralized nation suffering from the effects of a major economic depression and within a few short years was transformed into a nation enjoying full employment, welcoming family and friends from the Sudetenland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, and a renewed sense of national pride. For a people who had suffered through two decades of uncertainty and economic depravity, Hitler took upon a mythological image (Ascher).
One of the other areas that contributed heavily to the popularity of Hitler was his ability to restore…
Abel, Theodore. "The Pattern of a Successful Political Movement." American Sociological Review (1937): 347-352.
Ascher, Abraham. "Was Hitler a Riddle?" The Journal of the Historical Society (2009): 1-21.
Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years: 1933-1941. New York: Modern Library, 1999.
Myerson, Roger B. "Political Economics and the Weimar Disaster." Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (2004): 187-209.
But he failed and started cooperating with real leaders - owners of huge industrial monopolies. To get rid of small businessmen organization (SA) Hitler murdered their leader Ernst Rem and some other leaders.
That's why fascists changed their political program.
Any national property was controlled by state, but in fact - rich monopolists. Hitler created extremely effective General department of property (head - Krupp and Siemens).
The largest corporation in the country belonged to German Gering. It was that huge because it received Jews' property and later - property which was captured in states- victims of German foreign policy. German leaders started regulating prices as it was in USSR or USA during New Line.
Agriculture was also controlled by the state. Agricultural production was controlled and every farmer had to sell it to the state (by the way, prices were also regulated by state).
So, all German private property got…
6. Georgi Zhukov From Moscow to Berlin: Marshall Zhukov's Greatest Battles Noontide Pr 1991.
7. Montefiore, Simon Sebag Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar Dixie 1993
8. J.Simon, M. Miller. World Economics WestPrint 1988
Spear of Destany
The history of civilization is full of legends and myths that have cut across cultural barriers and are nowadays some of the most well-known stories related to the old times of religion and civilization. One of these myths include, among others, the Holy Graal, the Shroud of Turin, or the Spear of Destiny, both of them linked to the life and death of Jesus Christ.
The present research provides a detailed account of the history of the Spear of Destiny, or the Holy Spear, which is considered to have been the one that eventually killed Jesus on the Cross. The accounts of this artifact is important and to some extend crucial for the history of Christianity in particular because of the role it played in the final hours of Jesus' life and, at the same time, due to the mysticism and meaning that has been attributed to…
Above Top Secret. (2014). The Spear of Destiny and Its Victims: From Jesus to Hitler . Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread914336/pg1
Bible Probe. (n.d.). Search for the real Holy Lance. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from http://www.bibleprobe.com/holy_lance.htm
Charney, N. (2013, Dec 21). Hitler's Hunt for the Holy Grail and the Ghent Altarpiece. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/12/21/hitler-s-hunt-for-the-holy-grail-and-the-ghent-altarpiece.html
Don Schwager. (n.d. ). Daily readings and Meditation. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from The Gospel of John: a commentary & meditation: http://www.rc.net/wcc/readings/john1931.htm
And yet, of course, this is a far better fate than served out to so many. And so they are allowed to live. (Except for Oskar's beloved Roswitha, who is killed by the "good guys" -- the Allied troops at Normandy.)
Can Art Save Us?
Oskar appears to grow up when he converts his childish toy to a professional instrument and becomes a jazz player. Jazz was anathema to the Germans (at least to the Nazis) because it was a symbol of a lesser race. It was black music -- and blacks were barely human to the Nazis. In taking up such a musical trope, Oskar seems to cast off the Nazi part of himself, seems to find an authentic degree of redemption. But then he takes on the guilt of a murder that he did not commit. He is unable to escape the collective guilt of his nation, his…
A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.
A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).
Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…
Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.
Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.
Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I
At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.
The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.
During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…
Conflicting National Interests
Military Casualties of W.W.I http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm
Religious Views of the Holocaust
Most people realize that during World War II, the Nazi Party of Germany waged a relentless war against people they did not welcome in their country for one reason or another. We all know that over 6 million Jews died during the Holocaust, but many people don't realize that the Nazis targeted others as well, including Gypsies and some Christians who would not cooperate with the Nazi regime or who were caught aiding those who were supposed to be sent to concentration camps.
Given that the Holocaust was a multicultural and multi-religious event, it is interesting to consider how some major religions might view the events. Christianity teaches that all murder is against the law of God. However most Christian religions allow the execution of criminals by state governments. This is why we have individuals who protest executions but rarely hear entire denominations protest such…
Dworkin, Andrea. 1994. The Unremembered: Searching for Women at the Holocaust Memorial Museum. Ms. Magazine, V:3
Rittner, Carol, Smith, Stephen D., and Steinfeldt, Irena, editors.
The Holocaust and the Christian World: Reflections on the Past - Challenges for the Future. 1994. New York: Continuum.
Hitler's early life as well as his rise to power in Germany. This paper will discuss the Nazi Party and the start of the Second World War.
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Braunau, Austria, a small town across the nn River from Germany. He was the fourth child of his father's third marriage. His father, Alois was born illegitimate and this would later have bearing on Adolf's mental state. Years later, some of Hitler's political opponents would insult him by calling him Schicklgruber or German for bastard. Adolf received good marks in elementary school, but did poorly high school. This greatly disappointed his father who wanted his son to have a career as a civil servant. nstead Adolf wanted to study art.
n 1907, Hitler went to Vienna where he wanted to be an art student. He failed the entrance examination of the Academy…
In closing, many think Adolf Hitler was a mad man. Still he displayed amazing leadership skills. He is considered one of the great villains of modern times.
World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. New York: World Book, Inc., 2003.
Main characters in Schindler's List
During the Holocaust, Oskar Schindler who is a womanizer, war profiteer, and a Nazi member becomes the unexpected savior and hero of approximately 1,100 Polish Jews. He is a swindler and a moderately successful businessman who takes advantage of wartime to gain financial success. His business includes buying an enamelware factory previously owned by a Jew and using ingratiation and bribery to get contracts to make war supplies. At first, he was apathetic to the Jews, thinking that their situation was just a result of the war. He is a playboy who habitually cheats on his wife. He joined the Nazi party because he believes that it will help him make more money, and not for any ideological reason. According to the movie Schindler's List (2016), even though Oscar Schindler buys the factory that has been confiscated from Jewish owners and…
Keneally, T. (1993). Schindler's List. New York: Serpentine Publishing Company.
Raven, G. (1994). 'Schindler's List:' A review. Retrieved from The Journal of Historical Review: http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v14/v14n3p-7_raven.html
Schindler's List. (2016 ). Retrieved from Spark Notes: http://www.sparknotes.com/film/schindlerslist/canalysis.html
SLE. (2013). Accuracies. Retrieved from SCHINDLER'S LIST: https://schindlerslisteight.wordpress.com/historical-accuracy/truths/
Organized Psychology’s Involvement in the Eugenics Movement
The eugenics movement that began in the United States during the 1920s reached a brutal extreme with the Nazis’ experimentation with improving the racial stock of human beings through controlled breeding, and this movement would have significant implications well into the 21st century (Sutton, 2015). Many practitioners today, though, may be unaware of organized psychology’s role in contributing to the eugenics movement during the 20th century (Newhouse, 2016). To gain some new insights into this issue, this paper reviews the relevant primary and secondary literature concerning organized psychology’s long involvement in the eugenics movement and how this involvement provided the scientific basis for the selective breeding and extermination of human beings. Finally, a recapitulation of the main findings from the primary and secondary literature concerning these issues and the lessons learned are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
The origins of eugenics…
French New Wave/Auteur Theory and Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino: An Auteur
French New Wave cinema is a cinematic movement of the 1950s and 1960s established by French filmmakers and film critics who founded the Cahiers du Cinema that felt cinema had become too commercialized, formulaic, and unoriginal. This critical contention eventually led to the development of the auteur theory. Throughout various essays and critiques, Cahiers du Cinema critics sought to revolutionize cinema and analyze the function of writer in relationship to director. Cahiers du Cinema critics further argued that directors should be the driving vehicle behind a film and not writers. The criterion for an auteur, as defined by film critics in France and the United States, is still evident to this day. Through his unique writing and directing style, and through the use of mise-en-scene in his most recent film Inglourious asterds,[footnoteRef:1] Quentin Tarantino has demonstrated he is a contemporary…
Astruc, Alexandre. "The Birth of a New Avant-Garde: Le Camera-Stylo." L'Ecran Francais, No.
144, (March 30, 1948). transl. In "The New Wave: Critical Landmarks," by Peter Graham (Secker & Waurburg, 1968). pp. 17-23.
"Creator: Quentin Tarantino." TV Tropes.
White ose: Munich 1942-1943, by Inge Scholl. Did the Scholl's die in vain, and if so, what purpose did their resistance serve against the Nazis? Inge Scholl wrote this moving book about her brother and sister, who formed a student group, the White ose, to fight the Nazis with propaganda and intelligent arguments. The two Scholls were beheaded in 1943 for treason. This is the story of their group, and what they accomplished.
ESISTANCE TO THE NAZIS
The German people were incredibly afraid to criticize Hitler and his Nazi party because they knew what would happen, they would end up like the Scholls, condemned for treason. The "volk" were the people, but if they dissented from their "fuehrer," they were traitors, and had to be dealt with "swiftly." For example, once Hans joined the Nazi Youth program, he became disillusioned with the "discipline and conformity down to the last detail,…
Scholl, Inge. The White Rose: Munich 1942-1943. Hanover NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1983.
The way in which Hitler took over Germany was very open, but yet it was not thwarted by others in the political realm. By the time they realized what was taking place, it was already done.
Hindenburg was still president of Germany at that time, but right before he died a law was passed that the presidency would be abolished with his death, and all power over the government and the country would go to the chancellor (Hitler) (Benderwky, 62). This was a very insidious way to get the remaining power that he was still lacking, and it provided him with completely political and legal control over Germany and its people. In 1934, Hitler told a reporter how people had laughed at him 15 years prior, when he stated that he would become ruler of Germany (McNab, 70). At that time, he said he would remain in power, and his…
Aigner, Dietrich. Hitler's ultimate aims -- A programme of world dominion? In Koch, H.W. Aspects of the Third Reich. London: MacMillan. 1985. Print.
Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919 -- 1945. NY: Rowman & Littlefield. 2000. Print.
Maser, Werner. Hitler: Legend, Myth, Reality. London: Allen Lane. 1973. Print.
McNab, Chris. The Third Reich. NY: Amber Books Ltd. 2009. Print.