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Negative Reinforcement Essays (Examples)

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Psychology - Reinforcement Applying Positive
Words: 805 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56790141
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Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement:

Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of music that Dorothy listens to at home, Dorothy could immediately turn off her music to reward her mother for every instance in which she came downstairs from her bedroom.

Just as in the case of positive reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus perceived by the subject as unpleasant, (such as rock music), this form of negative reward would work whether or not Dorothy provided the reward in conjunction with and explicit acknowledging that it was a specific reward for her mother's efforts.

Likewise, just as in the case of positive reward, the negative reward would probably work much faster if Dorothy does acknowledge that her extra consideration of her mother's likes and dislikes corresponds directly to her appreciating her mother's…

Learning Reinforcement for Learning to Effectively Take
Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81873442
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Learning Reinforcement

For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.

The Social Learning Theory

The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.

With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…

Bibliography

Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009

Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009

Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010

Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.

Expectation and Reinforcement Theory Expectancy
Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21389769
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The employees will alter their behavior accordingly, depending on which behavior they feel will have the most positive outcome.

Clearly the correct course of action for the company is to amend the reinforcement mechanisms. This can be done either through positive reinforcement or negative. Passing the course is mandatory, but passing the first time could receive a reward. The company could also reduce the benefit of taking the course. It probably will need to be paid time, but the company could avoid running the course at a nice hotel, instead using normal meeting rooms that do not convey any sense of reward. Make the course as horrible as possible so that employees will want to pass it as quickly as possible.

As well, the company could use negative reinforcement mechanisms. Employees could be punished for failing to pass the course the first time. There are legal limits as to what…

Works Cited:

Glass, M. (2010). How can managers use reinforcement theory to motivate employees? Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-managers-use-reinforcement-theory-motivate-employees-18559.html 

Mathibe, I. (2010). Expectancy theory and its implications for employee motivation. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal. Vol. 6 (3) Retrieved September 26, 2011 from  http://www.academicleadership.org/article/expectancy-theory-and-its-implications-for-employee-motivation

Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"

Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…

References

Carr, James E; Severtson, Jamie M. (2005) "On the Appropriateness of the Term

"Noncontingent Reinforcement" European Journal Of Behavior Analysis, vol. 21, no. 6, pp: 21 -- 24.

Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn. (2003) "A comparison of differential reinforcement And Noncontingent Reinforcement For The Treatment Of A Child's multiply Controlled Problem behavior Behavioral Interventions" Behav. Intervent, vol. 18, no, 1: 267 -- 278.

Poling, Alan; Normand, Matthew. (1999) "Noncontingent Reinforcement:An Inappropriate

Rewards and Punishment Reinforcement Theory
Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74077121
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The popularized Skinnerian position concerning the inadequacy of punishment in suppressing "instrumental" behaviour is, if correct at all, only conditionally correct."

Still other researchers such as aron (1977) state that punishment can work under certain conditions: "(a) if you can punish almost every time, (b) punish immediately, - punish in socially acceptable ways, and (d) do not punish harshly or become overly angry." Regardless of scientific evidence or suspected measures that would make punishment more effective, the intent of punishment in Reinforcement Theory is to suppress inappropriate behavior, not to solve underlying problems. Considering the scope of the application of punishment, it is, in many instances, neither practical nor desirable to replace punishment with a rewards system. Crime is an obvious example. True, suppression may only be short-term with punishment as the only redress, but this is why the length of the prison sentence is designed to match the severity…

Bibliography

Baron, R.A. (1977) Human Aggression NY: Plenum Press

Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Instrumental Conditioning
Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48791288
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Instrumental Conditioning

One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role…

References

Classical and Operant Conditioning. (2011). All Psych. Retrieved from:  http://allpsych.com/psychology101 /conditioning.html

Conditioned Responses. (2009). Emotional Competency. Retrieved from:  http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/conditioned.htm 

Cherry, K. (2011). What is Instrumental Conditioning. About.com. Retrieved from:  http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/instrumental-conditioning.htm 

Robbins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Instrumental Conditioning A Description of
Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 77270022
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(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)

(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'

A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him.…

reference: core for occupation-based practice" SLACK Incorporated.

Dworkin, Barry R. (1993) "Learning and psychological regulation"

Gambrill, Eileen D. (2006) "Social Work Practice: A critical thinker's guide"

Kimble, Gregory A; Hilgard, Ernest Ropiequet; Marquis, Donald George. (1961) "Hilgard

and Marquis' Conditioning and Learning." Appleton-Century-Crofts: New York

Respondent Behavior and Operant Behavior and Give
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17056816
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respondent behavior and operant behavior, and give a real-Life example of each.

Operant behaviour encompasses the actions of an individual that are purposefully driven to produce a desired effect. Examples of operant behavior would include a driver pushing the gas pedal in a car to produce a faster speed and giving a child a much-desired gift with the expectation of seeing the child's glee in response. Respondent behavior encompasses the actions of an individual that are not purposefully driven but are nonetheless actions that result from external stimulation. These types of behaviours are frequently referred to as reflexes as they are involuntary responses to an environmental stimuli. Examples of respondent behavior include an individual's yelp of pain when he or she hits his or her finger with a hammer or when an individual involuntarily closes his or her eyes when he or she sneezes.

Distinguish between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,…

Read and Complete Appendix's
Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33137324
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Extinguishing the behavior through negative reinforcement

Differential reinforcement of high-rate behaviors: positive reinforcement of desired behaviors

Antecedent: The teacher asks the student to clean up the cafeteria tables.

Behavior: The student is disrespectful and kicks over a garbage can.

Consequence: The student is given a 'time out' in the classroom with his head down.

Negative reinforcement of problem behavior

Unintended consequence: Defiant student gets to leave and not clean up classroom.

Antecedent: Teacher is not paying attention to Alicia and is helping another student with an assignment.

Behavior: Alicia tries to get the teachers' attention by banging on the metal chair with her heels.

Consequence: Teacher reprimands Alicia.

Negative reinforcement

Unintended consequence: Alicia gets teacher's attention, and some attention is better than no attention at all for Alicia.

Antecedent: Brandon is asked to stay at his desk and finish his work before leaving.

Behavior: Brandon defies the teacher and leaves…

Learning and Behavioral Analysis Learning
Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67415605
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Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.

Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.

Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.

You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…

Reign Over Me
Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92368103
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Charlie Fineman who is played by actor Adam Sandler in the 2007 movie Reign Over Me, is a man who, following the 9/11 attacks, has lost his wife and daughters. Unable to confront the trauma consciously, he develops an unusual behavior, choosing to cut himself off from the life he used to know before the tragic events occurred. He becomes withdrawn and non-communicative, his behavior reflecting a vegetative state. He feels unable to let go of the past and develops an obsessive, non-dangerous attachment that determines him to remodel his kitchen regularly. Because of the last words he had said to his wife, remodeling the kitchen became Fineman's response to the guilt he was feeling. He thus developed a survivor's guilt to which he responded. He also cannot respond positively to social interactions because he has implanted himself with the belief that people would only remind him of the loss…

Motivation of Behavior
Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28858537
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Motivation in Behavior

a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?

Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…

REFERENCES

Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.

Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana
Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27822679
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" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.

Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Displayed by
Words: 10021 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93835103
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Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities

The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…

references, and favorites)

Child and Family Assets

(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)

Functional and Meaningful Interactions

(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)

Psychology of Learning and Obesity
Words: 2133 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 51315269
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Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.

Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…

References

David N. Perkins, (1992). Transfer of Learning. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm

Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011 ). Insight in Learning Theory. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289152/insight 

Gonzalez, J.J. (2002). Modeling Erosion of Security and Safety Awareness. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 28 - August 1, 2002 Palermo, Italy, Vol., 200. Retrieved on April 10, 2010 from www.ikt.hia.no/.../Modeling%20Instrumental%20Conditioning%20(HICSS'36%20pap

Jeffry Ricker, (2011). What is Stimulus Generalization & Discrimination? Retrieved December

Management - Motivation and Behavior
Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70473553
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Finally, the third category of needs is given by power - or the individuals who wish to have control; they have a small interest in what other people think of them and only desire their obedience.

E: Example: An individual driven by affiliation needs will not make major decisions on his own, but will always consult with his loved ones to get their opinion and approval. A power driven individual on the other hand will make those decisions on his own mostly because he can and this once again assures him of his power.

Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

T: Topic sentence: Skinner's theory identifies four types of responses that could be implemented by a higher power relative to the behavior of a subaltern.

E: Explain what that is: The first possible response would be a positive reinforcement which encourages the individual to continue; the second is negative reinforcement which encourages the…

Works Cited

Barnet, T., 2006, Reinforcement Theory, Reference for Business,  http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Pr-Sa/Reinforcement-Theory.htmllast  accessed on May 20, 2008

Chapman, a., 1995-2008, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,  http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm l. Ast accessed on May 20, 2008

September 2002, What Is Motivation?, University of South Australia,  http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/motivation/Pages/What%20is%20Motivation.html . Ast accessed on May 20, 2008

2002-2007, Acquired Needs Theory, Changing Minds,  http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/acquired_needs.html . Ast accessed on May 20, 2008

Of Learning
Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 94066342
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Strengthening a desirable behavior in someone can be a challenging experience. The use of psychological theories about learning may help make for a quicker and more effective instructional process. Therefore, adopting these principles in strengthening study skills is more likely to result in positive outcome.

Activity: Increasing study skills

Developing and improving study skills is a gradual and long-term process. This program will incorporate the following skills.

Time management

Effective reading of academic texts

Note taking

Development of academic writing style

Revising and sitting examinations

There will be mentoring of these activities through supervision. Supervision will take the form of checking class activities and assignments as well as oral interviews. This will be done after introduction of the skills. There will also be assessment method featuring periodic continuous assessment tests. The monitoring and assessment will incorporate the use positive and negative reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement

Shaping: as one of the monitoring…

On the other hand, one way of guarding against punishment is to reward for good behavior. Religious organizations are proponents of this notion that there is a reward for good deeds. Most of the religions believe in glorious life in paradise after death as a reward for good deeds while still alive. This has greatly resulted to reduced criminal and sinful activity within religious communities.

Reference

Ito, M., & Kiyoko, N. (1999). Humans' Choice In A Self-Control Choice Situation: Sensitivity To Reinforcer Amount, Reinforcer Delay, And Overall Reinforcement Density. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 87 -- 102.

Attitude Theories
Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32317263
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cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).

The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…

References:

Bandura, A. (1986). "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from  http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html 

Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (M. Ryan, Ed., 4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Original work published 2002), pgs. 26, 30, 478

Skills for Business Leadership Executive
Words: 3879 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56409084
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" Nevertheless, the research to date indicates that participative management techniques can provide a major return on the investment. According to Angermeier, Dunford and Boss (2009, p. 127), "Employee perceptions of the extent to which their work climate is participative rather than authoritarian have important implications for critical work attitudes and behavior."

The research to date has confirmed that employees in highly participative work environments outperformed their counterparts in nonparticipative management organizations (Angermeier et al. 2009). For example, a study by Angermeier and his associates found that employees working in participative management settings provided 14% better customer service, committed 26% fewer clinical errors, demonstrated 79% lower burnout, and were 61% less likely to leave the organization than employees in more authoritarian work environment. According to Angermeier et al. (2009, p. 128), "These findings suggest that participative management initiatives have a significant impact on the commitment and productivity of individual employees."…

References

Angermeier, I, Dunford, BB & Boss, AD 2009, March-April, 'The Impact of Participative

Management Perceptions on Customer Service, Medical Errors, Burnout, and Turnover

Intentions,' Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 127-134.

Biech, E 2001, the Pfeiffer Book of Successful Team-Building Tools: Best of the Annuals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences
Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14840903
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The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.

4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?

The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…

Effective Training
Words: 2679 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62006165
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Training

Knowledge, Skill and attitude:

The objectives of training include enhancement of knowledge, skills and attitude. Knowledge is the body of facts and principles accumulated my mankind in course of time. It is a complex of several related ideas. According to a working definition, knowledge is the matrix of impressions within which the individual situates newly acquired information (Clarke, 2001). From a business perspective, knowledge supports people to analyze situations, make judgments and take decisions, in the process telling what is to done, why, how, where, when and who should perform the actions towards achieving organizational goals. Skill is the ability to transform knowledge into action; it refers to the ability of people to use knowledge effectively and readily to perform desired actions and specific tasks. Skill is also defined as the ability to do something well from talent, training or practice.

The essential difference is that knowledge is to…

References

Bertram, S and Gibson, B - Training Needs Analysis, II Edition, Aldershot: Gower, 1997

Clarke, R - 'Knowledge', 2001, retrieved from www.anu.edu/au/people/Roger.Clarke/SOS/Know.html. Accessed on 03/04/2004

Hamel, G and Prahalad, C.K - 'Competing for the Future: Breakthrough Strategies for Seizing Control of your Industry and Creating the Markets of Tomorrow, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994

Lassey, P - 'Developing a Learning Organization', Kogan Page: London, 1998

Philosophies Regarding Ways of Teaching and Properly
Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42331370
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philosophies regarding ways of teaching and properly inducing learning in students. Not all of these methodologies, however, are congruent with one another. Thus, it is best for a student of education, especially one who is preparing to enter the professional field as a teacher, to develop his or her own particular ideology regarding the style of teaching that he or she will attempt to incorporate. Doing so will not only draw from such an individual's own personal experience, but also from the knowledge and abundance of literature on this subject previously denoted by other noteworthy professionals within this field. By amalgamating these concepts, it is possible for a potential teacher to readily identify his or her core beliefs and translate them into a style of pedagogy which will ultimately provide benefits to students. After a careful consideration of my personal cosmology and worldview, as well as aspects of educational philosophy,…

References

Behav, A. (2006). On the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ . Retrieved from

Existential Therapists State That All
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63461143
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Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).

Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural…

References

Automatic thought record. Template available November 20, 2010 at  http://students.georgiasouthern.edu/counseling/relax/ATR.pdf 

Piotrowski, Nancy a. (2003, January). Gestalt therapy. Magill's encyclopedia of social science:

Psychology. University of California, Berkeley. Available November 20, 2010 at  http://salempress.com/store/samples/magills_encyclopedia_of_social_science_psych/magills_encyclopedia_of_social_science_psych_gestalt.htm

Psychology According to The Father
Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91379657
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2. The following is a learning scenario using operant conditioning. A girl is mad at her boyfriend because he doesn't do the dishes enough. The boyfriend is the learner, and the behavior that needs to be learned is doing the dishes. Using operant conditioning, the girlfriend can teach the boyfriend to participate more in household chores by either withholding sex from the boyfriend (punishment); yelling at him (negative reinforcement); or being extra nice to him when he does do the dishes (positive reinforcement).

3. Mnemonic devices are one of the best ways to improve memory in certain situations. One way a person could apply mnemonic devices is to try to memorize people's names, something that can be hard to do at a party. So if a woman's name is Meg and has blonde hair, the person can remember her name by associating it with Meg Ryan. Or if a guy…

American and Japanese Early Childhood
Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63412707
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Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…

Bibliography

Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Psychology Offers a Vast Network
Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21775891
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The behavior conditioning arises from the punishment not being liked, and therefore the behavior is avoided.

The last form of reinforcement, extinction, occurs when a reaction to a certain behavior is denied and removed, and resultantly the unwanted behavior is decreased, if not terminated. An example of extinction reinforcement includes a child who hides behind furniture in an attempt to gain attention - which is a response that has previously been positively reinforced. hen the child's attention-seeking actions are subsequently ignored, the behavior decreases, if not stops.

Research indicates positive reinforcement is the most powerful of the reinforcement paradigms (Heffner). Other methods of operant conditioning, such as punishment, can potentially summon additional negative responses such as anger and resentment. In situations of positive reinforcement, both parties involved focus on the positive aspects of the experience, which adds to the fulfillment of the desired behavior.

Examples of reinforcement principles from my…

Work Cited

Heffner, C. "Psychology 101." AllPsych Online the Virtual Psychology Classroom. Heffner Media Group, Inc., 01 Apr 2001. Web. 7 Apr 2011.

.

Psychology the Text Discusses Several
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Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).

Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…

References

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,

from Colorado State Web site:

 http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/survey/com2d1.cfm 

Anxiety Attacks and Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from Helpguide.org Web site:

Emotionally and Behaviorally Challenged Students Benefit From Time-Outs
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EBD Students

Time-Outs in the Classroom

Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

On the second page of a 2010 report published by the National Disabilities ights Network (NDN) called School is Not Supposed to Hurt is a picture of a 7-year-old girl who died while being restrained and secluded in a Wisconsin school. This report went on to describe the wide-spread used of restraints and seclusion by schools in the United States and its publication triggered a congressional investigation. The Government Accountability Office (GAO, 2009) published its own report a few months later, which examined 10 court cases resulting in criminal convictions, civil adjudications, or settlements. These 10 cases formed the basis for judging the veracity of hundreds of allegations of mistreatment, injuries, and death resulting from children being restrained or secluded by school personnel. Even more troubling was the…

References

Benshoof, S.R. (2012). The Use of Time-Out with Escape Extinction to Reduce Noncompliance Maintained by Escape or Attention (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. (No. 3534847).

Donaldson, J.M., Vollmer, T.R., Yakich, T.M., & Van Camp, C. (2013). Effects of a reduced time-out interval on compliance with the time-out instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(2), 369-78.

Everett, G.E., Olmi, D.J., Edwards, R.P., Tingstrom, DH, Sterling-Turner, H.E., & Christ, T.J. (2007). An empirical investigation of time-out with and without escape extinction to treat escape-maintained noncompliance. Behavior Modification, 31(4), 412-34.

Fabiano, G.A., Pelham, W.E. Jr., Manos, M.J., Gnagy, E.M., Chronis, A.M., Onyango, A.N. et al. (2004). An evaluation of three time-out procedures for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Therapy, 35, 449-69.

Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of
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Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…

Work cited

Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.

Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN

Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved  

Psychology First of All a
Words: 2432 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70728439
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The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.

As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.

Question

There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce…

Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Words: 9355 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50662786
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Management

Organizational Behavior and Teamwork

CASE ASSIGNMENT

Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.

Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?

Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…

Works Cited

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site:  http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html 

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site:  http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html 

Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site:  http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e= 

IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html

Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice
Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64594759
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A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…

State of Learning Disabilities
Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9838806
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memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.

THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY

Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…

References

Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.

Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from  http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf 

Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Valdosta: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from  http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf 

Nelson-Jones, R. (2011). Theory and practice of counselling and therapy (1st ed., pp. 1-3). Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE.

Axelrod M I & Zank A J 2012 Increasing
Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26413880
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Axelrod, M.I., & Zank, A.J. (2012). Increasing classroom compliance: Using a high-Probability command sequence with noncompliant students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21(2), 119-133.

Noncompliance or the failure to complete an assignment/instruction is a problematic behavior within the school system and can result in several counterproductive outcomes for students such as poor learning, friction in the classroom, disruptive behaviors, etc. Previous research has indicated that giving a high probability command sequence prior to a low probability request has been shown to increase compliance in difficult students. High probability command sequences (HPC) are simple commands which an individual is very likely to comply with. The researchers were interested in determining if using HPCs before giving low probability requests would also increase compliance in students in special education classes or with behavioral disorders. Two special education students were tested in this study. After developing a list of HPCs and low probability commands (LPC)…

References

Axelrod, M.I., & Zank, A.J. (2012). Increasing classroom compliance: Using a high-probability command sequence with noncompliant students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21(2), 119-133.

Bryan, J., Day-Vines, N.L., Griffin, D., & Moore-Thomas, C. (2012). The disproportionality dilemma: Patterns of teacher referrals to school counselors for disruptive behavior. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(2), 177-190.

Clees, T.J., & Greene, E.B. (2014). Discriminative Stimulus Social Skills Training: The Effects

of Video-based Exemplars of Teacher Requests on the Compliance of Students with Behavioral Disorders. Journal of Special Education Technology, 29(2), 1-17.

Education the Key Elements of Classroom Management
Words: 3833 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76254855
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Classroom Management

Class room management holds extreme importance in the process of teaching. It is mandatory for a teacher to manage her class effectively in order to achieve her predetermined instructional goals. 'Successful classroom management involves much more than rules and discipline. Indeed research into classroom management demonstrates that effective teachers are proactive about student behavior, and they involve students in the process of establishing and maintaining rules and routines'. (Strong, 2007)

An effective instructional is dependent on various factors, and a properly managed classroom is definitely one of those factors. There is no way that a teacher can achieve her desire objective, if the process of teaching is taking place in a poorly managed classroom. A properly managed classroom along with attractive materials can definitely attract the attention of students and involve them in the process of learning. Management of classroom is also important to avoid any unnecessary wastage…

References

Evertson, C.M, & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (p.51)

Mcleod, J, Fisher, J, & Hoover, G. (2003). The Key Elements of Classroom Management: Managing Time and Space, Student. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication.(p. 75)

Stronge, J.H. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication. (p.40)

Pavlov and Skinner Comparing the
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This was different from the Pavlovian theory since the rat's response was not a respondent behavior but an operant behavior.

Skinner does not reject that the subjects learn the behavior. In Skinner's box, rats learn that pressing the bar gets them food. However, this is different from Pavlov's classical conditioning where the dog salivates for food by associating the stimuli (the bell, the sight of food, or the sound of the attendant) with the actual eating. Skinner's operant conditioning occurs because rats are rewarded for pressing the bar. In Skinner's experiment, there is no stimulus associated with the bar in the box. The rat's behavior is spontaneous. By spontaneously pressing the bar and getting the food, however, the rat learns the consequences of it. In this experiment, the consequence is the delivery of food which serves as reinforcement. In Pavlov's theory, the external environment exerts little influence on the reflexive…

Counseling Giving a Hand Counseling
Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38221058
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Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (oeree).

Person-Centered Therapy

This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,

2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boeree, C.G. (2006). BF Skinner. Personality Theories C.G. Boeree. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html 

Dodd, G. (2011). Counseling techniques and skills -- an introduction. Ezine Articles:

EzineArticles.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from  http://ezinearticles.com/?Conseling-Techniqes-and-Skills  -- an-Introduction&id-2748802

Grant, S. (2011). Person-centered therapy. California State University Northridge.

Adolescent's Awareness and Their Lack
Words: 11261 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10498624
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Studying a sample of 153 top commercial Web sites directed at children under 13, the CME found that COPPA has spurred changes in Web sites' data collection practices. Web sites had limited the amount and type of information (e.g., name, postal address, phone number, age) collected from children, and there was a three-fold increase in the posting of privacy policy information explaining sites' data collection practices. A few sites found innovative solutions (e.g., anonymous registration) that allowed children to interact with site content without revealing personal information. Overall, however, the Center found that many sites were not doing their best to comply with the provisions: Most (66%) did not place links to privacy policies in "clear and prominent" places, and only some sites (38%) obtained parental consent in accordance with key provisions. Further, researchers pointed out that in trying to discourage children under 13 from entering personal information, some sites…

Bibliography

Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (Aug., 2001). SexEd.com: Values and norms in Web-based sexuality education. Journal of Sex Research, 38(3), 241-251.

Beebe, T.J., Asche, S.E., Harrison, P.A., & Quinlan, K.B. (Aug., 2004). Heightened vulnerability and increased risk-taking among adolescent chat room users: Results from a statewide school survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 116-123.

Borzekowski, Dina L.G. & Rickert, Vaughn I. (2001b). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: A new resource that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-817.

Brown, J.D. (Feb., 2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 42-45.

Psychology Theories and Models of
Words: 3348 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26105035
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There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).

A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.

As one discovers how much they like…

References

Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from  http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/4173/1/Choice-and-Free-Will-Beyond-the-Disease -

Model-of-Addiction/Page1.html

Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from  http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm 

Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/addiction_disease_model.asp

How to Discipline a Child
Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6890436
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child refuses to take a nap, punishment is one option of creating the desired behavior. A parent may rely on several classical behavioral learning techniques to gradually encourage the child to nap. The technique of punishment is one of many methods of reinforcement, based on basic operant conditioning and behaviorism.

With punishment, an aversive stimulus is added to decrease the behavior (Heffner, n.d.). The idea is that the subject associates the undesirable behavior with negative consequences and therefore avoids that behavior in the future. If it is applied immediately and directly after the behavior is exhibited, and applied consistently and clearly after each instance, punishment may be effective.

However, punishment can also lead to suppressed emotions like anger or resentment, and may create other undesirable behaviors if not used properly (Heffner, n.d.). Therefore, the punishment for not taking a nap must be consistent and appropriate. Examples of types of punishments…

References

Beck, H.P. (2001). General psychology. Retrieved online: http://www1.appstate.edu/~beckhp/reinforcementdefinitions.htm

"Corporal Punishment: Key Issues," (n.d.) Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved online:  https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/corporal-punishment-key-issues 

Heffner, C.L. (n.d.). Reinforcement and reinforcement schedules. AllPsych. Retrieved online:  http://allpsych.com/psychology101 /reinforcement/#.VdtPE9OrSRs

Analyzing the Ethics of Intervention for Food Refusal
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Ethics of Intervention for Food Refusal

'Feeding' means ingesting food during initiation stages between an adult and a child, mostly mothers; while 'eating' means an individual ingesting food on his own. Feeding problems and issues are very common in toddlers and infants and parents often report vomiting, spitting around mealtime, and lack of gain of weight of children.. The parents also report their toddlers being very fussy about their food, which includes eating a minority of foods while rejecting most others and also eating very little at every meal. The studies show that more than half of the parents of toddlers and infants report feeding problems with special needs children being at a lot of risk, necessitating corrective, intervention plans (Kerwin, 2004).

Intervention

The Escape Extinction (EE) is put into action when the feeding problem of a child is understood to be tackled by negative reinforcement, which is a process…

Bibliography

Bachmeyer, M. H. (2009). Treatment of Selective and Inadequate Food Intake in Children: A Review and Practical Guide. Behav Anal Pract., 43-50.

Kerwin, M. E. (2004). Behavioral Intervention and Prevention of Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers. JEIBI, 129.

PETULA C. M. VAZ, V. M. (2011). USING NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT TO INCREASE SELF-FEEDING. USING NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT TO INCREASE SELF-FEEDING, 915-920.

Social Cognition Is the Study
Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72025607
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Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.

A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…

How to Motivate People at Work
Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77982996
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organizational culture and in particularly emphasize the need to design a better Strategic Intelligence, wherein motivation, foresight, vision and partnering are united in a cohesive alignment that fosters leadership and knowledge building (Maccoby et al., 2014, p. 62). In my current organization, co-workers are all too often motivated by selfish principles -- they want the lightest schedule, they want to avoid heavy lifting, they try to get the ear of the managers so as to improve their own working condition at the expense of others. This type of behavior is reflected in management as well. The culture is very dog-eat-dog, and I feel that in a hospital, the culture should be more caring, with more emphasis on solidarity than on selfish desires.

Thus, in my organization, I would promote a culture that is rooted in teamwork and putting patients first; I would promote happy interactions with co-workers and patients by…

References

Maccoby, M., Norman, C., Norman, C. J., & Margolies, R. (2014). Transforming health care leadership: A systems guide to improve patient care, decrease costs, and improve population health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Theories of Motivation. (2015). Analytictech. Retrieved from  http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/motivation.htm

behaviorism as a'separate'school of thought
Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19430443
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Question 1

All the early pioneers of behaviorism including Watson were important to the development of psychology as a social science (Moore, 2011). In fact, Watson deserves the most credit for being the first person to propose behaviorism as a science, using the tools of the scientific method to measure human behavior. However, human behavior is remarkably complex and Watson’s early research failed to capture the nuances of human cognitive-behavioral responses. Pavlov built upon Watson’s foundation, and is probably the most famous of all the pioneering behaviorists. Pavlov’s famous dog experiments have become part of the common vernacular (Clark, 2004). Like Pavlov, B.F. Skinner focused on operant conditioning. However, Skinner took the entire concept of conditioning a step further by showing how stimuli could be manipulated to manipulate responses. Pavlov had yet to break free from the purely mechanistic methods of measuring human behavior. Skinner used behavioral research to show…

Behavioral vs Freud's Psychoanalysis
Words: 1907 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57399492
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Labor

ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis

Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.

Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well

Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…

Bibliography

American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm .

Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .

Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html .

HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .

Psychological Learning Theories There Are
Words: 1412 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98009598
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Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.

Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.

With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…

References

Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,

October 2004, Available:  http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html 

Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi

State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:

Consumer Behavior for Marketing Understanding Consumer Behavior
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Consumer Behavior for Marketing

Understanding Consumer Behavior

Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…

References

Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm

Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.

Theory and Criminal Behavior
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Theories

Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…

References

Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from  http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml 

Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.

Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.

Aversive Control
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Aversive Control

Punishment can be defined as a way to reduce a given behavior by attaching a consequence to behaving a certain way or doing a particular thing. Some of the consequences that denote positive punishment include loud noise, electric shock and a reprimand. The consequences that denote negative punishment include money, access to a given social environment and food. Several studies have discussed the effects and implications of aversive control. The main topics that have been covered include how they affect the use of nicotine, analysis of man's neuropsychiatric behavior and the use of aversive techniques such as punishment tools.

An aversive stimulus can maintain the behavior of an organism that rids another organism of the targeted aversive stimulus. This is definitely different from positive reinforcement where the reinforcing event is the production of the stimulus. One distinct characteristic of aversive control is an avoidance or escape behavior targeted.…

References

Aversive Control. (2017). Retrieved from Psychology and Human Behaviour:  http://psychology.jrank.org/human-behavior/pages/cmxyrs7fqv/aversive-control-stimulus-reinforcement.html 

DiGennaro, F., & Lovett, B. (2008). Views on the Efficacy and Ethics of Punishment: Results from a National Survey. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 61 - 67.

Geurts, D., Huys, Q., Ouden, H., & Cools, R. (2013). Serotonin and Aversive Pavlovian Control of Instrumental Behavior in Humans. The Journal of Neuroscience, 932 - 939.

Thi Truong, Y. (2014). Aversive control of behavior: punishing effects of intravenous nicotine in rats. University of Michigan Dissertation Papers.

Chief Medical Information Officer Cmio
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The theory has three factors:

Valence

Instrumentality

Expectancy

Equity Theory -- Stated that a person compares their outcomes and inputs with others. Sarah has a meeting to discuss the salary of the whole entire organization. They realized that women were low paid in comparison to the men. Sarah started comparing herself with one of her colleagues saying that she worked harder than him and she has been there longer than him.

Satisfaction performance theory -- Porter and Lawler (1968a) state that it is not a motivational model that had dealt with the relationship between satisfaction and performance. Sometimes any reward that an employee may get is not related and how well he/she performs their job. Although this case does not tell us what type of reward Sarah was getting for her job we can see that her level of satisfaction she had when doing her job. She perceived that a…

Industrial Organization Psychology Scenario The
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" (Ivin, 2005)

The notion of utilizing sevant leadeship to enhance team wokgoups to pefom such as in the case study scenaio is a contempoay viewpoint with empiical evidence to show thee is effectiveness in implementing this fom of leadeship within the oganizational development famewok.

Poblem solving within the oganizational hieachy is often elegated to job specific activity to which one may o may not actual solve the poblem inheently active in thei domain. Often, poblem solving becomes a function of the goup think to which individual identities in the poblem solving pocess ae meged into a collective membane fo joint analysis. The use of motivational methods (Dubin, 2004) to incease the motivation to poblem solve has yielded meitocatic oganizations that focus on delivey of pefomance above all othe vaiables.

Additionally, the use of meta-communication (Dubin, 2004) evolves aound impoving oganizational communication such as teamwok communication and infomal netwok communication.…

references. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(09631798), 315-315-337. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/199345870?accountid=13044

Irving, J.A. (2005). Servant leadership and the effectiveness of teams. Regent University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/305356267?accountid=13044 

Moliver, N. (2010). Psychological wellness, physical wellness, and subjective vitality in long-term yoginis over 45.Northcentral University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/506140189?accountid=13044

Petison, P. (2010). Intercultural communication and relationship marketing: A conceptual perspective. The Business Review, Cambridge, 16(2), 127-127-133. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/818338248?accountid=13044

Behavioral Techniques for Substance Abuse
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Kyle is a 42-year-old, single, Caucasian male, with 16 years of education. He works as a software programmer. Kyle reports that he is seeking assistance in helping to "kick his drinking problem." Kyle explains that his use of alcohol has gotten progressively worse over the last five years. He explains that he began drinking as a teenager in high school, but then only occasionally. He never felt that his drinking was problematic until he returned from the service and in the last five years it has gotten worse. He began drinking more regularly following his deployment in the Gulf War. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines Kyle served in Iraq and while on a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market killing several dozen local civilians and one…

References

Cartwright, A.K. (1981). Are different therapeutic perspectives important in the treatment of alcoholism? British Journal of Addiction, 76 (4), 347 -- 361.

Drummond, D.C., Cooper, T., & Glautier, S.P. (1990). Conditioned learning in alcohol

dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment. British Journal of Addiction, 85(6), 725-743.

Hembree, E.A., & Foa, E.B. (2004). Promoting cognitive change in posttraumatic stress disorder. In M.A. Reinecke & D.A. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive therapy across the lifespan: Evidence and practice (pp. 231 -- 257). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Criminal Theory - Operational Implementation
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In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…

REFERENCES

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson

Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus

Respondent Learning Theory and the
Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77575647
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An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.

OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…

Works Cited

Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain

Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.

Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction

Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),

Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology
Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4872492
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Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

aseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

arriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

andura…

Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)

Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/

Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.

Analyzing Curirciulum Guide Template
Words: 5336 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 19442205
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Applying a Literacy Framework to Career Decisions ased on Language Development.

PROPOSAL SECTION 1: ACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

For a while now, a new outlook on literacy, as well as learning processes using which literacy may be acquired, is seen to be emerging. A broad range of educational disciplines has influenced this latest outlook on literacy and its instruction. The perspective is not a collection of old ideas presented under a different name, but instead, denotes a profound move from the traditional text-driven approach to literacy, to one that involves active text transformation (Hiebert, 2014). I am an educator for ELLs (English Language Learners), and I believe the proposed literacy framework will prove immensely valuable in preparing the ELL professionals for future prospects. It can potentially aid my school district and school design a sound career-based plan for the ELL students. The influence on my school will also be very profound;…

Bibliography

Brozek, E., & Duckworth, D. (n.d.). Supporting English Language Learners through Technology. Educator's Voice. Vol. 4. Retrieved from:  https://www.nysut.org/~/media/Files/NYSUT/Resources/2011/March/Educators%20Voice%204%20Technology/edvoiceIV_ch2.pdf 

Butler, G., Heslup, S., & Kurth, L. (2015). A Ten-Step Process for Developing Teaching Units. ENGLISH TEACHING FORUM. Retrieved from:  https://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/02_etf_53-3_2_butler_heslup_kurth.pdf 

Lacina, J. (Winter 2004). Promoting language acquisitions: Technology and English language learners. Childhood Education, 81(2), 113-115.

Rioux, R. (2009). English Language Learners and the Development of the English Language Learner Curriculum. All Regis University Theses.

Theories of Human Development
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Terrell

One approach from the chapter that explains Terrell's behavior very well is the behavioral approach, especially the behaviorism of B.F. Skinner. By looking at the antecedents and consequences of the behavior we can determine what is being reinforced and Terrell's case. The vignette clearly states that Terrell's symptoms are disappearing once he is allowed to stay home, informing us that Terrell is being allowed to stay home when he feigns sickness. It is quite obvious that Terrell is being reinforced for feigning that he is ill according to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning paradigm. The vignette does not allow us to determine the reason why he wants to stay home; however, it is not unusual for it a six-year-old boy to feel some anxiety regarding a new environment and separation from mother and we could hypothesize that Terrell is feeling some mild anxiety before going to school, this anxiety leads…

Educational Theories for Pedagogues
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Teaching Philosophy, Teaching Style

I teach in such a way that students can gain the tools and experience to help them successfully contribute to the world today. In that respect, my teaching philosophy is based on empowering students so that they are equipped to both have aspirations and fulfill them in a way that is socially productive. Subsequently, one of the fundamental characteristics of my teaching philosophy is to encourage students, and provide the sort of nurturing and positive reinforcement that fosters confidence and enables them to firstly believe in themselves and in their own abilities. Thus, there is a definite aspect of care and care ethics that actuates the way I teach. This principle is well aligned with my belief in positive reinforcement as one of the fundamental ways of bolstering the learning prowess of students through techniques such as constructive criticism. Additionally, I also attempt to teach in…

References

Behav, A. (2006). On the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ . Retrieved from

Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood
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" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…

Bibliography

Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170413211.html 

Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at  http://www.bu.edu/ssw/training/pep/programs/workshops/boston/index.shtml 

Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11/unrestricted/Cromer_Thesis_Nov_2005.pdf