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Trust and Relationships in Negotiation
Words: 1997 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98491775
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Trust and Relationships in Negotiation
Successful negotiations rely heavily upon the ability of those involved to develop trust and build solid relationships. If parties to a negotiation cannot trust one another and do not develop the kind of relationships required, it is highly unlikely that they will arrive at the kind of satisfactory, win-win outcome that all sides desire. But how does one define trust? What steps can be taken to best support a working relationship? How can one tell if one is moving towards a successful negotiation or working against one’s own best interests? This paper will review the topic of trust and relationship development in negotiations to show how one can approach the problem of trust and relationship building while working on negotiating an outcome that satisfies all parties.
What is Trust?
Trust is a concept that has different meanings depending on how one thinks of its…

Latin American Immigration
Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73726883
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Negotiating National Identity

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the book "Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil" by Jeffrey Lesser. Specifically, it will contain a scholarly review of the book. Lesser pens a defining look at the ethnicities that make up Brazil, and this book is a necessary read for anyone interested in Brazilian history or social and ethnic identity. While most readers might assume the ethnic divisions are based on traditional European, African, and Brazilian roots - that is not the case. The author makes a clear point that ethnicity is one of the major issues facing many of the world's largest and most influential countries.

Early in the book, the author offers his thesis and purpose for writing this treatise. He notes, "Brazil remains a country where hyphenated ethnicity is predominant yet unacknowledged."

The "hyphenated ethnicity" he refers…


Lesser, Jeffrey. Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

Jeffrey Lesser, Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999), 3.

Lesser, 41.

Lesser, 169-170.

Worldly Wisdom of Phyllis Beck Kritek Art of Negotiation
Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4510347
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My own weaknesses as a negotiator hinge upon those aspects of negotiation that involve lying. Of course, most instructors who teach the art of negotiation do not refer to it as "lying" but from a civilian perspective that is precisely what it is. In order to sell the art of negotiation to use, instructors refer to it as "framing" and "strategy." But of course "framing" could easily be translated into "omitting part of the truth for the purpose of strategic advantage" -- you say "we've had other offers" but neglect to mention that they were all less than half of the asking price, or neglect to mention that all the other offers that were had were subsequently withdrawn, or so forth. The simple fact is that the "framing" aspect of negotiation is basically about using an informational asymmetry in order to gain advantage over the other party, and frequently…


Carnegie, D. (1998). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Pocket Books.

Kritek, PB. (2002). Negotiating at an uneven table. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Service, R. (2004). Stalin: A biography. New York: Macmillan.

Yin and the Yang of
Words: 1300 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11448048
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estern businesses who are negotiating with Chinese corporations may face many challenges, These begin from the initiation and continuation of the negotiations to the establishment of long-lasting relationships based upon mutual trust that range from bargaining and drafting agreements to the securing of their implementation. Chinese negotiators can be at once warm hosts and friends and tough bargainers. A unique group of Chinese cultural elements all add to the complexities of Sino-foreign business negotiations and can make the process tiresome and protracted. For these reasons, Chinese and western negotiators often harbor mutually unfavorable perceptions. estern negotiators need to get used to the indirect Chinese manner and realize that it is not deceptive, but just different. hile esterners are naturally direct, Chinese negotiators are more polite, at least on the surface (Graham, and Lam 4-5).

This can of course bring up serious issues of tension and trust. This is caused by…

Works Cited

Fang, Tony. "Negotiation: the Chinese style." Journal of Business & Industrial

Marketing. 21.1 (2006): 50-60.

Ghauri, Pervez, and Tony Fang. "Negotiating with the Chinese: A Socio-Cultural

Analysis." Journal of World Business. 36.3 (2001): 303 -- 325.

BATNA and Negotiation BATNA History
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 619688
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However, as Fisher, Ury and Patton (1991) note, what often matters most in a negotiation is the perceptions of the parties involved in the negotiation. These perceptions can undermine the negotiation process through reactive devaluation. eactive devaluation occurs when one party subconsciously devalues negotiations being made by the other party, assuming that the concession really won't benefit them, otherwise the other party wouldn't have made it. To avoid this, the authors encourage negotiators to evaluate concessions objectively by their merits, not in response to the negotiator's own fears.

The BATNA Process:

The BATNA process is a two-step process. The first step is for the party to determine all possible options that are available to fulfill their needs, for the particular situation. The second step is to realistically anticipate the other party's alternatives to the situation. Both steps are equally important. Only in this way will the party be able to…


BATNA -- Best alternative. (2010). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from .

Buelens, M. & Poucke, D. (Fall 2004). "Determinants of a negotiator's initial opening offer." Journal of Business & Psychology, 19(1). p. 23-36.

Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in (2nd ed.). New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

Subramanian, G. (Jan 2007). "Taking BATNA to the next level." Negotiation. p. 7-9.

Native American Nations and European
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22735319
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The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"

Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.

Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.

Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…


Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( ) 9 Feb. 2009.

Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.

Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (

Gender Divide
Words: 3400 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32780731
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Gender Divide

Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?

In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…


Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.

Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.

Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.

Business Models Have Be Changing
Words: 2509 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70315581
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As, it declined from: 24% (in 1994) to 16% (by 2008). While at the same time, wage increased from $3,814 in 1996 to $7,870 in 2009. The below table is illustrating the overall scope of these changes in income during this time. (Villareal, 2010)

Annual Income Levels in Mexico from 1996 to 2009


Annual Income









(Villareal, 2010)

These different figures are important, because they are showing how once NAFTA was ratified, is when it would slowly address inequalities inside Mexico. This is an indication that the abandoning of the classical model would have a positive impact on the country. (Villareal, 2010)

Therefore, this is highlighting how there is a causal relationship between the low wages and lack productivity in Mexico in comparison with the U.S. Once the views on trade began to change, is when there was a transformation in these…


Time Spent on Face Book. (2011). Business Insider. Retrieved from:

Bagh, C. (2011). Apple's 3 Product Design Strategies. IB Times. Retrieved from: 

Brahm, L. (2007). The Art of the Deal in China. Tokyo: Tuttle

Boden, J. (2008). The Wall Behind China's Open Door. Brussels: Academic and Scientific Publishers.

Intercultural Management How Can Mncs Effectively Negotiate
Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67113009
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Intercultural Management

How can MNCs effectively negotiate with local employees, local suppliers, and local governments in the Middle East?

Over the last several years, the Middle East has been playing an important part in the global economy. This is based upon vast reserves of oil and natural gas. At the same time, there is a focus on its close proximity to Asia and the West. However, negotiating any kind of business deals can be challenging. This is because of cultural differences which are embraced among many countries around the globe. (Cellich, 2012)

Those who understand the various aspects of them will be able to effectively interact with a variety of stakeholders and create lasting relationships. While those that are not taking these variables into account; will become increasingly frustrated by their inability to effectively communicate with other parties. To avoid these kinds of issues requires understanding the best ways MNC's…


The Kurdish Opening. (2012). The Economist. Retrieved from: 

Cellich, C. (2012). Practical Solutions to Business Negotiations. New York, NY: Business Expert Press.

Deresky, H. (2011). International Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Walt, V. (2009). U.S. Companies Shut Out. Time. Retrieved from:,8599,1948787,00.html

One common truism in the world of business is that mergers often fail. The task of negotiating a company merger with two other multinational companies is thus a daunting one. There are many reasons which cause mergers to fail, but one of the most common is that of miscommunication between the multiple entities. The fact that one of the nations is from Germany and the other is Japanese may further complicate matters, given that Japan is a traditionally high-context culture, where the content of what one says is less important than the manner and to whom one says it; speech also tends to be much more indirect. In contrast, Germany, similar to that of the United States, tends to be a very low-context culture where the explicit meaning of what a speaker conveys is all-important.

Issues Negotiating in a Diverse Cultural Environment

What is perceived as an obstacle or a…

How to Conduct Business Internationally
Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 37537851
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International Communication in International Business

Words are very important in a high context culture and have much more significance and carry far more meaning and weight than in a low context culture. In a high context culture, words are chosen carefully and one must be familiar with the culture itself because it is this that informs the words and gives them their weight.

In business negotiations, the type of behavior that I believe will manifest itself when players from a High Context Culture engage with those of a Low Context are the indirect and direct types of communication that are likely to exist. The high context culture negotiator will likely tend to be more indirect, assuming that his meaning and point will be inferred, whereas the low context culture negotiator will be direct, expecting there to be no hidden meaning behind his words. The contrast could result in confusion and…


Business Meeting Etiquette. (2015). Passport to Trade. Retrieved from 

Hall, E. (1976). Beyond Culture. NY: Anchor Books.

Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (second ed.).

New York: McGraw-Hill.

Abraham Path Evolution of the Enterprise Over Time
Words: 2309 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96997021
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Abraham Path Initiative

The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time

One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…


Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business

School Working Paper. 10-049.

Negotiation Strategies for Chemical Company International and
Words: 3953 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62563215
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Negotiation Strategies for Chemical Company International and Dragon Manufacturing

Negotiations are used to resolve existing and potential conflicts, as well as to help organizations of all sizes and types achieve their goals. In many cases, negotiators fail to achieve all or even most of their goals, though, because of an inability to reach mutually advantageous agreements. In some cases, though, negotiators simply lose sight of what they are after and become embroiled in increasingly heated confrontations that lead nowhere. Successful negotiations are possible, though, by following some proven methods that can help stakeholders avoid these pitfalls and focus on the best available alternative. In this regard, this report provides both parties to the negotiations with an independent detailed report concerning best approaches to the negotiation for two companies currently involved in negotiations, Chemical Company International and Dragon Manufacturing, including a recommended negotiation strategy, negotiation best practices and an appraisal of…


Arnett, R.C. 1996. Communication and Community. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois

Carnegie, D. 1937. How to Win Friends and Influence People.

Fisher, R., Ury, W. & Patton, B. 1991. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving In.

New York: Penguin.

Wise Agreement Avoid Arguing Over
Words: 2176 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 41744979
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The use of objective criteria is important because it is through such criteria that a balanced agreement can be developed. Objective criteria lacks biased and as such the interests of both parties is likely to be taken into consideration. A subjective criterion does not have this quality and as such it has no place in the negotiation process.

Overall this section of the book reflects a clear picture of the attitudes and methods that need to be adopted during the negotiation process. In this section the authors remind the reader that negotiation is a serious skill that has to be developed and examined from many different angles. In addition this section provides the structure needed to ensure that a wise agreement can be reached between the parties.

Alternatives to Negotiation agreement

After negotiations have taken place, there are still issues that might have to be resolved. In some cases parties…


Fisher, R., Ury W., Patton B. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving in. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1991

Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles When Dealing
Words: 3001 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34542765
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Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles

When dealing with businessmen globally, it's critical to be aware of the cultural beliefs and values that shape their negotiation style and business behavior. This is imperative for successful and positive business relationship because not all cultural foster similar beliefs and hence there can vast differences in negotiation styles. These differences become more pronounced as we move from west to east because while most western countries may have few things similar in terms of culture and education, the same is not true for eastern countries. In this paper we shall compare the negotiation style of Chinese and Canadians. This will help us understand what a business person from the west need to know about the Chinese business communication style in order to be successful in their relationship with them.

Negotiation refers to the process where two or more parties communicate with each other in order…


Graham J. And Lam, M. 2006 The Chinese Negotiation. Harvard Business Review.

Silverman, J. (1997). Doing business internationally. New Jersey: Princeton Training


James, D. (2003) Communication guide lines for doing business in Asia

Yes Do You Agree With
Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87490242
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Question 8: how can you use the negotiation skills you have learned to enhance your leadership potential?

Negotiation is a part of our everyday life. We use it is business, we use it with out families and we use is as workers and leaders. More and more frequently in the business setting, negotiation skills are needed. ut this is not to say that everyone has the ability to negotiate effectively. I will be able to enhance my potential for leadership by honing my negotiation skills. If I can learn my own personal negotiation style, if I can learn to keep the personal out and bargaining down, this will make me an asset to my company and help me in my chosen profession. And as the basic aspects of successful negotiations really do not change from situation to situation, I will be able to use these negotiation skills to my advantage…


Fisher, Roger and Ury, William. Getting to Yes. Negotiating Agreement without Giving in. Penguin Group. New York 1981.

Pre-Negotiation Objectives and Negotiation Plan to Address
Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94856184
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Pre-Negotiation Objectives and Negotiation Plan

To address the challenges from the previous scenario requires creating pre-negation objectives and a negotiation plan. This will help to focus the team on the important milestones that must be reached during the process. At the same time, it is establishing a position that can be utilized to create a win -- win situation for everyone in the negotiating plan. Once this happens, is when an agreeable solution can be developed that is in accordance with the primary objectives of both sides. (Ashman, 2001, pp. 34- 43)

Pre-Negotiation Objectives

During the pre-negotiation, there are a number of different objectives that must be achieved the most notable include:

Creating a solution that takes into account the views of different team members and their backgrounds: In this kind of situation, each person has particular levels of experience they are bringing with them (i.e. financial, legal and operational).…


Ashman, A. (2001). The Negotiation Sourcebook. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.

Schneider, A. (2006). Negotiators Field Book. Washington DC: American Bar Association.

Counseling Determine and Explain the Key Steps
Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57899124
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Determine and explain the key steps you would take in opening the negotiation session.

The previous scenario was negotiation on the purchase of computers for the government. I would start off on a friendly basis reminding the other party why we are here and reminding them of their interest in accomplishing the deal. In this way, I have laid the basis for a meeting that would hopefully be perceived as friendly rather than as potentially combative (where each attempts to best the other). I would stress the win-win attitude: that we each have something to gain from the outcome and that we can each meet the other's needed. In order to meet my other party's need, I want to understand them as well as I possibly can. My aim would be to strive for the friendly atmosphere where there is open communication, emphasis on compatibilities, mutual endeavor towards problem…


Giebels, E. & Taylor, Paul J (2009) Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: Persuasive arguments and cultural differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 5-19.

Giannetti, M. & Yishay, Y. (2010) Do Cultural Differences Between Contracting Parties Matter? Evidence from Syndicated Bank Loans. AFA 2010 Atlanta Meetings Paper. Available at SSRN: 


0711-Managing a Negotiation Session

Negotiation Scene the Rock a 1996 Thrilling
Words: 2033 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71045059
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Negotiation Scene

The Rock, a 1996 thrilling, high paced movie release, directed by Michael Bay and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, demonstrated a series of intense and riveting scenes in which negotiation, and the negotiation process with accompanying successful attitudes, are played out in a violent and thrilling tale. Luckily for us, these negotiation scenes not only highlight the necessary skills and mind frames for successful marketing and business skills, but are also highly entertaining and artistically relevant. This suspenseful movie delivered high paced action scenes starring superstars Sean Connery, Nicholas Cage and Ed Harris. This movie artfully and demonstrably examined the use of negotiation skills in a high-stakes environment while simultaneously providing us with an opportunity to learn and understand the graceful and sometimes confusing task of information-based bargaining.

In order to fully understand and learn the useful applications presented in this film dealing with the techniques of information-based bargaining…

Intercultural Negotiation We Live in
Words: 1387 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27598334
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The Asian view takes longer and includes carefully considering all the long-term implications and nuances that Americans often ignore. This way of thinking may be confusing to American negotiators at first, plus the fact that nothing is ever completely settled. Instead of solving one thing at a time and moving on to the next item, Asian style allows the negotiators to come back again and again (circular fashion) to points already discussed. They may even discuss many issues concurrently and consider the whole situation all at the same time.

Use of time is a form of non-verbal communication. It sends a message about what one believes -- and in this case, what the culture values. To Americans who value their time and see it as something they don't have enough of, the Asian view can be frustrating. To Japanese and Chinese team members, time is never something to be saved;…

Settling a Lawsuit When the
Words: 743 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 15259273
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As a representative I take responsibility for the deaths of these animals and would like to cooperate with those harmed to help them feel like justice was done. Unlike the three options in the instructions, I would not say I only had $100,000 to divide up among the families but I would not reveal my bottom line, because that is an appropriate tactic. I would also do my homework and research how much money has been awarded to other individuals in similar cases.

Question TO: To assure that the negotiation was conducted fairly, I would employ all five of the standards: reciprocity (I'd want to be treated fairly); universality (I would want to be a role model for others); publicity (I would want my good faith bargaining strategy to be publicized); trusted friend (telling a close friend I was ethical would be easy); and the legacy standard (yes I would…

Works Cited

Carrell, Michael R., and Heavrin, Christina. (2008). Negotiating Essentials: Theory, Skills, and Practices. New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall, p. 218.

Negotiation the Implementation of International
Words: 891 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96075756
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Accordingly, it is important for international negotiators to possess characteristics of communicational dexterity, cultural acuity and a certain amount of charisma. It is necessary to command sufficient respect as a representative of one's firm and its cultural identity without trespassing the cultural proclivities of a potential host nation or trade partner. That said, it is also frequently the case that parties in negotiation will exist on different planes of authority. Negotiators must be characteristically attuned to power dynamics and the impact that these are likely to have on the avenue and outcome of trade engagements. So reports the text by Lall (1966), which notes that "a difference in the power levels of the countries concerned is one of the factors of prime importance which affect movement toward negotiation." (p. 132)

Tactics in such contexts and the resultant effectiveness will often be a direct function of the selectivity and judiciousness exhibited…

Works Cited:

Crump, L. (2003). Multiparty Negotiation and the Management of Complexity. International Negotiation, 8(2).

Lall, a.S. (1966). Modern International Negotiation. Columbia University Press.

Starkey, B.; Boyer, M.A. & Wilkenfeld, J. (2005). Negotiating a Complex World: An Introduction to International Negotiation. Rowman & Littlefield.

Mintzberg Management Interview Analyses Using
Words: 2555 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 70827831
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For the Med. Mgr., a degree of monitoring is required at least to ensure that daily production goals are being met, inventory is stocked and clients are satisfied. This requires internal monitoring and occupies a reasonable fraction of the Med. Mgr.'s time. The Bank Mgr. would report that no real monitoring is required other than to ensure that the personnel over which he presides are meeting their respective responsibilities. Given that the Bank Mgr. presides over cash drawer counts at the end of the day, most responsibility failures are self-apparent. This makes monitoring a comparatively small part of the position.

Disseminator -- the Med. Mgr. And the Com. Con. Mgr. both view the function of disseminator as one of their most important roles respectively. As the key figure of contact between a head manager/owner and the staffs of the two companies in question, each of these managers views as especially…

Finances the Style of Chinese
Words: 424 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43367858
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For example, a collectivistic society is typically preoccupied with high-context communication while an individualistic society is often characterized by low-context communication. (Gudykunst and Stella, 1991, p. 96). China, as a whole, is a collectivists society and thus uses high-context communications. This means that the fashion in which they transmit information is dependent on whether it is "in the physical context or internalized in the person." (Hall, 1976, p. 91). In other words, Chinese typically communicate in an implicit way. As such, in Chinese society one will observe people placing the greatest emphasis on interpersonal relationship in which they communicate with in an "indirect, ambiguous and roundabout way." (Gudykunst, 1991, p. 51).

This type of information is important for a Western business person to understand if they are to successfully do business in the Chinese marketplace. Therefore, it is essential that Western businesses and business school focus their training on cultural…


Gudykunst, William B. (1991). Effective Intergroup Communication. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Hall, Edward T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books.

ADR Alternate Dispute Regulation and
Words: 1969 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68516397
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Id. At 118. Additionally, refraining from attacking another party's reliability, but instead, reducing risks and praising honorable activity will help to engender an incentive for the other party to develop trustworthiness. Id. At 119-21. According to the authors, "people are more likely to behave reliably if they know their reliability is appreciated." Id. At 121. However, the authors stress that one must not place trust in an individual when it is unwarranted.

V. Persuasion

In contract law, as in relationships, coercion takes away an individual's free will and thus negates formation of an agreement (since an agreement requires a meeting of the minds). In negotiations, coercion may in the short-term get the opposition to succumb to one's demands, but will negatively impact any future relationship. The authors focus on the importance of persuading the opposition instead of coercing them to action. Persuasion tactics differ from coercion in that they (i)…

Runaway Jury 2003 Negotiation Type
Words: 2367 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88364839
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As the negotiations became aggressive, Marlee countered Fitch's aggressiveness by unilaterally raising the price, setting deadlines ('the deal should be finalized the next time I call'), and threatening to sway the verdict against Fitch.

Marlee also proved to be an adept negotiator when dealing with ohr. She skillfully defined the value set by digging into ohr's true motivation, and then appealed to his sense of greater achievement by offering him a scenario of 'Greater gun control'. She, however, underestimates ohr's sense of righteousness, as he refuses to go through with the deal, based on his conscience. The difference between the Marlee-Fitch negotiation and the Marlee-ohr negotiation is starkly evident, as the former is conducted in an aggressive environment with plenty of hidden motives, withholding of information, and threats, while the former, despite the initial threat of mistrial by ohr, is conducted in a much more open and honest environment.



Runaway Jury, the Movie

Burgess, Heidi, 2004, 'Negotiation Strategies', Knowledge Base Essay

Spangler, Brad, 2003, 'Integrative or Interest-based Bargaining', Knowledge Base Essay

Cindy, Fazzi, 2003, 'Negotiation Theory and Application: The Next Generation', Dispute Resolution Journal

AT& T Files Patent Lawsuit Against
Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28015476
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Vonage said in a regulatory filing. Vonage's stock, which was down 13 cents to $1.54 in 4 pm. New York stock Exchange composite trading, was down another 24 cents to $1.30 in afterhours trading. Vonage went public in May of last year at $17.One of the early players offering internet telephone service, Holmdel, N.J., vonage has been reeling in the past year as it has lost two high-profile patent lawsuits. All the major phone companies have patents they claim cover aspects of voice-over-internet-phone technology" (at&T Files patent Lawsuit Against Vonage).

AT&T has been trying to arrange a settlement with Vonage for the past two years, which shows they want to do the right ethical process without going to court, however they were unable to negotiate a "reasonable licensing arrangement" with the company. It is my opinion that Vonage is being untruthful in their below statement because if they truly wanted…

International Management as the World
Words: 2293 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47938358
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Business communications are official and face-to-face meetings are always preferred to indirect communications.

At the specific level of negotiations, it is important to note that, during negotiations, only the seniors in the team will speak. The negotiation process is slow and advancements are made in an unhurried rhythm. The Chinese people are non-confrontational individuals and they will avoid saying "No." They will, instead, promise to think about the proposition, see about it and so on.

In China, the negotiations do not focus on specific and measurable goals, but their emphasis falls on assessing the negotiation partner and seeing whether the relationship can be further developed. Since the Chinese are calculated people, decision making will often take a lot of time, until the locals are convinced of their future actions. The American counterparts are advised to always remain calm, or they will lose "face" and irremediably damage the relationship. The foreigners…


Feenstra, R.C., Hanson, G.H., (2003). Ownership and control in outsourcing to China: estimating the property-rights theory of the firm. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hira, R., Hira, a. (2008), Outsourcing America: the true cost of shipping jobs overseas and what can be done about it. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

(2011). World report 2012: China. Human Rights Report.  accessed on September 25, 2012

(2012). The world factbook -- China. Central Intelligence Agency.  accessed on September 25, 2012

Healthcare Financial Management to Quote Jonathan Clark
Words: 1064 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20934207
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Healthcare Financial Management

To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.

In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…


Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.

Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.

Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.

Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.

Responding to Crises Situations
Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69291477
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police elements that respond to a crisis incident as well as an analysis concerning the emphasis that is placed on the negotiating and tactical team, and the necessity of the two groups to communicate and work together and the various positions that make up the negotiating team. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the paper's conclusion.

Law enforcement authorities have used various negotiation strategies in their response crisis incidents ever since these methods were originally used in 1973 by the New City Police Department (Vecchi, Hassel & omano, 2005). The composition of negotiation teams varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but the National Council of Negotiation Associations (NCNA) recommends at least three trained negotiators for responding to any type of crisis incident. According to the NCNA, "More complex or difficult incidents may require additional trained negotiators working in shifts and filling a variety…


Mijares, T.C., McCarthy, R.M., & Perkins, D.B. (2000). The management of police specialized tactical units. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Recommended negotiation guidelines and policies. (2014). National Council of Negotiation

Associations. Retrieved from .

Vecchi, G.M., Hassel, V.B. & Romano, S.J. (2005). Crisis (hostage) negotiation: current strategies and issues in high-risk conflict resolution. Aggression and Violent Behavior,

Driveway Case Disputes Can Cause
Words: 1810 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21770936
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9). Moreover, the two parties know if they do not initially reach a deal, the same person will be arbitrator and force a decision upon them -- hence there is incentive for the parties to reach an accord prior to the dispute going into arbitration.

Meanwhile, the Arb-Med hybrid process begins with arbitration; when the arbitrator reaches a decision, he or she places the award in a "sealed envelope" (Cooley, et al., 2003, p. 7.13). Then, the parties, prior to looking at the sealed envelope, can negotiate their own solution using the arbitrator as mediator. If parties don't reach an agreement, they then open the sealed envelope and see what fate awaits them based on the arbitrator's decision (Cooley, p. 7.13).


There are a number of fair and sensible solutions to disputes such as the Greens and ilsons are involved with, and it behooves neighbors -- and others that…

Works Cited

American Bar Association. (2006). What You Need to Know about Dispute Resolution: The

Guide to Dispute Resolution Processes. Retrieved May 6, 2011, from .

Carrell, Michael R, and Heavrin, Christina. (2008). Negotiating Essentials: Theory, Skills, and Practices. New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Cooley, John W., and Lubet, Steven. (2003). Arbitration Advocacy. Boulder, CO: National

Agree or Not to Agree
Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 87239620
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Brown, and commit that "best efforts" will be exerted to ensure that his request will be addressed and resolved (whether this would be a positive or negative outcome). These tactics would help me establish my objective, which is to ensure the success of the agreement while ensuring also that Gov. Brown does not feel that his concerns were not addressed and there was not even an attempt to help him resolve the matter.

The agreement template has helped me evaluate the flow of the negotiation process that happened in this particular case. Taking into account the structure and elements of the agreement template, I was able to identify that the negotiations in this case lacked the 'renegotiation' component, which takes into account the possibility of another negotiation during or after agreement has been reached. Through the agreement template, I was able to determine this weakness and consequently, develop the tactics…

Communication Management Communication in the
Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80684438
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Insomuch, Angela felt that she was being penalized because she worked from home. Although alph tried to explain that this was not the case, he was unsuccessful in conveying the real issue of missing a deadline. Consequently, the focus shifted to more of a personal nature because Angela felt unappreciated so they decided to reconvene to another meeting two weeks later.

Unfortunately, the meeting started with some hostility from Angela. She was very cold and nonresponsive to alph's questions regarding her well-being. Because Angela did not feel positive about the last exchange, she missed another meeting, plus she failed to submit a report. Her actions are labeled as passive aggressive because her lack of apathy has now transferred into a performance issue. With her constant interruptions and frustrations, Angela refuses to communicate and wants to resign. Clearly, conflict is an issue in which resolution is needed in the form of…


Communication for Organizations. (2010). Communication process: The basics. Retrieved from

Jehn, K.A., Greer, L., Levine, S., & Szulanski, G. (2008). The Effects of conflict types, dimensions, and emergent states on group outcomes. Group Decision & Negotiation, 17(6), 465-495. doi:10.1007/s10726-008-9107-0

Mind Tools. (2012). Active listening: Hear what people are really saying. Retrieved from 

Mind Tools. (2012). Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively. Retrieved from

What Do Managers Do
Words: 2455 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60317096
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Managers Do?

Discovering the answer to "What do Managers Do?" was deceptively difficult. In the process of interviewing the four subjects for this assignment, I found more questions being raised about the nature of managerial duties. Part of the reason for this complexity is the wide range of managerial positions available in the corporate world today. From public relations to sales managers to personnel managers, each performs his or her own functions and acts out certain roles in the company. However, even though these different types of managers perform different roles and serve different functions, there are several overarching qualities that characterize what managers actually do during the course of their careers. Most managers act as leaders; the organize groups of people and delegate authority. Some managers work more with tasks than with people, but regardless of the specific managerial position, all managers rely on a good set of people…

Negotiation a Few Days in the Sun
Words: 1669 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75367381
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A Few Days in the Sun

We are all familiar with the process of negotiation: We have each been engaging in negotiations since we were young children asking to stay up just five more minutes before going to bed. However, despite the fact that by the time that we are adults we have each engaged in probably thousands of negotiations, few people have ever stopped to analyze exactly what goes on in a negotiation. This paper examines the steps of a negotiation that I myself was involved in. This negotiation centered on a vacation that I was trying to arrange with a small group of friends. The following analysis lays out the steps that are followed in a negotiation regardless of whether the topic is intrinsically inconsequential or momentarily serious.

Goals and Aspirations

The overall goal of this negotiation was to plan for a vacation for five friends that…