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He who has learned to disagree without being disagreeable has discovered the most valuable secret of a diplomat." Robert Estabrook
To disagree in a polite, yet friendly manner, while appearing to agree, is perhaps the most effective way of being a diplomat in negotiation exchanges. In negotiations, the advantage is lost if one loses one's stance of calm, caring concern for the other party's interests. One will find success at the negotiating table when one seeks not to offend or insult, which is the result of losing this concern. Even if one does it unknowingly, one loses face, as well as a good portion of one's negotiating power. A principled negotiator will not lose face for any reason.
Jan Ulijn is a researcher of intercultural negotiations and states "Professional technical communicators increasingly find themselves in a negotiation situation where cultural differences have caused misperceptions." Ulijn proposes that with the globalization…
Fisher, Robert, Ury, William L., Patton, Bruce. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreements Without Giving In, 2nd Rep/Edition. New York: Penguin Books. 1991.
Shell, G. Richard. Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable People, Penguin Books. 1999.
Ulijn, Jan M., O'Duell, Michael, and Robertson. Stephen A. "Teaching Business Plan Negotiation: Fostering Entrepreneurship Among Business and Engineering Students." Business Communication Quarterly. March, 2004. 67: 41-57.
G. Richard Shell, Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable People, Penguin Books (1999), p. 6.
Instead, the well-being of all members in a family is taken into account when decisions are made. The same, according to hell (1999), is true of business. In internal bargaining procedures, the interest and well-being of subordinates are taken into account when arriving at decisions. It should also however be taken into account that different people will have different opinions and interests. The ideal is to use integrative bargaining in order to arrive at an outcome that best serves the collective values and ethics of the company as a whole. In order to achieve this, hell suggests a focus on the bargaining styles of individuals, and how these can be used to arrive at the most desired situation for the company as a whole.
Li and Roloff's work focus on the emotions involved in intercultural communication. This is translated to the business situation, and the role that emotions…
Lax, David and Sebenius, James. The Manager as Negotiator; Bargaining for Cooperation and Competitive Gain. New York, NY: The Free Press,1986.
Shell, G. Richard. Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable People. Penguin Books, 1999.
Also, the number of musicians should be more under the control of the producers, who presumably had a better idea of how many employees could be afforded by a particular show, as opposed to the Musician's Union, which would only have one narrow interested party in mind, namely the musician's collective welfare. (Hostetter, 2003)
ho owns the final product -- the artist or the person funding the art? Neither can make art 'happen' without the other, yet both parties view art in very different terms. Creating value for both parties requires that the commercial theater on Broadway continue in a state of financial health -- a view that seems to favor the producer's point-of-view. The musicians had a point that, if the quality of music slowly declined on Broadway, this would have a long-term deleterious effect upon the quality of attendance in the long run. Using taped music rather than…
Lax, David and Sebenius, James. The Manager as Negotiator; Bargaining for Cooperation and Competitive Gain. New York, NY: The Free Press. 1986.
Martha Hostetter (2003) "The Musician's Strike." The Gotham Gazette. http://www.gothamgazette.com/article//20030304/1/298
Job Overview Flyer
In the normal course of events in business and society, most management groups are not adequately prepare to effectively deal with crisis situations: fires, natural disasters, bomb threats, or any type of willful acts of destruction. Two recent examples that showed just how underprepared most organizations are were the 9/11 Trade Center attack and Hurricane Katrina; both failures in their own right of the ability to quickly and effectively manage crises situations. This historical event changed the lives of many Americans forever and proved that business communities as well as communities at large and in general are all susceptible to disasters or crisis at any time. These disruptions can also be very costly the economy in general, and have wide ranging consequences for individuals and culture alike. Since 9/11, there have been a preponderance of reports, books, academic tomes, and conferences on the subject of…
Negotiating a trip to California with my spouse
I lived in California for more than four years and all of my dearest friends still live there. When I moved to Washington DC I planned to revisit California frequently but I became absorbed in my schooling and never had the time to plan a trip. After my marriage I made an agreement with my wife to never travel on my own, except for work-related reasons. My negotiation will be a challenging task because my California trip involves me traveling alone for several days without my wife.
There are several reasons motivating me to travel to California, which are:
I am really stressed about school and I need some time to spend with my old friends.
I need to get some of my textbooks and house supplies that I stored at my friend's house in California.
I want to visit…
Principled Negotiation and Cooperation
According to an article provided by the Conflict Research Consortium (CRC)(1998), one style of negotiation that has achieved favor in modern business practice is Principled Negotiation. This calls for an interest in achieving a meaningful compromise in which both parties have cause to accept the terms of an agreement. According to the article illiam Ury and Roger Fisher first advocated this form of negotiation as a means to reaching shared objectives even in the face of apparently divergent interests. In principled negotiation, Ury and Fisher would argue, it is important to separate one's neogiation objectives from one's personal feelings. Accordingly, the CRC reports that "negotiating about interests means negotiating about things that people really want and need, not what they say that want or need. Often, these are not the same. People tend to take extreme positions that are designed to counter their opponents'…
Conflict Research Consortium (CRC)(1998). Principled Negotiation. Colorado.edu.
Peelle, H. (2006). Promoting Cooperation Using Tit-For-Tat. The Negotiator Magazine.
Ury, W. (1993). Getting Past No. Random House Digital, Inc.
Negotiating With Suicidal Plans
Negotiating with Suicidal Persons
Human beings have their own set of desires, choices, and aspirations, which they put into effect in various ways that are usually different from one another. While at some times, people exercise ways to fulfill their desires in a much productive manner, other times, this execution can turn out to be self-destructive. Suicide is one of the self-devastating approaches that an increasing number of people in the today's time are applying to satisfy their pain or desire of relieving the ache. In fact, the statistical records have exposed the fact that suicide has become one of the prominent cause of death not only in the United States, but across the world, thus, making this issue a serious one on the public health domain (Chehil & Kutcher, 2012).
Before an individual can complete the act of suicide, he/she makes at least a hundred…
Chehil, S. & Kutcher, S.P. (2012). Suicide Risk Management: A Manual for Health Professionals. 2nd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
McMains, M.J. & Mullins, W.C. (2010). Crisis Negotiations: Managing Critical Incidents and Hostage Situations in Law Enforcement and Corrections. 4th Edition. USA: Elsevier.
Moreover, both parties can "win" and gain something. Creativity is valued in this form of negotiation as a way to come up with new ideas that will allow both parties to feel satisfied. In other words, the win/lose aspect of competitive negotiation is shunned, and it is assumed that the needs of both parties can be met. The communication in a collaborative negotiation reflects this assumption. In order to find out what the real interests and needs of both sides are, the participants must listen closely to each other. Often negotiations begin with a frank discussion of common interests and what will benefit both. The interdependence of each upon the other is acknowledged. The negotiators transcend the idea of "not enough" limited resources, as each party expresses personal preferences. This allows more equitable distribution. The goal of collaborative negotiation is to reach a mutually acceptable solution and one that is…
Hocker, J.L. And Wilmot, W.W. (2007). Interpersonal conflict. Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Negotiating Procter and Gamble
Proctor and Gamble (P&G) faced growth constraints and customer relationship management (CM) issues with its large retail clients such as Wal-Mart. Disintegrated operational and business level management, lack of strategic direction, and poor CM were the main issues faced by the company. Unnecessary competition with its own customers and hostile price/margin negotiations were draining out the strategic growth opportunities that a company, as large as P&G could have achieved with an improvement in internal processes and CM.
Having considered these issues through contemporary research-based business process models, it is recommended that P&G should alter its organizational culture, strategy, and adopt CM approach. Several alternatives such as those based on collaborative channel management, increased responsiveness to customer concerns, and BMP improvement may be applied by the company after aligning the culture of the company to resonate with the proposed improvements. Vendor managed…
Corsten, D., & Kumar, N. (2005). Do suppliers benefit from collaborative relationships with large retailers? An empirical investigation of efficient consumer response adoption. Journal of Marketing, 80-94.
Fisher, M.L. (1997). What is the right supply chain for your product? Harvard business review, 75, 105-117.
Goyal, S.K., & Gupta, Y.P. (1989). Integrated inventory models: the buyer-vendor coordination. European journal of operational research, 41(3), 261-269.
Hagel, J. (2002). Out of the box: strategies for achieving profits today and growth tomorrow through web services. Harvard Business Press.
Negotiating Muslim Youth Identity in a Post-9/11 World
Cynthia White Tindongan's article "Negotiating Muslim Youth Identity in a Post-9/11 World" discusses with regard to Muslim individuals in the contemporary society and with regard to young Muslims in the U.S. In particular. The writer promotes the idea that it would be impossible for a young Muslim person in the contemporary society to ignore effects associated with events that have shaped public opinion concerning Muslims. The article is effective in putting across this message and is actually very informative when concerning its succinct nature and the fact that the author clearly focused on providing readers with the opportunity to get a more complex understanding of the matter.
The article is meant to present information concerning the series of events that played an important role in shaping public thinking with regard to Muslim immigrants. Even with this, while Tindongan focused on providing a…
White Tindogan, Cynthia. "Negotiating Muslim Youth Identity in a Post-9/11 World." The High School Journal Volume 95, Number 1, Fall 2011 pp. 72-87 | 10.1353/hsj.2011.0012
Trust and Relationships in Negotiation
Successful negotiations rely heavily upon the ability of those involved to develop trust and build solid relationships. If parties to a negotiation cannot trust one another and do not develop the kind of relationships required, it is highly unlikely that they will arrive at the kind of satisfactory, win-win outcome that all sides desire. But how does one define trust? What steps can be taken to best support a working relationship? How can one tell if one is moving towards a successful negotiation or working against one’s own best interests? This paper will review the topic of trust and relationship development in negotiations to show how one can approach the problem of trust and relationship building while working on negotiating an outcome that satisfies all parties.
What is Trust?
Trust is a concept that has different meanings depending on how one thinks of its…
Six Skills: Some Strengths, Some Weaknesses
Of the skills identified by Fisher and Davis in their article, "Six Interpersonal Skills for a Negotiator's Repertoire," there are two in which I believe I already excel. The first of these is remaining rational in the face of strong feelings; though I am very passionate about many issues -- passionate about any issue in which I take a real interest, in fact -- I have never really let my passions get the better of me, but am willing and able to calmly and rationally define and support my passion in a manner that does not cloud the facts or their logical connections and that is able to take in opposing views and facts without feeling any umbrage or emotional stress. I actually find that the more deeply I care about something the easier it is for me to remain rational due…
Negotiating a Facility ental Agreement
As a facility operations manager, it is critical to first understand key legal issues in Stadium contracts. These contract could be ridden with pitfalls and liability characterized by shifting language, and other provisions, with serious legal consequences to the event sponsor. These facilities have provisions in their contract that specify terms of performance (rates, dates, space) and meant to protect the stadium as well as establish event sponsor's responsibility and liability.
It is a common procedure to sign a letter of intent with the facility and in this case, the Durham Bull's Stadium Facility Manager and General Counsel. The Letter of Intent must include all necessary contingency clauses that protect the New York Yankees, the Met's, Yankees and Major League Baseball's right to advance negotiations on mutual agreeable terms with the Durham Bull's Stadium Facility Manager and General Counsel by a certain deadline. However, this…
Youngblood, H.D. (2010, August). Drafting And Enforcing Complex Indemnification Provisions. Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://www.klgates.com/files/Publication/4fff23f1-3315-4425-b6ad-56e54bea55f0/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/fba1faaa-91de-4849-8a8f-6678e1cad2b2/Youngblood_Flocos_PracticalLawyer.pdf
In retrospect, the argument could have been made that the Chevrolet Cavalier was very old and was not worth $3,000, even with a brand-new windshield, horn and the maintenance agreement worth $300. A counter-offer a $2,500 could have been proposed and negotiations could have continued until Archie conceded a few more dollars or the deal broke down. As noted above, though, a secondary objective was to successfully complete the negotiations in an efficient fashion, and this knock-down, dragged-out approach was not deemed appropriate or even potentially effective since Archie had made some valid points concerning the expenses involved in repairing the vehicle to my satisfaction. In sum, both parties to this negotiation received most of what they wanted and the car has performed admirably to this day.
Both of my previous cars had been purchased from friends or relatives, and this was my first experience with a real,…
The final outcome that resulted from the above-described negotiations was the purchase of a 1996 Chevrolet Cavalier with a repaired horn and brand-new windshield from Archie's Used Cars and Trucks for $3,000 cash, a price that also included a 6-month maintenance warranty and, as it turned out, a new set of jumper cables the dealer threw in for free (the schmoozing about Archie's football days paid off it seems). In retrospect, the argument could have been made that the Chevrolet Cavalier was very old and was not worth $3,000, even with a brand-new windshield, horn and the maintenance agreement worth $300. A counter-offer a $2,500 could have been proposed and negotiations could have continued until Archie conceded a few more dollars or the deal broke down. As noted above, though, a secondary objective was to successfully complete the negotiations in an efficient fashion, and this knock-down, dragged-out approach was not deemed appropriate or even potentially effective since Archie had made some valid points concerning the expenses involved in repairing the vehicle to my satisfaction. In sum, both parties to this negotiation received most of what they wanted and the car has performed admirably to this day.
Both of my previous cars had been purchased from friends or relatives, and this was my first experience with a real, live used car dealer, a profession that has been vilified time and again in the mainstream media and by stand-up comics. Indeed, Richard Nixon was a used car salesman before he became the first president to resign, and the image endures. Therefore, perhaps the most important lesson learned from this car-purchasing experience was that not all used car salespeople are deceptive monsters that are only out to gouge the unsuspecting consumer, but that forewarned is forearmed when it comes to buying any used vehicle. The research that was conducted preparatory to the negotiations was highly useful in persuading the dealer to throw in a maintenance contract for free, for example, and despite some isolated consumer reports concerning poor experiences with these vehicles, the preponderance of such reports were positive. These steps helped to improve my negotiating position, but they were not sufficient to overcome the legitimate counterpoints that were made by the dealer. A significant weakness that was discerned during these negotiations, though, was just how uncomfortable the whole process can be for the novice and that the concepts that have been learned in class can be used to keep the "eye on the prize" in many cases, people can become so angry or frustrated during the negotiating process that they lose sight of what they are really after, but by focusing on the best alternative to a negotiated agreement, even novice car buyers can achieve their primary objectives, including being treated fairly and honestly.
Negotiating for your life (New Success Strategies for a Woman)" is authored by Nichole Schapiro (1993) who has the credible credentials of industrial psychologist The fact that she founded her own training and consulting firm in 1972 indicates her breadth of experience and training in the field The jacket also describes her as a speaker, consultant and trainer to thousands of women and men around the country and abroad on negotiating skills, diversity, and on gender collaboration in and out of the workforce, as well as on building effective teams This mass and length of experience gives her the skills to write the book and makes her a reputable voice
Premise and relevance - The main premise/point of the book including the issue/problem involved and the book's relevance and relationship to the course
The theme of the book is how to effectively negotiate both in and out of real work…
. I do recommend the book to others since negotiating becomes easier and less intimidating with the practical exercises that Shapiro creates. Some of them -- if not most of them - are commonsensical, but yet they are exempt form other books on negotiation skills. The way Shapiro phrases them makes negotiation a skill that even the most inexperienced novitiate can grasp.
Shapiro, N. (1993). Negotiating for Your Life: New Success Strategies for Women, Henry Holt & Company, Inc.: USA
Conflict situation emerge in all working environments. Laboratories in pharmaceutical companies make no exception. Within such workplaces, small conflicts regarding the application of work procedures. In such cases, it is recommended that the employees involved in the conflict use conflict negotiation techniques in order to reach agreement in their dispute.
Cooperative negotiation is another type of negotiation strategy that can be used in case the conditions of the situations favor such a negotiation technique. Matthias G. aith and Francis Edward Su have written an article where they provide a scientific approach to cooperative negotiation. The authors focus on providing a theoretical design and a practical implementation model that can be applied by negotiators (aith & Su, 2000).
The main difference of cooperative negotiation in comparison with conflict negotiation relies on the fact that cooperative negotiation focuses on the common points-of-view between the parties involved within the negotiation. This type of…
1. Blocker, J. (2010). Conflict Negotiation Strategies. Retrieved September 30, 2010 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Conflict-Negotiation-Strategies&id=1332954 .
2. Raith, M. & Su, F. (2000). Procedural Support for Cooperative Negotiations Theoretical Design and Practical Implementation. The International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics, Windsor, Canada. Retrieved September 30, 2010 from http://www.math.hmc.edu/~su/papers.dir/pscn.pdf .
Involving the Bargaining Team
Labor unions once represented a significant share of the U.S. labor force, peaking at almost 35% of workers in 1954 however this percentage has declined steadily to less than twelve percent (Vachon & Wallace, 2013). The decline in the rate of unionization has left many organizations unfamiliar with responsibilities duties that they have to unionized members of their organization. Despite the unions not having as large of a presence in society, most of the rules and regulations that govern these interactions are just as strong today as they were in the peak of the union's power. Therefore, organizations that deal with the presence of unions must be cautious to ensure they meet all of their requirements. Furthermore, even though the number of unions has fallen, the average size of the membership base in organizations has grown; the number of members per union grew from…
National Labor Relations Board. (N.d.). Employer/Union Rights and Obligations. Retrieved from National Labor Relations Board: https://www.nlrb.gov/rights-we-protect/employerunion-rights-and-obligations
Pencavel, J. (2014). The Changing Size Distribution of U.S. Trade Unions and its Description by Pareto's Distrabution. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 138-170.
Vachon, T., & Wallace, M. (2013). Transformation, and Union Decline in U.S. Metropolitan Areas. Labor Studies Journal, 229-255.
The Art of Negotiation
The Syrian conflict has lasted for several years now and peace talks have gotten underway just as many times, with numerous players adopting different sides of table. The problem with the negotiation process when it comes to Syria is that it is still somewhat unclear as to who is in charge, who stands to lose what, which party has the most leverage, and who will be the major players to settle the conflict and negotiate a lasting peace. This paper will examine the issues and contrast them with the interests of the various parties who have a stake in the negotiation of peace in the region and how this difference has affected the negotiation process thus far. It will also analyze the ethical behavior and tactics that have been used throughout the negotiation process, as some of these tactics have raised many questions about how…
Labor Negotiating Practices
The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.
Company's Stance towards Labor Issues
The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing…
1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324474004578443062380660262.html .
2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.policymic.com/articles/19288/twinkies-and-labor-unions-explaining-the-hostess-collapse.
Bollinger can speak with authority on the creative aspects of the WallPackett including the future product plans and potential of Disney character licensing given her background with them. With each of them concentrating on their areas of strength and knowing between them the high, medium and low levels of sales they can accept, the couple can more effectively manage their negotiation with Wal-Mart.
Half-Hour Session ecommendations
In the half-hour presentation to Wal-Mart buyers, the Bollingers must establish credibility quickly and differentiation of their product, the WallPockett. Mr. Bollingers' experience in the retail industry needs to be quickly summarized, as Mrs. Bollingers' expertise in creative design and merchandising with Disney. This immediately establishes credibility. Next, the product strategy needs to be introduced and the potential the WallPockett offers for bundling and gross margin enhancement for Wal-Mart needs to next be defined. Throughout the presentation of these strategies there needs to be…
McGinnis, Micheal. "Negotiation Basics for Purchasing Professionals." 83rd Annual International Conference Proceedings 1(1998)
Mitchell, Lorrie. "Successful Negotiating - Mars vs. Venus Style." 92nd Annual International Supply management Conference, May 2007 1(2007)
Rumbaugh, Charles. "Drafting, Negotiating a Dispute Resolution Clause with Customers and Suppliers." 92nd Annual International Supply Management Conference, May 2007 1(2007)
Saphiere, Dianne. "Navigating the Rough Seas of Intercultural Negotiation." 92nd International Supply Management Conference 1(2007)
VACATIONSPOT.COM AND RENT-A-HOLIDAY: NEGOTIATING a TRANS-ATLANTIC MERGER OF START-UPS IN THE NEW ECONOMY
Whenever two companies merge, there are a multitude of issues involved. First, there are financial issues, i.e., will the deal be all cash, cash and loans, or cash and stock, etc. Next, there are personnel issues, i.e., who will be in charge of the new company, will all employees be retained after the merger, etc. Lastly, there are intangible issues, i.e., synergies involved with the merger, future prospects for success, etc.
This paper analyzes and examines the various issues related to the merger of Vacationspot.com and Rent-A-Holiday. Part II outlines the merger discussions between Vacationspot.com and Rent-A-Holiday. In Part III, the next course of action is reviewed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations for the successful formulation and execution of the proposed merger.
MERGER DISCUSSIONS BETWEEN VACATIONSPOT.COM AND RENT-A-HOLIDAY
Vacationspot and Rent-A-Holiday focused on the independent leisure…
hen negotiating a workplace conflict, it is a good idea to first consider having an initial discussion about a change in working patterns to see if agreement can be reached informally. Be direct, yet diplomatic with the person one is in conflict with. If you have a problem with someone, don't express it in personal terms, rather address the issue at hand, such as 'this aspect of the project needs to be reconsidered.' However, if the conflicts are irreconcilable or involve racial, sexual, or discriminatory harassment, it may be necessary to make a formal application for a mediator from human resources. ("Negotiating within the orkplace," 2004) This may be the best option, to gain a third, objective ear and to prevent the conflict from spiraling out of control. At least, with mediation, effective negotiations can potentially be generated from the conflict at hand.
Marshall, Jacqui Love (Summer 2005)…
Marshall, Jacqui Love (Summer 2005) "Power and Office Politics." Fusion.Inc.
Negotiating within the Workplace." (2004) Family Friendly Working Website. http://www.eoc-law.org.uk/cseng/family_friendly_hours/2.negotiating_flexible_working_within_the_workplace_and_the_options_when_negotiations_fail.asp
For example, in a group meeting: 'I understand that you're angry about the fact that the administrative staff is consistently late, and you think a time clock is the best way to address this issue, but I'm not sure this addresses the real, underlying issue that most of the staff is unhappy with their schedule.' or, on an individual basis, when faced with the prospect of being forced to wait: 'I understand that the restaurant is understaffed tonight, but my wife and I were looking forward to dining here, and unfortunately we have theater tickets for a performance in an hour. Could you perhaps seat us at a table in your bar and serve us there?'
Self-awareness of how an individual functions or how a group functions is thus critical to creating an effective conflict management style. ithout understanding one's personal bias, not simply in terms of specific issues, but…
Conflict Resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively."
Mindtools.com. 2007. 17 Apr 2007. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm
Wilmot, William W. & Joyce L. Hocker. Interpersonal Conflict. 6th ed. New York:
This tactic can take the negotiator by surprise and if silence isn't invoked, the deal that was looking very sweet can suddenly be spoiled.
In Japan, silence has been part of negotiations for centuries; one side makes an offer and the Japanese negotiator says nothing but perhaps makes eye contact or nods his head in a non-committal way. By not speaking, the chances are that you will be able to think clearly about the ramifications of the suddenly blurted out offer. Or if the offer is maybe not blurted out at the last minute but seems to be the very antithesis of what the two parties have been discussing all along, again, silence is power, because the other party will be thrown off of his or her strategy. In fact when a last-minute proposal is thrown into the mix, silence is essential because the proposal could be a psychological entrapment…
Carrell, Michael R., and Heavrin, Christina. (2008). Negotiating Essentials: Theory, Skills, and Practices. Old Tappan, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Physorg. (2006). New sequential decision-making model could be key to artificial intelligence.
Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.physorg.com.
Royston. (2009). The Five Intercultural Negotiation Skills. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://roymogg.com /2009/12/17/the-five-intercultural-negotiation-skills/.
President George H.. Bush is an eloquent speaker and an effective negotiator. Regardless of what your particular feelings on the what the US policies have been in the Middle East, it is clear by the address before Congress that President Bush offered before the American people how support for the war was gained. He acted with firm conviction and dedication to what he believed, as well as operated in an organized and effective leadership style. It is also clear that he was a skilled politician and carefully selected his battles. Although his calls for intervention in the Middle East were dressed in rhetoric that focuses on high ideals, there is reason to believe that Bush's motivations were largely pragmatic.
For example, in June 1989, the Chinese military suppressed a pro-democracy movement demonstrating in Beijing's Tiananmen Square in a violent demonstration that used a disproportionate use of tanks and…
Global Research. (2012, March 5). Gulf War Documents: Meeting between Saddam Hussein and US Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie. Retrieved from Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/gulf-war-documents-meeting-between-saddam-hussein-and-ambassador-to-iraq-april-glaspie/31145
Miller Center. (N.d.). George H. W. Bush: Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from Miller Center: https://millercenter.org/president/bush/foreign-affairs
Walt, S. (2011, January 9). WikiLeaks, April Glaspie, and Saddam Hussein. Retrieved from Foreign Policy: http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/01/09/wikileaks-april-glaspie-and-saddam-hussein/
Business elationship Preservation Factors
Dear Mr. Supplier,
I am writing in regards to the most recent computer chip shipment which you purveyed for my company. As I initially notified you via the phone, approximately 25% of that shipment was defective. My company was not able to utilize that percentage, which is certainly an anomaly when I consider what has historically been a fairly prosperous and lengthy relationship between our two organizations. The purpose of this communication is to maintain that relationship and come to an understanding about how to address the previously mentioned issue and still go forward in a way that is mutually beneficial to both of our companies. I truly believe that there are a number of different options that we have for redressing this situation in a positive manner.
SUGGESTIONS FO SOLVING THIS ISSUE
My primary goals for solving this issue involve doing so in…
Buell, B. (2007). Negotiation strategy: six common pitfalls to avoid. Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved from http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/hr_negotiation_strategy.shtml
Lewicki, J. R., Barry, B., & Saunders, M. D. (2011). Essentials of Negotiation (5th Ed.). New York, NY: Mcgraw Hill. ISBN-13: 9780073530369
Lewicki, J. R., Barry, B., & Saunders, M. D. (2010). Negotiation: Readings, Exercises and Cases (6th Ed.). New York, NY: Mcgraw Hill. ISBN-13: 9780073530314
Picker, B. (2002). How to best aid negotiation by breaking down barriers. www.mediate.com Retrieved from http://www.mediate.com/articles/picker.cfm
Negotiating National Identity
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the book "Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil" by Jeffrey Lesser. Specifically, it will contain a scholarly review of the book. Lesser pens a defining look at the ethnicities that make up Brazil, and this book is a necessary read for anyone interested in Brazilian history or social and ethnic identity. While most readers might assume the ethnic divisions are based on traditional European, African, and Brazilian roots - that is not the case. The author makes a clear point that ethnicity is one of the major issues facing many of the world's largest and most influential countries.
Early in the book, the author offers his thesis and purpose for writing this treatise. He notes, "Brazil remains a country where hyphenated ethnicity is predominant yet unacknowledged."
The "hyphenated ethnicity" he refers…
Lesser, Jeffrey. Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
Jeffrey Lesser, Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999), 3.
My own weaknesses as a negotiator hinge upon those aspects of negotiation that involve lying. Of course, most instructors who teach the art of negotiation do not refer to it as "lying" but from a civilian perspective that is precisely what it is. In order to sell the art of negotiation to use, instructors refer to it as "framing" and "strategy." But of course "framing" could easily be translated into "omitting part of the truth for the purpose of strategic advantage" -- you say "we've had other offers" but neglect to mention that they were all less than half of the asking price, or neglect to mention that all the other offers that were had were subsequently withdrawn, or so forth. The simple fact is that the "framing" aspect of negotiation is basically about using an informational asymmetry in order to gain advantage over the other party, and frequently…
Carnegie, D. (1998). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Pocket Books.
Kritek, PB. (2002). Negotiating at an uneven table. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Service, R. (2004). Stalin: A biography. New York: Macmillan.
estern businesses who are negotiating with Chinese corporations may face many challenges, These begin from the initiation and continuation of the negotiations to the establishment of long-lasting relationships based upon mutual trust that range from bargaining and drafting agreements to the securing of their implementation. Chinese negotiators can be at once warm hosts and friends and tough bargainers. A unique group of Chinese cultural elements all add to the complexities of Sino-foreign business negotiations and can make the process tiresome and protracted. For these reasons, Chinese and western negotiators often harbor mutually unfavorable perceptions. estern negotiators need to get used to the indirect Chinese manner and realize that it is not deceptive, but just different. hile esterners are naturally direct, Chinese negotiators are more polite, at least on the surface (Graham, and Lam 4-5).
This can of course bring up serious issues of tension and trust. This is caused by…
Fang, Tony. "Negotiation: the Chinese style." Journal of Business & Industrial
Marketing. 21.1 (2006): 50-60.
Ghauri, Pervez, and Tony Fang. "Negotiating with the Chinese: A Socio-Cultural
Analysis." Journal of World Business. 36.3 (2001): 303 -- 325.
However, as Fisher, Ury and Patton (1991) note, what often matters most in a negotiation is the perceptions of the parties involved in the negotiation. These perceptions can undermine the negotiation process through reactive devaluation. eactive devaluation occurs when one party subconsciously devalues negotiations being made by the other party, assuming that the concession really won't benefit them, otherwise the other party wouldn't have made it. To avoid this, the authors encourage negotiators to evaluate concessions objectively by their merits, not in response to the negotiator's own fears.
The BATNA Process:
The BATNA process is a two-step process. The first step is for the party to determine all possible options that are available to fulfill their needs, for the particular situation. The second step is to realistically anticipate the other party's alternatives to the situation. Both steps are equally important. Only in this way will the party be able to…
BATNA -- Best alternative. (2010). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from http://www.negotiations.com/articles/best-alternative/ .
Buelens, M. & Poucke, D. (Fall 2004). "Determinants of a negotiator's initial opening offer." Journal of Business & Psychology, 19(1). p. 23-36.
Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in (2nd ed.). New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.
Subramanian, G. (Jan 2007). "Taking BATNA to the next level." Negotiation. p. 7-9.
The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"
Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.
Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.
Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.
Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.
Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (
Negotiating isn't something most of us ever learn in a deliberate manner. It seems to be something we're all supposed to acquire somewhere along the journey from childhood to adulthood. Women in particular often feel uncomfortable with the aggressive, male-oriented power tactics generally accepted as the norm in business negotiations. What is really important about the art of negotiating and the gender divide is the economic issue of salary gaps between men and women. Equal pay for equal work is what we want to believe employers will provide. So why are women on the average, still making less than men, and why? If efforts are made to equalize salaries in a given setting, is it only a matter of time before the women's pay once again falls behind?
In the following pages I will identify the dramatic difference between men and women in their propensity to negotiate for…
Antill, John K., Cotton, Sandra, Goodnow, Jacqueline J., Russell Graeme. (1996) The Influence of Parents and Family Context on Children's Involvement in Household Tasks. Journal Title: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 34. Issue: 3-4. p215.
Babcock, Linda; & Laschever, Sara (2003). Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Blanton, Kimberly (2003, June 13). Study Finds Men Routinely Ask for More Money Than Women in Salary Negotiations. The Boston Globe Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.
Cardwell, Margaret (2003). Babcock, Linda & Sara Laschever. Women Don't Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide. Library Journal, 128, 101.
As, it declined from: 24% (in 1994) to 16% (by 2008). While at the same time, wage increased from $3,814 in 1996 to $7,870 in 2009. The below table is illustrating the overall scope of these changes in income during this time. (Villareal, 2010)
Annual Income Levels in Mexico from 1996 to 2009
These different figures are important, because they are showing how once NAFTA was ratified, is when it would slowly address inequalities inside Mexico. This is an indication that the abandoning of the classical model would have a positive impact on the country. (Villareal, 2010)
Therefore, this is highlighting how there is a causal relationship between the low wages and lack productivity in Mexico in comparison with the U.S. Once the views on trade began to change, is when there was a transformation in these…
Time Spent on Face Book. (2011). Business Insider. Retrieved from: http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-09-26/tech/30203311_1_facebook-aol-search-giant
Bagh, C. (2011). Apple's 3 Product Design Strategies. IB Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/111579/20110211/apple-ceo-steve-jobs-ios-4-2-john-sculley-vertical-integration-product-design-iPad-iPod-iPhone.htm
Brahm, L. (2007). The Art of the Deal in China. Tokyo: Tuttle
Boden, J. (2008). The Wall Behind China's Open Door. Brussels: Academic and Scientific Publishers.
How can MNCs effectively negotiate with local employees, local suppliers, and local governments in the Middle East?
Over the last several years, the Middle East has been playing an important part in the global economy. This is based upon vast reserves of oil and natural gas. At the same time, there is a focus on its close proximity to Asia and the West. However, negotiating any kind of business deals can be challenging. This is because of cultural differences which are embraced among many countries around the globe. (Cellich, 2012)
Those who understand the various aspects of them will be able to effectively interact with a variety of stakeholders and create lasting relationships. While those that are not taking these variables into account; will become increasingly frustrated by their inability to effectively communicate with other parties. To avoid these kinds of issues requires understanding the best ways MNC's…
The Kurdish Opening. (2012). The Economist. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21565678-iraqi-kurds-and-western-oil-firms-have-outfoxed-government-baghdad
Cellich, C. (2012). Practical Solutions to Business Negotiations. New York, NY: Business Expert Press.
Deresky, H. (2011). International Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Walt, V. (2009). U.S. Companies Shut Out. Time. Retrieved from: http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1948787,00.html
One common truism in the world of business is that mergers often fail. The task of negotiating a company merger with two other multinational companies is thus a daunting one. There are many reasons which cause mergers to fail, but one of the most common is that of miscommunication between the multiple entities. The fact that one of the nations is from Germany and the other is Japanese may further complicate matters, given that Japan is a traditionally high-context culture, where the content of what one says is less important than the manner and to whom one says it; speech also tends to be much more indirect. In contrast, Germany, similar to that of the United States, tends to be a very low-context culture where the explicit meaning of what a speaker conveys is all-important.
Issues Negotiating in a Diverse Cultural Environment
What is perceived as an obstacle or a…
International Communication in International Business
Words are very important in a high context culture and have much more significance and carry far more meaning and weight than in a low context culture. In a high context culture, words are chosen carefully and one must be familiar with the culture itself because it is this that informs the words and gives them their weight.
In business negotiations, the type of behavior that I believe will manifest itself when players from a High Context Culture engage with those of a Low Context are the indirect and direct types of communication that are likely to exist. The high context culture negotiator will likely tend to be more indirect, assuming that his meaning and point will be inferred, whereas the low context culture negotiator will be direct, expecting there to be no hidden meaning behind his words. The contrast could result in confusion and…
Business Meeting Etiquette. (2015). Passport to Trade. Retrieved from http://businessculture.org/western-europe/business-culture-in-germany/meeting-etiquette-in-germany/
Hall, E. (1976). Beyond Culture. NY: Anchor Books.
Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (second ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill.
Abraham Path Initiative
The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time
One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…
Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business
School Working Paper. 10-049.
Negotiation Strategies for Chemical Company International and Dragon Manufacturing
Negotiations are used to resolve existing and potential conflicts, as well as to help organizations of all sizes and types achieve their goals. In many cases, negotiators fail to achieve all or even most of their goals, though, because of an inability to reach mutually advantageous agreements. In some cases, though, negotiators simply lose sight of what they are after and become embroiled in increasingly heated confrontations that lead nowhere. Successful negotiations are possible, though, by following some proven methods that can help stakeholders avoid these pitfalls and focus on the best available alternative. In this regard, this report provides both parties to the negotiations with an independent detailed report concerning best approaches to the negotiation for two companies currently involved in negotiations, Chemical Company International and Dragon Manufacturing, including a recommended negotiation strategy, negotiation best practices and an appraisal of…
Arnett, R.C. 1996. Communication and Community. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois
Carnegie, D. 1937. How to Win Friends and Influence People.
Fisher, R., Ury, W. & Patton, B. 1991. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving In.
New York: Penguin.
The use of objective criteria is important because it is through such criteria that a balanced agreement can be developed. Objective criteria lacks biased and as such the interests of both parties is likely to be taken into consideration. A subjective criterion does not have this quality and as such it has no place in the negotiation process.
Overall this section of the book reflects a clear picture of the attitudes and methods that need to be adopted during the negotiation process. In this section the authors remind the reader that negotiation is a serious skill that has to be developed and examined from many different angles. In addition this section provides the structure needed to ensure that a wise agreement can be reached between the parties.
Alternatives to Negotiation agreement
After negotiations have taken place, there are still issues that might have to be resolved. In some cases parties…
Fisher, R., Ury W., Patton B. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving in. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1991
Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles
When dealing with businessmen globally, it's critical to be aware of the cultural beliefs and values that shape their negotiation style and business behavior. This is imperative for successful and positive business relationship because not all cultural foster similar beliefs and hence there can vast differences in negotiation styles. These differences become more pronounced as we move from west to east because while most western countries may have few things similar in terms of culture and education, the same is not true for eastern countries. In this paper we shall compare the negotiation style of Chinese and Canadians. This will help us understand what a business person from the west need to know about the Chinese business communication style in order to be successful in their relationship with them.
Negotiation refers to the process where two or more parties communicate with each other in order…
Graham J. And Lam, M. 2006 The Chinese Negotiation. Harvard Business Review.
Silverman, J. (1997). Doing business internationally. New Jersey: Princeton Training
James, D. (2003) Communication guide lines for doing business in Asia
Question 8: how can you use the negotiation skills you have learned to enhance your leadership potential?
Negotiation is a part of our everyday life. We use it is business, we use it with out families and we use is as workers and leaders. More and more frequently in the business setting, negotiation skills are needed. ut this is not to say that everyone has the ability to negotiate effectively. I will be able to enhance my potential for leadership by honing my negotiation skills. If I can learn my own personal negotiation style, if I can learn to keep the personal out and bargaining down, this will make me an asset to my company and help me in my chosen profession. And as the basic aspects of successful negotiations really do not change from situation to situation, I will be able to use these negotiation skills to my advantage…
Fisher, Roger and Ury, William. Getting to Yes. Negotiating Agreement without Giving in. Penguin Group. New York 1981.
Pre-Negotiation Objectives and Negotiation Plan
To address the challenges from the previous scenario requires creating pre-negation objectives and a negotiation plan. This will help to focus the team on the important milestones that must be reached during the process. At the same time, it is establishing a position that can be utilized to create a win -- win situation for everyone in the negotiating plan. Once this happens, is when an agreeable solution can be developed that is in accordance with the primary objectives of both sides. (Ashman, 2001, pp. 34- 43)
During the pre-negotiation, there are a number of different objectives that must be achieved the most notable include:
Creating a solution that takes into account the views of different team members and their backgrounds: In this kind of situation, each person has particular levels of experience they are bringing with them (i.e. financial, legal and operational).…
Ashman, A. (2001). The Negotiation Sourcebook. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.
Schneider, A. (2006). Negotiators Field Book. Washington DC: American Bar Association.
Determine and explain the key steps you would take in opening the negotiation session.
The previous scenario was negotiation on the purchase of computers for the government. I would start off on a friendly basis reminding the other party why we are here and reminding them of their interest in accomplishing the deal. In this way, I have laid the basis for a meeting that would hopefully be perceived as friendly rather than as potentially combative (where each attempts to best the other). I would stress the win-win attitude: that we each have something to gain from the outcome and that we can each meet the other's needed. In order to meet my other party's need, I want to understand them as well as I possibly can. My aim would be to strive for the friendly atmosphere where there is open communication, emphasis on compatibilities, mutual endeavor towards problem…
Giebels, E. & Taylor, Paul J (2009) Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: Persuasive arguments and cultural differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 5-19.
Giannetti, M. & Yishay, Y. (2010) Do Cultural Differences Between Contracting Parties Matter? Evidence from Syndicated Bank Loans. AFA 2010 Atlanta Meetings Paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1204202
ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES-04
0711-Managing a Negotiation Session
The Rock, a 1996 thrilling, high paced movie release, directed by Michael Bay and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, demonstrated a series of intense and riveting scenes in which negotiation, and the negotiation process with accompanying successful attitudes, are played out in a violent and thrilling tale. Luckily for us, these negotiation scenes not only highlight the necessary skills and mind frames for successful marketing and business skills, but are also highly entertaining and artistically relevant. This suspenseful movie delivered high paced action scenes starring superstars Sean Connery, Nicholas Cage and Ed Harris. This movie artfully and demonstrably examined the use of negotiation skills in a high-stakes environment while simultaneously providing us with an opportunity to learn and understand the graceful and sometimes confusing task of information-based bargaining.
In order to fully understand and learn the useful applications presented in this film dealing with the techniques of information-based bargaining…
The Asian view takes longer and includes carefully considering all the long-term implications and nuances that Americans often ignore. This way of thinking may be confusing to American negotiators at first, plus the fact that nothing is ever completely settled. Instead of solving one thing at a time and moving on to the next item, Asian style allows the negotiators to come back again and again (circular fashion) to points already discussed. They may even discuss many issues concurrently and consider the whole situation all at the same time.
Use of time is a form of non-verbal communication. It sends a message about what one believes -- and in this case, what the culture values. To Americans who value their time and see it as something they don't have enough of, the Asian view can be frustrating. To Japanese and Chinese team members, time is never something to be saved;…
As a representative I take responsibility for the deaths of these animals and would like to cooperate with those harmed to help them feel like justice was done. Unlike the three options in the instructions, I would not say I only had $100,000 to divide up among the families but I would not reveal my bottom line, because that is an appropriate tactic. I would also do my homework and research how much money has been awarded to other individuals in similar cases.
Question TO: To assure that the negotiation was conducted fairly, I would employ all five of the standards: reciprocity (I'd want to be treated fairly); universality (I would want to be a role model for others); publicity (I would want my good faith bargaining strategy to be publicized); trusted friend (telling a close friend I was ethical would be easy); and the legacy standard (yes I would…
Carrell, Michael R., and Heavrin, Christina. (2008). Negotiating Essentials: Theory, Skills, and Practices. New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall, p. 218.
Accordingly, it is important for international negotiators to possess characteristics of communicational dexterity, cultural acuity and a certain amount of charisma. It is necessary to command sufficient respect as a representative of one's firm and its cultural identity without trespassing the cultural proclivities of a potential host nation or trade partner. That said, it is also frequently the case that parties in negotiation will exist on different planes of authority. Negotiators must be characteristically attuned to power dynamics and the impact that these are likely to have on the avenue and outcome of trade engagements. So reports the text by Lall (1966), which notes that "a difference in the power levels of the countries concerned is one of the factors of prime importance which affect movement toward negotiation." (p. 132)
Tactics in such contexts and the resultant effectiveness will often be a direct function of the selectivity and judiciousness exhibited…
Crump, L. (2003). Multiparty Negotiation and the Management of Complexity. International Negotiation, 8(2).
Lall, a.S. (1966). Modern International Negotiation. Columbia University Press.
Starkey, B.; Boyer, M.A. & Wilkenfeld, J. (2005). Negotiating a Complex World: An Introduction to International Negotiation. Rowman & Littlefield.
For the Med. Mgr., a degree of monitoring is required at least to ensure that daily production goals are being met, inventory is stocked and clients are satisfied. This requires internal monitoring and occupies a reasonable fraction of the Med. Mgr.'s time. The Bank Mgr. would report that no real monitoring is required other than to ensure that the personnel over which he presides are meeting their respective responsibilities. Given that the Bank Mgr. presides over cash drawer counts at the end of the day, most responsibility failures are self-apparent. This makes monitoring a comparatively small part of the position.
Disseminator -- the Med. Mgr. And the Com. Con. Mgr. both view the function of disseminator as one of their most important roles respectively. As the key figure of contact between a head manager/owner and the staffs of the two companies in question, each of these managers views as especially…
For example, a collectivistic society is typically preoccupied with high-context communication while an individualistic society is often characterized by low-context communication. (Gudykunst and Stella, 1991, p. 96). China, as a whole, is a collectivists society and thus uses high-context communications. This means that the fashion in which they transmit information is dependent on whether it is "in the physical context or internalized in the person." (Hall, 1976, p. 91). In other words, Chinese typically communicate in an implicit way. As such, in Chinese society one will observe people placing the greatest emphasis on interpersonal relationship in which they communicate with in an "indirect, ambiguous and roundabout way." (Gudykunst, 1991, p. 51).
This type of information is important for a Western business person to understand if they are to successfully do business in the Chinese marketplace. Therefore, it is essential that Western businesses and business school focus their training on cultural…
Gudykunst, William B. (1991). Effective Intergroup Communication. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Hall, Edward T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books.
Id. At 118. Additionally, refraining from attacking another party's reliability, but instead, reducing risks and praising honorable activity will help to engender an incentive for the other party to develop trustworthiness. Id. At 119-21. According to the authors, "people are more likely to behave reliably if they know their reliability is appreciated." Id. At 121. However, the authors stress that one must not place trust in an individual when it is unwarranted.
In contract law, as in relationships, coercion takes away an individual's free will and thus negates formation of an agreement (since an agreement requires a meeting of the minds). In negotiations, coercion may in the short-term get the opposition to succumb to one's demands, but will negatively impact any future relationship. The authors focus on the importance of persuading the opposition instead of coercing them to action. Persuasion tactics differ from coercion in that they (i)…
As the negotiations became aggressive, Marlee countered Fitch's aggressiveness by unilaterally raising the price, setting deadlines ('the deal should be finalized the next time I call'), and threatening to sway the verdict against Fitch.
Marlee also proved to be an adept negotiator when dealing with ohr. She skillfully defined the value set by digging into ohr's true motivation, and then appealed to his sense of greater achievement by offering him a scenario of 'Greater gun control'. She, however, underestimates ohr's sense of righteousness, as he refuses to go through with the deal, based on his conscience. The difference between the Marlee-Fitch negotiation and the Marlee-ohr negotiation is starkly evident, as the former is conducted in an aggressive environment with plenty of hidden motives, withholding of information, and threats, while the former, despite the initial threat of mistrial by ohr, is conducted in a much more open and honest environment.
Runaway Jury, the Movie
Burgess, Heidi, 2004, 'Negotiation Strategies', Knowledge Base Essay
Spangler, Brad, 2003, 'Integrative or Interest-based Bargaining', Knowledge Base Essay
Cindy, Fazzi, 2003, 'Negotiation Theory and Application: The Next Generation', Dispute Resolution Journal
Vonage said in a regulatory filing. Vonage's stock, which was down 13 cents to $1.54 in 4 pm. New York stock Exchange composite trading, was down another 24 cents to $1.30 in afterhours trading. Vonage went public in May of last year at $17.One of the early players offering internet telephone service, Holmdel, N.J., vonage has been reeling in the past year as it has lost two high-profile patent lawsuits. All the major phone companies have patents they claim cover aspects of voice-over-internet-phone technology" (at&T Files patent Lawsuit Against Vonage).
AT&T has been trying to arrange a settlement with Vonage for the past two years, which shows they want to do the right ethical process without going to court, however they were unable to negotiate a "reasonable licensing arrangement" with the company. It is my opinion that Vonage is being untruthful in their below statement because if they truly wanted…
Business communications are official and face-to-face meetings are always preferred to indirect communications.
At the specific level of negotiations, it is important to note that, during negotiations, only the seniors in the team will speak. The negotiation process is slow and advancements are made in an unhurried rhythm. The Chinese people are non-confrontational individuals and they will avoid saying "No." They will, instead, promise to think about the proposition, see about it and so on.
In China, the negotiations do not focus on specific and measurable goals, but their emphasis falls on assessing the negotiation partner and seeing whether the relationship can be further developed. Since the Chinese are calculated people, decision making will often take a lot of time, until the locals are convinced of their future actions. The American counterparts are advised to always remain calm, or they will lose "face" and irremediably damage the relationship. The foreigners…
Feenstra, R.C., Hanson, G.H., (2003). Ownership and control in outsourcing to China: estimating the property-rights theory of the firm. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hira, R., Hira, a. (2008), Outsourcing America: the true cost of shipping jobs overseas and what can be done about it. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
(2011). World report 2012: China. Human Rights Report. http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2012/world-report-2012-china accessed on September 25, 2012
(2012). The world factbook -- China. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html accessed on September 25, 2012
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
police elements that respond to a crisis incident as well as an analysis concerning the emphasis that is placed on the negotiating and tactical team, and the necessity of the two groups to communicate and work together and the various positions that make up the negotiating team. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the paper's conclusion.
Law enforcement authorities have used various negotiation strategies in their response crisis incidents ever since these methods were originally used in 1973 by the New City Police Department (Vecchi, Hassel & omano, 2005). The composition of negotiation teams varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but the National Council of Negotiation Associations (NCNA) recommends at least three trained negotiators for responding to any type of crisis incident. According to the NCNA, "More complex or difficult incidents may require additional trained negotiators working in shifts and filling a variety…
Mijares, T.C., McCarthy, R.M., & Perkins, D.B. (2000). The management of police specialized tactical units. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Recommended negotiation guidelines and policies. (2014). National Council of Negotiation
Associations. Retrieved from http://www.ncna.us .
Vecchi, G.M., Hassel, V.B. & Romano, S.J. (2005). Crisis (hostage) negotiation: current strategies and issues in high-risk conflict resolution. Aggression and Violent Behavior,
9). Moreover, the two parties know if they do not initially reach a deal, the same person will be arbitrator and force a decision upon them -- hence there is incentive for the parties to reach an accord prior to the dispute going into arbitration.
Meanwhile, the Arb-Med hybrid process begins with arbitration; when the arbitrator reaches a decision, he or she places the award in a "sealed envelope" (Cooley, et al., 2003, p. 7.13). Then, the parties, prior to looking at the sealed envelope, can negotiate their own solution using the arbitrator as mediator. If parties don't reach an agreement, they then open the sealed envelope and see what fate awaits them based on the arbitrator's decision (Cooley, p. 7.13).
There are a number of fair and sensible solutions to disputes such as the Greens and ilsons are involved with, and it behooves neighbors -- and others that…
American Bar Association. (2006). What You Need to Know about Dispute Resolution: The
Guide to Dispute Resolution Processes. Retrieved May 6, 2011, from http://www.abanet.org/dispute .
Carrell, Michael R, and Heavrin, Christina. (2008). Negotiating Essentials: Theory, Skills, and Practices. New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Cooley, John W., and Lubet, Steven. (2003). Arbitration Advocacy. Boulder, CO: National
Brown, and commit that "best efforts" will be exerted to ensure that his request will be addressed and resolved (whether this would be a positive or negative outcome). These tactics would help me establish my objective, which is to ensure the success of the agreement while ensuring also that Gov. Brown does not feel that his concerns were not addressed and there was not even an attempt to help him resolve the matter.
The agreement template has helped me evaluate the flow of the negotiation process that happened in this particular case. Taking into account the structure and elements of the agreement template, I was able to identify that the negotiations in this case lacked the 'renegotiation' component, which takes into account the possibility of another negotiation during or after agreement has been reached. Through the agreement template, I was able to determine this weakness and consequently, develop the tactics…
Insomuch, Angela felt that she was being penalized because she worked from home. Although alph tried to explain that this was not the case, he was unsuccessful in conveying the real issue of missing a deadline. Consequently, the focus shifted to more of a personal nature because Angela felt unappreciated so they decided to reconvene to another meeting two weeks later.
Unfortunately, the meeting started with some hostility from Angela. She was very cold and nonresponsive to alph's questions regarding her well-being. Because Angela did not feel positive about the last exchange, she missed another meeting, plus she failed to submit a report. Her actions are labeled as passive aggressive because her lack of apathy has now transferred into a performance issue. With her constant interruptions and frustrations, Angela refuses to communicate and wants to resign. Clearly, conflict is an issue in which resolution is needed in the form of…
Communication for Organizations. (2010). Communication process: The basics. Retrieved from http://communicationprocess.net/
Jehn, K.A., Greer, L., Levine, S., & Szulanski, G. (2008). The Effects of conflict types, dimensions, and emergent states on group outcomes. Group Decision & Negotiation, 17(6), 465-495. doi:10.1007/s10726-008-9107-0
Mind Tools. (2012). Active listening: Hear what people are really saying. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm
Mind Tools. (2012). Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm
Discovering the answer to "What do Managers Do?" was deceptively difficult. In the process of interviewing the four subjects for this assignment, I found more questions being raised about the nature of managerial duties. Part of the reason for this complexity is the wide range of managerial positions available in the corporate world today. From public relations to sales managers to personnel managers, each performs his or her own functions and acts out certain roles in the company. However, even though these different types of managers perform different roles and serve different functions, there are several overarching qualities that characterize what managers actually do during the course of their careers. Most managers act as leaders; the organize groups of people and delegate authority. Some managers work more with tasks than with people, but regardless of the specific managerial position, all managers rely on a good set of people…
A Few Days in the Sun
We are all familiar with the process of negotiation: We have each been engaging in negotiations since we were young children asking to stay up just five more minutes before going to bed. However, despite the fact that by the time that we are adults we have each engaged in probably thousands of negotiations, few people have ever stopped to analyze exactly what goes on in a negotiation. This paper examines the steps of a negotiation that I myself was involved in. This negotiation centered on a vacation that I was trying to arrange with a small group of friends. The following analysis lays out the steps that are followed in a negotiation regardless of whether the topic is intrinsically inconsequential or momentarily serious.
Goals and Aspirations
The overall goal of this negotiation was to plan for a vacation for five friends that…