Nervous System Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Tissue Maturation Body System Effects

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40406059

e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm

Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm

Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.

Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
View Full Essay

Analgesic Systems Roles of Stress

Words: 1726 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99036369

Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.

Conclusion

Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Islam, Anita K., Madeline L. Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.
View Full Essay

Performance Reward System An Organization Can Achieve a

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 347755

Performance/Reward System:

An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sims, R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Quorum Books. Westport, CT.

Kreiner, J. (2000). Examining the human Body. The Washington Times. March 18.

Prasad, S., Tata, J., & Thorn, R. (1999). The Influence of Organizational Structure on the Effectiveness of TQM Programs. Journal of Managerial Issue. Vol. 11.
View Full Essay

Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Systems Integrated

Words: 2173 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56960433

Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]

References:

Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011,  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html 

Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041

Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011,  http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm 

Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
View Full Essay

Human Circulatory System and Oyster

Words: 1722 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65511169

"An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.

Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.

Jodrey, Louise, and Karl ilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.

Ruppert, E.E., and Karen Carle. "Morphology of metazoan circulatory systems." Zoomorphology 103.3 (1983): 193-208. SpringerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.

Southgate, Paul C., and John S. Lucas. The pearl oyster . Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2008. Print.

"The onders of the Seas: Mollusks." Oceanic Research Group. N.p., n.d. eb. 15 Nov. 2010. .

eight, Ryan, John Viator, Charles Caldwell, and Allison Lisle. "Photoacoustic detection of metastatic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnaudin, Mary, and Joel Mintzes. "Students' alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross-age study." Science Education 69.5 (2006): 721-733. Wiley Online Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

De Pater, L, and JW Van Den Burg. "An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.

Jodrey, Louise, and Karl Wilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
View Full Essay

Expert Systems and Neural Networks

Words: 5427 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89110827

Expert Systems and Neural Networks

The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks

The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972) showed that much human problem solving could be expressed in terms of such "if-then" types of production rules. This discovery helped to launch the field of intelligent computer systems (Coovert & Doorsey 2003). Since that time, a number of expert and other intelligent systems have been used to model, capture, and support human decision making in an increasingly diverse range of disciplines; however, traditional rule-based systems are limited by several fundamental constraints, including the fact that human experts…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bainbridge, William Sims, Edward E. Brent, Kathleen M. Carley et al. (1994). Artificial Social

Intelligence. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 407.

Berry, Frances Stokes, William D. Berry and Stephen K. Foster. (1998). The Determinants of Success in Implementing an Expert System in State Government. Public Administration

Review, 58(4):293.
View Full Essay

What Information System Holds in Accounting Industry's Future

Words: 7679 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50658433

Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future?

Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the trends in any business or profession may change and so the path of development. It is better to look at the experience of some companies whose systems have changed over the past few years and thus try to estimate what is likely to happen.

There are many changes that have come to the world through the development of Information Technology and Computers. All the changes have come over a relatively short period of twenty years, and in many cases both industry and concerned humans are yet to adjust to the changes. There are many changes which have come in the accounting industry also, and those changes give an idea of what is likely to happen in the future.

The organization where…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Anders, Susan B. (February, 2005) "Website of the Month: Legalbitstream" The CPA Journal.

Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/205/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005

Anders, Susan B. (July, 2005) "Website of the Month: Kaplan CPA Review" The CPA Journal.

Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/705/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005
View Full Essay

Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems Static and

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88782789

Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems

Static and Dynamic Equilibrium

Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium

There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.

The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…… [Read More]

References

Hain, T. And Helminski, J. (2001). Anatomy and physiology of the normal vestibular system. In S. Herdman (Ed.) Vestibular Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition (pp. 2-18). Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.

Lledo, Peirre-Marie, Gheusi, Gilles, and Vincent, Jean-Didier. (2005). Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiological Reviews, 85, 281-317.

Virtual Medical Centre. (2010). Ear. VirtualMedicalCentre.com. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2011 from http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/ear/29
View Full Essay

Renin-Angiotensin System and Control of Blood Pressure

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89147192

Endocrine control of BP

Hormonal Control of Osmotic pressure: Stimulation

Arterial blood pressure (BP) is under tight control by the mammalian nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidneys, and endocrine system (Vivas et al., 2014). The VII, IX, and X cranial nerves conduct peripheral taste, osmo-sodium, volume, and baroreceptor information to the solitary tract, while the distinct bundles of neurons in the lamina terminalis respond to changes in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid sodium levels, osmolality, and angiotensin II levels. The information thus received is transmitted to the median preoptic, supraoptic, paraventricular, lateral parabrachial, and dorsal raphe nucleus for integration. The neurotransmitter systems involved include angiotensin, vasopressin, oxytocin, and serotonin.

The overall response to reductions in BP and electrolyte content of bodily fluids is to trigger the sympathetic nervous system, endocrine system, and appropriate behavior to correct the deficiency (Vivas et al., 2014). The most important arm of BP control is the…… [Read More]

References

Chopra, S., Baby, C., & Jacob, J.J. (2011). Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Suppl. 4, S281-8.

Duka, A., Duka, I., Gao, G., Shenouda, S., Gavras, I., & Gavras, H. (2006). Role of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in normal blood pressure regulation. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 291(2), E268-74.

Farrao, F.M., Lara, L.S., & Lowe, J. (2014). Renin-angiotensin system in the kidney: What is new? World Journal of Nephrology, 3(3), 64-76.

Vivas, L., Godino, A., Dalmasso, C., Caeiro, X.E., Macchione, AF., & Cambiasso, M.J. (2014). Chapter 9: Neurochemical circuits subserving fluid balance and baroreflex: A role for serotonin, oxytonin, and gonadal steroids. In L.A. De Luca Jr., J.V. Menani, & A.K. Johnson (Eds.), Neurobiology of body fluid homeostasis: Transduction and integration (pp. 141-166). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
View Full Essay

Burned on Stove Biology Scenario

Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82618830

Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…… [Read More]

Bibliography

DeSanti, Leslie (2005) Pathophysiology and Current Management of Burn Injury Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Volume 18(6), July/August 2005, pp 323-332

Hancock, Elise (1995) The Handy Guide to Touch - April 1995. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/495web/touch.html.

Kane, Daniel (2004) Feb 19 How Your Brain Handles Love and Pain MSNBC Online available at http://www.sciam.com/search/index.cfm?QT=Q&SCC=Q&Q=burns%3A+skin+receptors.

Britt, Robert Roy (2006) The Pain Truth: How and Why We Hurt - Health Sci-Tech 31 January 2006 Live Science Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=signals+to+brain+from+burn&page=4&nt=SG1_S I0&userid=-7493026336042476887&invocationType=topsearchbox.search&c lickstreamid=-7493026336042476889
View Full Essay

Immune Biopsychology Interactions of the

Words: 4188 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47766172



An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.

The…… [Read More]

References

Buske-Kirschbaum, a. (2009). "Cortisol Responses to Stress in Allergic Children: Interaction with the Immune Response." Neuroimmunomodulation 16, pp. 325-32.

Coe, C. & Laudenslager, M. (2007). "Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence." Brain, behavior, and immunity 21(8), pp. 1000-8.

Dugdale, D. (2008). "Immune response -- overview." University of Maryland medical center. Accessed 22 May 2010. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000821.htm

Dunigan, J.; Carr, B. & Steel, J. (2007). "Posttraumatic Growth, Immunity and Survival in Patients with Hepatoma." Digestive diseases and sciences 52(9), pp. 2452-9.
View Full Essay

Psychoacoustics on the Music Production

Words: 1043 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12157431

The human brain analyzes these patterns and learning occurs. The inner ear is a receptor that transmits messages to the brain about the location of sound and does so through the use of the following:

(1) pitch;

(2) loudness;

(3) timbre;

(4) spatial localization; and (5) Duration. (Lecture 2, p.4)

The shape of the inner ear in addition to any sounds that mask the tones being processed by the ear for instance in how white noise masks a 2 kHz tone. (Lecture 4, p.18) in addition, psychoacoustics measures the head and spatial localization or the head in relation to the surrounding in which the tones or sound is heard in relation to the position of the head. The cues for location of pure tones are reported as:

(1) Interaural time differences (it'd); and (2) Interaural level differences (ILD). (Lecture 10, p.2)

ILD result from sound bending around an object known…… [Read More]

References

Lecture Series (2013) Psychoacoustics.

Leeds, J. (2013) the Power of Sound. Retrieved from:  http://thepowerofsound.net/psychoacoustics-defined/ 

Taylor and Francis (2009) Acoustics and Psychoacoustics. U.S. 2009. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=qgsst2OQYJEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
View Full Essay

Rsd Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy AKA CRPS or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome CRPS

Words: 4914 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18797249

History of RSD

The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.

Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.

Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.

Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.
View Full Essay

Psychological and Physiological Effects of Exercise on the Mind and the Body

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97000787

Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)

Sometimes people feel…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm

Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003

Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995

Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
View Full Essay

Psychology Applied

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50942775

Psychology

The nervous system is a part of an animal's body which is responsible for the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions as well as the transmission of signals between different parts of the body. It is responsible for sending, receiving and the processing of nerve impulses all over the body. All the organs and muscles within the body rely upon the nerve impulses in order for them to function. The nervous system receives information from sense organs regarding the environment by means such as hearing, sight, smell, pressure, taste and pain. The nervous system consists of tow main parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the bone-skull and the vertebrae. The peripheral nervous system comprises of numerous neurons which are its functional units. The central nervous system is responsible for…… [Read More]

References

Farr, G. (2002). The Nervous System - Advanced Version / What is the Nervous System?. Become healthy now. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://www.becomehealthynow.com/article/bodynervousadvanced/826

Powell, K. (2014). Nature vs. Nurture . about parenting. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://genealogy.about.com/cs/geneticgenealogy/a/nature_nurture.htm
View Full Essay

FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Was

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70009229

1968).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.

eferences

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…… [Read More]

References

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.

CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR Morbid Mortal Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 1-15.
View Full Essay

Reshaping the Sensory Environment Sensory Accuracy Survival

Words: 1297 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91865122

eshaping the Sensory Environment

Sensory Accuracy

Survival of all animals depends on the accuracy with which sensory information is processed by the nervous system. Integrating this information in an efficient and effective manner depends on dynamic strategies that the nervous system relies on to determine the reliability and accuracy of the sensory inputs (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). This essay examines contemporary theories that attempt to explain how these strategies function.

eliability-Based Cue Combination (BCC) Theory

The reliability of a sensory cue is believed to determine the weight an organism assigns to a given cue, such that a more reliable cue may have a greater influence on behavioral outcomes (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). Empirical support for this theory has come from studies examining the integration of multisensory information. This theory has been called reliability-based cue combination (BCC).

eliability, as defined by BCC, is used interchangeably…… [Read More]

References

Bestmann, S., Oliviero, A., Voss, M., Dechent, P., Lopez-Dolado, E., Driver, J. et al. (2006). Cortical correlates of TMS-induced phantom hand movements revealed with concurrent TMS-fMRI. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2959-2971.

Burge, Johannes, Girshick, Ahna R., and Banks, Martin S. (2010). Visual-haptic adaptation is determined by relative reliability. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 7714-7721.

Scarfe, Peter and Hibbard, Paul B. (2011). Statistically optimal integration of biased sensory estimates. Journal of Vision, 11, 1-17. Retrieved 13 Apr. 2012 from www.journalofvision.org/content/11/7/12.

Winter, J.A., Allen, T.J., and Proske, U. (2005). Muscle spindle signals combine with the sense of effort to indicate limb position. Journal of Physiology, 568, 1035-1046.
View Full Essay

Functional Relationship of the Pns to the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75492490

functional relationship of the PNS to the CNS?

The CNS effectively "controls" the PNS, and the PNS' main function is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs. The PNS transmits nerve impulses produced by the CNS.

List the structural components of the PNS, and briefly describe the function of each component.

The structural components of the PNS are sensory receptors, which receive external stimuli; motor endings, which act to innervate muscle fibers and glands; and nerves and ganglia, which act as pathways for impulses to travel through the PNS.

How many different types of sensory receptors does the nervous system express and briefly, what kind of stimulus does each class respond to?

According to which way you might go about classifying, there are either five different types of sensory receptors or three different types of receptors. The group of five looks like this: 1) mechanoreceptors -- receptors that…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Autonomy Abuse and the Hippocampus

Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67428134

Current brain imaging surveys and other experiments also present evidence that child abuse could permanently damage neural structure and the functioning of the developing brain itself (Carloff).

Cohen (2001) discusses the merits of art therapy with its innate therapeutic qualities, which simultaneously activate the nervous system, the brain, the endocrine and the immune system in a uniquely particular way to support effective clinical management. Psycho-neuroendoimmunology connects an unregulated stress response to health, with stress as the underlying neurological dynamics of psychological and behavioral symptoms. Stress triggers an adaptive sympathetic nervous system response aimed at maintaining an optional state of functioning. This nervous system regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response to stress, which in turn provides the energy for survival and temporarily sharpens memory and brain function. Nature intends the use of this sympathetic adaptive response for survival, but the external reality is that our daily lives or urban environment…… [Read More]

References

1. Al-Kurdi, H. (2006). Messing with Our Minds. Dirty Tricks, Inc. VOXNYC.  http://www.voxfux.com/features/mind_control_child_abuse_cover_up.html 

2. Bower, B. (1996). Small Hippocampus Linked to Higher Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Science News: Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n20_v149/ai_18319734

3. Brick, N.D. (2005). How Childhood Sexual Abuse Affects Interpersonal Relations. Smart News. http://members.aol.com/smartnews/howchildhoodsa.htm

4. Carloff, A. (2002). Child Abuse and Damage. Punkerslut.  http://www.punkerslut.com/articles/childabuse.html
View Full Essay

Neurotransmitters Are Chemicals Endogenously Produced in the

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94018370

Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).

Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…… [Read More]

References

Jankovic, J. (2008). Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:368 -- 376.

Neve, A.K. (2009). The Dopamine Receptors, The Receptors. Edition 2. Springer.

Webster, R. (2001). Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. John Wiley and Sons.
View Full Essay

Biological Psychology

Words: 2139 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36635259

Behavioral Psychology

The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)

Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.

Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1967.21.1.33

Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf

Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
View Full Essay

Market Driven Management

Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32150042

Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
View Full Essay

Neurobiology Resting Potential if the

Words: 1384 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33236257

When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.

8)

Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.

9)…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Neuroborreliosis Borrelia Burgdorferi or Bb

Words: 2247 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57244825



Treatment

The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.

A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.

Greater Recovery Among Children

Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.

The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23

(April).Available from  http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm 

-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available

from  http://www.mentalhealthandillness.com/tnaold.html
View Full Essay

Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901

Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]

References

He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.

Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.

Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
View Full Essay

Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
View Full Essay

Memory Search and Amnesia Memorysearch the Concept

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69308569

Memory Search and Amnesia

MemorySearch

The concept of the central nervous system suggests that the brain and nervous system is an immutable object within the body that once developed, cannot change. However recent discoveries within the field of neuroplasticity have shown that the brain is indeed mutable and changing. Even following injury the brain has the ability to create modified functional structures and to create new synapses and electrical connections. The purpose of this paper is to explore the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuroplastic phenomena in the brain and to relate them to memory, learning and function throughout the body.

Historically neuroscientists and biologists believed the brain was a rather immutable structure that once developed, could no longer change much. The brain could retain information, memorize and learn, but past childhood the brain did not have the ability to form map new synapsis and electrical connections. Thanks to the discovery…… [Read More]

References:

Bergado-Rosado, JA, Almaquer-Melian, W. (2000 Dec). Cellular mechanisms of neuroplasticity.

Rev Neurol. 1-15:31(11): 1074-95.

Chakraborty, R., Chatterjee, A., Choudhary, S. & Chakraborty, PK. 2007 Sept. Neuroplasticity a paradigm shift in neurosciences. Journal Indian Medical Association. 105(9): 513-4, 520-1.

Rossi, E.L. (2003). Gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing: Psychosocial genomics of therapeutic hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis.
View Full Essay

Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
View Full Essay

Michael Lauren Who Is Struggling With Drug

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82482908

Michael Lauren who is struggling with drug problem. Michele Lauren is twenty-one-year-old girl, single and a resident of New York City. Michele lives with her parents and is addicted to marijuana. She was arrested on various circumstances, each time for the violation of Health & Safety Code 11357 (Samaha, 2007) that is the possession of large quantity of drugs and was locked up behind the bars on trials during the years 2002 to 2008.

Lately, she had been arrested three times in a month for the violation of such law. Michele had also encountered the problem of alcohol along with her problem of smoking pot and marijuana, but she has not been arrested for excess drinking and violation of Health and Safety laws related to alcohol. She had not been arrested for any other related crimes, as she normally filched her mother's purse for money whenever needed.

a) Casual drinks…… [Read More]

References

Samaha, J. (2007). Criminal Procedure, Seventh Edition, Cengage Learning, USA.
View Full Essay

Introductory College Psychology

Words: 3620 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88161373

psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.

To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.

Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Teenager's Brain

Words: 2246 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4404191

Teenager's Brain

A Teenagers Brain

The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)

Brain Development

Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…… [Read More]

References

Edmonds, M. (2010) Are Teenage Brains Really Different From Adult Brains? Discovery Health. Brain and Central Nervous System. Retrieved from: http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/teenage-brain2.htm

Adolescent Brain Development (2002) ACT for Youth -- Upstate Center of Excellence. Cornell University, University of Rochester and the NYS Center for School Safety. May 2002. Research Facts and Findings. Retrieved from: http://www.actforyouth.net/documents/may02factsheetadolbraindev.pdf

Sohn, Emily (2005) Teen Brains, Under Construction. Science News. 28 Sept 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050928/Feature1.asp

Winters, KC and McLellan, AT (2008) Adolescent Brain Development and Drug Abuse. Jan 2008. TRI Science Addiction (Treatment Research Institute) Philadelphia PA Retrieved from: http://www.tresearch.org/archives/2008Jan_TeenBrain.pdf
View Full Essay

Endocrinology Amazing Hormones Counterbalance of Sugar and

Words: 2340 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87661716

Endocrinology

AMAZING HORMONES

Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon

Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).

Insulin and Glucagon

The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013

from http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/B1108/B1108_2002_Groups/pancstems/stemcell/insulin_glucagon.htm

Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.

Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from  http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
View Full Essay

Psychology Throughout Its History Psychology Has Undergone

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9514623

Psychology

Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.

In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]

References

The Journal of Evolutionary Psychology (2006). Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved from:  http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/psychology.html 

Oracle ThinkQuest. (2011) History of Psychology. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyp1

Rossman, J. (2007, Dec 3). Biological Psychology: Foundations of Biopsychology. Associated Content. Retrieved from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/428842/biological_psychology_foundations_of.html
View Full Essay

Galectin-1 in the Regulation of

Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10094274



The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)

Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)

All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
View Full Essay

Ch 5 Biologists Can Develop Antibodies

Words: 2082 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79577433

Ecologically, human hearing was needed to communicate better in order to survive; higher ranges of hearing have no real genetic advantage because it does not help humans to find food, shelter, or to communicate with one another. In addition, being able to localize sounds (friend or foe) would be essential and usually those sounds occur under 20,000 Hz (rustling of leaves, breaking of branches, etc.) (pp. 193-4).

2. The text explains how we might distinguish loudness for low-frequency sounds. How might we distinguish loudness for a high-frequency tone?

Loudness is a sensation that is related to amplitude (strength of frequency). We distinguish loudness based on many factors; speed of the sound, quality of the sound, etc. The higher the amplitude, the louder something appears -- and in higher frequency tones, the amplitude is faster and the peaks more robust, so the sound appears to be much louder than the identical…… [Read More]

Source:

Kalat, J. (2010). Biological Psychology, 11th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cenage

Sage Publications. Retrieved from: http://dualibra.com/wp-content / uploads/2012/12/BiologPsych.pdf
View Full Essay

Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse a Psychoactive

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395000

Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse

A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).

Social Effects

The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…… [Read More]

References

Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com:  http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/ 

Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.

Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
View Full Essay

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next

Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10464176

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New

York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
View Full Essay

Sensation and Perception

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40481042

Sensation and Perception

hat experiment was impressive in researching music & speech perception vis-a-vis the vestibular system?

There are eye-movement tests that are proven to be able to detect signs of dysfunction within the vestibular system. hen the head moves that stimulates the inner ear which then sends signals to the eyes through the nervous system; this is referred to as the "vestibule-ocular reflex" (VOR). hen the head moves but the eye doesn't respond with clear vision the researcher knows there is a problem within the vestibule area of the ear.

Also there are "rotation tests" -- which I found the most interesting and seemingly the simplest to conduct -- that help to critically evaluate how well the eye and the ear (inner ear) are in sync. hen the head is moving at speeds that slow and speed up at intervals, and the individual being tested is wearing the sticky-patch…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldsborough, Reid. (2012). Texting as Social Regress. Teacher Librarian, 39(5), p. 73.

Lindley, David. (2008). Teens Who Text. Communications of the ACM. 51(11), p. 19.

Turkle, Sherry. (2011). Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. Jackson, TN: Basic Books.
View Full Essay

Neuromuscular Issues and Parkinson's Disease

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94261949

Anatomy: Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a central nervous system disease that is degenerative. It disrupts normal functioning at the cellular level by reducing the activity of cells that secret dopamine (Davie, 109). That happens through the death of cells, as well, in a couple of different regions of the brain. The two regions most affected are both related to movement and learning. They also affect how a person reacts to something, and whether he or she feels like a particular behavior was rewarding. The pathways that connect the basal ganglia of the brain to other areas are all affected in people who have Parkinson's disease (Shulman, De Jager, & Feany, 196). The symptoms are based on the ways in which those pathways are disrupted by the disease process and the death of the cells. As these cells die, they are not able to stop the body's systems from activating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davie, C.A. "A review of Parkinson's disease." British Medical Bulletin, 86(1): 109 -- 127. 2008. Print.

Shulman, J.M., De Jager, P.L., & Feany, M.B. "Parkinson's disease: Genetics and pathogenesis." Annual review of pathology, 6: 193 -- 222. 2011. Print.
View Full Essay

Paxil Boon or Bane History

Words: 1510 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62478297

Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).

ibliography

Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carey, B. And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise young adult suicide risk. 2 pages. The New York Times: The New York Times Company

GlaxoSmithKline (2007). How Paxil Works. Your Life is Waiting. 1 web page. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.paxilcr.com/how_paxilcr_works/how_paxilcr_works.html

Paxil Prescribing Information. 42 pages.

Healthfacts (2002). Paxil risky for kids - warning issued. 2 pages. Center for Medical Consumer, Inc.: Gale Group
View Full Essay

Genetics Technology

Words: 2679 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77976389

Genetics Technology

WHERE THE UCK STOPS

Interdisciplinary Team

This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical

Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf

Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107

# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
View Full Essay

Psychopathy Diagnosis and Implications for Treatment

Words: 1393 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35269799

Psychopathy: diagnosis and implications for treatment

Medical research has advanced to such an extent as to allow diseases that would have in the past been considered without a medical cure to be nowadays a limited challenge in the face of new technologies, techniques, and methods of treatment. Unfortunately some of the most difficult to cure diseases are those related to the nervous system and of physiological nature. One such case is psychopathy, a complex of states of mind and attitudes that transform the individual in particular degrees of sanity or insanity.

There have been numerous articles and research project conducted on this subject both to try to determine the nature of psychopathy as well as to provide different types of solutions for curing its manifestations and finding out the root causes of psychopathy. One such study is the one concluded by Mairead Dolan and Michael Doyle from the University of…… [Read More]

Reference

Dolan, M. And Michael Doyle. (2007) "Psychopathy: diagnosis and implications for treatment" in Psychiatry, volume 6, Issue 10, Oct.
View Full Essay

Biology of the Mind The

Words: 1285 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34730696

This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).

This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.

The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Harriet. "For Some, Psychiatric Trouble May Start in the Thyroid." The New York

Times. N.p. 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

Rieser, Marianne and Stephen Kemp. "Anatomy of the Endocrine System." Emedicine Health.

1-11. 7 Dec. 2011. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.
View Full Essay

Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33544989

Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts

The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.

Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.

Modulation of Physiology

The modulation of physiology is similar to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Randi, James (2001) My Heroes, The Pale Blue Dot, Houdini's Last Stunt. SWIFT. Online Newsletter of the JREP. 28 Dec 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.randi.org/jr/122801.html

Shermer, Michael (2001) Houdini's Skeptical Advice: Just Because Something's Unexplained Doesn't Mean It's Supernatural. Scientific American. 4 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=houdinis-skeptical-advice

Seabourne, Tom Dr. (nd) Breathing and Heart Rate Control. Universal Nutrition. Retrieved from:  http://www.universalnutrition.com/features/breathingheartrate.html
View Full Essay

What Happens When I Get Burned

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8974263

Burned

There are specialized cells called receptors that receive information about the environment and changes in that environment. Each kind of receptor reacts to a different kind of stimulus. For example, the receptors on the retina in the eye detect light. Receptors are all connected to nerve cells, and the nerve cells carry information from the receptor to the brain, where the signal is processed. The brain makes the decision about what to do with the information, such as move a part of the body to cause a reaction based on the information the receptors sent. However, in the case of an emergency situation, this normal interpretation process takes too long even though it is extremely fast, and instead another emergency plan is followed by the nervous system. When burned the body will experience a reflex reaction.

The skin has receptors that detect both pressure and temperature. In the case…… [Read More]