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In order to achieve its function, the nervous system is divided into two major parts i.e. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The central nervous system is basically made up of the brain and spinal cord and has the main function of receiving information from the body and sending out instructions. While the brain is protected by the skull, the spinal cord is guarded by the vertebral column. On the contrary, the basic structure of the peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and sensory receptors ("Nervous System," 2001). The system is responsible for sending messages from the brain to other parts of the body. PNS is divided into the afferent and efferent divisions with the afferent division consists of distinctively structured sensory receptor for transmitting information to the CNS about the body's internal environment ("Peripheral Nervous System," 2010). The efferent division…… [Read More]
Nervous System Lymphoma
page literature review "Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
The primary central nervous system lymphoma
The primary central nervous system lymphoma is a cancer type that is very rare, and affects the central nervous system i.e. spinal cord, brain, brain coverings, optic nerves, or the eyes. The cancer being referred to as a lymphoma indicates that its cells are lymphocytes which are a white blood cell type. Primary central nervous system lymphoma has no specific age group, but in most of the diagnosed cases, it is found in patients who are above 50 years. Immunosuppressed patients i.e. patients whose immune system has been reduced, like people living with AIDS or patients after organ transplant who are taking specific drugs, all seem to be more at risk of contracting this cancer Weinberg et al., 2005.
There is poor prognosis for immunocompromised patients.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma represents about…… [Read More]
The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system carries out the motor commands that are sent from the central nervous system. These commands or signals are then sent directly through the nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system to the target organs where they will then be signaled to perform the desired action (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 380).
The peripheral nervous system can be further broken down as being a part of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). The efferent division works in both of these systems as they are only possible through the motor commands sent from the central nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movement. The signals innervate skeletal muscles that a person can consciously control (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 376). A reflex is also controlled by the peripheral nervous system and the somatic nervous system. When an…… [Read More]
hat happens is this over production of neurons results in a kind or "pre-programmed 'suicide' mechanism called apoptosis" (Marino, 2010). So if the brain kills off these neurons on purpose, what happens to the dead neurons? Journalist Melissa Marino asserts that the body must dispose of the dead neurons or else the body's immune system is in trouble.
Interestingly, Dr. Bruce Carter (a biochemistry professor) of Vanderbilt has discovered the brain's "clean-up crew" and the protein that is important to that clean-up crew (disposing the dead neurons) is called "jedi-1" (not to be confused with the science fiction movie "Star ars"). If jedi-1 is not doing its job, the body may suffer from "autoimmune conditions." So there are many interesting things going on with our central nervous system that most people aren't aware of, but are important for good physical and psychological health.
Childhood Survivors of Central Nervous System Cancer…… [Read More]
The major structures of basal ganglia are pallidum, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and striatum. They are inappropriately named because the name striatum refers to all major components of basal ganglia. However it was used to refer to only one of the structures. The general function of basal ganglia is to take part in learning and motor control.
Is called motor cortex, receives its primary input from the ganglia structures
The right and left hemispheres of the brain communicate along inferior fronto occipital fasciculus tract and longitudinal fasciculus tract.
The major brain regions include the diencephalon, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. These major regions of the brain control each and everything in human body, ranging from blinking and breathing to assisting an individual in memorizing concepts and facts.
The cells which produce CSF are called ependymal cells and they are located in the choroids plexus. The function…… [Read More]
The human central nervous system is a miraculously designed functional piece of our bodies that helps us conduct the most essential tasks to help in our survival. It is therefore very important to investigate and understand how this system functions and operates. In this investigation it is also useful to understand how disease and malfunction of this system are affected. The purpose of this essay is to describe the normal and functional anatomical qualities of the human nervous system. To do this, the effects of Parkinson's disease, a disorder of the nervous system, will be analyzed to help contextualize the health of a well regulated nervous system against one that is not working properly.
Components of a Healthy Nervous System
The central nervous system is the command and control center for the nervous system. This physiological component receives information from and sends information to the peripheral nervous system.…… [Read More]
human Central Nervous System plays a large role in governing personality. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The good deal of our knowledge about how the brain influences personality comes from early studies of how brain damage impacts personality. The case of Phineas Gage demonstrates that link between the left temporal lobe and personality characteristics like working for a delayed the word, aggression, and emotional expression. Techniques like positron emission topography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) have also allowed us in insight into the link between the CNS and personality, as high as the study of personality changes in Alzheimer's disease.
The central nervous system (CNS) in humans is made up of the brain and spinal cord. In contrast, the peripheral nervous system includes the peripheral nerves. In the CNS, the spinal cord conducts sensory information from the peripheral nervous system…… [Read More]
The nervous system is composed of an interlocked system of neurons. The neurons conduct impulses to and from the periphery. They also interconnect with each other to deliver impulses to the various parts of the brain. Neurons generate and conduct electrical impulses by selectively changing the electrical gradient of their membrane and releasing neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters may be inhibitory or excitatory. Through time, as new skills are adapted or new information is learned, new circuits are formed. With the repetition of learned information, the new circuits undergo myelination. This enables the neurons to conduct impulses faster. The ability of the nervous system to make or break new circuits is responsible for functions of the mind. (McCance & Huether, 2010)
Visual problems can be either congenital or acquired. The most common visual disorders are errors of refraction, strabismus, cataract and retinopathies. Patients with errors of refraction can either be hypermetropic,…… [Read More]
The central nervous system is one of the two parts of the nervous system, which also comprises the peripheral nervous system. These two systems have different roles, functions, and location in the body, which contributes to their significant differences. The central nervous system incorporates brain nerves and spinal cord whereas all the other nerves in the human body are part of the peripheral nervous system. Since it contains brain nerves and spinal cord, the central nervous system is safely guarded in the spine's vertebral canal and the skull. Consequently, the central nervous system is one of the most important parts of the human body that is crucial to the normal functioning of an individual. Actually, the central nervous system controls most of the functions in a person's body and mind since it's made of the brain and the spinal cord ("hat is the Central Nervous System?" par, 1).…… [Read More]
Lead as a Toxicant to an Organ or Organ System
Lead is basically a naturally occurring toxic metal whose increased use in the recent past has contributed to widespread environmental contamination and human exposure. The naturally occurring toxic metal contributes to huge public health problems across the globe because of increased human exposure. The effects or toxicity of lead on an organ or organ system has contributed to extensive research as part of measures to develop ways of preventing these effects and minimizing human exposure to lead. One of the researches that have been carried out in the past decade includes a study by a group of researchers on the cellular impact of lead poisoning and its medical picture. Brochin et. al. (2008) carried out the study to examine the effects of lead intoxication on the nervous system, where the toxic metal has considerable detrimental effects as compared to other…… [Read More]
Autonomic nervous system function and depth of sedation in adults receiving mechanical ventilation.
The authors of the article were attempting to discover how the autonomic nervous system affected the depth of sedation which occurred when a patient was placed on mechanical ventilation. The reason for this concern was that patients have been known to have adverse effects due to changes in the autonomic functions during critical illness. The stated thesis of the article is to understand autonomic responses better.
This study was part of a larger study which monitored patients for a 24-hour period "in the medical respiratory and coronary care ICUs at Virginia Commonwealth University." The study chose patients who were not compromised by receiving neuromuscular blocking agents and had no scalp lacerations or skull abnormalities. The patients had to be more than 18 years old at the time of the trial. Patients heart rate variability and sedative state…… [Read More]
Toxins are poisonous substances that can cause harm to human beings via one or more of its physiological systems. For example, DDT is a toxin used to kill insects but which also affects the human endocrine system. Tetrodotoxin is a toxin found in the venom of animals like frogs and pufferfish, but if it enters the human nervous system can cause paralysis or death. Mercury is a naturally-occurring element like tetrodotoxin, but exposure to the cardiovascular system in human beings can cause hypertension and even worse health effects. Although each of these toxins operates differently in the body, their consequences can be grave.
Whereas DDT is a synthetic chemical compound first developed in the late 19th century, both tetrodotoxin and mercury are naturally-occurring substances. Tetrodotoxin is manufactured in the bodies of venomous animals like pufferfish and certain types of poisonous frogs and stored in their livers or sex organs. Mercury,…… [Read More]
sensory cells in the human body and delves into the transmission of sensory information from various parts of the body to the central nervous system. This paper uses bona fide scholarly publications as sources for the materials presented.
hen humans respond to various stimuli (cold, pain, heat, light, sound or touch) it is because sensory receptors have transmitted the body's response to those stimuli to the central nervous system. Sensory receptors are specialized cells that are working for humans by detecting environmental stimuli and first passing those stimuli notices to "sensory neurons," and those neurons, in turn, send the messages (information) to the brain (Central nervous system / CNS) (Darpan, 2006). So, to make it easier to picture how this works, it could be said that the sensory receptors are basically "portals through which nervous systems experience the world" (Darpan).
Types of Sensory Receptors
The "mechanoreceptors" receive stimulation…… [Read More]
Lead and the Central Nervous System
Lead is a highly toxic substance that particularly affects the central nervous system of all people of all ages. Because of its great toxicity, much research attention has been given to these effects and how they can be mitigated. Of particular importance are the effects of lead exposure in young children. Because their central nervous system is in a rapidly developing stage, children are at particular risk when it comes to the potentially harmful effects of lead. This is then also why numerous studies have been conducted to determine the causes of lead poisoning, the effects of different levels of lead exposure, mitigation methods for these, and measures to prevent lead poisoning.
The stated purpose of Lidsky and Scheider's (2003) article, "Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates" is to suggest policy modifications that would encourage prevention methods regarding lead poisoning. The…… [Read More]
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]
Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.
Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…… [Read More]
An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…… [Read More]
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]
"An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.
Jodrey, Louise, and Karl ilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Ruppert, E.E., and Karen Carle. "Morphology of metazoan circulatory systems." Zoomorphology 103.3 (1983): 193-208. SpringerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Southgate, Paul C., and John S. Lucas. The pearl oyster . Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2008. Print.
"The onders of the Seas: Mollusks." Oceanic Research Group. N.p., n.d. eb. 15 Nov. 2010. .
eight, Ryan, John Viator, Charles Caldwell, and Allison Lisle. "Photoacoustic detection of metastatic…… [Read More]
Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972) showed that much human problem solving could be expressed in terms of such "if-then" types of production rules. This discovery helped to launch the field of intelligent computer systems (Coovert & Doorsey 2003). Since that time, a number of expert and other intelligent systems have been used to model, capture, and support human decision making in an increasingly diverse range of disciplines; however, traditional rule-based systems are limited by several fundamental constraints, including the fact that human experts…… [Read More]
Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future?
Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the trends in any business or profession may change and so the path of development. It is better to look at the experience of some companies whose systems have changed over the past few years and thus try to estimate what is likely to happen.
There are many changes that have come to the world through the development of Information Technology and Computers. All the changes have come over a relatively short period of twenty years, and in many cases both industry and concerned humans are yet to adjust to the changes. There are many changes which have come in the accounting industry also, and those changes give an idea of what is likely to happen in the future.
The organization where…… [Read More]
The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.
The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…… [Read More]
Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems
Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium
There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.
The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…… [Read More]
Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…… [Read More]
An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.
The…… [Read More]
The human brain analyzes these patterns and learning occurs. The inner ear is a receptor that transmits messages to the brain about the location of sound and does so through the use of the following:
(4) spatial localization; and (5) Duration. (Lecture 2, p.4)
The shape of the inner ear in addition to any sounds that mask the tones being processed by the ear for instance in how white noise masks a 2 kHz tone. (Lecture 4, p.18) in addition, psychoacoustics measures the head and spatial localization or the head in relation to the surrounding in which the tones or sound is heard in relation to the position of the head. The cues for location of pure tones are reported as:
(1) Interaural time differences (it'd); and (2) Interaural level differences (ILD). (Lecture 10, p.2)
ILD result from sound bending around an object known…… [Read More]
History of RSD
The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]
The nervous system is a part of an animal's body which is responsible for the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions as well as the transmission of signals between different parts of the body. It is responsible for sending, receiving and the processing of nerve impulses all over the body. All the organs and muscles within the body rely upon the nerve impulses in order for them to function. The nervous system receives information from sense organs regarding the environment by means such as hearing, sight, smell, pressure, taste and pain. The nervous system consists of tow main parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the bone-skull and the vertebrae. The peripheral nervous system comprises of numerous neurons which are its functional units. The central nervous system is responsible for…… [Read More]
Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)
Sometimes people feel…… [Read More]
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.
Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.
Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…… [Read More]
eshaping the Sensory Environment
Survival of all animals depends on the accuracy with which sensory information is processed by the nervous system. Integrating this information in an efficient and effective manner depends on dynamic strategies that the nervous system relies on to determine the reliability and accuracy of the sensory inputs (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). This essay examines contemporary theories that attempt to explain how these strategies function.
eliability-Based Cue Combination (BCC) Theory
The reliability of a sensory cue is believed to determine the weight an organism assigns to a given cue, such that a more reliable cue may have a greater influence on behavioral outcomes (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). Empirical support for this theory has come from studies examining the integration of multisensory information. This theory has been called reliability-based cue combination (BCC).
eliability, as defined by BCC, is used interchangeably…… [Read More]
functional relationship of the PNS to the CNS?
The CNS effectively "controls" the PNS, and the PNS' main function is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs. The PNS transmits nerve impulses produced by the CNS.
List the structural components of the PNS, and briefly describe the function of each component.
The structural components of the PNS are sensory receptors, which receive external stimuli; motor endings, which act to innervate muscle fibers and glands; and nerves and ganglia, which act as pathways for impulses to travel through the PNS.
How many different types of sensory receptors does the nervous system express and briefly, what kind of stimulus does each class respond to?
According to which way you might go about classifying, there are either five different types of sensory receptors or three different types of receptors. The group of five looks like this: 1) mechanoreceptors -- receptors that…… [Read More]
Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).
Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…… [Read More]
The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)
Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…… [Read More]
When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.
Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.
9)…… [Read More]
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…… [Read More]
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Multiple sclerosis or MS refers to an autoimmune, chronic condition which impacts physical movement, function and sensation. The problem sets in following neuron insulation destruction (i.e., myelin sheath destruction) within an individual’s central nervous system (CNS) (Cengage Learning, 2013). Symptoms of the disorder start showing up at early adulthood, greatly impacting patients’ domestic, social, and professional lives. As the absence of myelin retards action potential conduct, the disorder is manifested as performance impairment, having a potential destructive influence on patient behavior. MS often entails a relatively progressive onset of behavioral deficiencies and neurological symptoms (Hoang & Shepherd, 2010).
Multiple Sclerosis and Nervous System
Chronic, advancing cognitive deterioration within multiple sclerosis has been ascribed to a neuro-pathological, neurodegenerative disease process (in other words, diffused brain atrophy and axonal destruction). Additionally, atrophy and white matter lesions are known to play a significant part in cognitive dysfunction among individuals diagnosed with…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
Michael Lauren who is struggling with drug problem. Michele Lauren is twenty-one-year-old girl, single and a resident of New York City. Michele lives with her parents and is addicted to marijuana. She was arrested on various circumstances, each time for the violation of Health & Safety Code 11357 (Samaha, 2007) that is the possession of large quantity of drugs and was locked up behind the bars on trials during the years 2002 to 2008.
Lately, she had been arrested three times in a month for the violation of such law. Michele had also encountered the problem of alcohol along with her problem of smoking pot and marijuana, but she has not been arrested for excess drinking and violation of Health and Safety laws related to alcohol. She had not been arrested for any other related crimes, as she normally filched her mother's purse for money whenever needed.
a) Casual drinks…… [Read More]
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]
A Teenagers Brain
The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)
Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…… [Read More]
Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon
Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).
Insulin and Glucagon
The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]
Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.
In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]
Ecologically, human hearing was needed to communicate better in order to survive; higher ranges of hearing have no real genetic advantage because it does not help humans to find food, shelter, or to communicate with one another. In addition, being able to localize sounds (friend or foe) would be essential and usually those sounds occur under 20,000 Hz (rustling of leaves, breaking of branches, etc.) (pp. 193-4).
2. The text explains how we might distinguish loudness for low-frequency sounds. How might we distinguish loudness for a high-frequency tone?
Loudness is a sensation that is related to amplitude (strength of frequency). We distinguish loudness based on many factors; speed of the sound, quality of the sound, etc. The higher the amplitude, the louder something appears -- and in higher frequency tones, the amplitude is faster and the peaks more robust, so the sound appears to be much louder than the identical…… [Read More]
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]
Sensation and Perception
hat experiment was impressive in researching music & speech perception vis-a-vis the vestibular system?
There are eye-movement tests that are proven to be able to detect signs of dysfunction within the vestibular system. hen the head moves that stimulates the inner ear which then sends signals to the eyes through the nervous system; this is referred to as the "vestibule-ocular reflex" (VOR). hen the head moves but the eye doesn't respond with clear vision the researcher knows there is a problem within the vestibule area of the ear.
Also there are "rotation tests" -- which I found the most interesting and seemingly the simplest to conduct -- that help to critically evaluate how well the eye and the ear (inner ear) are in sync. hen the head is moving at speeds that slow and speed up at intervals, and the individual being tested is wearing the sticky-patch…… [Read More]
Anatomy: Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is a central nervous system disease that is degenerative. It disrupts normal functioning at the cellular level by reducing the activity of cells that secret dopamine (Davie, 109). That happens through the death of cells, as well, in a couple of different regions of the brain. The two regions most affected are both related to movement and learning. They also affect how a person reacts to something, and whether he or she feels like a particular behavior was rewarding. The pathways that connect the basal ganglia of the brain to other areas are all affected in people who have Parkinson's disease (Shulman, De Jager, & Feany, 196). The symptoms are based on the ways in which those pathways are disrupted by the disease process and the death of the cells. As these cells die, they are not able to stop the body's systems from activating…… [Read More]
Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).
Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…… [Read More]
WHERE THE UCK STOPS
This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…… [Read More]
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…… [Read More]
Psychopathy: diagnosis and implications for treatment
Medical research has advanced to such an extent as to allow diseases that would have in the past been considered without a medical cure to be nowadays a limited challenge in the face of new technologies, techniques, and methods of treatment. Unfortunately some of the most difficult to cure diseases are those related to the nervous system and of physiological nature. One such case is psychopathy, a complex of states of mind and attitudes that transform the individual in particular degrees of sanity or insanity.
There have been numerous articles and research project conducted on this subject both to try to determine the nature of psychopathy as well as to provide different types of solutions for curing its manifestations and finding out the root causes of psychopathy. One such study is the one concluded by Mairead Dolan and Michael Doyle from the University of…… [Read More]
This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).
This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.
The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…… [Read More]
Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts
The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.
Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.
Modulation of Physiology
The modulation of physiology is similar to…… [Read More]
There are specialized cells called receptors that receive information about the environment and changes in that environment. Each kind of receptor reacts to a different kind of stimulus. For example, the receptors on the retina in the eye detect light. Receptors are all connected to nerve cells, and the nerve cells carry information from the receptor to the brain, where the signal is processed. The brain makes the decision about what to do with the information, such as move a part of the body to cause a reaction based on the information the receptors sent. However, in the case of an emergency situation, this normal interpretation process takes too long even though it is extremely fast, and instead another emergency plan is followed by the nervous system. When burned the body will experience a reflex reaction.
The skin has receptors that detect both pressure and temperature. In the case…… [Read More]
Environment Influences the Body Plan of Organisms
The distinction between adiata and Bilateria, or organisms with a radial or bilateral symmetry, is that the latter have a dorsal/ventral polarity resulting in bilateral body axes (reviewed by Martindale and Henry, 1998). By comparison, species with radial symmetry, the adiata, have a single anterior/posterior axis in their body plan and no dorsal/ventral polarity. Another general distinction is the presence of three germ layers in the Bilateria, which are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. These three pluripotent cell types will give rise to organs and internal epithelial layers, skin and nervous tissues, and muscle and connective tissues, respectively.
ole of Environment
adiata contain a digestive tract that is perpendicular to radial structures (reviewed by Martindale and Henry, 1998). For example, the cnidarians have a mouth that is surrounded by radial pattern of tentacles. After the food enters the mouth, it collects in a…… [Read More]