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We have over 360 essays for "Neurological Disorders"

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Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Neurological Disorder Epilepsy --

Words: 2610 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35563773

Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.

Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]

References

Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.

332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf

Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,

Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
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Discovery This Neurological Disorder or Disease Discovered

Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72475267

Discovery

This neurological disorder or disease discovered and first described in 1966 by an Austrian physician, Dr. Andreas Rett

A paper published on the disorder in an English medical journal in 1983 by Dr. engst Hagberg and associates. Global awareness established and thengrew. First diagnoses of unidentified cases made.

Disorder initially observed to affect only girls of different races worldwide

Detailed Cause/s

Mutations in an X chromosome gene called MeCP2.

First discovered at the laboratory by Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a neurogeneticist, in October 1999

Primarily affects girls but recently found to affect boys as well

Condition between 6 to 18 months and progresses in stages

A developmental, not a genetic or nutritional, disorder

Affects 1 in 10,000 to 23,000 females worldwide

Apparently normal pregnancy and delivery for the mother and normal development of voluntary movements to the affected person

Symptoms

Deceleration of head growth between 6 and 18 months

Unexplained…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, O (1999). Faculty Control Gene Underlines Retardation (Rett Syndrome).

Science News, Science Service, Inc.

Gene Today ... Gone Tomorrow (October 1999). Nature Genetics

Lewis, Jackie and Debbie Wilson (1998). Pathways to Learning in Rett Syndrome.
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Neurological Disease

Words: 1927 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72486011

Week 1
The field of neuroscience that interests me most is a research position at a hospital or university. I believe that being attached to a research facility within the medical community has the potential for high demand in the future, as a growing segment of the population ages and develops Alzheimer’s and dementia. Neurological disorders have a devastating effect on the person affected, and those around them. I see neurological diseases of the aging process as particularly devastating because the person slowly loses their life and their special connection with those who love them. I am interested in two areas in particular. I am interested in Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, and disorders of memory that occur at any age.
To be successful in this career path, it will be essential to focus on the research methodology and procedures for both human and animal studies. Any projects…… [Read More]

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Disordered Eating in College Students

Words: 5808 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39021106

Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.

Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at  http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa 

Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.

Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at  http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
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Sensorimotor Disorder

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75381045

Sensorimotor Disorder

estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…… [Read More]

References

Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.

Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.

Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.

Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
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Psychology Neuropathological Disorders Amyotrophic Lateral

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25396256

Genes that are involved in the large families with a lot of individuals with ALS are sometimes called causative genes since they are usually sufficient to cause ALS devoid of any other genes or factors being involved. Genes involved in the smaller ALS families can either be susceptibility or causative genes (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 2005).

There appears to be no clear cause in the majority of ALS cases and there is just one medication, riluzole, has been shown to modestly prolong survival. esearch has recognized some of the cellular processes that take place after disease onset, including mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, generation of free radicals, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis, but for most people the underlying cause is unknown. While ALS is measured to be a multifaceted genetic disorder in which multiple genes in amalgamation with environmental exposures merge to render a person susceptible, few genetic or environmental risks have…… [Read More]

References

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (2005). Retrieved from http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/als.html

Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

ISBN: 9780558851910.

Gordon, P.H. (2011). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. CNS Drugs, 25(1), 1-15.
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Autism & Asperger's Disorders Autism

Words: 1424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1182568

hile Dr. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as a personality disorder primarily marked by social isolation, today Asperger's Syndrome is identified as a brain, communication, or neurological disorder like autism, not a personality disorder like, for example, antisocial personality disorder ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS).

Like autism, Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by repetitive routines, rituals, and movements, poor social skills, and odd ways of communicating that do not take into consideration the other person's feelings and needs. The distinguishing feature of Asperger's, in contrast to classical autism, is that the individuals all have normal IQ but show "limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities" ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS). Unlike autistic individuals who show little interest in others, Asperger children may seek out companionship, but may drive other people away because of their refusal to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Autism." (11 Apr 2008). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NINDS). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm 

Autism spectrum disorders (Pervasive developmental disorders)." (3 Apr 2008).

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-publication.shtml
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Treating a Disorder

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57294834

disorders discussed in the text was the frontotemporal dementia. This is an interesting disorder in that it can affect three different areas. This neurological disorder presents itself through "three clincal subtypes that present with either changes in behavior (behavior variant FTD (bvFTD)) or changes in language (semantic dementia (SD)) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA)) (Rascovsky, Hodges, Knopman, Mendez, Kramer, 2011; Gorno- Tempini, Hillis, eintraub, Kertesz, Mendez, 2011). Patients who develop FTD usually do so in their 50's or 60's and the signs displayed depend on what subtype the disorder takes.

Until recently, FTD was considered a relatively rare disorder but according to the text it now is considered prevalent in 40-60% of neurological disorders. According to the website created by Alzheimer Organization "there is no single test - or any combination of tests - that can conclusively diagnose frontotemporal dementia" (Frontotemporal Dementia, 2013). Rather than tests, FTD is more a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ethical Principles (2014) accessed on Mar 10, 2014 at the American Psychology Association website: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Frontotemporal Dementia (2011) accessed on March 9, 2014 at the Alzheimer Organization's website:  http://www.alz.org/dementia/fronto-temporal-dementia-ftd-symptoms.asp 

Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Hillis, A.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; (2011)

Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology, Vol. 76, pp.
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Autistic Disorder Dana Keith Beth

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57571597

The moral of the article's story is that teachers of autistic children with limited spoken languages may indeed need more training to get the most out of their students.

Still on the subject of therapy for autistic children, another article in the journal Autism (Vismara, et al. 2009) reports that professionally led training sessions with the parents of autistic children were helpful in getting the children to respond and communicate. The study was a 12-week research investigation, one hour per week; and what took place was the parents of eight "toddlers" (who had been diagnosed with autism) were brought together with their children and therapists. These parents were taught how to implement "naturalistic therapeutic techniques" based on the "Early Start Denver Model" (ESDM) (Vismara 93). The ESDM model focuses on "creating an affectively warm and rich environment to foster positive relationships between children and adults" (Vismara 99). The training with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chiang, Hus-Min. (2009). Naturalistic observations of elicited expressive communication

Of children with autism. Autism, 13(2), 165-178.

Donovan, Susan. Entrepreneur Thorkil Sonne on what you can learn from employees

With autism. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 32-32.
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Theory of Using Vitamin a As Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Words: 1547 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67763224

Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder

The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…… [Read More]

References

Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6

Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536

Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112

Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in

Words: 3412 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77042088

Each of the children received one of four possible treatments over a fourteen-month period - behavioral treatment, medication management, combination of the two, or usual community care. The results of this study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of ADHD symptoms. The best results in terms of the proportion of children showing excellent response regarding were provided by ADHD combination treatment and oppositional symptoms, and in other areas of functioning. Overall, those who received closely monitored medical management had greater improvement in their ADHD symptoms than children who received either intensive behavioral treatment without medication or community care with less carefully monitored medication.

Treatment for ADHD is not without controversy. For most children with the disorder, medication is an integral part of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Center for Disease Control. 28 June 2005. 27 July 2005  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/default.htm .

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Overview)." National Institue of Mental Health. 2001. 28 July 2005  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/helpchild.cfm .

Barkley, R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.

Bateman, B, JO Warner, E Hutchinson, T Dean, P Rowlandson, C Gant, J Grundy, C Fitzgerald and J. Stevenson. "The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children." BMJ Publishing Group & Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. 14 September 2003. 28 July 2005  http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/6/506 .
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Medical Disorders

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45572513

Pernicious Anemia

Many people hate to go to the doctor's office -- especially when they know that they will be receiving an injection. However, I, along with millions of people the world over, consider ourselves very lucky to do just that, each and every month of our lives. You see, for people like me with a disorder known as "pernicious anemia," the doctor and her needle are the important link between a healthy life and a life of absolute misery. This is because, unlike classic anemia, the common form of the blood disorder that usually results in little more than fatigue, pernicious anemia can result in catastrophic changes in the body, chief among them severe neurological impairment that, in its severe form, can result in absolute madness. For those of us who suffer from this disease caused by an inherited deficiency, or caused from some disruption or disorder in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Intelihealth. "Pernicious Anemia." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/20862.html

Medline Plus. "Pernicious Anemia." Medline Plus Medical Enclyclopedia. 2003 Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm
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Autism Disorder The Writer Explores What it

Words: 4038 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91627778

autism disorder. The writer explores what it is and how it manifests itself. The writer also discusses the teaching methods that have been used to allow the autistic student to take part in a public education. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.

Each year millions of American couples add to their family with the birth of a baby. The pregnancy is spent getting ready for the newcomer. Names are chosen, baby items are purchased and stored and other people's children are discussed as examples of what might be produced by this child. The family becomes ready as they read up on the milestones that they can expect the baby to make at various times of the first few years of development.

By the time the baby is born the parents have studied the progress that can be expected and are ready to start their life as a…… [Read More]

References

Address: Richard L. Simpson, University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Special Education, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160-7335.

Simpson, Richard L.-Myles, Brenda Smith, Effectiveness of facilitated communication with children and youth with autism.. Vol. 28, Journal of Special Education, 01-01-1995, pp 424.

Murray, John B., Psychophysiological aspects of autistic disorders: overview.. Vol. 130, The Journal of Psychology, 03-01-1996, pp 145(14).

Simpson, Richard L.-Myles, Brenda Smith, Effectiveness of facilitated communication with children and youth with autism.. Vol. 28, Journal of Special Education, 01-01-1995, pp 424.
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MMR Vaccine and Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Words: 6800 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49586616

Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it

SHAPE

Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:

Absence of Evidence for Link

to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Correspondence to:

Mentor:

Dr. Anshu Kacker

5650 including Abstracts

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…… [Read More]

References

Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009

Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.

ADDED

Autism Watch (2015)  http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
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Analyzing Mental Health Disorder

Words: 2533 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 66967288

Mental Health Disorder

The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.

Mental Health Disorder- Background

Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):

Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)

Disorders related to behavior

Anxiety and mood disorders

Tourette syndrome

Substance use disorders

Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…… [Read More]

References

(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html 

Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html 

(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from  http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm 

(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from  http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
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Research on Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder

Words: 2145 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58591927

Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…… [Read More]

References

Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.

Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.

Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.

Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32678472

The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA

A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.

It is not necessarily never appropriate to…… [Read More]

References

Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.

Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,

No. 1; (2010): 13-21.

Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65719540

This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.

eferences

Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…… [Read More]

References

Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, R. (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, R., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. Received: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
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Sotos Syndrome Is a Disorder

Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6935295

For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.

Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…… [Read More]

References

Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)

Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54

NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
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Bi-Polar Bipolar Disorder Is a

Words: 2854 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82804387

The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.

Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…… [Read More]

References

Hall, J., Whalley, H.C., Marwick, K., McKirdy, J., Sussmann, J., Romaniuk, L., (2010). Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 761-761-70. doi:10.1017/S0033291709991000

Kinsella, Caroline and Kinsella, Connor Introducing Mental Health: A Practical Guide (London: Jessica Kingsley, (2006)

Kutscher M., Attwood M.L., Wolff R.R. Kids in the Syndrome Mix of ADHD, LD, Asperger's, Tourette's, Bipolar, and More!: The one stop guide for parents, teachers, and other professionals. Philadelphia Kingsley Publishing (2005)

Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Reinares, M., Goikolea, J.M., . . . . (2005). Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(5), 295-295-302. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/235461846?accountid=13044
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Topic Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Order ID

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21394721

Topic: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Order ID: A2018177
User Name: sabina1325

Introduction
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological problem that affects children. As children grow some of them grow out of this behavioral problem, however in some cases it does continue into adulthood. ADHD is a behavioral problem that creates difficulty for the individual to remain focused, or inactive. This is a severe problem because there is currently no known cure for this problem and it affects the individuals being affected in many ways. The main way the ADHD affects children is that it impacts their educational progress because of their inability to focus or sit still. ADHD is a serious problem and the children who have this problem struggle each day to achieve simple goals, like reading a book. There is no cure for this problem; the medications that are used to treat ADHD have serious side…… [Read More]

References
From ADHD meds to testing and NCLB. (2009). American School Board Journal. 196 (7) 45-47
Gustafsson et. al. (1997). ADHD symptoms and maturity ? a study in primary school children. Acta Paediatricia. 97 (2) 233-238
Knowles, T. (2010). The kids behind the label: Understanding ADHD. Education Digest. 76 (3)
Mayes, R., Bagwell, C. & Erkulwater, J. (2008). ADHD and the rise in stimulant use among children. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 16 (3) 151-166
National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml#pub1 
Rodriguez, P.D. & Baylis, G. C. (2007) Activation of brain attention systems in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. Behavioral Neurology. 18 (2) 115-130
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis in Children

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6767069

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN

Historical ecords

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.

About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]

References

Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The gift of ADHD: How to transform your child's problems into strengths. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Kushner, T.K. (2010). Surviving health care: A manual for patients and their families.

Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.

Nass, R.D. & Leventhal, F.,. (2011). 100 questions & answers about your child's ADHD: From
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Generally

Words: 1628 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44560425

In addition, a number of anti-depressants may be prescribed, such as Norpramin, Elavil and Wellbutrin.

The side effects of these medications also vary, but for the most part, they cause a slower heart rate, possible seizures, dry mouth, and constipation. Yet overall, the side effects are usually minor and when the child responds favorably to the medication, it obviously outweighs the side effects. The effectiveness of these medications produce positive results in regard to sustained attention and persistence of effort. They also reduce restlessness and overall improve behavior.

In conclusion, ADHD can be a very debilitating disorder for any child, especially in regard to activities performed at home and in school. However, the future looks bright, for breakthroughs in the treatment of ADHD are on the horizon, and over the next decade, genetic testing may be available for the disorder and could lead to safer and more effective medications for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Academy of Pediatrics. ADHD: A Complete and Authoritative Guide. New York: Independent Publishing Group, 2003.

Baughman, Fred a. "Hyperactivity Disorder Tied to Brain Irregularities." Internet.

ADHDFraud.com. December 11, 2004. Accessed April 19, 2005. http://www.adhdfraud.com/frameit.asp?src=commentary.htm.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." Internet.
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Female Substance Use Disorder Gender

Words: 2505 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21550261

..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."

In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.

Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…… [Read More]

References

Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation

Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),

Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.

2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
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What Do We Know About Bipolar Disorder

Words: 907 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55270439

Bipolar Disorder

English Literature

Bipolar disorder, as much as thirty years ago, was a big American secret. Bipolar disorder was not as common knowledge as it is today. During the latter 20th century and 21st century a lot of light has been shed on the subject of bipolar disorder: the diagnoses, the treatments, the signs, and the ways to live with the disorder, both for the sufferer as well as the people close to the sufferer in his or her life. The paper will briefly outline key terms and conditions of bipolar disorder. The paper will additionally offer insight into the lives of people living with bipolar disorder providing commentary on the adjustments in life one must make to move forward, as well as commentary on some of the more popular treatments to assist with the symptoms of the disorder.

The causes of bipolar disorder are unknown to medical professionals…… [Read More]

References:

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2008) Understanding Bipolar Disorder and Recovery. NAMI: Arlington, VA.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2009) Bipolar Disorder. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Bethesda, MD.
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Depressive Disorder Is it Caused

Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52021775



orks Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm

Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette

smoking, stages of change, and major depression in the Canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(3), 204-8. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical

Library database. (Document ID: 1673587981).

Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.

Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://depressiongenetics.med.upenn.edu/DLResearch/Levinson_GeneticsDepression.pdf

Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm 

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Words: 1125 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 8315679

Kogan et al. (2009) report that the increasing prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) makes the identification of these disorders a public health priority. Many of the studies of the prevalence of ASD are taken from clinical data; the researchers believe that this data inaccurate. The researchers review all of the current research used to determine the prevalence of ASD and point out several flaws in each of these studies. In order to get an accurate point prevalence measurement the researchers used the National Survey of Children's Health (N = 78, 037) that utilizes parental reports of children aged three to seventeen years old to determine the prevalence of ASD. The study would help identify demographic variables associated with ASDs.

The researchers considered a child in the study to have ASD if a physician had told their parents at one time or another that the child had an ASD diagnosis.…… [Read More]

References

Dawson, G., Munson, J., Webb, S.J., Nalty, T., Abbott, R., & Toth, K. (2007). Rate of head growth decelerates and symptoms worsen in the second year of life in autism. Biological psychiatry, 61(4), 458-464.

Kogan, M.D., Blumberg, S.J., Schieve, L.A., Boyle, C.A., Perrin, J.M., Ghandour, R.M., ... & van Dyck, P.C. (2009). Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the U.S., 2007. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1395-1403.

Oberman, L.M., & Ramachandran, V.S. (2007). The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychological bulletin, 133(2), 310-327.
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Medical Disorders Face Recognition

Words: 1892 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81215349

Prosopagnosia

According to A.J. Larner's book, "A Dictionary of Neurological signs," prosopagnosia is a neurological condition, "a form of visual agnosia characterized by an inability to recognize previously known human faces or equivalent stimuli (hence a retrograde defect) and to learn new ones (anterograde defect)" (Larner, 2010). Larner further distinguishes between two forms of prosopagnosia: apperceptive and associative agnosia. This "category-specific recognition disorder," as G, Neil Martin calls it in his "Human Neuropsychology" is often, but not always, associated with other forms of visual agnosia such as alexia or achromatopsia.

Prosopagnosia can be congenital or developmental, or a consequence of brain damage, following a stroke, a brain injury, or caused by a degenerative disease (Kinai, 2013) . There are two types of prosopagnosia: apperceptive prosopagnosia and associative prosopagnosia. This form of visual impairment has various degrees of manifestation, from mild to severe and can or cannot be associated with other…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bowles, Devin C. McKone, Elinor. Dawel, Amy. Duchaine, Bradley. Palermo, Romina. Schmalzl, Laura. Rivolta. Davide. Wilson, Ellie. Yovel. Galit.

Cognitive Neuropsychology, "Diagnosing prosopagnosia: Effects of ageing, sex, and participant-stimulus ethnic match on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Cambridge Face Perception Test." Available at:  http://www.faceblind.org/social_perception/papers/Bowles%2009%20CN.pdf 

Sperry, Roger Wolcott. Ed.Trevarthern, Colwyn B. 1990. Brain Circuits and Functions of the Mind: Essays in Honor of Roger Wolcott Sperry, Author. Cambridge University Press

Newman, Nancy J. Miller, Neil R. Biousse, Valerie. 2008. Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology: The Essentials. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
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Schizoaffective Disorder Is a Mental

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56285561

The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)

Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)

Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]

References

Brannon, G.E. (2005). "Schizoaffective Disorder." E-Medicine. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at  http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3514.htm 

Facts About Schizoaffective Disorder." (2001). Family Social Support Project at UCLA. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at  http://www.npi.ucla.edu/ssg/schizoaffective.htm 

Grayson, C.E. (2004). "Schizoaffective Disorder." Mental Health America. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at  http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/schizophrenia/schizoaffective-disorder 

Schizoaffective Disorder." (2006). Mayo Foundation for Medical Educational and Research. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/schizoaffective-disorder/DS00866
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Gwas OCD and Genes

Words: 3400 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35243323

Personal Details of Student

Family Name: ooney

Given Name (s) Bridget

Student Number (SID): 312165250

Email (University email only) [email protected]

GWAS OCD

Assignment number (if applicable): #1

Becker

Genetics of Brian and Mind Disorders

Academic Honesty -- all forms of plagiarism and unauthorized collusion are regarded as academic dishonesty by the university, resulting in penalties including failure of the unit of study and possible disciplinary action. A module of academic honesty and plagiarism is at http://elearning.library.usyd.edu.au/learn/plagiarism/index.php .

Declaration:

I / We have read and understood the University of Sydney Student Plagiarism: Coursework Policy and Procedure (which can be found at sydney.edu.au/senate/policies/Plagiarism.pdf).

I / We understand that failure to comply with the Student plagiarism: coursework Policy and Procedure can lead to the University commencing proceedings against me / us for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended).

3. This work is substantially my…… [Read More]

References

Ahmari, S. E., Spellman, T., Douglass, N. L., Kheirbek, M. A., Simpson, H. B., Deisseroth, K., ... & Hen, R. (2013). Repeated cortico-striatal stimulation generates persistent OCD-like behavior. Science, 340(6137), 1234-1239.

Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.

Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.

Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitive behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.
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The Exploration of Autism Spectrum Disorders 1

Words: 2167 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87769281

Autism Spectrum Disorders

esearch shows that in today's society, the awareness of Autism has went from something that people were ashamed of, all the way to the forefront of education. It is also noted that research is increasing due to the rising amount of people and children that are suffering from Autism Spectrum disorders. However, this disorder is gaining attention all over the world. With that said, this paper will challenge and explore the mystery of this condition, and expectations for the future, concerning this disorder in an ever developing and expanding society.

What is Autism?

Autism came on the scene in 1943. At first, the condition is was believed to be some kind of a mental retardation condition. Some even categorized this condition as someone that is insane. However, Leo Kanner recognized that these children did not fall into the category of emotionally disturbed children. Instead, he recorded patterns…… [Read More]

References

Andrea L Roberts, K. L.-E. (2016). Maternal exposure to intimate partner abuse before birth is associated with autism spectrum disorder in offspring. Autism, 26-36.

Attwood, T. (2003). Attwood, T. (2003). Why does Chris do that?: Some suggestions regarding the cause and management of the unusual behavior of children and adults with autism and Asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc.

Debbaudt, D. (2012). Debbaudt, D. (2002). Autism, advocates, and law enforcement professionals: Recognizing and reducing risk situations for people with autism spectrum disorders. . Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Frymiare, M. A. (2012). Does the Autistic Brain Lack Core. Journal of Developmental and Learning, 9, 3-16.
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Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39286981

Thus, the participants with ASD were as able to attend to the images as the control group and imitate the perceived emotional state. However, only the typically-developing children showed activity in the pars opercularis during the imitation task. The pars opercularis is associated with some mirroring functions.

As expected, the scans revealed that the participants with ASD had far less activity throughout the MNS. Also as predicted, results indicated an inverse relationship between MNS activity and autism symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Interview.

Results therefore supported the hypothesis that ASD is correlated with a dysfunctional MNS. Children with autism often cannot understand, anticipate, or read the emotional expressions of others and the current study points to a possible underlying cause for this dysfunction. Typically developing children not only imitated the observed emotion but likely felt it as well;…… [Read More]

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Bipolar Also Known as Manic-Depressive Disorder Bipolar

Words: 2333 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58661457

Bipolar

Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.

Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, et al. (2011). Personality and bipolar disorder: dissecting state and trait associations between mood and personality. Psychological Medicine 41(8), 1593-1604.

"Bipolar Disorder," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI_278/Other/Clerkship/Didactics/Readings/Bipolar%20Disorder.pdf 

Blechert, J. & Meyer, T.D. (2010). Are measures of hypomanic personality, impulsive nonconformity and rigidity predictors of bipolar symptoms? British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44(1), 15-27.

Ettinger, et al. (2005). Prevalence of bipolar symptoms in epilepsy vs. other chronic health disorders. Neurology 65(4), 535-540
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Bipolar II Disorder

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79340844

Bipolar II

In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.

Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]

References

Cusin, C., Hilton, G.Q., Nierenberg, A.A., and Fava M. (2012). Long-Term Maintenance With Intramuscular Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Bipolar II Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from:  http://journals.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=1268250 

Mayo Clinic. (2014). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from:  http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20027544 

PsychCentral (2014). The Two Types of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from:  http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-two-types-of-bipolar-disorder/000612?all=1 

Sole, B., Martinez-Aran, A., Torrent, C., Bonnin, C.M., Reinares, M., Popovic, D., Sanchez-Moreno, J., and Vieta, E. (2011). Are bipolar II patients cognitively impaired? A systematic review. Psychological Medicine. Retrieved from:  http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/52283/1/587142.pdf
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Genome Wide Association Study Analysis for OCD Complications

Words: 2050 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12779863

Genome-Wide Association Study for OCD Complications

The OCD (Obsessive -- compulsive disorder) is referred as repetitive behaviors and thoughts experienced by individuals. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy, et al. (2012). Typically, the genes' characteristics of twins and families have revealed that the OCD has the feature of multifactorial familial condition involving both environmental and polygenic factors. (Moran, 2013). Genetic studies have revealed that the interaction of the glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic systems and genes affecting them play a crucial role in functioning of the circuit. (Yang, Lee, Goddard, Mand et al. 2011). Meanwhile, the environmental factors that include psychological trauma, adverse perinatal effects and neurological trauma may modify the risk genes, which can consequently manifest the compulsive-obsessive behaviors. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy et al. 2012). The OCD is a frequent and, relative common debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 2% of the U.S. population. (Arnold, Sicard, Burroughs, et al. (2006). Typically, the OCD is obsessions…… [Read More]

Reference

Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.

Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.

Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitivebehavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.

Cantor, R., Lange, K. and Sinsheimer, J. (2010). Prioritizing GWAS Results: A Review of Statistical Methods and Recommendations for Their Application. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 86(1):.6-22.
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Treating Language Disorders in Adults

Words: 395 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39206103

On the other hand, severely autistic or impaired individuals could need an extensive laptop aid that will help them in communicating. Both age, mobility, and need have to be calculated carefully.

3. Describe two types of speech disorders, how they can affect the child in the classroom, and some of the interventions used for students with speech disorders.

One simple type of speech disorder is stuttering. This is a very common disorder where the flow of speech is often disrupted by repetitions and pauses that the speaker cannot control. Another type of speech disorder is Dysprosody which occurs, when an individual cannot control how the intensity, timing and rhythm of speech occurs. Speech disorders in general affect students tremendously because they feel that they cannot fit in with the class environment. It limits their participation, social engagement and general involvement within the learning environment. There are many different intervention methods…… [Read More]

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Psychotropic Medications Treat Clinical Disorders

Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 23995317

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be an effective alternative intervention to psychotropic medications. The therapy is mainly used for persons experiencing acute episodes of melancholy but may also be recommended for other disorders that include symptoms like catatonia, mania, or schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs are more commonly used to treat psychotic episodes (NIMH). ECT may also be helpful for persons who cannot take psychotropic drugs such as pregnant women or seniors.

Research questions related to the use of psychotropic medications"

. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute…… [Read More]

1. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). "Medications." Retrieved Oct 18, 2008 at  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/medications/complete-publication.shtml
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Language Disorders Disabilities and Learning

Words: 2040 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98514559

Language Impairments: Evidence-Based Interventions

Language Impairment Interventions

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

So strong is the genetic impulse driving language acquisition that all children will learn to speak some form of language (Sousa, 2011, p. 28, 196). This fact suggests that the remaining question confronting children, parents, educators, and society is how well these skills are learned. Problems encountered along the way, however, can sometimes have a significant impact on a child's ability to communicate with others, both now and as adults. The greatest challenges are those faced by children with speech and language disorders. To better understand the language problems confronting otherwise developmentally normal children the recommended interventions, especially from an educator's point-of-view, will be examined and discussed in this research paper.

Neurological Correlates of Language Development

Comprehending how a speech or language disorder in a child could develop and impact their…… [Read More]

References

Deniz Can, D., Richards, T., & Kuhl, P.K. (2013). Early gray-matter and white-matter concentration in infancy predict later language skills: A whole brain voxel-based morphometry study. Brain and Language, 124(1), 34-44.

Ratner, N.B. (2013). Why talk with children matters: Clinical implications of infant- and child-directed speech research. Seminars in Speech and Language, 34(4), 203-214.

Schuele, C.M., Spencer, E.J., Barako-Arndt, K., & Guillot, K.M. (2007). Literacy and children with specific language impairment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 28(1), 35-47.

Snowling, M.J. & Hulme, C. (2012). Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 47(1), 27-34.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and

Words: 3764 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56744836

The right medication stimulates these under-operating chemicals to make added neurotransmitters, thereby enhancing the child's potential to concentrate, have a check on the impulses, and lessen hyperactivity. Medication required to attain this usually needs a number of doses in the course of the day, since a single dose of medication remains effective for a short interval up to 4 hours. but, slow or timed-release types of medication for instance, Concerta would let a child having ADHD to go on to take the advantage of medication in an extended stretch of period. (Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A esource for School and Home)

Psycho-stimulant medications like MPH are considered to trigger auto-regulatory or control procedures, thus improving the basic restraint shortfall in children having ADHD. Documented experiments on stimulants have exhibited experimental favor for this hypothesis. For instance, the influences of MPH on reaction restraint employing the fundamental stop-signal…… [Read More]

References

Arcus, Doreen. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2002. pp: 14-23

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. December 2001. Retrieved at http://www.reutershealth.com/wellconnected/doc30.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, Disorder: Neurological Basis and Treatment Alternatives. Journal of Neurotherapy. Volume: 1; No: 1; p: 1. Retrieved at ( http://www.snr-jnt.org/JournalNT/JNT  (1-1)1.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Bedard, Anne-Claude; Ickowicz, Abel; Logan, Gordon D; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Schachar, Russell; Tannock, Rosemary. Selective Inhibition in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Off and on Stimulant Medication. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. June, 2003. Volume: 12; No: 1; pp: 90-93
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Etiology and Treatment of a Psychological Disorder

Words: 2917 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83230922

Individual Programmatic Assessment

TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME

Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…… [Read More]

References

American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub

Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson

Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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Language Impairment Disorder Specific Language

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15198049

The clearest evidence for genetic effects has come from studies that diagnosed SLI using theoretically motivated measures of underlying cognitive deficits rather than conventional clinical criteria (ishop).

Characteristics of SLI

Delay in starting to talk is evidenced by the first words not appearing until two years of age or later. Immature or deviant production of speech sounds is apparent, especially in preschool children. Use of simplified grammatical structures, such as omission of past tense endings or the auxiliary "is," exist well beyond the age when this is usually mastered. Restricted vocabulary, in both production and comprehension with weak verbal short-term memory, is evidenced in tasks requiring repetition of words or sentences. Difficulties in understanding complex language are apparent, especially when the speaker talks rapidly (ishop).

Treatment

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) help children with the strategies and exercises that will help them navigate language. They are also the ambassadors of language who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bishop, Dorothy. "What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children." 2006. Institute for Applied Psychometrics. 17 March 2009  http://www.iapsych.com/articles/bishop2006.pdf .

Davidson, Tish, Jill De Villers and Thomson Gale. "Specific Language Impairment." 2006. Healthline.com. 17 March 2009  http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/specific-language-impairment .

Ervin, Margaret. "SLI - What we Know and Why it Matters." n.d. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 17 March 2009  http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2001/sli.htm .
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Communication Swallowing Disorders

Words: 2077 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1415676

Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Difficulty on Quality of Life in Patients with PEG Tubes vs. Those on NGT Feeding Systems

Stroke can effect neurological functioning and can have an effect on the patient's ability to talk and swallow. This condition can lead to severe malnutrition A decision is often made to feed the patient using a tube feeding method. Many studies have been performed to measure the clinical outcomes of these procedures, but few have focused on the effects of the patient's quality of life after receiving these interventions. This study will measure the effects of having a PEG tube inserted on the patient's quality of life as it relates to their ability to communicate and swallow. Two research questions will be answered: "Does a PEG procedure have an effect on the patient's ability to communicate their wishes and improve there satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Finucane Thomas E. MD., Colleen Christmas, MD., and Kathy Travis. (1999) Tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia. A review of the evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)October 13 (282) [HIDDEN]

James A, Kapur K, Hawthorne AB.(1998) Long-term outcome of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding in patients with dysphagic stroke. Age Ageing (27):671-676.

Taylor, Paula, MD. (2001) Annals of Long-Term CareDecision Making in Long-Term Care: Feeding Tubes. Annals of Long-Term Care: Clinical Care and Aging. 9 (11) p. 21-26
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Christopher Reeve Case Study Christopher

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66192310

hat treatments did the individual seek? ere any available at the time?

Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.

Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crews, C. (1998, May 3). The role he can't escape. Washington Post. Washington Post

Company.

Hall, F. (2005). Christopher Reeve. UU World: The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist

Association.
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Ergonomics Also Known as Human

Words: 2338 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6948547

Use tools and equipment that are properly designed to reduce the risk of wrist injury, (Zieve & Eltz 2010)

Workstations, tools and tool handles, and tasks can be redesigned to enable the worker's wrist to maintain a natural position during work, (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 2010).

Ergonomic aids, such as split keyboards, keyboard trays, typing pads, and wrist braces, may be used to improve wrist posture during typing, (Zieve & Eltz 2010)

Training and awareness; the encouragement of frequent breaks; yoga classes offered for free at the workplace; job rotation.

Employers can develop programs in ergonomics, the process of adapting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of workers, (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 2010)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and other nonprescription pain relievers, may ease symptoms that have been present for a short time or have been caused by strenuous…… [Read More]

"Tension Neck Syndrome" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.rsi.org.uk/text_only/conditions/tension_neck_syndrome.asp

Zieve, D. & Eltz, D.R. (2010). Carpal tunnel syndrome. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved online:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001469 

Carpal tunnel
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Huntington's Disease Correlation of Body

Words: 2806 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 58919609

Creatine treatment started at 6, 8, and 10 weeks of age, analogous to early, middle, and late stages of human HD, significantly extended survival at both the 6- and 8-week starting points. Significantly improved motor performance was present in both the 6- and 8-week treatment paradigms, while reduced body weight loss was only observed in creatine-supplemented R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks." (Dedeoglu, et al., 2003) Specifically it is stated that the "...Neuropathological sequelae of gross brain and neuronal atrophy and huntington aggregates were delayed in creatine-treated R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. We show significantly reduced brain levels of both creatine and ATP in R6/2 mice, consistent with a bioenergetic defect. Oral creatine supplementation significantly increased brain concentrations of creatine and ATP to wild-type control levels, exerting a neuroprotective effect. These findings have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that creatine therapy initiated after diagnosis may provide significant clinical benefits to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page (2009) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Online available at  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm 

Hamilton, J.M., et al. (2004) Rate and Correlates of Weight Change in Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology Neuroscience and Psychiatry 2004; 75:209-212. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Online available at  http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/209 

Gaba, Ann M. et al. (2005) Energy Balance in Early-Stage Huntington Disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 6. June 2005.

Djousse, L. (2002) Weight Loss in Early Stage of Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology 2002. Nov. 12:59(9): 1325-30.
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Restless Leg Syndrome Is Found

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 61583215

At best, LS is considered a puzzling problem which leads to an "overwhelming need to move the leg to relieve the discomfort." There is no pain involved and hence patients can be cured with simple changes in diet. Vitamin supplements can help especially ones with folic acid and iron. It can also be treated with some herbs, leg massage or simple yoga exercises. Where it is not a neurological disorder, LS is not a cause of concern. It can come and go and may not even be a cause of major sleep problems unless it becomes persistent. LS is fairly common as one in twenty persons will experience some form of LS.

eferences

David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z eference to Hundreds of…… [Read More]

References

David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies. Avery Trade (January 10, 2002)

Hoffman, p. 56

Balch, p. 390
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Psychology & Nbsp general Taumatic Brain

Words: 5753 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54980300

The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)

However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.

Severe Traumatic Brain njury

The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]

In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)

In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.

I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
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Role of Genetics in Ataxia

Words: 2716 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22182658



The most frequent symptom is difficulty in walking or gait ataxia (Unicorn Self-Help Committee 2000), which spreads slowly to the arms and the trunk. Foot deformities, such as clubfoot, flexion of the toes or foot inversion are other early signs. In time, muscles weaken and waste, especially the muscles in the feet, lower legs and hands and, at this time, deformities s begin to show. Other symptoms are the loss of tendon reflexes especially in the knees and ankles, the gradual disappearance of sensation in the extremities, dysarthria or slowness of speech or slurring, easy fatigue, rapid and involuntary movements of the eyes, scoliosis, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, heart enlargement, myocardial fibrosis, tachycardia, heart block and heart failure. Studies showed that about 20% of FA patients also develop carbohydrate intolerance and 10%, of diabetes mellitus, while others lose their hearing or eyesight.

In most cases, the patient gets…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adler, Tina. Single Gene Causes Ataxia, Cancer Risk - Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Gene Causes Fetal Disorder or Increased Risk of Cancer. Science News: Science Service, Inc., 1995.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n25_v147/ai_7142442 

Barrett, Julia. Ataxia-Telangiectasia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Gale Research, 1999.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/ai_2601000157 

Bird, Thomas D. Hereditary Ataxia Overview. Gene Reviews: National Human Genome Research Institute, 2005. http://www.geneclinics.org/profiles/ataxia/details.html

Robinson, Richard. Friedreich's Ataxia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Gale Research, 1999.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0005/ai_2601000562
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Parkinson's Disease

Words: 2857 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4012884

Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…… [Read More]

References

Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2

Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002

Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974

Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
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Migraine Headache

Words: 2110 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 23860251

Migraine Headaches

Patient

Nancy Smith

9/10/66 (46 years old)

Gender

Female

ace

African-American

eligion

Marital Status

Married

Occupation

Caregiver

Chief Complaint

Extremely painful headache that won't go away.

Differential Diagnosis:

Possible Diagnosis

Migraine Headache

Potential Diagnosis

Deep pounding headache more pronounced behind eyes;

- Headache has lasted more than 72 hours

- OTC Pain medications ineffective (Tylenol)

No accompanying nausea or vomiting

Physical Exam: Elevated blood pressure

Diagnostic Testing: Frequency of symptoms log; More than 72 hours of pain; Two or more of unilateral, pulsating, moderate or severe pain; not reporting nausea or sensitivity to light; lack of response to pain medication

TMJ (Tempormandibular Joint Disorder)

Unlikely Diagnosis

History: Emanating pain but no jaw spasm or difficulty chewing or biting

Physical Exam: No clicking or popping of TMJ when opening or closing mouth

-No inflammation of muscle around jaw

Diagnostic Testing: No jaw pain or face pain, no earache so…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

American Headache Society. (2010). Pathophysiology of Migraine. Retrieved from:  http://www.americanheadachesociety.org/assets/1/7/NAP_for_Web_-_Pathophysiology_of_Migraine.pdf 

Borsook, D. (2012). The Migraine Brain: Imaging, Structure and Function. New York: Oxford University Press.

Davodpff. R. (2002). Migraine: Manifestations, Pathogenesis, and Management. New York: Oxford University Press.

Goadsby, P. (2009). The Vascular Theory of Migraine. Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 132 (1): 6-7.
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How Huntington's Disease Affects Families

Words: 3858 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83682537

Huntington's disease affects families

What is Huntington's disease, and how does it affect the patient and his family? How does one deal with the patient? Is there any cure for the disease, and what is it? When was the disease discovered? Who discovered it, and how was it discovered? What way is support offered from external sources for the disease, and how can one avail of the support? What, exactly is Huntington's disease? It is a genetic disease that affects the central nervous system, in individuals who are thirty years and above, though it does occur sometimes in people younger than this. When the disease occurs, it occurs as an inherited autosomal dominant condition, and it affects all or most of the family members within the same family. The onset of symptoms and of the rate of the progression of the disease may differ between the different family members, and…… [Read More]

References

A Brief History of Huntington's disease. 8 July, 2004. Retrieved From

 http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/timeline/r2.html  Accessed on 22 March, 2005

Abuse of the patient. Retrieved From

 http://www.kumc.edu/hospital/huntingtons /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Bse and Vcjd Fact Sheet

Words: 380 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81401443

If eating beef is desired or necessary, choose solid muscle pieces (burgers, sausages) and avoid products which contain brain or internal organs

Currently, dairy products are not thought pose a risk of containing BSE contaminants and may be consumed

orks Cited

Sizer, F., & hitney, E. (2008). Nutrition: The Science of Eating.

HO | Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs113/en/.

HO | Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs180/en/.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sizer, F., & Whitney, E. (2008). Nutrition: The Science of Eating.

WHO | Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from  http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs113/en/ .

WHO | Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from  http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs180/en/ .
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to

Words: 2115 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 87064250



3.3 Data Collection

Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.

Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations

The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.

Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.

Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.

Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
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Brain Structures Systems Are Affected in

Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31587043

Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)

The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…… [Read More]

References

Aarsland, D. Laake, K. Larsen, J.P. & Janvin, C. (2002) Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 72 (6), 708-712.

Cools, R. Barker, R.A. Sahakian, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (December 2001) Enhanced or Impaired Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Dopaminergic Medication and Task Demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11 (12), 1136-1143.

Drapier, D. Peron, J. Leray, E. Sauleau, P. Biseul, I. Drapier, S. Le Jeune, F. Travers, D. Bourguignon, a. Haegelen, C. Millet, B. & Verin, M. (September 2008) Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates. Neuropsychologia 46 (11), 2796-2801.

Dubois, B. Pillon, B. (November 1996) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Nuerology. 244 (1), 2-8.
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Charcot-Marie Tooth Syndrome Definition and

Words: 2666 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66269973

In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.

On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on

Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht

National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197 

National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health.  http://www.genome.gov/11009201
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Narcolepsy and Its Treatment Narcolepsy Is a

Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99858285

narcolepsy and its treatment. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that may have its origins as a neurological disorder. Narcoleptics can fall asleep uncontrollably during the day, and suffer from sleeplessness at night. Often, this disease is undiagnosed and untreated. It usually becomes apparent between the ages of 15 and 25, but it can occur at any time in a person's life. Narcolepsy is a serious illness that requires treatment, but there is no cure. It can be managed with drugs and lifestyle changes.

Normally, a person enters EM (apid Eye Movement) sleep about 90 minutes after falling asleep. This is the deepest form of sleep, and it is when dreams usually occur. During this time, sleepers may experience a loss in muscle tone, sleep paralysis, and especially vivid dreams. In a narcoleptic patient, EM occurs almost immediately after falling asleep, and it can reoccur throughout the day, as well. The…… [Read More]

References

Aldrich, M.S. (1998). Diagnostic aspects of narcolepsy. Neurology; 50:S2-S7. (From Google Scholar).

Editors. (2009). Narcolepsy. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2009 from the WebMD Web site:  http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/narcolepsy .

Editors. (2009). Narcolepsy information page. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2009 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders Web site:  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/narcolepsy/narcolepsy.htm .

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009). Narcolepsy. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2009 from the Mayo Clinic Web site:
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Bell's Palsy

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37159497

ell's Palsy

Introduction person might wake up one morning and discover that one side of his or her face shows signs of paralysis. The symmetrical nature of the face might have a mismatched appearance. The afflicted side may have varying levels of deformity and droopiness.

The person might discover the inability to close the eye. The paralysis of one side of the face means that speech is often distorted. Feeding is difficult. Drooling is frequent. The person finds it impossible to pucker the lips into a shape that is often used for whistling. The direct diagnosis is that this person is suffering from ell's Palsy. This condition is relatively temporary. Only few people who suffer from this condition have permanent effects. ell's Palsy can develop over a few hours or a few days. It is not uncommon for a person to find that the condition has developed overnight.

Origins

Sr.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AAO-HNS. Doctor, What Is Bell's Palsy? 2004. American Academy of Otolaryngology. Available:

 http://www.entnet.org/healthinfo/topics/bells.cfm.August  2, 2004.

Allen, D., and L. Dunn. "Aciclovir or Valaciclovir for Bell's Palsy (Idiopathic Facial Paralysis)." Cochrane Database Syst Rev.3 (2004): CD001869.

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