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Al Gore Wins a Nobel

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78181599

For a society that relies upon fact and truth in the way that America does, and, because our very system of justice relies on it; then redefining fact as values is potentially harmful, deceitful and misleading. It is becoming, Kahan says, the "cultural cognition of harm." This is the phenomenon of cultural cognition, Kahan says, and he defines it this way:

Cultural cognition refers to a collection of psychological mechanisms that moor our perceptions of societal danger to our cultural values. In appraising societal risks, for example, we rely critically on value-pervaded emotions such as fear and disgust. To minimize dissonance, we more readily notice and recall instances of calamity that appear to be occasioned by behavior we abhor than by behavior we revere. here members of society disagree about the harmfulness of a particular form of conduct, we instinctively trust those who share our values -- and whose judgments…… [Read More]

Works Cited 

Hoar, William P. "Al Gore Takes the Prize." The New American 26 Nov. 2007: 42+. Questia. 28 Apr. 2008
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President Obama's Nobel Peace Prize

Words: 1730 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 221408

Indeed, arguably he is playing a little loose with the terms here, for persuasion, while it may be based on logic, is rarely simply logic. Rather it is logic combined with at least a coating of emotion.

In the following passage toward the end of his speech Obama uses language that I believe to be persuasive in a way in which Aristotle would approve, for Obama is using facts to build a case for his point-of-view rather than simply trading in emotion that he has called up for the occasion: This is not sophistry.

And that's why this award must be shared with everyone who strives for justice and dignity -- for the young woman who marches silently in the streets on behalf of her right to be heard even in the face of beatings and bullets; for the leader imprisoned in her own home because she refuses to abandon…… [Read More]

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Wiesel Nobel Lecture Wiesel's Nobel

Words: 2173 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7291606


Holocaust revisionism continues to be a major problem because of the ill-will between Arabs in Jews in the current Middle East. In fact, as recently as 2006, a major Arab power hosted a conference on the Holocaust. However, the purpose of the conference was not to address lingering effects of the Holocaust, like the pervasive anti-Semitism that plagues much of the world, but to provide support for the position that the Holocaust was a myth. This concept is central to Iran's political position regarding Israel. Iran maintains that Israel is not a legitimate country, and that its political existence has been justified by the myth of the Holocaust, which the estern world used to justify Israel's re-creation after orld ar II. (CNN). In fact, modern Holocaust deniers recast the issue as some type of Jewish conspiracy, and this conceptualization actually serves to increase worldwide anti-Semitism.

Of course, the lessons…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC. "Q&a: Sudan's Darfur Conflict." BBC. 2007. BBC. 1 Feb. 2007 .

CNN. "Iran Plans Holocaust Conference." CNN. 2006. Cable News Network LP, LLP. 1 Feb. 2007 . "Questions and Answers on 'Revisionism' and the Holocaust." 2006. Feb. 2007 .
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Ethics of Human Cloning in 1971 Nobel

Words: 3026 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65746623

Ethics of Human Cloning

In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).

Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.

The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.

Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
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Focus on a Specific Aspect

Words: 1359 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 96594595

lies for which we are truly punished are those we tell ourselves.

"It is wrong to have an ideal view of the world. That's where the mischief starts. That's where everything starts unravelling..."

"The world is what it is; men who are nothing, who allow themselves to become nothing, have no place in it."


Nobel Prize-winning author Naipaul published the story "One Out of Many in 2001." This story was published the same year as the terrorist attacks upon the World Trade Center in New York City. It is no coincidence that he published the story with the protagonist of South Asian, and stereotypically, terrorist descent during this year. The story is a somewhat familiar one, of a man, Santosh, from a foreign (to Americans) country when his life changes. The man he serves and works for receives a transfer to Washington D.C. What is familiar about Santosh's plight…… [Read More]


Naipaul, V.S. "One Out of Many." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. (ed) M.H. Abrams, et al. 7th edition, Vol. 2, 2722-2745. New York: Norton, 2000.
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Rewards for the Watchmen

Words: 1928 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 47329884

Watchman Award

Adrian Veidt (Ozymandias) Receives the Nobel Peace Prize

Five prizes are awarded by the Nobel committees each year, and probably the most memorable is the Nobel Peace Prize. Although the selection is sometimes controversial, the committee has specific directions from the founder himself regarding the quality of person he wished to receive this award. In devising how the specific prizes should be awarded, Nobel wrote specific language regarding each category. For the Nobel Peace Prize he said he wanted it to go "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses" (The Nobel Peace Prize). Thus, it is no wonder that the Peace Prize committee has awarded the prize to the man who is most responsible for the eradication of hostilities between the Soviet…… [Read More]

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Watson's the Double Helix and the Discovery of DNA Structure

Words: 2068 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89034252

atson and Crick

The fact that James atson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it had become clear that the riddle of DNA's structure would be solved through X-ray crystallography, while atson admits in the fourth chapter of The Double Helix that "I knew nothing about the X-ray diffraction techniques that dominated structural analysis" (atson 31). Moreover, some of the best scientists who did have a knowledge of X-ray crystallography -- like Linus Pauling in America and Rosalind Franklin in the UK -- were consciously working on the structure of DNA at the same time that atson and Crick got involved. Additionally, atson was extraordinarily young at the time of the discovery. Although Crick was "thirty-five, yet almost totally unknown" at the time of their collaboration (atson 7) but atson was born in 1928 and in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Smith, Hal. Lecture Notes, Humanities 4317. University of Houston-Victoria, 2014.

Watson, James D. The Double Helix. New York: Scribner Classics, 1998. Print.
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Exxon Valdez According to Pamela

Words: 435 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 11921156


List three objective facts about twins. Fraternal twins develop from two different fertilized ova from two different sperm; Identical twins develop when a fertilized ovum splits, and only fraternal twins can be different genders.

Facts about identical twins. (2003, May 26). Keep Kids Healthy. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at

List three subjective facts about twins

"Expecting parents often become indifferent" when asked if twins run in the family "after being asked it the first 40-50 times;" if twins do 'run in the family,' family members should help out, in case they themselves need the added assistance later on; families uncertain about their ability to handle twins should think twice about planning a family if twins run in the family, if they are contemplating fertility treatments, or if the mother is over age 35.

Facts about identical twins. (2003, May 26). Keep Kids Healthy. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at…… [Read More]

The Springer Spaniel is a member of the AKC (American Kennel Club) Sporting Group; was bred in English to flush out or 'spring' larger game for hunters, Springer has an outer coat and an undercoat which is water-resistant

English Springer Spaniel. (2009). AKC (American Kennel Club).

Retrieved October 20, 2009 at
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Beautiful Mind a Film

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96225476

Beautiful Mind" -- a Film

John Forbes Nash, Jr., an American Nobel Prize-winning mathematician, is such a notable individual that he is the subject of a book, a PBS documentary and a film. The film A Beautiful Mind (Crowe, et al. 2006) eliminates aspects of Nash's life and rewrites other aspects revealed in the book and documentary, possibly to make Nash a more sympathetic character for the audience. However, the film remains true to a consistent theme: in an individual's quest for satisfaction through self-fulfillment, the abnormal can also be the extraordinary.

The book and PBS documentary tell John Forbes Nash, Jr.'s story "from the outside looking in," immediately noting his abnormality in that he is a paranoid schizophrenic. The film takes a different approach, "from the inside looking out," so we experience the world as Nash experiences it and do not realize until half-way through the film that he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A Beautiful Mind. Directed by Ron Howard. Performed by Russell Crowe, Jennifer Connelly, Ed Harris and Paul Bettany. 2006.
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Culture Contributed to the Void

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35461067

President George W. Bush began two new wars during his time of office, and frequently used hyperbolic military rhetoric when giving speeches to the world. By awarding America's first African-American president a peace prize, the Nobel selection rewarded America's election of a more diplomatic president rather than Obama's actual accomplishments. This stamp of foreign 'approval' of American voting behavior caused a great deal of anger amongst Republicans.

Q3. Using conflict theory, discuss why we entered the war in Iraq.

Conflict theory is often associated with Marxism: it views all of human history as a series of conflicts between haves and have-nots, or different social classes. This is also seen on a global scale, whereby the 'haves' of the international community use their power and authority over the have-nots of the world. A conflict theorist would state that America entered Iraq to show its domination over the developing world, and the…… [Read More]

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Microfinance My Project Is to Open a

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58156004


My project is to open a microfinance bank, which specializes in low value, non-collateral loans for small business, typically in underprivileged parts of the world (, 2013). This will open in New York, serving people in the city's poorest communities, especially those struggling with unemployment. In some parts of the city, the annual median household income is below $10,000, and people in those communities become trapped in poverty (Venugopal, 2011). Microfinance was instituted by Grameen Bank in Bangladesh by Mohammed Yunus, who won a Nobel Peace Prize for the project (Grameen, 2013;, 2013). The project would utilize funds raised in New York's banking community to provide loans for people in New York's poorest areas, and to provide business skills training to help them to improve their earnings and standard of living.

Model and Competition

The business model of microfinance is different from that of a conventional bank. Microfinance…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bloomberg. (2013). Consumer interest rates. Bloomberg. Retrieved October 11, 2013 from 

Chen, G., Rasmussen, S. & Reille, X. (2010). Growth and vulnerabilities in microfinance.

Citigroup. (2013). Corporate citizenship: Microfinance. CITI. Retrieved October 11, 2013 from

Grameen. (2013). Grameen Bank: Bank for the poor. Retrieved October 11, 2013 from
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Introduce Ernest Hemingway

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66991475

Ernest Hemingway

There are a number of websites, books and articles on the life, experiences, and writings of Ernest Hemingway that depict the man as a womanizer, sometimes heavy drinker, and ultimately the tragic victim of a self-inflicted gunshot to the head. Though many of these sources attempt to shine different lights on Hemingway's life, most all agree that he was a prolific and profound writer of the written word.

Hemingway wrote in a myriad of ways including; short stories, novels, poetry and articles. He began his writing career as a journalist at the young age of 18. His first foray into the writing community was as a cub reporter for the Kansas City newspaper The Kansas City Star. Similar to the remainder of his life, he quickly became bored with covering local events, he yearned for much more. During his brief stint with the Star he covered the 15th…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Ernest Hemingway - Biography.", electronic, 23 May 2012 

Hulse, C., "Ernest Hemingway," Ernest Hemingway Reporter, 1999 -- 2006, electronic, 23 May, 2012,
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Eugene O'Neill & Desire Under

Words: 1563 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4187855

It was a love-hate situation, and he would be madly kissing her and letting her stir his carnal urges one moment, and the next he would loudly protest and pull away. So from that standpoint, Eben was changed after the death of the baby. He was not changed in a truly intelligent heart-felt way, but in a kind of acceptance that this is how it is (the current cliche, "It is what it is," fits in here perfectly). For Eben, it feels good to have sex with her, and anyway, being hateful and spiteful of his father, this incestuous affair with his father's wife is another way to get back at him.

The bottom line is that even before they are both punished for the crime of murder (not the crime of incest) Eben's naivete in terms of relationships is disgustingly obvious; he returns to Abbie after having bolted away…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Decades. "Eugene O'Neill." Retrieved May 29, 2012, from Gale Biography.

Contemporary Authors Online. "Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill." Retrieved May 29, 2012, from Gale Biography.

Mahfouz, Safi Mahmoud. "Tragic passion, romantic eloquence, and betrayal in Eugene O'Neill's

Desire Under the Elms." Studies in Literature and Language, 1.3 (2010): 1-12.
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Personhood Debate vs IVF in

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71572460

Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.

Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…… [Read More]


Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.

Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.

Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available: .
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Ahmed Zewail Dr Ahmed Zewail

Words: 817 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 58840709

Initially he busied himself with performing and publishing new research findings. Through this endeavor he expanded his knowledge of chemistry and physics. When he moved from Pennsylvania to California in 1974, he began to serve as a mentor to graduate students. While mentoring others, he himself began learning a lot more about his field of study from his academic peers.

Soon afterwards Dr. Zewail felt encouraged to apply to certain top positions at several American universities. It was during this time that he received the offer to serve as a director at CalTech. At his new position Dr. Zewail enthusiastically worked beside scientists from diverse social and cultural backgrounds. Besides serving in a leadership position to the hundreds of students and faculty members under him, Dr. Zewail not only inspired others to perform at their very best but was also himself inspired to learn and understand new advances in physics…… [Read More]

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Create a Budget Qualification Personnel

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 4602466

Medical Research Funding - Government vs. Private

Most research funding comes from two major sources: corporations and government. Some small amounts of scientific research are carried out by charitable foundations, especially in relation to developing cures for chronic diseases.

Government funding for medical research amounts to approximately 36% in the U.S. he government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social science and humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions government provides the bulk of the funds for basic scientific research. In commercial research and development, all but the most research-oriented corporations focus more heavily on near-term commercialization possibilities rather than ideas or technologies.

Government-funded research can either be carried out by the government itself, or through grants to academic and other researchers otside the government. Critics of basic research are concerned that research funding for the sake of knowledge itself does not contribute to a great…… [Read More]

The various members of HHMI that are filling key staff positions include: Robert Tjian (President), Craig Alexander (Vice President / General Council), and Sean Carroll (Vice President for Science Education). Robert Tjian has formal training as a biochemist and has been the President of HHMI since 2009. He received a Bachelor Degree from Berkeley and a PHD from Harvard University. The greatest contribution that Tjian has made to medical research is through his groundbreaking work, regarding how genes are turned on and off. Craig Alexander has acted as legal counsel for HHMI since 1994 and has been the Vice President since 2006. He has a Law Degree from the Georgetown University Law Center. Sean Carroll is in charge of Science Education for HHMI. He has been working as an HHMI investigator at the University of Wisconsin Madison, where he is a world famous biologist.

Partnerships and cooperating agencies include: 18 Nobel Prize winners, the National Academy of Sciences, and 335 HHMI investigators around the world. The various board members include: James Baker, Garnett Keith, Fred Lummis and Paul Nurse. All of the different individuals made annual contributions to the foundation.

HHMI Personnel Budget
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Compare and Contrast William Faulkner to Ernest Hemingway

Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10921739

Faulkner and Hemingway: Comparison

William Faulkner (1897-1962) and Ernest Hemingway (1898-1961) were contemporaries who chose to adopt writing style that was highly unique and totally different from many of other writers of their time. Both reached great heights of success and were awarded Nobel Prize for literature. Both Faulkner and Ernest were similar in many ways but there was something essentially different about their narration styles and the psychological influences, which their writings reflect. For example while Faulkner was totally obsessed with dark mysteries such as death and murder, Ernest created stories, which were closer to reality. That is the reason why latter received more appreciation for his work than Faulkner who was highly popular among those who enjoyed thrilling mysteries and dark adventures. But they were both totally original in their writing style and they are responsible for introducing unique powerful devices in literature. Ernest Hemingway enjoyed concealing important…… [Read More]


William Faulkner, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition, 2002

Ernest Hemingway, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition, 2002
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The American Friends and the Peace Movement

Words: 2337 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47374510

The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e., the Quakers) in Spring 1917. The link between AFSC and the Religious Society of Friends was always tenuous as the activism of the organization was something universal that many non-Quakers around the world could celebrate, while the actual tenets of Quakerism were not nearly as popular as the peace movement that the Religious Society of Friends took part in. Initially, the goals of the committee were limited; however, over the 20th century, AFSC epitomized the pacifist convictions and social-change driving forces of Philadelphia’s Quaker-led world-class fight for peace (Ingle, 2016). The AFSC essentially helped to support and come to the aid of the victims of war, whether they were Jewish, Russian, European, African, etc. (Frost, 1992). This paper will discuss the…… [Read More]

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Douglass C North North's Lecture

Words: 1699 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84568647

From an historical context, Douglass C. North's work represents a sea change in cultural and social policy, and has the potential to affect billions of people through a renewed sense of community and concern for cultural context. North has started a chain reaction that will likely result in the questioning of market forces and fundamentals that were once thought to be the bedrock of the economics field. His work, according to many of his colleagues is groundbreaking because it holds the potential for unlimited inclusion and understanding of how economies are changed by the very mental structures and cultural constructs that they operate in and around.

It would be very hard to logically oppose North's work, and the economists and philosophers that do will likely be cast aside as staunch supporters of a more imperialistic time when knowledge and economic constructs were thought to be unaffected and unchanged even when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

North, Douglass C. "Institutions and Economic Theory." American Economist, Vol. 36, 1992.

North, Douglass C. "Prize Lecture." Lecture to the memory of Alfred Nobel, 9 December 1993.

North, Douglass C. "Institutions Matter." Economic History, 25 Nov 1994. Print.
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American Politics

Words: 1840 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17814114

hearing the name of Nobel Prize Winner Sinclair Lewis, The Jungle often comes to mind first because of the impact this book made in its time and ever since. Yet, It Can't Happen Here should be judged just as -- if not more -- important than any of Lewis' books. The work, which describes what would happen if America voted in a dictator such as Stalin or Hitler to "save the day," clearly reflects the fears of Lewis' own time. It also strongly warns today's readers what could occur if civil society does not keep watchful.

The main story of It Can't Happen Here revolves around Doremus Jessup, a moderate 60-year-old epublican and editor of a small-town newspaper in Vermont. Everyone, including Jessup, said in 1935, "If there ever is a Fascist dictatorship here, American humor and pioneer independence are so marked that it will be absolutely different from anything…… [Read More]


Lewis, Sinclair. It Can't Happen Here. New York: New American Library, 1970.
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Beautiful Mind by Silvia Nasar The Real

Words: 3030 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42354423

Beautiful Mind by Silvia Nasar: The Real Story Of Schizophrenia

For anyone who has seen the film A Beautiful Mind John Nash comes across as a man troubled by schizophrenia, yet able to achieve success in his life. hile his illness does cause him significant problems, he is still able to achieve greatness via his game theory, to manage a long-lasting relationship where his wife loves him unconditionally, to achieve social acceptance where his colleagues accept his condition, and to receive the ultimate career achievement in winning the Nobel prize. The film even shows Nash succeeding over his schizophrenia and become able to control it and cure himself. This depiction presents Nash's story as one full of positives where his struggle with schizophrenia and his life is seen in a romantic light. To see the real truth of schizophrenia, it is better to read Sylvia Nasar's biography of Nash titled…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Herbert, R. "Drama in four acts: 'Beautiful Mind' author follows tragedy." The Boston Herald January 18, 2002: 14-15.

Nasar, S. A Beautiful Mind: The Life of Mathematical Genius and Nobel Laureate John Nash. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Nash, J. The Essential John Nash. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Seiler, A. "Beautiful' movie skips ugly truths." Chicago Sun-Times January 26, 2002: 71.
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Leone Nelly Sachs Was Born in Berlin

Words: 1874 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47254408

Leone Nelly Sachs was born in erlin on December 10, 1891. She was the only child of a wealthy erlin industrialist. The family lived in the Tiergartenviertel, a fashionable area of erlin. ecause of her family's wealth, Nelly was educated by private tutors her before she entered the erliner Hhere Tchterschule. She studied music and dancing, and at an early age began writing poetry. Her early love of literature came from home. Her preference was for the German Romantic writers.

At the age of 15 she began a correspondence friendship with the Swedish author Selma Lagerlf, which lasted some 35 years. Lagerlof would later win the Nobel Peace prize in 1909 and donate the gold medal to provide war relief to Finland when Stalin's troops attacked. This friendship would become important for Nelly in the years to come.

Nelly began writing poems by the age of seventeen in the traditional,…… [Read More]


NELLY SACHS., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition, 01-01-2002.

Langer, Lawrence. Art from the Ashes: A Holocaust Anthology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Schiff, Hilda. Holocaust Poetry. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Nelly Sachs - Autobiography. 4/27/02. Nobel eMuseum. .
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Hans Kreb Sir Hans Adolf

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54350663

Through his study of oxidation and the enzymatic processes, he accomplished a major achievement, discovering the citric acid cycle as a way of oxidizing carbohydrate. The cycle breaks down fatty acids and creates other substances. The cycle is present in all forms of life from the single cell bacteria and protozoa up to complex mammals. The discovery of this common way of creating energy among life forms may help explain the origin of all forms of life in the evolutionary process. His discovery may also be utilized in creating new sources of energy and transforming one kind of foodstuff which may be useless, such as orange peels, into useful food sources, such as dog food (which is now done). Enzymes speed up biochemical processes, so may be used in antibiotics that fight infection, and household cleaners that break down fat in stains or on surfaces. Enzymes are used in meat…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nobel Prize. "Hans Krebs, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953, Nobel prize. Website: 1981. /nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1953/krebs-bio.html.

Krebs, Hans. Physiology or Medicine 1942-1962, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1964.

Krebs, Hans. The Citric Acid Cycle. Nobel Lecture, 11 Dec 1953.
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Finance and Financial Entrepreneurship The Basis of

Words: 11684 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49018616

finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…… [Read More]


Altman, E.I., ed. The High-Yield Debt Market: Investment Performance and Economic Impact, 41-57. 1990.

Atkinson, T.R. Trends in Corporate Bond Quality. Hardingson, 1967.

Goodfriend, Marvin; Parthemos; James, Summers, Bruce J. Recent financial innovations: courses, consequences for the payments system, and implications for monetary control, Economic Review, March 14-27, 1980

Schneider, S.H. Laboratory Earth: The Planetary Gamble We Can't Afford to Lose. Basic Books New York, NY. 1997.
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Change the Writings of Dr

Words: 2998 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6496899

If this is to be achieved, man must evolve for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, aggression and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love. The tortuous road which has led from Montgomery, Alabama to Oslo bears witness to this truth. This is a road over which millions of Negroes are traveling to find a new sense of dignity… [so] I accept this aware today with an abiding faith in America and an audacious faith in the future of mankind. I refuse to accept despair as the final response to the ambiguities of history…I refuse to accept the cynical notion that nation after nation must spiral down a militaristic stairway into the hell of thermonuclear destruction" (King, 1964).

On the subject of war, King received quite a bit of criticism when he came out against the war in Vietnam. On April 4, 1967, exactly one year…… [Read More]

Works Cited

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Acceptance Speech / Nobel Peace Prize 1964." Retrieved Dec. 6,

2009, from .

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail [King, Jr.]." African Studies Center

University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2009, from
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Double Helix the Book the

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94830406

He smiled and nodded his head when I first explained that to him.

One day when atson was doing his research in Copenhagen working on his DNA discoveries, he received some journal articles that I had written, that were sent over from the U.S. He later told me when we met in London that he did not understand everything I was saying in the language of lab chemistry, but that he liked some of my interesting sentences. He said that when he writes his book to tell the world how he discovered the DNA secrets, he would write it in a way that would be fun to read even for a person not up to speed in deep math and chemistry. e exchanged letters in Europe in 1952 and agreed to meet.

During our meeting at a coffee house in London, atson and I were joined by atson's sister Elizabeth.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Watson, James D. (1980). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York W.W. Norton & Company.
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Thomas Hunt Morgan Was an

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8626006

In 1910, Morgan publicly disagreed with the prevailing notion in embryology, that a fully-formed adult was already locked inside the ova or sperm cell. Rather, Morgan argued that there was no single chromosome that guaranteed the heredity of specific traits (Shine and robel 1976).


In 1903, Morgan accepted the first professorship in experimental zoology at Columbia University. He moved his family to New York and began to work in genetics, fueled by his interest in the gaps in the work of Darwin and Mendel. During this time, scientist Hugo De Vries, a geneticist, revisited the work of Mendel and again proposed that new species were created as a result of mutations. Morgan then set out to prove De Vries' theory, using his now-famous Drosophila experiment.

Morgan used X-rays to mutate samples of Drosophila and cross-bred the mutants to regular samples. In 1910, Morgan found a male fly with white…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, G.E. 2000. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978

Kandel, Eric. 1999. "Genes, Chromosomes, and the Origins of Modern Biology." Columbia Magazine. Fall 1999.

Morgan, Thomas Hunt. 2002. Embryology and Genetics. New York: Agrobios.

Shine, I. And Wrobel, S. 1976. Thomas Hunt Morgan: Pioneer of Genetics. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky
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Social Enterprise What Is Meant by the

Words: 2339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9807950

Social Enterprise

What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?

The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).

In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…… [Read More]


Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.

Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
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Poetry and Nationalism Rabindranath Tagore

Words: 1363 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27559443

Rabindranath Tagore

When we consider the career of Rabindranath Tagore as a "nationalist leader," it is slightly hard to find comparable figures elsewhere in world-history. Outside of India, Tagore is most famous as a poet: he won the 1913 Nobel Prize for Literature for his engali poetry collection Gitanjali. Perhaps the closest contemporary analogue to Tagore would be the Irish poet and "nationalist leader" W.. Yeats, who would win the Nobel Prize for Literature ten years after Tagore. Ironically enough, it was Yeats who introduced Tagore to Europe, quite literally -- the English translation of Gitanjali had an introduction by Yeats recommending Tagore in the highest possible terms to European readers. And Yeats was a "nationalist leader" in the same way as Tagore: Yeats, after all, believed that his own poetry and drama in favor of Irish independence had inspired the 1916 Irish "Easter Rebellion" against the ritish Empire, and…… [Read More]


Guha, Ramachandra. Makers of Modern India. Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

Metcalf, Barbara, and Metcalf, Thomas. A Concise History of India. London: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
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Adaptive Immunity & Blood Groups Types

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18877685

"The antigens are located on the surface of the red blood cells and the antibodies are in the blood plasma. Individuals have different types and combinations of these molecules" (Blood group, 2010, Nobel Prize).

The ABO and h classifications of blood type are the most important systems of differentiation from a medial perspective. The mismatching of these types can cause the immune system to attack the cells in a hostile fashion during a transfusion. "Mixing incompatible blood groups leads to blood clumping or agglutination, which is dangerous for individuals. The clumped red cells can crack and cause toxic reactions. This can have fatal consequences" (Blood group, 2010, Nobel Prize).

"There are two antigens and two antibodies that are mostly responsible for the ABO types. The specific combination of these four components determines an individual's type

(O'Neil 2009). However, "individuals with type O blood do not produce ABO antigens which mean…… [Read More]


Blood group, blood type. (2001, December). Nobel Prize. Retrieved February 11, 2010 at /educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/readmore.html" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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International Marketing Country Study

Words: 3531 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38171595

International Marketing -- South Korea Country Study

The primordial question at the basis of this study revolves around the attractiveness of South Korea to American investors. Otherwise put, is this country able to determine the American investor to launch business operations in this global part? In order to answer the posed question, a series of analyses will be conducted. Some of these will refer to the general context, whilst others will detail specific issues.

The country is located in the eastern part of Asia; enjoys a temperate climate and owns less than 20% arable land. South Korea is characterized by a tormented historic past, which explains well the differences emerged between the two regions of the Korean Peninsula. The total population of the country exceeds 48 million, and their life expectancy at birth is of almost 79 years. The interactions with the South Koreans are generally formal and follow protocols,…… [Read More]


Gonzales, J., Sherer, T.E., 2004, The Compete Idiot's Guide to Geography, 2nd Edition, Alpha Books

1992, A Country Study: South Korea, American Memory for the Library of Congress,  last accessed on November 25, 2009

2008, South Korea, Industry Canada, last accessed on November 25, 2009

2009, Definition of Current Account Balance, Economics About,  last accessed on November 25, 2009
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People From History That Impacted the World

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92264298

People From History That Impacted the World in a Positive Way

Three People from History

Three People from History who impacted the World in a Positive Way

Ross Granville Harrison (1807 -- 1959)

Ross Granville Harrison was an American zoologist. He is known for his discovery of a method of growing cells outside of the body. In his famous experiment carried out in 1906 he placed a piece of a frog's embryonic nerve tissue into a drop of frog lymphatic fluid, and saw that the nerve tissue did not die, but rather continued to grow. (Ross Granville Harrison) The method that Harrison developed from this experiment was to form the foundation of the tissue culture technique used in modern medicine and in medical research. This technique has become an extremely important part of contemporary medical research as it allows for "…the study of isolated living cells in a controlled environment."…… [Read More]


Alexander Fleming (1881-1955). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.

Beale, Norman, and Elaine Beale. "Evidence-based Medicine in the Eighteenth Century: the Ingen Housz-jenner Correspondence Revisited." Medical History 49.1 (2005): 79+. Questia. Web. 18 Nov. 2010.

Edward Jenner (1749-1823). Web. 18 Nov. 2010.
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Oppression Community Action Against Racial

Words: 1793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86000860

Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked about various strategies, they ultimately aim to deter the effects and eliminate completely the occurrence of oppression in the society.

Reflecting on the significant contributions of each individual to the progress of the civil rights movement and educational reform in the history of American society, it is evident that there cannot be one superior or best strategy that must be adopted to eliminate or deter oppression. What these readings and analyses of the works of Malcolm X, King, and Freire say about social change is that history provides us with various ways or perspectives to find a solution to a problem; each insight is helpful to the improvement of social changes in society. Freire's critical analysis of the educational system is…… [Read More]


Freire, P. (1990). "The Banking Concept of Education." In Ways of Reading. Boston: St. Martin's Press, Inc.

King, M.L. (1964). "Martin Luther King -- Acceptance Speech." Available at /peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html.

Malcolm X (1964). "The Ballot or the Bullet." Available at .
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Henry Thomas Buckle's Original 1858

Words: 12518 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 99981281

As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).

In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…… [Read More]


American Health Information Management Association. (2012). Wikipedia. Retrieved from American_Health_Information_Management_Association" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Labor and the American Economy

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49526952

This implies that an increase in the wage of one member of the household gives rise not only to changed incentives for work on the market, but also to a shift from more to less time-intensive product on and consumption of goods produced by the household. But as noted by the Nobel-prize winning 20th century University of Chicago economist Gary Becker, as real wages increase, along with the possibilities of substituting capital for labor in housework, labor is released in the household, so that it becomes more and more uneconomical to let one member of the household specialize wholly in household production (for instance, child care). As a result, some of the family's previous social and economic functions are shifted to other institutions such as firms, schools and other public agencies. This creates more jobs, but also means that more luxury jobs may become necessities, such as maids. (Gary Becker,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gary S. Becker. (2004) Nobel Prize. Official Website. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at
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Robert A Mundel Is a

Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59992996

The research also found that Mundel has one several awards including a Nobel prize in 1999.

The discussion also included a synopsis of his contribution to economics. We found that Mundel has contributed greatly to economics with the theory of optimum currency areas. He has also aided in the development of several other economic theories and the currency known as the Euro. The research suggests that Mundel is extremely committed to understanding and explains economic theories and developments.

Robert a. Mundell. 26 Nov. 2004

Who is R.A.M. 26 Nov. 2004

ohen, Benjamin J. Organizing the World's Money: The Political Economy of International Monetary Relations. New York: Basic Books, 1977.

ohn, heryl L. "ooperative Learning in a Macroeconomics ourse." ollege Teaching 47.2 (1999): 51.

Grauwe, Paul de, ed. The Economics of Monetary Integration. Third ed. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Young, Warren. Interpreting Mr.…… [Read More]

Cohn, Cheryl L. "Cooperative Learning in a Macroeconomics Course." College Teaching 47.2 (1999): 51. 

Grauwe, Paul de, ed. The Economics of Monetary Integration. Third ed. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1997. 

Young, Warren. Interpreting Mr. Keynes: The Is-Lm Enigma. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
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Ethical Practice the Foundations of

Words: 2674 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51767911

The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.

Harvey, William. Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy: An Annotated Translation of Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis. Trans C.D. O'Malley, F.N.L. Poynter, and K.F. Russell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961.

Jecker, Nancy S. "Knowing When to Stop: The Limits of Medicine." The Hastings Center Report 21.3 (1991): 5.

Marble, Annie Russell. The Nobel Prize Winners in Literature. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.
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Eliza Doolittle and Her Problems

Words: 2383 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91512210

Eliza Doolittle and Her Problems

At the outset one has to understand that Eliza Doolittle is a character created by George Bernard Shaw, a famous English playwright and to understand her we have to start with Shaw. He was the third and the youngest child of George Carr Shaw, and Lucinda Shaw. He was supposed to have been part of the Protestant group that was rising in England at that time, but he did not succeed in life. He was first prematurely pensioned off from his civil servant job and then he became a grain merchant. Even in that he was not successful and that led to George Bernard Shaw being raised in an atmosphere of genteel poverty. This was felt to be more insulting by him than being poor.

Yet Shaw developed well and became well versed in music, art, and literature. This was due to the influence of…… [Read More]


George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950. Retrieved from  Accessed on 26 May, 2005

Guthrie Theater: Study Guides. Retrieved from ; id_study_category=3 Accessed on 26 May, 2005

Pygmalion. Retrieved from Accessed on 26 May, 2005

Shaw, George Bernard. Britannica Nobel Prizes. Retrieved from  Accessed on 26 May, 2005
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Henderson the Rain King

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88585044

Saul Bellow

Henderson the Rain King

Saul Bellow was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976 for, among other things, the ability to give values a place side by side with facts in literature, unlike realism. The import of his work was seen as creating awareness that only the right values can give human kind freedom and responsibility, necessary foundations for building of faith in the future and a desire for action. Bellow's work was also recognized for its unique mixture of philosophy, cultural analysis and deep insights into human consciousness (The Nobel Foundation eb site).

Henderson the Rain King is an archetypical Bellow work bearing all the aforesaid characteristics. Henderson, the novel's principal character sets out on a journey ostensibly to Africa but primarily in search of himself. Bellow's portrayal of the unhappy, discontented middle-aged American millionaire has been widely interpreted as a caricature of Americans in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About The Declaration of Independence." The Library of Congress. July 1, 1997. Retrieved October 9, 2003:

Bellow, Saul. "Henderson the Rain King." New York: Viking, 1959.

Brutus. "First Anti-Federalist Paper." 18 October, 1787. Fortune City Web Site. Retrieved October 9, 2003: 

Charters of Freedom: Declaration of Independence." The National Archives
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Words: 1853 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60734173


Svenska Akademien informs the public in its press release from the 0th of October, 2002, that "The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2002 is awarded to the Hungarian writer Imre Kertesz "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history."

One could say it was Fate. We know one cannot fight against Fate. It's implacable, its useless to try to change the course of things as long as there is Fate leading mankind to its way. A unique way.

Was it Fate that made him win the Nobel Prize so that the whole world can find out about his novel? This semi-autobiographical novel where he tells us about living as a Jewish teenager under the Holocaust was meant for the world to look back at that time of World War II, through the eyes of a 4 years old boy who is…… [Read More]

1. Imre Kertesz. Fateless 2. Imre Kertesz. Fateless, Reviewed by Gyrgy Uri Kozma, published by Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL 1992

3. Imre Kertesz. Fateless reviewed by, K. Barnhart, on the

4. The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002 - Press Release, 10th of October 2002, available on the
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Cuban Five Criminals or Antiterrorist

Words: 3160 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81834807

Cuban Five -- Criminals or Antiterrorists

The Cuban Five

Why the Trial Was Unfair

The Aftermath of the Trial

The Implications of This Trial on the elations between Cuba and the U.S.A.

Cuban Five as Criminals

The Five as Antiterrorists

Whether the Cuban Five are terrorists or not has to be seen from an international perspective that is impartial and takes into consideration the viewpoints of the Cubans as well as the Americans. The question has gained particular relevance in light of the international protests that consider the Cuban Five as antiterrorists and not criminals. According to obert Pastor the National Security Adviser for Latin America in President Jimmy Carter's time:

"Holding a trial for five Cuban intelligence agents in Miami is about as fair as a trial for an Israeli intelligence agent in Tehran. You'd need a lot more than a good lawyer to be taken seriously."

This says…… [Read More]


Campbell, D. (2008, January 9). Society has Become More Punitive. The Guardian .

Denny, P. (1993). UNITED STATES: Cuban Five ruling a "travesty of justice." Retrieved December 10, 2011, from Green 

Mears, B. (2009, Janaury 30). 'Cuban Five' file appeal with Supreme Court . Retrieved December 10, 2011, from CNN:

Nobel prize winner and 110 British demand the Cuban Five's liberation. (2006, February 9). Retrieved December 10, 2011, from
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Treaty of Lisbon Is the

Words: 7187 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88201439

Six weeks later the Czech Republic became the 27th and final nation to sign the Treaty. On December 2, 2009 the Lisbon Treaty went into full effect one month prior to the date originally projected.

Ratification Procedure

The driving force behind the drafting and ratification of the Lisbon Treaty was German Chancellor Merkel. When she assumed her six-month presidency of the European Union in January of 2007 she was determined to effect a change in how the Union was operated. At the European Council meeting in June of 2007 she was able to convince other EU leaders to join her in amending the treaties under which the Union operated. A prior attempt at organizing the Union under a constitution had failed and so it was believed that proceeding under the treaty procedure would be more acceptable to the other member states. The constitution concept had been rejected several other times…… [Read More]



Bale, T., the End of the nation-state?. In European Politics: A Comparative Introduction, 2nd edit., Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan (2008).

Cini, M. & Borragan, N.P, European Union Politics, Oxford, Oxford University Press (2010)

Dedman, M., the Origins & Development of the European Union 1945-2008: A History of European Integration, London, Routledge Publishing (2009)
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Beautiful Mind the Film a

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47797651

He also has hallucinations about being followed by a federal agent, in keeping with his academic world where the government seeks on the one hand to employ mathematicians and scientists and on the other hand mistrusts them. Many of the encounters he has in his mind with this agent and others have the aura of a detective movie, showing that Nash is replaying films he has seen and that these serve as the inspiration for his visions. In a way, that serves as another pattern in his mind, linking what he saw in the theater with what he believes is happening to him. Nothing comes out of whole cloth but always comes from experience and is then reformed in a form it did not have in reality.

In this way, the film shows the viewer the kind of world experienced by the schizophrenic and why this world is disorienting and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Howard, Ron. A Beautiful Mind. Universal Pictures, 2001.

Scott, a.O. "From Math to Madness, and Back." The New York Times (21 Dec 2001). May 5, 2008. .
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Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98400734

Bohr's work on the structure of atoms was awarded in 1922 with the Nobel Prize. After 1930, the activities within his Institute were increasingly focused on the constitution, transmutations, and disintegrations of atomic nuclei, and further developed an understanding of nuclear fission permitted by the "liquid droplet theory." These activities formed the basis for important theoretical investigations of nuclear physics that followed.

Problems encountered with quantum physics were clarified through contributions to the field made by Bohr. In particular, Bohr developed the "concept of complimentarily," whereby he demonstrated how the scientific outlook of the general populace has been greatly affected by changes in the field of physics, and how the scope of atomic physics reaches throughout all facets of human knowledge.

Bohr escaped to Sweden during the Nazi occupation of Denmark, and later spent the last couple of years of World War II in England and America. At this time,…… [Read More]


Niels Bohr - the Nobel Prize in Physics 1922." Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1965. Retrieved 2/10/2007 at /nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1922/bohr-bio.html.

Thomsen, Dietrick E. "Going Bohr's Way in Physics - Niels Bohr's Centennial." Science News 11 January 1986.
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Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for

Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23652968

S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…… [Read More]


Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
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Person's Perception Changes Their Reality by Comparing

Words: 1756 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34381801

person's perception changes their reality, by comparing the two stories "In a grove" from ashomon by yunosuke Akutagawa and "A thousand cranes" by Yasunari Kawabata

Akutagawa yunosuke, born in the year 1892, was a short story writer and a poet and an essayist, who was also one of the first few Japanese writers whose works happened to be translated into English. He was a perfectionist, and an extremely stylish one at that, and he often wrote on macabre themes. The author was born in Tokyo, which is famous for its rich and varied cultural heritage, and this heritage is reflected to a great extent in all his writings. Akutagawa yunosuke style of writing has been described as being highly expressive and explicit, and this is usually in evidence when he describes sensations, like for example, he describes the touch of a butterfly's wings and said that for many years afterwards,…… [Read More]


Akutagawa Ryunosuke. Retrieved From  Accessed on 9 March, 2005

Akutagawa Ryunosuke: (1892-1927). Retrieved From Accessed on 9 March, 2005
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Psychological Themes and Symbolism in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79013723

As Hemingway also states,.".. The old man always thought of her as feminine and as something that gave or withheld great favors, and if she did wild or wicked things it was because she could not help them. The moon affects her as it does a woman, he thought" (30). Moreover, to Santiago, there is something magical about the sea. By contrast, the younger fishermen, those who laugh at Santiago's bad luck, think of her only pragmatically, unromantically, as a means of commerce.

Despite his persistent streak of bad luck, Santiago still tells himself to fish the best he can, out of respect to the sea, and himself. "I could just drift, he thought, and put a bight of line around my toe to wake me. But today is eighty-five days and I should fish the day well" (p. 41). As he fishes, alone but determined, Santiago identifies with some…… [Read More]

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Prions Proteinaceous Infectious Particles Recent Cases of

Words: 2056 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79151408


Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"

Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.

Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…… [Read More]


Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at -

Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April

21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures

Web site:
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History of MRI

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28873916

History of Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI)

Getting an MI scan may someday become as common as getting an X-ray. - Davis Meltzer, 1987

According to Gould (2004), on July 3, 1977, an event took place that would forever alter the landscape of modern medicine, although outside the scientific research community, this event hardly attracted any notice at all. The event in question was the first MI exam ever performed on a human being. The procedure required almost five hours to produce one image, and the images were, by today's standards, very primitive (this first MI machine now occupies a special niche in the Smithsonian); however, its successors number if the thousands today (Gould, 2004). The advent of the MI clearly represented the beginnings of a new standard in noninvasive radio imaging that continues to be refined. This paper provides the background and history of magnetic resonance imaging, including its discovery…… [Read More]


Albertine, K. (2001). Anatomica. Willoughby, NSW, Australia: Global Book Publishing.

Gould, T.A. (2004). How MRI Works. (2004). How Stuff Works. Available: .

Hornak, J.P. (2002). The Basics of MRI. Available: .

Ioannidis, J.P. & Lau, J. (April 5, 2002). FDG-PET for the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcoma. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Available: .
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Compare Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910

Words: 2497 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75167778

Vienna and Paris

in the Decade 1900-1910

Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910

Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the orld. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the orld's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloy, M. (2011, January 5). The third republic: 1870-1914. Retrieved from Web site: 

Bonyhady, T. (2011). Good living street: portrait of a patron family, Vienna 1900 . New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Brandstatter, C. (2006). Vienna 1900: art, life & culture. New York, NY: Vendome Press.

George, H.S. (2008). Paris 1900. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City Museum of Art.
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Aung San Suu Kyi

Words: 4111 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87489305

Aung San Suu Kyi

comparison between Aung San Suu Kyi and Rosa Parks

Both Aung San Suu Kyi and Rosa Parks have become enduring and vivacious symbols of the civil rights movements in their respective countries. By refusing to give up her seat to a white person and to move to the back of the bus, Parks ignited a firestorm of race-related protests that galvanized civil rights crusades of later leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. And Malcolm X In the beginning, Parks was not a civil rights leader. She was a citizen who had decided to take a stand against the social oppression that was predominant against African-American people.

Like Parks, Suu Kyi did not start out as a leader of the Burmese people. Though she had an influential father, Suu Kyi was living in England with her family prior being involved in Burma's fight against the military regime.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clements, Alan.

We are still prisoners in our own country: An interview with Aung San Suu Kyi." The Humanist. Nov/Dec 1997. 57(6). Proquest Database.

Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Can Burma Reform?" Foreign Affairs. Nov/Dec 2002. 81(6). Proquest Database.

Myoe, Maung Aung. "The national reconciliation process in Myanmar." Contemporary Southeat Asia. 2002. 24(2). Proquest Database.
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Psychology of Learning Summarize a

Words: 987 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 58308838

The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.

Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)

3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.

1. To treat drug abuse

This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crooked Brains. (2012, December 29). 20 Creative Smirnoff Advertisments. Retrieved from Crooked Brains: 

Experiment Resouirces. (N.d.). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Experiment Resources: 

Prize, N. (2001, May 15). Pavlov's Dog. Retrieved from Nobel Prize:
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Grapes Wrath the Depression Era

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 49361308

For two years prior to the publication of the Grapes of rath, Steinbeck spent his time with a group of migrant workers making their way towards California. Travelling and working with the laborers, Steinbeck found the heartfelt material in which to base his book." (Cordyack, 1) This shows in his gritty but sympathetic portrayal of the American working class.

This is an idea which illuminates perhaps the most important of parallels between the national experience during the Great Depression and the experience that the film portrays through the Joads upon their arrival to California. Namely, the capitalist system which has brought much pride and affluence to America's industrialists, and which somewhat questionably proclaims the opportunity for all to rise through an effective manipulation of the system, is the clear and declared enemy of the Grapes of rath. The inhumanity which is demonstrated by the banks and the bulldozers which reinforced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cordyack, B. (2005). John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath. 20th Century American

Bestsellers; UIUC Graduate School of Library and Information Services.

Text can be retrieved here:
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Ethics and the Environment One of the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 1698271

Ethics and the Environment

One of the most eminent challenges societies around the world is to find practical and economic ways to bring the benefits of economic growth to the developing world without damaging the environment. Whereas Beijing is the number one in the least of air polluters, Mexico City, the world's second largest city ranks on place four of the megacities with the most polluted air of any major metropolitan area in the world. There should be a combined consecutive approach of scientists and politicians guided by principles of ethics in government to make to transform the recommendations the scientific world operative.

I have chosen to review the following articles: Platt, Holden K. (9 July 2009) on "Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World." Platt wrote this article for the "National Geographic News" which is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society, based in Washington, D.C., USA. Existing since…… [Read More]

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Singer Isaac Bashevis Singer and

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27784127

(Singer Centennial, 2004)

Singer's family was quite poor, despite its religiously and socially prominent status. He later said that his early life was a constant education in the rough texture of humanity, as well as the struggle of common Jews. Gimpel, for instance, is "a gullible man who responds to a lifetime of betrayal, heckling, and deception with childlike acceptance and complete faith." "Though aware of his own suffering," Gimpel "is never cynical or resentful. No matter what mishap may befall him, "he retains a steadfast belief in human goodness. He accepts life as it unfolds, with all its paradoxes, "even enduring the constant and flagrant infidelities" of his wife. "Her deathbed confession that none of her children were fathered by him does not alter his love for the children. Gimpel is able to resist the Devil's temptations to take revenge against his deceivers only after Elka's ghost materializes, urging…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Isaac Bashevis Singer: Biography" Nobel 4 Oct. 2004. /literature/laureates/1978/singer-bio.html

Isaac Bashevis Singer: Life and Works." Singer Centennial. 2000. 4 Oct. 2004.

Saltzman, Arthur M. "Singer, Isaac Bashevis." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 4 Oct. 2004., 1997. 4 Oct. 2004.
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Hemingway Eichmann Stranger in a

Words: 2643 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42408228

With him, this vital energy goes its own way, independent of the pessimism and the disillusionment so typical of the age.' Hemingway did not go to the awards ceremony due to illness, some time before that same year his plane crashed and he lived to read his own obituaries. y then he was already experiencing the results of his fast paced lifestyle and at the end of his life he dealt with sicknesses such as mental depression, and eventually a form of paranoia. This was written of his last days 'After Hemingway began talking of suicide his Ketchum doctor agreed with Mary that they should seek expert help. He registered under the name of his personal doctor George Saviers and they began a medical program to try and repair his mental state. The Mayo Clinic's treatment would ultimately lead to electro shock therapy. According to Jefferey Meyers Hemingway received "between…… [Read More]


1. We didn't start the Fire, Billy Joel, 

2. Frederick W. Turner III, 1971

3. Morgan Kathryn, Associate Director for Special Collections Alderman Library, University of Virginia / Charlottesville, Virginia / 22903

4. Shelton Robert, Bob Dylan: "20-year-old singer is bright new face at Gerde's Club" September 29, 1961 New York Times.