Norms Essays (Examples)

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Social Norm Violation

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63639186

A busy coffee shop I visit has a self-bussing policy. Most people dutifully clean up after themselves and I do not think I have noticed any time where someone left their dirty dishes behind. For this exercise, i decided to violate the norm by leaving my dirty dishes on the table.
Because I did not want to make a bad impression on the staff of a place I enjoy visiting, I told the barista that I was going to leave without bussing my table. The look on her face told me that I was breaking a social norm simply by telling her this, which added an interesting dimension to the exercise. She seemed puzzled that I would tell her something so directly, for something as frivolous as not putting away a mug and a plate.
However, I wanted to focus on the main norm violation to see if other people…… [Read More]

References



Bernhard, H., Fehr, E. & Fischbacher, U. (2006). Group affiliation and altruistic norm enforcement. The American Economic Review 96(2): 217-221.

Mu, Y., Kitayama, S., Han, S. & Gelfand, M.J. (2015). How culture gets embrained. PNAS 112(50): 15348–15353

Spitzer, M., Fischbacher, U., Hermberger, B., et al (2007). The neural signature of social norm compliance. Neuron 56(1): 185-196.

 


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Norm Violation Noticing How People

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43686305



The second time, I sat down next to a woman who was sitting alone. The woman turned and looked directly at me and furrowed her brow just a bit as she was turning away. I could hear her sigh as she shifted over dramatically as if to avoid being too close. She was reading a book and listening to headphones. Although she glared at me at first, she refused to look up until her stop came, at which point she stood up. I decided to take the experiment one step further, by looking directly at her and smiling before getting up to let her out.

The results of the experiment were mostly what I expected, except I did not predict such a nonchalant reaction from the man. The woman acted as predicted: she grew noticeably uncomfortable almost to the point where I believed she might have moved away from me…… [Read More]

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Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests Including

Words: 498 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63977475

For example, at the end of a history class' unit on the Revolutionary ar, a summative test would asses how much the student had retained about this critical period in the nation's history. It would measure the student's effort and the teacher's relative success in imparting knowledge to the student.

In contrast, a formative assessment like a quiz measures what is currently being taught in class. It measures the student's learning as a work-in-progress, to show the teacher what the student does or does not understand. It functions as a potential wake-up call for the student, in terms of his or her present state of learning. In math or foreign language classes, it is essential the teacher knows if the student is uncertain about a particular concept, given how learning is scaffolded upon previous knowledge in these subjects. Formative assessments are particularly critical in these two areas of teaching.

Survey…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Types of tests. (2009). Education Oasis. Retrieved September 16, 2009 at http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/assessment/typestests.htm
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Sex Gender Norm Violation Project

Words: 1257 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62301022

Gender Norms

Blake

Gender Norm Violation Project

One of the norms associated with the female gender is that females tend to be considerate rather than tough. Being tough and putting business before people is a quality expected of a male. The opposite of putting people before business and being considerate is a quality expected of a female. One of the situations this gender difference is seen in the workplace is in meetings where problems with either partners or customers are discussed. In discussing what to do about these problems, males tend to be focused on solving the problem, while females tend to add to the discussion concerns about why people might act like they do. This is an example of a situation where people have been observed acting as the gender norms would predict. To consider gender norms and what happens when they are violated, I decided to break this…… [Read More]

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Sociological Significance of Norm Breaking

Words: 2470 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73464837

Social Norms and Personal Space

hen people think of communication, they usually think in terms of spoken conversations and words. However, a significant amount of communication occurs on a non-verbal level. The tones and inflections of speech, a person's body language and the proximity between two conversing people are all rife with meaning and messages.

Because of these meanings, non-verbal communication is also governed by unspoken social norms. This paper examines the norms of proximity during interpersonal communication and the effects of breaking these norms.

Norms of proximity

In his seminal work The Silent Language, anthropologist Edward T. Hall (1959) explored how body language and other forms of non-verbal behavior regulate much of interpersonal communication. Among the norms he studied were proxemics, the typical distances people maintained during face-to-face interactions.

Though the concept of proxemics varied across and within various cultures, Hall found four general distance categories people used during…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goffman, Erving. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Penguin Books, 1959.

Hall, Edward. 1959. The Silent Language. New York: Doubleday.
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How the Bible Is a Norm for the Christian Faith

Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40189967

Bible is a Norm for the Christian Faith

Most religions are alike in a number of ways. For instance, like is the case in Islam, Christian faith and practice is founded on a number of rules, principles, and guidelines -- most of which are derived from the holy bible. With regard to Muslims, it is the Quran that acts as a compass as far as the faith of those who subscribe to Islam is concerned. This text highlights how the bible is a norm for the Christian faith.

To understand how the bible is a norm for the Christian faith, we need to first define the term "norm" as used in this context. In basic terms, for something to be regarded a "norm," it should ideally be used as a basis or reference point for something else. For instance, for a structure to hold up in construction work, a norm…… [Read More]

References

Arinze, F.C. (2006). Celebrating the Holy Eucharist. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.

Wustenberg, R.K. (2009). The Political Dimension of Reconciliation: A Theological Analysis of Ways of Dealing with Guilt During the Transition to Democracy in South Africa and (East) Germany. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
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Mythical Norm When One Examines

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78310917

What is interesting though is that by adding in another subordinate class- homosexuals- the impact changes once more, as lesbian women have less need to access contraceptives than straight women.

I have to admit that I find it difficult to relate to subordinate categories. I am male, white, and, while not wealthy, I am also not poor. I also happen to Christian and straight, though neither of those characteristics is necessarily visible by bystanders who happen to observe me. I have heard about white privilege, but I cannot say that I have ever personally known that I was experiencing preferential treatment of any type because I am white or male. However, I think that is the dangerous part of being a member of the dominant group, particularly when one is a member of multiple dominant groups- the danger that one thinks that one's personal experiences are universal experiences because those…… [Read More]

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Early Childhood Norm-Referenced vs Criterion-Referenced Test a

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50992852

Early Childhood

Norm-referenced vs. criterion-referenced test

A norm-referenced test is an assessment that usually brings out an estimate of the position of the person who is being tested in a population that is predefined with the focus being the trait that is being measured. The estimate is normally obtained from analyzing the test scores as well as other data which is got from the population and is relevant .in this type of assessment there is identification of whether the person who is taking the test is better or worse than the other people who are also taking the test. However this assessment is not used to determine whether the person who is taking the test knows more or less than the requirement. Criterion referenced test is an assessment involves translating test scores into statements regarding the expected behavior of an individual who has attained a particular score or how they…… [Read More]

References

Dannielle.(2008). Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Testing.Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://www.altalang.com/beyond-words/2008/05/22/norm-referenced-vs.-criterion-referenced-language-tests/

Robert, C.(2013). Differences Between Standardized & Non-Standardized Assessments. Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from  http://classroom.synonym.com/differences-between-standardized-nonstandardized-assessments-4442.html 

Klotz, M.B & Canter, A.(2013). Response to Intervention (RTI): A Primer for Parents. Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/15857/
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Distinguish Terms 'Criterion -- Referenced Assessment' 'Norm-Referenced

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71777384

Distinguish terms 'criterion -- referenced assessment' 'norm-referenced assessment'.

obert Glaser's 1963 paper "Instructional Technology and the Measurement of Learning Outcomes" marked a watershed in psychometrics, the measurement of educational effectiveness. Glaser's innovation came through classifying two particular means of comparing test outcomes, and his definitions continue to drive controversial change in the provision of education across the United States to this day. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 represents the maturation of a very concrete and nationwide movement toward what Glaser termed "criterion-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 7), the measurement of individual student test results against absolute scores intended to demonstrate mastery of coursework, as opposed to "norm-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 8), which rank students' mastery of coursework relative to each other. Both types of measurement are used for different purposes at the same time, often with the same instrument (Popham and Husek 1969, p. 19), even…… [Read More]

Referenced Assessment

Critical appraisals of both norm- and criterion-referenced assessment are as diverse as they are strident (Camara 2007, p. 2). These criticisms arise on both macro- or meta-systemic levels in reference to federal efforts to harmonize proficiency across states in this country by 2013-2014 (California Department of Education 2010, p. 1) even while different states and districts within states measure for different outcomes beyond federal proficiency growth. Neil et al. outline a list of student-centric or what I will call
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Compare and Contrast Theories Collective Behavior Emergent Norm Theory Added Perspective Assembling Perspective

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98447664

Collective Behavior: Comparisons

Theories of Collective Behavior: Emergent-Norm Theory vs. Value-Added Perspective

Collective behavior, in basic terms, could be defined as a voluntary activity in which individuals engage. The behavior in this case is largely non-institutionalized. There are various theories that have been used over time to explain collective behavior. These include the emergent-norm theory, value-added perspective, and assembling perspective. In this text, I concern myself with two of these, i.e. The emergent-norm theory and the value-added perspective.

The emergent-norm theory according to Stolley (2005, p. 186) posits that "new norms develop (emerge) as events happen." The value added perspective, on the other hand, suggests that "people are likely to engage in social movements and other forms of collective behavior when society has certain characteristics" (Crawford and Novak, 2013, p. 455).

It should also be noted that while the emergent-norm theory largely focuses on the relevance of social norms in…… [Read More]

References

Crawford, L. & Novak, K. (2013). Individual and Society: Sociological Social Psychology. New York, NY: Routledge.

Locher, D.A. (2001). Collective Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Stolley, K.S. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Use of Norm-Referenced Tests

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99132410

norm-referenced test is an assessment that produces a score (or scores) that represent an estimate of where the individual stands with respect to a predefined peer group on a particular trait, dimension, or ability (ust & Golombok, 2014). Norm-referenced tests allow for a comparison on whether an individual performed at, above, or below expectation with respect to individuals that are similar to them. For example, traditional IQ tests yield standardized scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (or 16; Sattler & yan, 2009). The standardized score is a score that should be interpreted and not the raw scores. In terms of simple point estimates (single IQ scores) the researcher/clinician can compare the individual performance to the norm -- reference group with respect to the score's deviation from the mean. Comparing individual scores to norm -- reference scores in this manner allows the researcher/clinician to determine…… [Read More]

References

Rust, J., & Golombok, S. (2014). Modern psychometrics: The science of psychological assessment. New York: Routledge.

Sattler, J.M., & Ryan, J.J. (2009). Assessment with the WAIS-IV. Le mesa, CA: Jerome M

Sattler Publisher.

Urbina, S. (2014). Essentials of psychological testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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Fitting Into a Particular Societal Identity or Norm

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46210643

Social Identities in a Society

The concept of social identity encompasses psychological, emotional, and evaluative aspects engulfed in a person's physical attributes. The fundamental significance of social identities spreads to how individuals think about others and personal well-being. The psychological foundation of social identity and the role of social categorization in human action and perception occur as building blocks in the definition of this concept. Social identities influence individual responses to others. Further, shaping identity processes improves personal and intergroup relations. For a long time, a personal identity that operates within psychology occurs as a critical aspect of individual functioning, actual accomplishment, and feelings of well-being. The significance of social behavior spreads to significant reference groups like racial group membership and intergroup relations.

Privileges Resulting from Individual Social Identities

Self-exploration occurs as a primary factor in the growth of individuals; the relationships fostered with others, and the ability to promote…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kimmel, Michael and Ferber Abby (2010). Privilege: A Reader, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Westview Press

McIntosh, Peggy. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. 1990 reprint. The issue of Independent School. Retrieved from http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/ele3600/mcintosh.html
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Records Have Been the Norm

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66669156

It maintains these features for health information under the authority of "covered" units such as health care centre, plan or provider. Online storages such as Google Health and Microsoft Health Vault do not lie within the bounds of such kinds of units. This implies that their data is not as safe as they expect or assume them to be. The best approach to stay safe is to manage the electronic medical records in an online patient portal which works within the confines of the health care provider's information system. The private data which exists there will be covered by the terms of HIPAA. The level of access can be moderated to comply with the laws of the state. An instance of such a portal is the "PatientSite" created at the eth Israel Deacon Medical Center, oston. This kind of forum provides services such as secure messaging, registering appointments and updating…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Steinbrook, Robert. "Personally Controlled Online Health Data -- The next big thing in medical care" The New England Journal of Medicine, (2008): 1653-1656

"Electronic Medical Records - The pros and cons," healthworldnet.com. 1 March, 2009,

http://healthworldnet.com/HeadsOrTails/electronic-medical-records-the-pros-and-cons/?C=6238

McCullagh, Declan, "Q&A: Electronic Medical Records and you," cbsnews.com, 19 May, 2009,
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Special ED

Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41296477

Norm- Referenced Tests

Descriptions

Criterion-referenced tests make possible the translation of scores in statement form regarding expected behavior of students relating to specific subject matter.

A norm-referenced test (NRT) is an assessment method that estimates the position of the assessed individual in a predefined group in regard to the evaluated trait.

Purpose of Tests

To find out if every student has gained specific skills or concepts.

To determine the level of knowledge of the students before and after instruction.

To rate every student depending on other students achievements in a wider spectra of knowledge

To differentiate and treat with partiality the high and low achievers

Content

Evaluates specific skills that are part of the designated curriculum.

The particular skills are pointed out by instructors as well as experts in curriculum. The skills are identified as teaching objectives.

Evaluates wider spectra of skills that are sampled from a various sources including…… [Read More]

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Understanding Scales and Reference Standards for Counselors

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96740501

Norm- Versus Criterion-eferenced Tests

The difference between norm- and criterion-referenced tests is that the former compares test scores to a reference group, while the latter compares test scores to a performance standard. Norm-referenced tests are quite common. For example, student reading performance in primary schools may be compared to the mean score for all children of the same age. The norm comparison group would likely consist of all students within a school district, state, or nation who took the same test at the same age. Students who scored lower or higher than the mean for the norm reference group would be ranked as low or high achievers. Imagine, however, if someone wishing to qualify for a motor vehicle license was only required to achieve a score close to the mean score for all drivers? Using a norm-referenced driver test would likely be a bad public safety choice, especially if there…… [Read More]

References

Ashworth, B., Dilks, L., Hutchinson, K., Hayes, S., Moore, M., Orozoco, A. et al., (2014). A-67A pilot study of age and education norms for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29(6), 527-8.

School Psychologist Files. (n.d.). Understanding test scores. Retrieved from  http://schoolpsychologistfiles.com/testscores/ .

Yang, P., Cheng, C.P., Chang, C.L., Liu, T.L., Hsu, H.Y., & Yen, C.F. (2013). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition -- Chinese version index scores in Taiwanese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 67(2), 83-91.
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Sociology Advance at Your Own

Words: 1971 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21367753



A few managed some whispered comments as he headed toward the back of the line.

Food Line at the School Cafeteria

This attempt was not very successful. The researcher cut in front of a female student in her late teens. She was appeared to be alone, and was carrying a laptop. She was looking down at the floor and did not seem like she was paying attention to anyone. She said nothing as the researcher stepped in front of her, though he saw her grimace slightly and then return to looking at the floor. Nevertheless, a group of seven or eight students behind her quickly noticed the researcher's presence. One of them turned loudly to his friends and cried, "Did you just see that? This guy cut in front." The researcher pretended not to notice and tried to continue looking blankly ahead. Almost immediately, he felt a strong tap on…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761999

Schneider, I.E. (2000). Revisiting and Revising Recreation Conflict Research. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 129.

Norm Violation
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Shandra Is a Fifth Grader

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15982248



"Reevaluating established norms is the practice of reflecting upon, and adjusting as necessary, the accepted classroom norm." Mr. Washington's teaching style includes lecture, independent practice and carefully controlled interactions between students. Because Shandra has been successful in Title I but unable to carry that over to the regular classroom, Mr. Washington must work with his colleagues to determine which parts of the Title I experience can be replicated for Shandra in the classroom.

Mr. Washington has set goals for himself and for Shandra. He wants her to increase her conversations with peers about mathematical thinking and improve her overall grade in math. Mr. Washington can help her do this through the goals he has set for himself, to increase use of partner work and provide more opportunities for students to vocalize their mathematical thinking. He can begin by reducing the amount of time he lectures to his fifth graders and…… [Read More]

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Human Relations

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48381786

Social norms are an important part of society. These are rules that our society have set up that govern the choices we make and the way we live. There are both good and bad social norms and they can impact the work environment differently. Most working team operates within their pre-existing social norms, which guide their daily activities and choices. These norms can in some ways make the supervisor's job easier and in other ways can make it more difficult. In this paper I will discuss social norms, how they can make a supervisor's job easier, and how they make it more difficult.

What are social Norms?

Social norms are rules that a group uses as a benchmark for deciding acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Social norms exist in the United States and in other parts of the world; they exist in all types of groups. Social norms are beliefs, attitudes,…… [Read More]

Resources From your Employee Assistance Program. Retrieved from http://www.doa.state.wi.us/docview.asp?docid=8208&locid=1
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Organization Behavior Business Ethics in an International

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56652587

Organization Behavior

Business Ethics in an International Environment

Business Be constrained

To what extent should a business be constrained by the moral norms of a society?

A business organization does not exist with the sole purpose of maximizing its profits; it is also supposed to be a socially responsible corporate citizen. Incorporating a sense of respect for social and cultural norms of the society is essential for business organizations if they want to achieve a sustainable future in the industry. Social norms of the society should be followed by every business organization; irrespective of its size, nature of business, type of industry, or geographical location. It becomes even harder for organizations to mold their policies, procedures, and operations according to the cultural, social, and moral norms shared by the members of the society in an international environment.

This paper has been written with a view to discuss the importance of…… [Read More]

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Gender and Domestic Violence Discussions of Domestic

Words: 2745 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67078141

Gender and Domestic Violence

Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…… [Read More]

References

Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,

L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].

Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.

Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
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Opportunity Exists for the Company

Words: 12420 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52185247



The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…… [Read More]

references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.

Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.

Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.

Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
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Stonewall Riots Collective Behavior Collective Action

Words: 2172 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86359385

Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots

The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.

Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.

Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)

Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co

Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
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Institutions and International Relations Question

Words: 2246 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18606525

By way of introduction to the topic, Legro examines the general presumption that a state's sense of identity defines the parameter of its national interests, thus directing its domestic or international conduct. Rather than subscribing blindly to this fundamental precept of neorealism, Legro offers a competing theory of identity and its influence on international relations, surmising that "states become what they do as much as they do what they are, they desire what they do as much as they do what they desire" (20). It is Legro's contention that a state's distinct set of cultural norms, social values, and other markers of identity can direct governmental actions on the world stage, but that these actions will inevitably influence this identity, thus providing an entirely different contextual framework for international relations as time progresses and circumstances change.

Legro cites the example of America's divergent approaches to participation in each of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dunne, Tim, Kurki, Milja, and Smith, Steve. International relations theories: discipline and diversity. Oxford University Press, USA, 2007.

Ikenberry, G. John. After victory: institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars. Princeton University Press, 2009.

Keohane, Robert O. Neorealism and its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Legro, Jeffrey. Rethinking the world: great power strategies and international order. Cornell University Press, 2005.
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Social Order and Inequality

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93626626

Social Order and Inequalities

Social order and inequality

Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.

Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…… [Read More]

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Historically Track the Concept of the Measurement

Words: 1432 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64541187

individual is someone who has a distinct personality of his/her own that differentiates him from a group or class of people. This individual has a distinguishing intelligence level, achievement abilities and aptitude. As far as intelligence is concerned, it can be defined as the "ability to reason about personality and personality-relevant information and to use that information to guide one's actions and more generally, one's life" (as qtd. In Mayer, Panter & Caruso, 2012, p. 124). In other words, intelligence is a basic psychological capability in an individual that allows him/her to give explanation, plan and prepare and get to the bottom of troubles. Intelligence is something that is not acquired by reading books or being academically bright. In the similar fashion, achievement is the way a task is performed in a successful manner (Travers. 1970, p. 447). However, aptitude is a natural ability/tendency to carry out a task.

In…… [Read More]

References

Fagan, T., & Wise, P.S. (1995). School psychology: Past, present and future. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.

Huss, M.T. (2009). Forensic psychology: research, practice, and applications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publications.

Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2013).Psychological testing: principles, applications, & issues. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Mayer, J.D., Panter, A.T., & Caruso, D.R. (2012). Does Personal Intelligence Exist? Evidence From a New Ability-Based Measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94(2), 124-140.
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Concepts of Science Communication

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40587263

Science Communication

Concepts of Science Communication

Norms

Communalism

Communalism deals with the notion that intellectual or scientific discoveries belong to the entire human race as should be shared with everyone in the community. This does not imply that there is no competition rather the competition is often quiet fierce. However, ideas must be subject to criticism to be tested and compared and thus information must be shared. Russel allace created the hypothesis that there were patterns of distribution inherent in the course of evolution and this theory has been tested and furthered by many subsequent studies because allace shared his theories with the community (Knapp).

Universalism

This norm deals with the fact that it is the claim that is important as opposed to the individuals making the claim. The significant factor is the information being shared and one person's opinion should not be valued over another's because of their background…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Knapp, S. (n.d.). What, Where, and When? Retrieved from Evolution.
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Venezuela Annotated Bibliography -- Venezuela What Are

Words: 1067 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35956454

Venezuela

Annotated Bibliography -- Venezuela

What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region?

Centre for Intercultural Learning. (2012) Cultural Information -- Venezuela. Available from http://www.intercultures.ca/cil-cai/ci-ic-eng.asp?iso=ve. 2012 April 04.

his is an interactive tool for people interested in different cultures and companies. here is home page for each country with information about Venezuela divided into sections via hyperlinks. he structure is conversational style between the user and the content provider. Statistical information as well as information regarding cultural norms and behaviors are provided.

Interknowledge Corporation. (2010) Venezuela -- History and Culture. Available from http://www.geographia.com/venezuela/history.htm. 2012 April 04.

his article provides a lot of details regarding the social and the cultural aspects of Venezuela. Particular attention is paid to aspects such as language, art history, behaviors, norms, dress, and cultural aesthetics. here is less statistical data and more qualitative data regarding Venezuela culture.

Roques.com. (2011) Republica de Venezuela…… [Read More]

This article is specifically focused on the history of trade between the U.S.A. And Venezuela. History is always useful in any industry and the narrowness of the scope of the article is different from the other sources. Many of the other sources focus upon many issues, but this article focuses upon one. This would prove useful to professionals interested in changing trade policy or specializing in trade policy.

Hornbeck, J.F. (2011) U.S. -- Latin America Trade: Recent Trends and Policy Issues. Congressional Research Service, Available from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/98-840.pdf. 2012 April 05.

Hornbeck offers the same narrow focus as the previous source, but from a strictly USA governmental perspective. He describes the history of trade policy within South America the continent, as well as with individual countries in South America. This article puts the last article into context and builds upon its objectives.
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Practicing Skill Building Lead and Manage Using

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13475707

Practicing Skill uilding: Lead and Manage Using the alanced Scorecard

Kaplan "Lead and Manage Using the Scorecard"

The work of Kaplan entitled 'Lead and Manage Using the Scorecard" states that communication "is clearly a leadership role." An article published by Forbes online states that it is not possible "to become a great leaders without being a great communicator." (Myatt, p.1) Myatt states "the previous sentence didn't refer to being a great talker -- big difference. The key to becoming a skillful communicator is rarely to be found in what has been taught in the world of academia. From our earliest days in the classroom, we are trained to focus on enunciation, vocabulary, presence, delivery, grammar, syntax, and the like. In other words, we are taught to focus on ourselves. While I don't mean to belittle these things as they're important to learn, it's the more subtle elements of communication rarely…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barrett, DJ (nd) Leadership Communication: A Communication Approach for Senior-Level Managers. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.rice.edu/bitstream/handle/1911/27037/Leadership%20Communication%20-%20A%20Communication%20Approach%20for%20Senior-Level%20Managers%20-%20Barrett.pdf?sequence=2

Hackman, M (2006) Communicating for Leadership Success. Retrieved from: http://www.executiveforum.com/PDFs/Hackman_Synopsis.pdf

The Changing Face of Reward (2012) HayGroup. Retrieved from: http://www.haygroup.com/downloads/ww/misc/cfr_global_report.pdf

Haguewood, J. And Knott, F. (2012) Performance Metrics Matter. Retrieved from:  http://www.nado.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/haguewood-and-knott.pdf
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Group Cohesion Discussing Group Cohesion

Words: 3093 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47357272

Individuals trust that agreement speaks something relating to the fact. Complying with the group norms hence fulfils our requirement relating to mastery. When individuals privately, show their compliance since they trust group norms represent fact, the group has the impact of information. At the time when the chances are high, individuals are more inspired to take correct decisions, and hence correspond even strongly. Going away from the agreement weaken the impact of the group. Additionally, it weakens confidence, and hence we could feel perplexed, apprehensive and ambiguous. (Smith; Mackie 315-319).

Norms accord us the feelings of linkage since compliance to group principles lead to achieving a positive as well as principled social identity and getting respect from the members of the other group. Compliance as such gives rise to encountering a view of belonging, and it indicates assurance to members of other groups. A group has positive impact at the…… [Read More]

References

AlRoomi, Dhari. The effect of Cohesion of Group Productivity. The MBA Journal. 23 February 2006. http://businessadministration.wordpress.com/2006/02/23/the-effect-of-cohesion-of-group-productivity/

Bostro, Alan; Bredemeier, Brenda Jo Light; Gardner, Douglas E; Shields, David Lyle Light. The Relationship between Leadership Behaviors and Group Cohesion in Team Sports. Journal of Psychology, vol. 131, no. 2, 1997. pp: 196-211.

Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study. Health Education & Behavior, vol. 33, No. 5, 2006, pp: 677-689

Glass, Scott. J; Benshoff, James. M. Facilitating group cohesion among adolescents through challenge course experiences. The Journal of Experiential Education. Fall, 2002. vol. 26, no. 2, pp: 47-51.
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Cultures Can Teach Us About

Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74815074

For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).

In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…… [Read More]

References

Elliston, D. (2005). Erotic anthropology: "Ritualized homosexuality" in Melanesia and beyond.

In J. Robertson (Ed.), Same sex cultures and sexualities: An anthropological reader (pp.91-115). Malden: Blackwell.

Hunter, M. (2012). Rights amidst wrongs: The paradoxes of gender rights-based approaches towards AIDS in South Africa. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.66-74). London: Routledge.

Mahdavi, P. (2012). 'The personal is political and the political is personal': Sexuality, politics, and social movements in modern Iran. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.34-48). London: Routledge.
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Environmental Cues Shape Behavior Most People Spend

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7347413

¶ … Environmental Cues Shape Behavior

Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).

It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).

Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected…… [Read More]