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Although the boy's loudness resulted in a sanction from his father there were none forthcoming from customers around them. This suggests that a certain level of tolerance and flexibility is granted to children when regarding social norms -- they are less familiar with them. Also, the boy was under the impression that it was feasible for him to get onto the roof of the library, while the father recognized that this was inappropriate. Additionally, it appears to be a social norm between fathers and sons that the wishes of the young son can be dismissed with little or no explanation, particularly when the norm to remain quiet is tantamount.
It is a social norm to have concern for the time of those behind you when in the checkout line of a library. The man seemed to overlook this or to be unconcerned; this resulted in a minor sanction from the…
Farley, John E. Sociology: Third Edition. New York: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Gale Group, Inc. "Contemporary Women's Issues." Journal of American College Health, Jan. 2005.
Pimentel, Gloria. "Sociological Definitions." Chance Academic Center, 2002.
Yarwood, Dean L. "Humor Stories and the Identification of Social Norms." Administration and Society. Beverly Hills:
Norms of Behavior
Behavioral theorists have long recognized the influence of norms upon behavior, and for decades at least, practitioners have tried to use the media, group opinion leaders, and small-group or other interactive activities in sexuality and HIV education classes to change norms and to thereby change behavior. In addition, for a variety of reasons, people have tried to increase connectedness between youth and their families, schools and faith communities. Thus, simply recognizing that norms and connectedness influence behavior is not new. However, what is striking is the extent to which social norms, connectedness and their interaction partially explain so many research findings involving both risk and protective factors and the impact of programs. While no single theory can explain, all findings on adolescent sexual behavior are remarkably powerful.
Young teens are more likely to have sexual intercourse if they believe their friends have already done so, according to…
Psychological Observations and Norms: Comparison in terms of Multicultural and Traditional esearch Methodology
In the field of psychology, research methods vary significantly based on the sources of information that are focused on, how that information is samples, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection. Generally, methods vary in terms of whether they collect qualitative, quantitative data, or both. This research methodology further contains both multicultural and traditional research models. In using this methodology, one has the opportunity to research certain variables in order to pinpoint similarities, differences, strategies for dealing with patients, participants, and test-subjects, and discrepancies in the research itself. In comparing and contrasting observation and norms in terms of each type of research, for instance, it can be seen that both have a tendency to produce fundamental problems for researchers during the implementation of these variables cross-culturally.
Psychological esearch Methods
In order to…
Ash, R., Dreher, G., and Hancock, P. (2006). The role of the traditional research method in underestimating the validity of the employment interview. Personnel Psychology, 41(2), pp.315-325. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Cline, A. (2010). Existentialism and psychological research. Retrieved from:
http://atheism/od/typesofexistentialism/a/psychology.html, on 29, August 2011.
Fine, M. And Kidder, L. (1997). Qualitative inquiry in psychology: a radical tradition.
norms and values surrounding marriage and family. In the fifties, life in the United States was good. Posterity was evident throughout most levels of society and there was little reason to question or even consider the importance of marriage and family. The dawning of the sixties, however, beginning with the Cuban missile crisis, the upheaval over Civil Rights, and the assassination of President Kennedy brought discontent and soul searching that resulted in an examination of society's institutions. Two of the institutions that came under fire and scrutiny were marriage and family. The change of the sixties and early seventies, produced situations that fall outside the parameters of established norms and individuals began to look outside these norms for support and meaning.
The sixties and seventies brought with them a changing scene within the confines of marriage and family. omen began working outside the home in increased numbers and, as a…
Coontz, Stephanie. "The world historical transformation of marriage." Journal of Marriage and Family (2004): 974-979.
Zinn, Maxine Baca. "Family, Feminism, and Race in America." Gender & Society (1990): 68-82.
Societal norms marriage family
e live our lives according to rules. Most of us are not even aware of this fact for the rules of our society - the norms and mores and cultural traditions - have surrounded us since our birth so that we have come to see them as inevitable and even inviolable. They are almost as necessary to our well-being as the air around us, but they are at the same time as invisible as the air. Of course, like all general statements, this one can be amended and refined: Most of us living in the United States are aware of the fact that there are laws prohibiting certain kinds of behavior. Laws are formal and almost always written forms of norms - which are both subjective models of behavior or belief that should be followed by members of a particular group as well as objective summaries of average…
Berger, P. & T. Luckman. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1967.
Cooley, C. On Self and Social Organization. Chicago: U. Of Chicago, 1998.
Stones, R. (1998). Key Sociological Thinkers. New York: New York UP, 1998.
International Norms Such as the R2P (Right to Protect) Conflict with the Cultural Claims of Individual States in Matters of Human Rights?
The objective of this study is to answer as to whether international norms such as the R2P conflict with the cultural claims of individual states in matters of human rights.
It is reported that there has been a failure of the world in protecting victims of "mass atrocities" and that the emerging norm is "to spell out what the states, and the international community, should and must do to prevent that from happening again." (Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, nd) The United Nations along with other international institutions were established for the primary purpose of preventing or adjudicating conflicts that occur between states. (Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, nd, paraphrased)
Failure to Act
In the 1990s when the violence occur inside the borders of…
Bellamy, AF and Wheeler, NJ (nd) Humanitarian Intervention in World Politics. Retrieved from: http://cadair.aber.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/handle/2160/1925/Wheele?sequence=1
Evans, G and Sahnoun, M. The Responsibility to Protect. Foreign Affairs. Vol 81. No. 6. Nov-Dec 2002.
Guraziu, R. (2008) Is humanitarian military intervention in the affairs of another state ever justified? Middlesex University School of Health and Social Sciences. Retrieved from: http://www.atlantic-community.org/app/webroot/files/articlepdf/Is%20humanitarian%20military%20intervention%20ever%20justified.pdf
Parekh, B. (1997)Rethinking Humanitarian Intervention?, International Political Science Review, 18(1): 49-70.
Furthermore, there are genuine potential dangers and consequences from creating digital profiles and conducting personal business/interactions on the internet. The personal information can be misused and abused by others such as marketing companies, potential employers, current employers and cyber-bullies such as Lori Drew. Analyzing social media shows that it can and has been used to enhance, harm or even destroy people's lives.
Boyden, B.E. (2012, April 2). Can a prospective employer request Facebook login information? Retrieved on March 18, 2013 from law.marquette.edu eb site: http://law.marquette.edu/facultyblog/2012/04/02/can-a-prospective-employer-request-facebook-login-information/
Eder, S. (2013, January 16). Hoax is revealed as Irish star says he was duped. Retrieved on March 18, 2013 from www.nytimes.com eb site: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/17/sports/ncaafootball/story-of-manti-teos-girlfriend-is-said-to-be-a-hoax.html?_r=0
Gummerus, J., Liljander, V., eman, E., & Pihlstrom, M. (2012). Customer engagement in a Facebook brand community. Management Research Review, 35(9), 857-877.
Hamilton, J.R. (2012). The electronic lonely crowd - Patterns and effects of electronic media usage among…
Boyden, B.E. (2012, April 2). Can a prospective employer request Facebook login information? Retrieved on March 18, 2013 from law.marquette.edu Web site: http://law.marquette.edu/facultyblog/2012/04/02/can-a-prospective-employer-request-facebook-login-information/
Eder, S. (2013, January 16). Hoax is revealed as Irish star says he was duped. Retrieved on March 18, 2013 from www.nytimes.com Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/17/sports/ncaafootball/story-of-manti-teos-girlfriend-is-said-to-be-a-hoax.html?_r=0
Gummerus, J., Liljander, V., Weman, E., & Pihlstrom, M. (2012). Customer engagement in a Facebook brand community. Management Research Review, 35(9), 857-877.
Hamilton, J.R. (2012). The electronic lonely crowd - Patterns and effects of electronic media usage among contemporary adolescents. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 5(3), 165-174.
3. Professional codes are put in place by industry organizations in order to guide the behavior of their members. The codes provide definitions and guidance with respect to right or wrong behavior. In some cases, these codes also include provisions for the discipline of members that do not adhere to the conditions of the code. The codes also serve another purpose is that they communicate to the public the ethics and morals to which the members of the organization are expected to adhere.
Professional codes have the benefit of guiding behavior, which in concert with the communication raises the standard of morals, ethics and behavior among the group members. The criminological theory of social disorganization, for example, postulates that criminal behavior can derive from a lack of social norms (Cullen & Agnew, 2002). The professional codes then provide the structure required to prevent this.
The industry also gains competitive advantage…
Valentine, Sean & Barnett, Tim. (2003). Ethics code awareness, perceived ethical values and organizational commitment. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. Retrieved June 25, 2009 from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-20630458_ITM
Martin, Kelly & Cullen, John. (2007). Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Business Ethics. Retrieved June 25, 2009 from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0198-378059/Continuities-and-extensions-of-ethical.html
Cullen, F.T. & Agnew, R. (2002). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Adapted for and retrieved on June 25, 2009 from http://www.uwec.edu/patchinj/crmj301/theorysummaries.pdf
Warburton, Nigel. (1999). Philosophy. Retrieved June 25, 2009 from http://books.google.de/books?id=Y3E60dZxNa0C&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=negative+utilitarianism&source=bl&ots=ovZoXt9Bze&sig=IOedMbPrLElYDlsWpiRsI5DN_5g&hl=de&ei=JIVDSrSlLYWD_AbdkdmbAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10
HLL, a subsidiary of Lever, is a cosmetics company that operates in India. The company markets a number of products in the Indian market, including a "fairness cream," which purports to lighten the skin of the user. The Indian market is widely segmented. There are a number of wealth strata, ethnicities, religions, languages, castes and for this product there are also a number of skin tones. Each of these different demographics is a different segment of the market. In particular, there is competition within the fairness cream business at a number of different price points, with some companies catering to the mass market on a cost leadership basis and other firms selling a high end product aimed strictly at the middle and upper classes.
The potential market size in India is tremendous. India is currently the fifth-largest economy in the world, and it has a real GDP growth…
CIA World Factbook. (2010). India. Retrieved November 28, 2010 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html
Studies and surveys have succeeded in proving that most stories about students are actually lies. After the respective studies have been made public, specialists have observed that students have begun to abandon practices which involved harmful substances.
Social norms programs have proved to be successful in reducing harmful substances abuse among students. While most typical anti-alcohol programs involve propaganda intended to scare people, social norms programs succeed in achieving their goal through telling the truth.
1. Hanson, David J. "Social Norms Marketing:
Facts & Information." Retrieved June 4, 009, from the WWW Web site: http://www.potsdam.edu/hansondj/youthissues/1119834534.html
. (005). "How to Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps." Retrieved June 4, 009, from College Drinking Prevention Web site: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/NIAAACollegeMaterials/Panel0/KeyResearch_0.aspx
(005). "How to Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps." Retrieved June 4, 009, from College Drinking Prevention Web site: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/NIAAACollegeMaterials/Panel0/KeyResearch_0.aspx
Hanson, David J. "Social…
2. (2005). "How to Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from College Drinking Prevention Web site: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/NIAAACollegeMaterials/Panel02/KeyResearch_02.aspx
(2005). "How to Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from College Drinking Prevention Web site:
Gender Norms, Values, Identities, and oles: Mohave vs. Western Society
There most likely is no American aged above ten who does not know 'Pat', the androgynous fictional character on Saturday Night Live, whose audience could not distinguish as either male or female. There is no doubt that people in today's society would not question a person's gender or sex unless it deviates from that which is considered 'the norm'. The norm, in our society, is that a person has to clearly fit into either of two sex groups; male or female, which are binary opposites of each other. Categorizations such as transsexuals are a relatively new (modern) constructs. Many non-western cultures, however, do not apply this kind of binary thinking; they recognize that more categories exist. To this end, most native cultures have more than two institutionalized gender/sex categories. This text explores one key anthropological example -- the Berdache, also…
Eskridge Jr., W.N. (1993). A History of Same-Sex Marriage. Faculty Scholarship Series, Paper 1504. Retrieved 10 June 2014 from http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/fss_papers/1504
Harvey, M. (2013). A Global Examination of Social Gender and Sexual Norms. Grand Valley State University. Retrieved 10 June 2014 from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1247&context=honorsprojects
Inglehart, R. & Baker, W.E. (2000). Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values. American Sociological Review, 65(1), 19-51.
Martin, C. (2013). The Influence of Negative Educational Experiences on Health Behaviors among Gender Non-Conforming American India/Alaska Native People. Colorado State University Library. Retrieved 10 June 2014 from http://digitool.library.colostate.edu///exlibris/dtl/d3_1/apache_media/L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZWRpYS8yNDYzMjc=.pdf
Finally, he offered me the lunch menu if I did not like anything that was listed on the dinner menu. I assume the lunch menu had some burgers and sandwiches. Again, it was difficult to tell if my clothing was the reason, or if it was my age.
Of course, the two are difficult to separate -- within reason, a person can look much older if he or she is wearing professional or formal clothing, and even the wealthiest and most cultured individual can look sloppy after working out if he or she is dressed in sweat clothes. It was not only that I was consciously violating a norm but that the way I was doing so sharpened potential social prejudices against me. In the same way people might be more prejudiced against someone of a different racial or ethnic heritage if that person is wearing jeans and seen walking…
Limitations of Norms in Psychological Testing
Tests that are norm-referenced provide a number of benefits over non-norm-referenced tests. Psychological tests enable the gathering of valuable information about individual functioning for many different areas. Most norm-referenced tests are relatively quick to administer, such that a psychologist can obtain a sampling of behavior with a small investment of time and resources. A primary advantage of psychological testing is that rich and detailed information is revealed through the testing that would otherwise be unavailable to the psychologist. However, norm-referenced tests are far from perfect and the quality, reliability, and validity of norm-referenced tests varies substantially in some very important ways.
A number of assumptions are important to the construction of norms. The characteristic being measured must accommodate the ordering of individuals from low to high along an asymmetrical continuum that should at least be ordinal (Angoff, 1984). In addition, the relation of the…
Angoff, W.H. (1984). Scales, norms, and equivalent scores. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Retreived from https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/Angoff.Scales.Norms.Equiv.Scores.pdf
Ferrett, H.L., Thomas, K.G., Tapert, S.F., Carey, P.D., Conradie, S., Cuzen, N.L., Stein, D. J, and Fein, G. (2014, June). The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents. Metabolic Brain Disease, 29(2), 395-408. DOI: 10.1007/s11011.014.9495-6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24526566
Frankeburg, W.K., Dodds, J.A., Shapiro, H. And Bresnick, B. (1992, January). The Denver II: A major revision and re-standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Pediatrics, 89(1), 91-97. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1370185
Kirk, C. And Vigeland, K.C. (2014, October). A psychometric review of norm-referenced tests used to assess phonological error patterns. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45(4), 365-77. DOI: 10.1044/2014_LSHSS-13-0053. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091265
A busy coffee shop I visit has a self-bussing policy. Most people dutifully clean up after themselves and I do not think I have noticed any time where someone left their dirty dishes behind. For this exercise, i decided to violate the norm by leaving my dirty dishes on the table.
Because I did not want to make a bad impression on the staff of a place I enjoy visiting, I told the barista that I was going to leave without bussing my table. The look on her face told me that I was breaking a social norm simply by telling her this, which added an interesting dimension to the exercise. She seemed puzzled that I would tell her something so directly, for something as frivolous as not putting away a mug and a plate.
However, I wanted to focus on the main norm violation to see if other people…
Bernhard, H., Fehr, E. & Fischbacher, U. (2006). Group affiliation and altruistic norm enforcement. The American Economic Review 96(2): 217-221.
Mu, Y., Kitayama, S., Han, S. & Gelfand, M.J. (2015). How culture gets embrained. PNAS 112(50): 15348–15353
Spitzer, M., Fischbacher, U., Hermberger, B., et al (2007). The neural signature of social norm compliance. Neuron 56(1): 185-196.
Social Norms Approach to Alcohol Sustance Use in Campuses
University and College students have een proved to constantly overestimate the drinking of their peers. As an outcome, social norms approaches are effectual in the correction of these misunderstood norms to minimize the consumption of alcohol together with alcohol-related issues. The social norms approach to alcohol and other sustance use on university and college campuses offers a model for the comprehension of human nature, which has significant consequences for health promotion and prevention. It reveals that the ehavior of students is affected y wrong views of how peers reason and act. Social norms interventions concentrate on peer pressures that have more influence on personal ehavior than religious, iological, cultural, and familial influences, among others. These peer pressures are founded more on what students perceive regarding their peers, elieve and carry out than on their actual thoughts and actions. This particular misperception…
Perkins, H. W. (1997). College student misperceptions of alcohol and other drug norms among peers: Exploring causes, consequences, and implications for prevention programs. Designing alcohol and other drug prevention programs in higher education: Bringing theory into practice, 177-206.
Gender is socially constructed. Whereas biological sex can be considered immutable in most cases, gender is mainly constructed to indicate role function and status. From birth, children are classified into the gender binary, as being male or female. Male children are socialized differently from female children, leading to distinct differences in the ways those children perceive themselves and are perceived by others. Whether through subtle or overt controls, gender norms are reinforced. Gender fluidity exists in few societies, and although gender fluidity has become more common in modern industrialized societies, there are still relatively strict gender norms and roles in place. Not performing according to prevailing gender roles and norms may be considered deviant behavior in the society.
Gender is fundamental to personal identity construction, and may also be integral to a culture's collective identity. Moreover, gender impacts social status, access to power, and access to resources. When women are…
Miller, B. (2006). The analysis of the homoerotic and the pursuit of meaning. Journal of Analytic Psychology 2006(51): 381-399.
"The Sociology of Gender," (2011). Chapter One. Retrieved online: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0132448300.pdf
In this example of a convergence of presumed norms and laws, we can observe the danger of moral authority. Indeed, where such constraints are concerned, there are instances in which a certain assumed set of superior values are adopted as law. In such instances, new legal constraints may be in direct contrast with a set of community values shared by a broad cross-section of the population.
This type of conflict is highlighted in no uncertain terms by the premise of the current legislation facing the Indian population, which while progressive on its face, also places a troubling amount of moral authority in the hands of the Indian government. This, of course, is so say nothing of the sheer impracticality of imposing marriage on unwilling participants, of whom we may assume there will be a great many.
An alternative approach to improving the rights and status of live-in partners…
Lessig, L. (1997). What Things Regulate. Harvard University - Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics.
NaiJ. (2013). "Premarital Sex = Marriage," Indian High Court Rules. News.naij.com.
group norms that define your generation or norms that are apparent to you in your current work situation. Describe from what you believe is the source of these norms.
Norm 1: Technology is important
Even many recent graduates or undergraduate students with relatively poorly-paying jobs will invest in having a smartphone. Technology is an important part of a person's identity today and having access to technology 24-7 is considered a vital necessity. Also, amongst members of my generation there is a high degree of tolerance for talking on your cellphone, checking messages, etcetera. My generation has grown up with technology, and many of our most important interactions take place online. In contrast, I have noticed that members of older generations tend to view technology with greater suspicion, and complain about rather than embrace new features on their phones and computers. They are also much more hostile about people talking on…
Moral Suppression, Social Norms, and the Human Mind: Psychoanalysis in "ieland" by Charles Brockden Brown
Eighteenth century American literature has yet to witness the science of psychoanalysis that Sigmund Freud had introduced in the 19th century. Psychoanalytic theory posits that people are influenced by unconscious forces, wherein an individual's innate desires and drives are contained within. Upon the conceptualization of psychoanalytic theory, literary works and analysis have portrayed characters and events derived from Freud's basic concept of the unconscious and repressed desires of individuals.
One century apart, and yet, Freudian psychology is already evident in the literary work of Charles Brown, author of the novel "ieland," written in 1798. In the novel, readers witness the tragic story of the ielands, a brother and a sister who confronts, unsuccessfully, the reality that they can no longer hold on to society's norms. The commitment of murder and downfall of the ielands towards…
Brown, C. (1798). "Wieland, or the Transformation." Available at http://emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-c/welnd10.htm.
Behaviorism: Human Behavior Negatively and Positively Affects the Environment
Environmental cues, sustainability and social norms are all highly influential aspects of human life in society. While environmental cues and social norms can work against sustainability, they can also support sustainability and the quality of human life for this generation and for future generations. There are abundant examples of the use of environmental cues and social norms to support sustainability by creating and strengthening pro-environmental beliefs and behaviors. These uses do not at least initially need to be on a grand scale; rather individuals can do their parts to support sustainability and lessen negative impacts on the environment.
How environmental cues shape behavior and provide at least one example.
Environmental cues are formally defined as "elements in the environment that convey important information or trigger an affective reaction" (Steg, van den Berg, & de Groot, 2012, p. 127). They are…
Classic examples of modified behaviors that support sustainability and reduce negative impacts on the environment are: greater reliance on fuels such as wind-generated power rather than fossil fuels; and recycling. In the past, our reliance on limited fossil fuels has damaged the environment through recovery of those fuels by methods that damage the earth, has polluted the environment through burning those fuels and has endangered the quality of life for ourselves and for future generations by reliance on highly polluting fuels that will eventually run out. Reliance on alternate fuels sources, such as wind-power generators, lessens physical damage to the environment because we are not using old methods to obtain fossil fuels, lessens pollution because we are burning less fossil fuel, and improves the quality of life for ourselves and future generations through environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources (Steg, van den Berg, & de Groot, 2012, p. 224). Recycling of cans, bottles, plastic, paper and other materials lessens wastes in the environment and helps generate definite beliefs about its value that make the tendency to recycle even stronger (McCarty & Shrum, Spring 2001, p. 96). Our modified behaviors regarding the extraction and use of fossil fuels and greater tendency toward recycling are merely two examples of modifications that support sustainability and lessen negative impacts on the environment.
c. How social norms influence behavior and beliefs about the environment.
"Social norms" are informal rules accepted by all of a society or a segment of that society. These informal rules tell individuals how to behave by informing them of which behaviors are proper or improper. (Steg, van den
Changing Legal Norms and the Individual
CHANGING LEGAL NORMS AND THE POSITION
OF THE INDIVIDUAL WITHIN MODERN SOCIETY
Many legal scholars have observed that the law does not actually define what person may do or not do; rather, it describes what remedies and penalties flow as consequences of one's behavior (1). In matters of civil law, contracts do not prevent one from acting in violation of explicit agreements, they merely prescribe remedies usually monetary) that the courts may enforce against one for breaching a contract and compensation for parties wronged by a breach. Likewise, in the realm of criminal law, statutes do not prevent any criminal acts or behavior; they merely define what monetary penalties or potential terms of incarceration result from violating criminal statutes (2).
Nevertheless, the vast majority of people in society desire do choose to honor their civil contractual obligations, since the consequences of failing to do…
1. Abrams, Natalie, Buckner, Michael.D. Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals. (Cambridge, MA: MIT (Press, 1983)
2. Carter, Lief H. Reason in Law (Boston: Little Brown, 1979)
3. Gilmore, Grant. The Death of Contract (Ohio: OSU Press, 1974)
4. Lerner, Max. America as a Civilization (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1957)
"[footnoteRef:8] Women's roles as midwives and tenders of the sick were impinged upon by professional medical practitioners and their traditional roles at the sickbed were assumed by men. The profession of medicine itself became polarized into different roles: while as late as the Civil War in America males often assumed the role of 'nurse,' increasingly this profession (often conceptualized as a doctor's helper in its earlier incarnation) became relegated to women, although women such as Clara arton and Florence Nightingale worked tirelessly to garner greater respect for the roles nurses could play. Even the role of midwife became male-dominated, as males who oversaw childbirth took on the oxymoronic title of 'male midwife.'[footnoteRef:9] [8: urnette, 2008] [9: urnette, 2008]
The law placed considerable obstacles in the paths of women who wished to own their own businesses or establish themselves as economically independent from the patriarchal wage and labor structures of industrial…
Burnette, Joyce. "Women Workers in the British Industrial Revolution." EH.Net Encyclopedia.
Edited by Robert Whaples. 26 Mar 2008, http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/women-workers-in-the-british-industrial-revolution / [15 May 2014]
Marsh, Jan. "Gender ideology and separate spheres in the 19th Century." Victoria & Albert
Museum, http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/g/gender-ideology-and-separate-spheres-19th-century / [14 May 2014]
These images of women also tend to be more highly sexualized than male roles: a scant 28% of characters in G-rated films are female and women are more than five times more likely to remove their clothes than their male counterparts on-screen.
Thus, while some changes have occurred in terms of the ways that the genders comport themselves on film, much has remained the same in terms of how the media portrays women. Perhaps the most telling statistic in the edia Report article is the fact that women's roles in films directed by women dramatically increase: the number of female speaking characters jumps from 27% to 47% in female-directed films, indicating that so long as the film industry continues to remain dominated by males behind the camera, changes in screen images of women will be less flexible than one might expect, even given the changes in society. Until women begin…
Mularczyk, Ewa. (2006). Review of America on Film. By Harry Benshoff & Sean Griffin.
Media Magazine. 144.
According to Ewa Mularczyk's review of America on Film, by Harry Benshoff & Sean Griffin, while gender roles may be socially constructed, they can still exercise a powerful bias in terms of the way the media renders such images. Furthermore,
Bringing Down the House and the Half-Hearted Challenge to Hegemonic Norms
The film 2003 Bringing Down the House starring Steve Martin and Queen Latifah both reinforces and challenges hegemonic norms by playing up stereotypes in the first half for comic effect and then dismantling them in second, more melodramatic half. Although comedy is the main motif throughout the whole film, the dismantling of hegemonic norms comes with a serious tone that almost seems apologetic for the antics showcased in the film's first half. In this sense, Bringing Down the House appears to want to use norms for laughs because on the one hand it senses that they are true and on the other hand feels bad about it and wants to show that race is a serious issue that should be dealt with more respect. However, the film suffers when the comedy is displaced for a more politically correct approach…
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics, Book VII. Web. 1 Dec 2015.
Bass, Valerie; Stevenson, Howard; Kotzin, Diana. Measuring the Meaning of Black
Media Stereotypes and Their Relationship to the Racial Identity, Black History Knowledge, and Racial Socialization of African-American Youth. Journal of Black Studies, vol. 45, no. 5 (July 2014): 367-395.
Mastro, Dana. Why the Media's Role in Issues of Race and Ethnicity Should be in the Spotlight. Journal of Social Issues, vol. 71, no. 1 (March 2015): 1-16.
The second time, I sat down next to a woman who was sitting alone. The woman turned and looked directly at me and furrowed her brow just a bit as she was turning away. I could hear her sigh as she shifted over dramatically as if to avoid being too close. She was reading a book and listening to headphones. Although she glared at me at first, she refused to look up until her stop came, at which point she stood up. I decided to take the experiment one step further, by looking directly at her and smiling before getting up to let her out.
The results of the experiment were mostly what I expected, except I did not predict such a nonchalant reaction from the man. The woman acted as predicted: she grew noticeably uncomfortable almost to the point where I believed she might have moved away from me…
For example, at the end of a history class' unit on the Revolutionary ar, a summative test would asses how much the student had retained about this critical period in the nation's history. It would measure the student's effort and the teacher's relative success in imparting knowledge to the student.
In contrast, a formative assessment like a quiz measures what is currently being taught in class. It measures the student's learning as a work-in-progress, to show the teacher what the student does or does not understand. It functions as a potential wake-up call for the student, in terms of his or her present state of learning. In math or foreign language classes, it is essential the teacher knows if the student is uncertain about a particular concept, given how learning is scaffolded upon previous knowledge in these subjects. Formative assessments are particularly critical in these two areas of teaching.
Types of tests. (2009). Education Oasis. Retrieved September 16, 2009 at http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/assessment/typestests.htm
Gender Norm Violation Project
One of the norms associated with the female gender is that females tend to be considerate rather than tough. Being tough and putting business before people is a quality expected of a male. The opposite of putting people before business and being considerate is a quality expected of a female. One of the situations this gender difference is seen in the workplace is in meetings where problems with either partners or customers are discussed. In discussing what to do about these problems, males tend to be focused on solving the problem, while females tend to add to the discussion concerns about why people might act like they do. This is an example of a situation where people have been observed acting as the gender norms would predict. To consider gender norms and what happens when they are violated, I decided to break this…
Social Norms and Personal Space
hen people think of communication, they usually think in terms of spoken conversations and words. However, a significant amount of communication occurs on a non-verbal level. The tones and inflections of speech, a person's body language and the proximity between two conversing people are all rife with meaning and messages.
Because of these meanings, non-verbal communication is also governed by unspoken social norms. This paper examines the norms of proximity during interpersonal communication and the effects of breaking these norms.
Norms of proximity
In his seminal work The Silent Language, anthropologist Edward T. Hall (1959) explored how body language and other forms of non-verbal behavior regulate much of interpersonal communication. Among the norms he studied were proxemics, the typical distances people maintained during face-to-face interactions.
Though the concept of proxemics varied across and within various cultures, Hall found four general distance categories people used during…
Goffman, Erving. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Penguin Books, 1959.
Hall, Edward. 1959. The Silent Language. New York: Doubleday.
What is interesting though is that by adding in another subordinate class- homosexuals- the impact changes once more, as lesbian women have less need to access contraceptives than straight women.
I have to admit that I find it difficult to relate to subordinate categories. I am male, white, and, while not wealthy, I am also not poor. I also happen to Christian and straight, though neither of those characteristics is necessarily visible by bystanders who happen to observe me. I have heard about white privilege, but I cannot say that I have ever personally known that I was experiencing preferential treatment of any type because I am white or male. However, I think that is the dangerous part of being a member of the dominant group, particularly when one is a member of multiple dominant groups- the danger that one thinks that one's personal experiences are universal experiences because those…
Musical play was designed to elicit greater responsiveness from the child in a fun setting and also to enhance the enjoyment of the adult involved in the activity. The aim of the activity was to encourage age-appropriate physical and speech-related activities as well as accustom the child to the sound of music. Rolling over while the music played, imitating the sounds and words were initiated by the adult, and when the child mimicked the adult, the child was told 'good job.' The activity was also designed to positively sensitize the child to instrumental and sung music in a social setting.
alworth, Darcy D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 32-52. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library…
Walworth, Darcy D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 32-52. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1667546041).
Naturally, cheek kissing is practiced in the States just as handshakes take place in Latin America. Incidentally, the latter is largely a result of the Americanization of Hispanic cultures. Nevertheless, as a general rule, each custom is mainly witnessed in its respective culture.
Cross cultural misunderstanding can and does happen. For example, an American visiting a Latin country may, at first, feel intruded upon when natives begin kissing them at initial contact. The reverse is true when a Latin American, arriving to the States has a hand thrust at them during introductions. It is not uncommon for Latin Americans to declare Americans as reserved. However, the more time spent in a foreign culture allows one the ability to acclimate to the host country's customs. There may even come a time when one maneuvers easily between the two cultures.
Distinguish terms 'criterion -- referenced assessment' 'norm-referenced assessment'.
obert Glaser's 1963 paper "Instructional Technology and the Measurement of Learning Outcomes" marked a watershed in psychometrics, the measurement of educational effectiveness. Glaser's innovation came through classifying two particular means of comparing test outcomes, and his definitions continue to drive controversial change in the provision of education across the United States to this day. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 represents the maturation of a very concrete and nationwide movement toward what Glaser termed "criterion-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 7), the measurement of individual student test results against absolute scores intended to demonstrate mastery of coursework, as opposed to "norm-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 8), which rank students' mastery of coursework relative to each other. Both types of measurement are used for different purposes at the same time, often with the same instrument (Popham and Husek 1969, p. 19), even…
Critical appraisals of both norm- and criterion-referenced assessment are as diverse as they are strident (Camara 2007, p. 2). These criticisms arise on both macro- or meta-systemic levels in reference to federal efforts to harmonize proficiency across states in this country by 2013-2014 (California Department of Education 2010, p. 1) even while different states and districts within states measure for different outcomes beyond federal proficiency growth. Neil et al. outline a list of student-centric or what I will call
Conflict of social norms and its effect on school environment
Social norms can be defined as the rules that determine what should be done or avoided by people in their social settings and circumstances. Norms make sure that people keep promises, ranging from the lane to drive on, to sticking by the golden rule. These are tools for explaining phenomena. They are used to analyze the state of the world even as great as international diplomacy or as subtle and ordinary as traffic rules. However, the body of knowledge regarding norms is spread across disciplines and traditions of research with unclear guidelines or consensus on the way the term should be put to use. Existing research on the subject has largely majored on the effects of the norms and the content of the same. By description, social norms cut across such disciplines as sociology, game theory, economics, and legal studies…
Collective Behavior: Comparisons
Theories of Collective Behavior: Emergent-Norm Theory vs. Value-Added Perspective
Collective behavior, in basic terms, could be defined as a voluntary activity in which individuals engage. The behavior in this case is largely non-institutionalized. There are various theories that have been used over time to explain collective behavior. These include the emergent-norm theory, value-added perspective, and assembling perspective. In this text, I concern myself with two of these, i.e. The emergent-norm theory and the value-added perspective.
The emergent-norm theory according to Stolley (2005, p. 186) posits that "new norms develop (emerge) as events happen." The value added perspective, on the other hand, suggests that "people are likely to engage in social movements and other forms of collective behavior when society has certain characteristics" (Crawford and Novak, 2013, p. 455).
It should also be noted that while the emergent-norm theory largely focuses on the relevance of social norms in…
Crawford, L. & Novak, K. (2013). Individual and Society: Sociological Social Psychology. New York, NY: Routledge.
Locher, D.A. (2001). Collective Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Stolley, K.S. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Social Psychological Experiment: Violating Social Norms
Most Americans place a high priority on their personal space as evidenced by how far people stand apart from each other in virtually any public setting. Indeed, most Americans will unconsciously gauge just how much space is available for their personal space -- even on crowded elevators -- and when this personal space is violated, many people will experience discomfort and even alarm. While the reactions may differ, it is reasonable to posit that most Americans will react to violations of their personal space in some fashion. To gain some additional insights into this phenomenon, this paper describes a social psychological experiment in which the researcher intentionally violated a common social norm by sitting next to other people in an uncrowded movie theater where other seating was readily available in order to gauge their reactions. A more complete description of the experiment is followed…
norm-referenced test is an assessment that produces a score (or scores) that represent an estimate of where the individual stands with respect to a predefined peer group on a particular trait, dimension, or ability (ust & Golombok, 2014). Norm-referenced tests allow for a comparison on whether an individual performed at, above, or below expectation with respect to individuals that are similar to them. For example, traditional IQ tests yield standardized scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (or 16; Sattler & yan, 2009). The standardized score is a score that should be interpreted and not the raw scores. In terms of simple point estimates (single IQ scores) the researcher/clinician can compare the individual performance to the norm -- reference group with respect to the score's deviation from the mean. Comparing individual scores to norm -- reference scores in this manner allows the researcher/clinician to determine…
Rust, J., & Golombok, S. (2014). Modern psychometrics: The science of psychological assessment. New York: Routledge.
Sattler, J.M., & Ryan, J.J. (2009). Assessment with the WAIS-IV. Le mesa, CA: Jerome M
Urbina, S. (2014). Essentials of psychological testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
About the Author
Anyi Wang was born in 1954 and is still alive today. Her place of birth was Nanjing, China. She was born to a writer by the name of Ru Zhijuan. She attended college at the University of Iowa as part of their international writing program. She is an active member of the Chinese Association of Writers and she remains an active novelist that has written a number of screenplays and short fiction. She engages in a circuit of lectures in both China and the United States. Her credits include a rather large volume of works including The Rain Patters On, Liushi, Huanghe Gudao Ren and others. She is also a consistent and current writer for the magazine known as Childhood (Encyclopedia).
Even the lesser known facts about the author are rather intriguing. She is indeed one of the more prominent voices that exists in an era that…
Deviance: Breaking Social Norms
For this exercise, I decided to be deviant at church. At our church, people tend to pick a pew and spread out in it. Usually there are a few families who will stand in the back because all the pews are taken. However, there is always still plenty of space in a pew for multiple families—but in America personal space is considered rather important, so it is rare to find a pew that is jam packed full of people unless they are all related or know one another well. Sharing space with a person in America is deemed something that is reserved for intimates rather than for strangers. However, in a country like India there is really no concept of personal space. People when pack themselves on trains to beyond capacity and to the point that one can be literally hanging out the door as the…
Social Identities in a Society
The concept of social identity encompasses psychological, emotional, and evaluative aspects engulfed in a person's physical attributes. The fundamental significance of social identities spreads to how individuals think about others and personal well-being. The psychological foundation of social identity and the role of social categorization in human action and perception occur as building blocks in the definition of this concept. Social identities influence individual responses to others. Further, shaping identity processes improves personal and intergroup relations. For a long time, a personal identity that operates within psychology occurs as a critical aspect of individual functioning, actual accomplishment, and feelings of well-being. The significance of social behavior spreads to significant reference groups like racial group membership and intergroup relations.
Privileges Resulting from Individual Social Identities
Self-exploration occurs as a primary factor in the growth of individuals; the relationships fostered with others, and the ability to promote…
Kimmel, Michael and Ferber Abby (2010). Privilege: A Reader, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Westview Press
McIntosh, Peggy. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. 1990 reprint. The issue of Independent School. Retrieved from http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/ele3600/mcintosh.html
Atlantic, the author outlines several issues using multiple case studies from the media. The issues cover the gamut of gender-related issues in the workplace, particularly focusing on equitable pay, structural inequality, and harassment. Because of the brevity of the piece, it is understandable that it might oversimplify several of the issues. However, generally the article offers insight into how the sociology of gender plays out in the real world.
One of the most interesting features in the article was a description of research showing that even office temperatures are determined by men. "the formula used to calculate standard office thermostat temperatures was biased, and based on the resting metabolic rate of a 40-year-old man who weighs 154 pounds," (Zhou, 2015). As a result, the ambient temperature of the office is designed for this "normative" person, and a normative person in a patriarchal society is a man. This interesting but simple…
Zhou, L. (2015). Year in Review: The Biggest Stories About Gender Inequality at Work. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/gender-equality-workplace-2015/422328/
It maintains these features for health information under the authority of "covered" units such as health care centre, plan or provider. Online storages such as Google Health and Microsoft Health Vault do not lie within the bounds of such kinds of units. This implies that their data is not as safe as they expect or assume them to be. The best approach to stay safe is to manage the electronic medical records in an online patient portal which works within the confines of the health care provider's information system. The private data which exists there will be covered by the terms of HIPAA. The level of access can be moderated to comply with the laws of the state. An instance of such a portal is the "PatientSite" created at the eth Israel Deacon Medical Center, oston. This kind of forum provides services such as secure messaging, registering appointments and updating…
Steinbrook, Robert. "Personally Controlled Online Health Data -- The next big thing in medical care" The New England Journal of Medicine, (2008): 1653-1656
"Electronic Medical Records - The pros and cons," healthworldnet.com. 1 March, 2009,
McCullagh, Declan, "Q&A: Electronic Medical Records and you," cbsnews.com, 19 May, 2009,
Norm- Referenced Tests
Criterion-referenced tests make possible the translation of scores in statement form regarding expected behavior of students relating to specific subject matter.
A norm-referenced test (NRT) is an assessment method that estimates the position of the assessed individual in a predefined group in regard to the evaluated trait.
Purpose of Tests
To find out if every student has gained specific skills or concepts.
To determine the level of knowledge of the students before and after instruction.
To rate every student depending on other students achievements in a wider spectra of knowledge
To differentiate and treat with partiality the high and low achievers
Evaluates specific skills that are part of the designated curriculum.
The particular skills are pointed out by instructors as well as experts in curriculum. The skills are identified as teaching objectives.
Evaluates wider spectra of skills that are sampled from a various sources including…
Norm- Versus Criterion-eferenced Tests
The difference between norm- and criterion-referenced tests is that the former compares test scores to a reference group, while the latter compares test scores to a performance standard. Norm-referenced tests are quite common. For example, student reading performance in primary schools may be compared to the mean score for all children of the same age. The norm comparison group would likely consist of all students within a school district, state, or nation who took the same test at the same age. Students who scored lower or higher than the mean for the norm reference group would be ranked as low or high achievers. Imagine, however, if someone wishing to qualify for a motor vehicle license was only required to achieve a score close to the mean score for all drivers? Using a norm-referenced driver test would likely be a bad public safety choice, especially if there…
Ashworth, B., Dilks, L., Hutchinson, K., Hayes, S., Moore, M., Orozoco, A. et al., (2014). A-67A pilot study of age and education norms for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29(6), 527-8.
School Psychologist Files. (n.d.). Understanding test scores. Retrieved from http://schoolpsychologistfiles.com/testscores/ .
Yang, P., Cheng, C.P., Chang, C.L., Liu, T.L., Hsu, H.Y., & Yen, C.F. (2013). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition -- Chinese version index scores in Taiwanese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 67(2), 83-91.
A few managed some whispered comments as he headed toward the back of the line.
Food Line at the School Cafeteria
This attempt was not very successful. The researcher cut in front of a female student in her late teens. She was appeared to be alone, and was carrying a laptop. She was looking down at the floor and did not seem like she was paying attention to anyone. She said nothing as the researcher stepped in front of her, though he saw her grimace slightly and then return to looking at the floor. Nevertheless, a group of seven or eight students behind her quickly noticed the researcher's presence. One of them turned loudly to his friends and cried, "Did you just see that? This guy cut in front." The researcher pretended not to notice and tried to continue looking blankly ahead. Almost immediately, he felt a strong tap on…
Schneider, I.E. (2000). Revisiting and Revising Recreation Conflict Research. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 129.
"Reevaluating established norms is the practice of reflecting upon, and adjusting as necessary, the accepted classroom norm." Mr. Washington's teaching style includes lecture, independent practice and carefully controlled interactions between students. Because Shandra has been successful in Title I but unable to carry that over to the regular classroom, Mr. Washington must work with his colleagues to determine which parts of the Title I experience can be replicated for Shandra in the classroom.
Mr. Washington has set goals for himself and for Shandra. He wants her to increase her conversations with peers about mathematical thinking and improve her overall grade in math. Mr. Washington can help her do this through the goals he has set for himself, to increase use of partner work and provide more opportunities for students to vocalize their mathematical thinking. He can begin by reducing the amount of time he lectures to his fifth graders and…
Social norms are an important part of society. These are rules that our society have set up that govern the choices we make and the way we live. There are both good and bad social norms and they can impact the work environment differently. Most working team operates within their pre-existing social norms, which guide their daily activities and choices. These norms can in some ways make the supervisor's job easier and in other ways can make it more difficult. In this paper I will discuss social norms, how they can make a supervisor's job easier, and how they make it more difficult.
What are social Norms?
Social norms are rules that a group uses as a benchmark for deciding acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Social norms exist in the United States and in other parts of the world; they exist in all types of groups. Social norms are beliefs, attitudes,…
Resources From your Employee Assistance Program. Retrieved from http://www.doa.state.wi.us/docview.asp?docid=8208&locid=1
Business Ethics in an International Environment
Business Be constrained
To what extent should a business be constrained by the moral norms of a society?
A business organization does not exist with the sole purpose of maximizing its profits; it is also supposed to be a socially responsible corporate citizen. Incorporating a sense of respect for social and cultural norms of the society is essential for business organizations if they want to achieve a sustainable future in the industry. Social norms of the society should be followed by every business organization; irrespective of its size, nature of business, type of industry, or geographical location. It becomes even harder for organizations to mold their policies, procedures, and operations according to the cultural, social, and moral norms shared by the members of the society in an international environment.
This paper has been written with a view to discuss the importance of…
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…
Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,
L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].
Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.
Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…
references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.
Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.
Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.
Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
By way of introduction to the topic, Legro examines the general presumption that a state's sense of identity defines the parameter of its national interests, thus directing its domestic or international conduct. Rather than subscribing blindly to this fundamental precept of neorealism, Legro offers a competing theory of identity and its influence on international relations, surmising that "states become what they do as much as they do what they are, they desire what they do as much as they do what they desire" (20). It is Legro's contention that a state's distinct set of cultural norms, social values, and other markers of identity can direct governmental actions on the world stage, but that these actions will inevitably influence this identity, thus providing an entirely different contextual framework for international relations as time progresses and circumstances change.
Legro cites the example of America's divergent approaches to participation in each of the…
Dunne, Tim, Kurki, Milja, and Smith, Steve. International relations theories: discipline and diversity. Oxford University Press, USA, 2007.
Ikenberry, G. John. After victory: institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Keohane, Robert O. Neorealism and its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Legro, Jeffrey. Rethinking the world: great power strategies and international order. Cornell University Press, 2005.
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
individual is someone who has a distinct personality of his/her own that differentiates him from a group or class of people. This individual has a distinguishing intelligence level, achievement abilities and aptitude. As far as intelligence is concerned, it can be defined as the "ability to reason about personality and personality-relevant information and to use that information to guide one's actions and more generally, one's life" (as qtd. In Mayer, Panter & Caruso, 2012, p. 124). In other words, intelligence is a basic psychological capability in an individual that allows him/her to give explanation, plan and prepare and get to the bottom of troubles. Intelligence is something that is not acquired by reading books or being academically bright. In the similar fashion, achievement is the way a task is performed in a successful manner (Travers. 1970, p. 447). However, aptitude is a natural ability/tendency to carry out a task.
Fagan, T., & Wise, P.S. (1995). School psychology: Past, present and future. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Huss, M.T. (2009). Forensic psychology: research, practice, and applications. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publications.
Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2013).Psychological testing: principles, applications, & issues. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Mayer, J.D., Panter, A.T., & Caruso, D.R. (2012). Does Personal Intelligence Exist? Evidence From a New Ability-Based Measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94(2), 124-140.
Concepts of Science Communication
Communalism deals with the notion that intellectual or scientific discoveries belong to the entire human race as should be shared with everyone in the community. This does not imply that there is no competition rather the competition is often quiet fierce. However, ideas must be subject to criticism to be tested and compared and thus information must be shared. Russel allace created the hypothesis that there were patterns of distribution inherent in the course of evolution and this theory has been tested and furthered by many subsequent studies because allace shared his theories with the community (Knapp).
This norm deals with the fact that it is the claim that is important as opposed to the individuals making the claim. The significant factor is the information being shared and one person's opinion should not be valued over another's because of their background…
Knapp, S. (n.d.). What, Where, and When? Retrieved from Evolution.
Annotated Bibliography -- Venezuela
What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region?
Centre for Intercultural Learning. (2012) Cultural Information -- Venezuela. Available from http://www.intercultures.ca/cil-cai/ci-ic-eng.asp?iso=ve. 2012 April 04.
his is an interactive tool for people interested in different cultures and companies. here is home page for each country with information about Venezuela divided into sections via hyperlinks. he structure is conversational style between the user and the content provider. Statistical information as well as information regarding cultural norms and behaviors are provided.
Interknowledge Corporation. (2010) Venezuela -- History and Culture. Available from http://www.geographia.com/venezuela/history.htm. 2012 April 04.
his article provides a lot of details regarding the social and the cultural aspects of Venezuela. Particular attention is paid to aspects such as language, art history, behaviors, norms, dress, and cultural aesthetics. here is less statistical data and more qualitative data regarding Venezuela culture.
Roques.com. (2011) Republica de Venezuela…
This article is specifically focused on the history of trade between the U.S.A. And Venezuela. History is always useful in any industry and the narrowness of the scope of the article is different from the other sources. Many of the other sources focus upon many issues, but this article focuses upon one. This would prove useful to professionals interested in changing trade policy or specializing in trade policy.
Hornbeck, J.F. (2011) U.S. -- Latin America Trade: Recent Trends and Policy Issues. Congressional Research Service, Available from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/98-840.pdf . 2012 April 05.
Hornbeck offers the same narrow focus as the previous source, but from a strictly USA governmental perspective. He describes the history of trade policy within South America the continent, as well as with individual countries in South America. This article puts the last article into context and builds upon its objectives.
Practicing Skill uilding: Lead and Manage Using the alanced Scorecard
Kaplan "Lead and Manage Using the Scorecard"
The work of Kaplan entitled 'Lead and Manage Using the Scorecard" states that communication "is clearly a leadership role." An article published by Forbes online states that it is not possible "to become a great leaders without being a great communicator." (Myatt, p.1) Myatt states "the previous sentence didn't refer to being a great talker -- big difference. The key to becoming a skillful communicator is rarely to be found in what has been taught in the world of academia. From our earliest days in the classroom, we are trained to focus on enunciation, vocabulary, presence, delivery, grammar, syntax, and the like. In other words, we are taught to focus on ourselves. While I don't mean to belittle these things as they're important to learn, it's the more subtle elements of communication rarely…
Barrett, DJ (nd) Leadership Communication: A Communication Approach for Senior-Level Managers. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.rice.edu/bitstream/handle/1911/27037/Leadership%20Communication%20-%20A%20Communication%20Approach%20for%20Senior-Level%20Managers%20-%20Barrett.pdf?sequence=2
Hackman, M (2006) Communicating for Leadership Success. Retrieved from: http://www.executiveforum.com/PDFs/Hackman_Synopsis.pdf
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Individuals trust that agreement speaks something relating to the fact. Complying with the group norms hence fulfils our requirement relating to mastery. When individuals privately, show their compliance since they trust group norms represent fact, the group has the impact of information. At the time when the chances are high, individuals are more inspired to take correct decisions, and hence correspond even strongly. Going away from the agreement weaken the impact of the group. Additionally, it weakens confidence, and hence we could feel perplexed, apprehensive and ambiguous. (Smith; Mackie 315-319).
Norms accord us the feelings of linkage since compliance to group principles lead to achieving a positive as well as principled social identity and getting respect from the members of the other group. Compliance as such gives rise to encountering a view of belonging, and it indicates assurance to members of other groups. A group has positive impact at the…
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For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…
Elliston, D. (2005). Erotic anthropology: "Ritualized homosexuality" in Melanesia and beyond.
In J. Robertson (Ed.), Same sex cultures and sexualities: An anthropological reader (pp.91-115). Malden: Blackwell.
Hunter, M. (2012). Rights amidst wrongs: The paradoxes of gender rights-based approaches towards AIDS in South Africa. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.66-74). London: Routledge.
Mahdavi, P. (2012). 'The personal is political and the political is personal': Sexuality, politics, and social movements in modern Iran. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.34-48). London: Routledge.
¶ … Environmental Cues Shape Behavior
Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).
It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).
Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected…