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Two of those countries are Iran and North Korea. Of the two, Iran seems more likely to use those weapons, based on the fact that the leaders of Iran are so defiant in their language towards the rest of the world. Investigators for the United Nations, who monitors countries for such weaponry, have been misled, misinformed about intentions and even totally banned from inspections by both Iran and North Korea.
Terrorist groups that are likely to use weapons of mass destruction are far too numerous to pontificate on in this paper, but two likely suspects could include Al Queda and Hamas. The leaders of Al Queda have spoken many times about the necessary destruction of the 'Great Satan' (referring to America) and have displayed their intentions by flying two planes into the two New York towers in 2001. If they have done it in the past, there is no reason…
Countries that would seem likely to use weapons of mass destruction include those countries that tout the fact that they are developing such technology. Two of those countries are Iran and North Korea. Of the two, Iran seems more likely to use those weapons, based on the fact that the leaders of Iran are so defiant in their language towards the rest of the world. Investigators for the United Nations, who monitors countries for such weaponry, have been misled, misinformed about intentions and even totally banned from inspections by both Iran and North Korea.
Terrorist groups that are likely to use weapons of mass destruction are far too numerous to pontificate on in this paper, but two likely suspects could include Al Queda and Hamas. The leaders of Al Queda have spoken many times about the necessary destruction of the 'Great Satan' (referring to America) and have displayed their intentions by flying two planes into the two New York towers in 2001. If they have done it in the past, there is no reason to believe that they will change their modus operandi in the future. Hamas is another fanatical group that would seemingly love to obliterate Israel, and one way to do that is through nuclear weapons.
Overall, the precarious state of the world today is even more problematic and stressful than the Cold War was to the older generation. At least during the Cold War there was a fixed entity to hate and fear, now that fixed entity is a much more unknown quality.
It has been viewed to manipulate the treaty for its gains in terms of securing security. After the treaty was signed, the international community's interest to agree to rules that had been accepted created a source of safety. The current world has termed the treaty as a regime.
In the U.S. context, their aim is to provide security for their citizens because of the nuclear weapons threat. The treaty has been signed by more than 180 states worldwide. In order to ensure that there is safety while nations continue with their nuclear program, a separate organization was created to oversee the process of monitoring such activities: the International Energy Atomic Agency (IAEA). U.S. As the hegemonic state has the power to protect other nations from harm: other nations view this as a mutual benefit. While the U.S. gain more power plus safety from states that are within the NPT treaty,…
Forsberg, R. (2005). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Michigan: MIT Press
Gallacher, J, Blacker, C. & Bellany, I. (2005). The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. New York:
Kessler, J. (2005). Verifying Nonproliferation Treaties: Obligation, Process, and Sovereignty.
Korea became the first identifiable danger. Of course, the Korean conflict was only the first of hot-spot conflicts in the Cold ar. "To police the world, to risk nuclear war, to eradicate the creed of communism, all in the name of national defense, the new national security priesthood would wage bloody war in Korea and Vietnam, overthrow the democratically elected governments of Iran, Guatemala, and Chile, and assassinate the elected president of Congo, nearly come to nuclear war over Cuba, foster civil wars throughout Africa, topple the regime in Indonesia and enable reigns of terror by right-wing death squads throughout Central America" (Atwood, p.177). Atwood cites numerous examples, beginning with the treatment of combatants (tattooing them with anti-Communist slogans that would prevent them from reassimilating into their societies after the war) and non-combatants (bombing civilian targets) of ways that the United States violated the human rights principles it said it…
Atwood, Paul. "Cold War / Hot War: Savage Wars of Peace." War and Empire: The American
Way of Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 174-214.
War and Society
Can war be an effective policy tool in the 21st century?
War is a very contentious issue plaguing modern day society. The prospect of war is exacerbated by the continual conflicts between self-serving nations. As such discrepancies continue to either strengthen or diminish once strong relationships between countries. In addition, technology and its rapid proliferation have contributed heavily to the overall war debate. Technology, and its rapid advancement makes, acquiring and replicating weapons of mass destruction more financially feasible. As the cost to produce weapons diminishes so too will the ability to strike unsuspecting nations. Factions that ordinary would not have the financial resources to construct or attack a country, now have the ability to do so in an effective manner. As such, it is my belief that war is not an effective policy tool for the 21st century. The ability to inflict massive causalities is simply…
1) Karol Jan Borowiecki, 2012. Are composers different? Historical evidence on conflict-induced migration (1816-1997). European Review of Economic History, vol.16(3), pp.261-91
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…
Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054
Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker
Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution
Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
Everything was routine until the attempted refueling.
Moran did her research well, including flying with a KC-135 tanker crew to experience an in-flight refueling so that she was cognizant of exactly what might have taken place that day. Her account of the accident holds the reader's attention, and, at the same time, seems purely objective.
Since the pilots of the 52 survived the disaster, along with the 52 navigator and spare pilot, her telling of the story comes first-hand -- at least the 52 crew's version since all aboard the KC-135 were killed. And, despite the vast differences between what the pilots told her and the results of the investigation board after the accident, Moran holds to an unbiased account of both.
She draws no conclusions other than repeating what the investigative board ruled. While the pilots described only a sudden explosion occurring at the rear of the 52 causing…
Moran, B. The day we lost the h-bomb: Cold war, hot nukes, and the worst nuclear weapons disaster in history. New York: Random House, 2009.
As a matter of fact, that is precisely what bin Laden has pledged to do in an operation he calls the "American Hiroshima." Except that bin Laden's dream consists of detonating nuclear devices in six or seven major American cities like New York, Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington, and Los Angeles simultaneously.
Allison explains that this is the real danger to the U.S. posed by Iranian intentions to start enriching uranium to weapons grade in their reactor facilities, which they will soon be able to do unless they accept the trade concessions and other incentives offered by the West to suspend such ambitions and allow regular inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Whereas Iranian missile technology is far less advanced than necessary to threaten the U.S. directly, it could easily furnish enough weapons-grade uranium to make bin Laden's dream a real possibility within a matter of only a few…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt
Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation
Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)
The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"
Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…
Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.
Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
This article addresses why children and adolescents may become violent, what factors influence them, what are the signs, and what preventive measures work in society's attempts to end violence among children and adolescents. In our society today, many parents have become irresponsible, not only allowing their children to immerse themselves in violent video games and movies but also causing a lot of violent behavior among their children by having unhealthy marriages, abusing their children, and becoming alcohol and drug addicts. This problem needs to be addressed, and therefore I found it important to include into my blog.
The last material I decided to include into my blog is an article by a professor of education who talks about the connection of toys to violence. This article points out that we often look at violence in media, TV, the Internet as causes of violence among Americans but we rarely…
However, it is the cable technician and a lone previously un-promotable Air Force pilot, flying a recovered alien ship, and downloading a computer virus into the mother ship that spells the ultimate downfall of the aliens and saves mankind.
The War of the Worlds' Influence on Independence Day:
Anyone who has watched these two movies can draw immediate similarities. Both are built around the premise that aliens have come to invade Earth, yet, in the end, mankind survives. The most critical comparison of the two movies, faults Independence Day for figuratively stealing the ending from War of the Worlds. Of course in Independence Day the "virus" that kills of the aliens is electronic and not microbial, but the symbolism is simply too obvious.
Just as in War of the Worlds, Independence Day has the nations uniting under the common threat. No longer are national boundaries of relevance, when the fate…
Hunt, KC. Plot Summary for War of the Worlds (1953). 2004. Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0046534/plotsummary .
Molin, Gustaf. Plot Summary for Independence Day (1996). 2004. Internet Movie Database. November 9, 2004 http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116629/plotsummary .
The War of the Worlds (1953 Movie). 24 Sept 2004. Wikipedia.org. November 9, 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds_%281953_movie%29 .
The time to go in and dismantle his war machine was now, Bush insisted.
But now, nearly four years after the invasion of Iraq, with nearly 3,000 American casualties and over $380 billion having been spent (Sidoti, 2006), less than 40% of Americans support the war. No weapons of mass destruction have been found. No evidence of any nuclear program Hussein was alleged to have launched has been found. And recently the U.S. intelligence agencies reported that the war in Iraq has created more terrorists, and that we are not any safer now than we were in 2001 after 9/11.
Moreover, the American people are clearly fed up with what they see on television from Iraq: a) there is now a civil war going on between rival ethnic factions, and dozens of innocent civilians are kidnapped and/or slaughtered every day; the U.S. involvement has exacerbated this bloodletting; b) images of…
Hess, Pamela. "Pentagon late to the information war." United Press International. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.upi.com .
Reuters. "Factbox - Military and Civilian Deaths in Iraq. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2006 at http://www.alertnet.org .
Sidoti, Liz. "Analysis: Iraq war dominates campaign." Associated Press. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 from http://www.mercurynews.com .
S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not violated the treaty.
The Politics of Proliferation
The politics of non-proliferation are complex. In the case of the U.S., the agreement and terms must satisfy every party involved. On one hand, the U.S. is under an obligation built on trust, that it will reduce the number of nuclear weapons in its arsenal. However, it must still maintain an arsenal that is capable of acting as a deterrent against first attach by non-treaty countries with nuclear weapons. These two goals compete with one another. The U.S. is not the only nuclear weapon owner with this conflict. Every member of the non-proliferation treaty faces this same dilemma.
Nuclear arms negotiations have taken place amidst an atmosphere of deception and mistrust. Full disclosure is…
Curtis, L. 2007. "U.S. Policy and Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Containing Threats and Encouraging Regional Security." The Heritage Foundation. July 6, 2007. http://www.heritage.org/Research/asiaandthepacific/tst062707.cfm (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Kerr, P. 2004. "Libya Vows to Dismantle WMD Program. Arms Control Today." January/February 2004. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_01-02/Libya (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Lavie, M. "Israel Stands by Vague Nuclear Policy." December 7, 2006. Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/07/AR2006120701234.html)
Levy, D. 2007. "U.S. nuclear policy goes from MAD to NUTS, Panofsky says." Stanford Report. April 18, 2007. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/april18/pief-041807.html (Accessed August 21, 2008)
The same access to formerly secret information from the Cold War era also revealed the extent to which Soviet infiltration of the highest level of American military projects had served to further exhaust the American economy by necessitating continual development of strategic and tactical weapon systems to counter escalating technological improvements in Soviet military systems. The first successful test of a Soviet nuclear weapon in 1949 was directly attributable to Soviet infiltration of the top secret Manhattan Project; American pilots flew combat missions against Soviet Mig fighters developed with information stolen from American weapon designs through espionage; and that dynamic persisted virtually throughout the Cold War (Langewiesche 2007).
The financial strain of continuous nuclear deterrence and the perpetual modernization and updating of sophisticated strategic weapon systems was among the principle causes of the eventual collapse of the former Soviet Union. By 1989, the protracted war in Afghanistan had all but…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
New York: Henry Holt & Co.
Langewiesche, W. (2007) the Atomic Bazaar: The Rise of the Nuclear Poor. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Girouh.
McNamara, R. (1995) in Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York: Random House.
However, human error and responses based on mistakes of interpretation greatly escalated the respective bombing campaigns of Britain and Germany. Specifically, both nations had purposely avoided bombing one another's civilian populations when, on August 24, 1940, several German bombers accidentally bombed residential areas of London (Commager & Miller, 2002). In response, Britain bombed factories and airfields near Berlin; the relative inaccuracy of bombing operations of the era lead Hitler to conclude that those raids were intended as attacks on civilians. He immediately began ordering indiscriminate bombing attacks on London, eventually exposing German civilians to even more intense bombing campaigns by the Allies later in the war (Commager & Miller, 2002). To a certain extent, the exchange of attacks on civilian population centers on both sides was the result of inadvertent misunderstanding of intentions that escalated the horrors of Word War II even further.
The Prospect of Inadvertent Nuclear War:
Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons. New York: Columbia University Press.
Commager, H., Miller, D. (2002). The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager. New York: Bantam
Hayes, C., and Faissler, M. (1999). Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present.
The 2001 incidents also made other nations act supportive toward U.S.'s decision to wage war against Iraq, with the international public apparently believing that the Americans had been entitled to fight terrorism everywhere. In spite of the fact that the idea of the U.S. waging war in Iraq had a rather vindictive nature, little nations actually appeared willing to condemn the actions performed by the Bush administration.
The U.S.'s decision to go to war against Iraq appears to be unjustified, considering the fact that there had been no rational grounds for such an act. The main issue to be addressed relating to the event is whether it is reasonable for a nation to invade another on the basis that the latter either owns weapons of mass destruction or has the capability to produce them. Taking into account the fact that the U.S. had probably been suspicious concerning Iraq's intention is…
1. Himes, Kenneth R. "Intervention, Just War and U.S. National Security." Theological Studies, Vol. 65, 2004.
2. Wogaman, J. Philip. (1993). "Christian ethics: a historical introduction." Westminster John Knox Press.
Wogaman, J. Philip. (1993). "Christian ethics: a historical introduction." Westminster John Knox Press.
Wogaman, J. Philip. (1993). "Christian ethics: a historical introduction." Westminster John Knox Press.
Viet Nam War and its comparison to several social theories. Using the war as a measuring stick theories are examined and held against the war to see how the war could be applied to each theory. The writer explains a short history of each theory and then examines how the war holds up using that particular theory.
The Viet Nam War was arguably the most controversial war that America has ever been involved in. It sparked social movements that had never before been seen. It pitted the young against the old, the conservative against the liberal and the rich against the poor in ways that threatened to tear the nation in pieces. Until Viet Nam, service personnel had been considered heroes, worthy of the nation's admiration. During the Viet Nam war those who served often came home to being spit on, and having things thrown at time. Until Viet Nam…
Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory
Sociology of Deviant Behavior
The Theory of Hegemonic Stability
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…
Andres, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only. (New York: HarperPerennial), 1996.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
Painter, David S. The Cold War: An International History. London: Routledge, 1999.
Powers, Thomas. Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: New York Review Books, 2002.
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
At first, this meant economic and political supremacy, but, as time evolved, other aspects were being taken into consideration, such as supremacy in sports. It is notorious, for example, that the ice hockey finals between the two national teams were considered the most important event of the Winter Olympics.
he last paragraph gives us a clue as to why the war was cold: there was no direct military confrontation. Indeed, if any, military confrontation between the two countries took the form of support towards different factions in a third country. his is the case in the Korean War, for example. While the Americans actually had troops and fought in the Peninsula, the Russians were satisfied to military supply the North Korean Army.
As I have previously stated, the cold war took the form of a constant competition for supremacy, without the risk of a full action war between the two…
The last paragraph gives us a clue as to why the war was cold: there was no direct military confrontation. Indeed, if any, military confrontation between the two countries took the form of support towards different factions in a third country. This is the case in the Korean War, for example. While the Americans actually had troops and fought in the Peninsula, the Russians were satisfied to military supply the North Korean Army.
As I have previously stated, the cold war took the form of a constant competition for supremacy, without the risk of a full action war between the two superpowers. It couldn't be otherwise: the leaders of the two countries realized that a full-scaled war between the two nations could have only destroyed mankind for good, because it would have meant a nuclear war, with all the havoc that this could create. The only situation that may have pushed things towards a "hot war" was the Cuban missile crisis, but this was successfully solved before degenerating.
As such, as a "hot war" was impossible and would have had no winners, the two countries opted for other forms of competition, including propaganda for each of the system in part. The result was a non-violent conflict over a period of 50 years, up to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Nuclear confrontation between the two superpowers was profoundly frightening, not just for those who would have borne the full brunt of any nuclear exchange... But for the international community as a whole. Quite literally, the prospect of nuclear war constituted a threat of truly global dimensions. (O'Neil A. 2004)
There are many other important aspects that mark the beginning of the Cold War Era. One was the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO in 1949. NATO as a joint military group was created to "... defend against Soviet forces in Europe." (Cold War) The first members of NATO were Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United States. (Cold War) A similar organization was formed by the Soviet Union and its east European allies known as the Warsaw Pact. This also serves to emphasize the entrenchment of the Cold War into…
Cold War. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/cold_war.htm
Harry S, Truman and the War Scare of 1948. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAtrumanD.htm
McGowan M. (2005) American society is in dire need of a wake-up call: Award Would Honor Veterans Who Fought for Freedom against Iron Curtain. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2005/050713-veteran-award.htm
O'Neil A. (2004) Keeping the contemporary threat environment in perspective. Retrieved June 4, 2006, at http://www.australianreview.net/digest/2004/05/oneil.html
This will continue to be the case for the foreseeable decades as the United States fights wars that are so far not yet even imagined. If these wars have been fought (as many have suggested) over the presence of the scarce resource of oil, the next wars may be fought over the even more precious resource of water.
Looking not too far into the future, the next wars may be fought over the consequences (the magnitude of which has not been determined) of climate change. As the surface of the world itself changes with rising seawater and increasing disastrous floods, hurricanes, and droughts, the nature of war is likely to change ever more dramatically and ever more quickly. Petraeus has proven to be the kind of military leader who can understand that strength is based on intelligence and flexibility, not a clinging to traditions and -- most importantly -- the…
Bacevich, a. (2008). thinks our political system is busted. In "The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Petraeus, D. (2007). The U.S. Army / Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24fd.pdf .
Smith, R. (2007). The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Knopf.
Cold War dominated American culture, consciousness, politics and policy for most of the 20th century. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which symbolized the fall of the Iron Curtain and therefore finale of the Cold War, Cold War rhetoric and politics continued especially in the War on Terror. Depictions of the Cold War in American literature and film parallel the changes that took place in American ways of thinking about its own domestic policies as well as American perceptions of the alien enemy or "Other." Tracing the evolution of American film and literature from the end of World War Two until the 1980s reveals trends in thought. Early depictions of the Cold War were modernist in their approach, with clear distinctions between good and evil and no moral ambiguity whatsoever. Clear delineations between right/wrong and good/evil prevailed, a form of political propaganda and even brainwashing that prepped the…
Booker, K.M. (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Comyn, J. (2014). "V2 to Bomarc: Reading Gravity's Rainbow in Context." Orbit 2(2). Retrieved online: https://www.pynchon.net/owap/article/view/62/174
Hamill, J. (1999). Confronting the Monolith: Authority and the Cold War in Gravity's Rainbow. Journal of American Studies 33(3): 417-436.
Jarvis, C. (n.d.). The Vietnamization of World War II in Slaughterhouse Five and Gravity's Rainbow. Retrieved online: http://www.wlajournal.com/15_1-2/jarvis%2095-117.pdf
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
Kennedy's Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos, & Vietnam" by Lawrence Freedman, the author looks specifically at John F. Kennedy's role in foreign politics. This book covers in depth the major global emergencies during the Kennedy Presidency, including Berlin, Cuba, and Vietnam.
It is clear Freedman's thesis for writing the book is a convincing attempt to answer the "what if?" question surrounding Kennedy's Presidency, including the possibility of reestablishing cordial relations with Castro and whether he would have pursued the same route as President Johnson did into Vietnam. The author notes, "Questions of what might have been still dominate considerations of Kennedy's presidency, and they are addressed in this book" (Freedman xii). Since Kennedy was assassinated in 1963 before he had the chance to prove and continue his foreign policy, these are valid questions about an administration left hanging. Throughout the book Freedman continually returns to this thesis as he examines each…
Freedman, Lawrence. Kennedy's Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam. New York: Oxford University Press U.S., 2000.
ashington Rules: America's Path To Permanent ar
ritten by a former Army Colonel, ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) is a striking analysis of America's pro-military psyche and determination to "to lead, save, liberate, and ultimately transform the world" (Bacevich, 2010, p. 12) through worldwide militarism. Commencing post-orld ar II, the global military presence that has become a fact of American life has been supported by Democrats and Republicans alike, though it has significantly drained our resources. hile some critics and this reader take issue with some aspects of Bacevich's book, in many respects it provides a voice of sanity in the face of the U.S.'s now-unbearable global pro-war stance.
Bacevich's book is anything but the compliment, "ashington Rules!" ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) relates his own educational journey from a pro-military conservative soldier to a questioner who attacks the American…
Bacevich, A.J. (2010). Washington rules: America's path to permanent war. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.
Bass, G.J. (2010, September 3). Book review - Washington rules - America's path to permanent war. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.nytimes.com Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/05/books/review/Bass-t.html
Boston University. (2012). Andrew J. Bacevich | International Relations | Boston University. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.bu.edu Web site: http://www.bu.edu/ir/faculty/alphabetical/bacevich/
Burns, K. (Director). (2007). The War [Motion Picture].
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
American Ideals and the Challenges of the post-WW2 Years
America changed quite a bit after WW2. It changed with respect to gender roles, with respect to racial issues, with respect to the economy, and with respect to politics. Everything was in flux after WW2—but it did not happen all at once. What happened first was the Cold War. Immediately the war ended, Americans returned home from the war and returned to the jobs they had held previously. The women who had been in the workforce now returned home—back to the domestic sphere, which was their traditional role. The Baby Boomer generation was soon being born and life was good. Jobs were being created and credit was easier to come by than in the past. But things were not perfect because the Red Menace reared its head and Joe McCarthy began hunting Communists in the government and in Hollywood. Tensions increased…
Kennedy and Khruschev
The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 is widely considered to be the moment when the Cold ar between the U.S.A. And the U.S.S.R. came closest to outright hostility and indeed nuclear war. hat is most interesting about the Cuban Missile Crisis in retrospect is its strategic handling by the two national leaders involved, Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. I hope by an examination of the correspondence exchanged by these two leaders during the period to demonstrate that Kennedy's handling of the crisis, while marked by some errors, was more responsible than Khrushchev's. In some sense, the Cuban Missile Crisis began as an irresponsible gamble by Khrushchev: if he exhibited some clever statesmanship during the crisis, this does not erase the fact that it was begun by him as an attempt to take advantage of a perceived weakness on Kennedy's part that was not ultimately there.…
Kennedy, John F. And Khrushchev, Nikita. "Kennedy-Khrushchev Exchanges." Loyola University. Web. Accessed 25 April 2014 at: http://www.loyola.edu/departments/academics/political-science/strategic-intelligence/intel/FRUS-6.html
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
ar in Iraq focuses on the prospects of war in Iraq. This paper highlights the pros and cons of a war. The paper argues about the unethical waging of war by the United States on Iraq while highlighting some quotes to support its claim.
ar In Iraq
The United States of America and the rest of the world turned over a new leaf after the September 11 incident. Many viewpoints were put forward when President Bush decided to wage a war against Iraq. Some thought that the war was a result of America's greed for oil or to set up the corrupt status quo, as it did in Vietnam and elsewhere in the Arab world during the cold war. The reason that the United States gave for the war was to install democracy in the heart of the Muslim world. No matter what the purpose of the war may be,…
Washington T. Bush Team Doesn't Want People To See Human Cost Of War. The Toronto Star. 11 Feb. 2003.
Scott S. Analysis: Effects Of War In Iraq On Turkey, Iran And Saudi Arabia.
Weekend Edition Saturday NPR. 19 Oct. 2002.
Wars of the Century
Major Wars of the 20th Century: the Causes
The twentieth century has certainly seen its shares of horrors of killings. Internationally, an astonishing number of major and minor wars have broken down during this specific time period. All of these major and minor conflicts have certainly changed the face of our society and affected millions of people worldwide; to understand the changes undergone by our international culture and society as well as the major causes of war, it is of the utmost importance to gain a better understanding of those conflicts. The similarities in many of those worldly conflicts traceable to the twentieth century are astonishing and deeper analysis of the causes and outcomes of those conflicts certainly is necessary from a historic point-of-view. By establishing a list of the major conflicts of the twentieth century and learning more about the deep-rooted causes of those wars,…
Best, Anthony et al. (2008) International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Oxon, Routledge.
Booth, Ken and Dunne, Tim (eds) (2002) Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of the Global Order. Hampshire, Palgrave.
Chatfield, Charles and DeBenedetti, Charles (1990) An American Ordeal: the antiwar movement of the Vietnam Era. Syracuse, Syracuse University Press.
Cowley, Robert and Parker, Geoffrey (1996) The Reader's Companion to Military History. New York, Houghton Mifflin.
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
The concept of war encompasses various different types of conflict. Wars between sovereign nations involve nation states. Regional and world wars involve multiple sovereign nations. Revolutionary wars of independence involve the populations of nations rebelling against or rejecting the continued control national authorities. ivil wars occur when rival regions or political factions within one nation seek formal separation or complete control. Proxy wars are a means by which nations prosecute their competing interests against one another through smaller conflicts involving other nations as a means of avoiding direct military conflict.
Wars between Nation States
Wars between sovereign nations have occurred throughout recorded history, dating back to Biblical times. Generally, sovereign nations go to war when they each have claims to the same land, or natural resources, or rights of passage that each seeks to own or control exclusively. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern age, the…
Civil wars occur when different political factions within one nation cannot reach an agreement or reconcile major differences. In some cases, the purpose of a civil war is similar to revolutionary wars because they are the result of one faction's desire or intention to break free from a larger unified nation and to create a new sovereign nation. The American War between the States or Civil War is an example of such a war because the southern states sought to secede from the American nation and to create their own nation where slavery could continue legally as a way of life. The northern states opposed the institution of slavery and had gradually placed more and more pressure on the southern states to give up the practice. In other instances, civil wars occur when one faction seeks to take exclusive power over the nation instead of sharing power or regional control with competing political factions. The Spanish Civil War immediately preceding the Second World War is one such example.
Sometimes, nation states prosecute wars against one another through wars between smaller nations. Generally, this occurs when much larger nations want to avoid the devastating consequences of a direct war between them. They may have long-standing conflicts with one another or competing aims and interests about foreign territories and regions. They may seek to achieve their objectives through the use of force but instead of direct military conflict, they act against one another by supporting wars and revolutions in smaller nations in those regions. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the world's two principal superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union conducted many overt and covert proxy wars in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and in both the Middle East and the Far East. Some of the more notable examples of those proxy efforts in modern times included the Soviet Union's attempt to militarize Cuba and install nuclear missiles aimed at the U.S. supposedly to guarantee Cuba's independence in 1961; the decade-long Vietnam War in which the Soviet Union supported and finances the North Vietnamese while the U.S. supported and financed the South Vietnamese; and the Arab-Israeli wars in which the Soviet Union supported Syria and Egypt while the U.S. supported Israel.
war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.
The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…
As the end of the year slowly approaches, there is an expected transition of power by the United States and its allies to allow the Iraqi people to govern themselves. The media has tried to convince us that we as a nation have liberated the country of Iraq from one of the most brutal dictators in the world's documented history. Saddam equated to a modern day Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein would surely have destroyed the American way of life by using his weapons of mass destruction that he had been stock piling for years. And if that was not bad enough, Saddam was also said to have supported the efforts of Al Qaeda's terroristic network. Our nightly news and all of the media hype may actually have us as a nation beginning to believe this, ah, stuff, for the lack of a better term. The war has had…
Al Qaeda. Ed. Frontline. PBS. 12 May 2004 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/alqaeda.html .
BBC World News. "Oil prices set new record highs." BBC Online UK Edition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3713281.stm .
Blood for Oil? Ed. Taylor, Jerry. March 18, 2003. CATO Institute. 12 May 2004 http://www.cato.org/dailys/03-18-03.html .
Bush Administration. "National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction." White House Release (2002) 12 May 2004 http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/12/WMDStrategy.pdf .
U.S.-Iraq War Aftermath
Following the aftermath of the Second Gulf War or the U.S.-Iraq War, the bigger question that comes after learning of Saddam Hussein's oust from his leadership in Iraq is: where are the weapons of mass destruction (WMD)?
The presence of WMD is an essential proof for the U.S. that will prove how their offensive actions against Saddam is justified, i.e., Pres. ush acted on the principle of protecting national and international security against Saddam's ambitions to reign in all the world' nations, particularly the Arab world. However, a recent article shows how the ush administration had continually failed to show proof, even evidence, of the existence of these WMDs. Months after the attack, the ush administration is 'under fire' for attacking Iraq based on 'unfounded' evidence and claims that the Saddam regime is manufacturing chemical, nuclear, and biological weapons. The New York Times published an article entitled,…
Knowlton, B. "U.S. Inspector sees much to pursue in Iraqi weapons search." 5 October 2003. The New York Times Online edition. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/05/international/middleeast/05CND-WEAP.html?hp .
The CIA documented thirteen open-air biological weapons tests by Iraq from March 1988 to January 1991. Iraq admitted that its al-Dawrah Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine Facility was a biological warfare agent production facility. In 1996, the UN Special Commission on Iraq attempted to render the facility useless; however, the plant regained its functions in 2001 with the excuse of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak. This justification makes little sense given that Iraq could easily attain FMD vaccines through the UN ("Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs").
Iraq has provided headquarters, operating bases, training camps, and other support to terrorist groups. During the Gulf War, Hussein sponsored several failed terrorist attacks on U.S. soil. According to the U.S. Department of State, "The Iraqi intelligence service attempted to assassinate former U.S. President George ush during a visit to Kuwait" ("Significant Terrorist Incidents, 1961-2003: A rief Chronology"). As Hussein's WMD program grew,…
"Abu Nidal Organization (Iraq, extremists)." Oct. 2005. Council on Foreign Relations http://www.cfr.org/publication/9153/
"Iraq Democracy Watch: Report # 1 on the Situation in Iraq." 26 Sept. 2003. The Iraq Foundation http://www.iraqfoundation.org/news/2003/isept/26_democracy_watch.html
"Iraq Timeline: 2002-2003." Infoplease http://www.infoplease.com/spot/iraqtimeline2.html
"Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs." Oct. 2002. CIA https://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/iraq_wmd/Iraq_Oct_2002.htm
seventh and eighth chapters of Lawrence Freedman's book The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy. Indeed, the use or threatening of use of nuclear weapons has been a prominent and controversial topic for the last half century and change since the weapons were dreamt up and brought to reality. hat follows this introduction is meant to be an abstract of what Friedman had to say. hile the use of weapons of mass destruction was and remains a very charged subject, there is no doubt that it has altered the course of human history both when it is used and not used (Freedman).
It is indeed interesting how the different motives and obligations can make the opinions about things like destructive bombs ebb and flow. hile some may focus on the death, destruction and later fallout of Japan post-orld ar II, others still focus on the threat of these weapons being used against…
Freedman, Lawrence. The evolution of nuclear strategy. 3rd ed. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print.
invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…
(1) Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
(2) Ibid, 1.
(3) Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
(4) Michael Dobbs. U.S. Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup. Washington Post. December 30, 2002.
hour deadline for Saddam to step down as ruler of Iraq, America launched its first series of air strikes on Baghdad. Since then, there has been much debate about whether or not the United States and its allies are justified in the attempt to disarm Saddam Hussein, and to force him from power. While unpopular in some areas, the war against Iraq is not only justified, but is also necessary for a number of reasons.
One reason to support the war in Iraq is the threat of weapons of mass destruction. According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies director John Chipman, "War, sanctions and inspections have reversed and retarded, but not eliminated Iraq's nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and long-range missile capacities, nor have they removed Baghdad's enduring interest in developing these capacities" (Chipman, 2002). With such a high level of both potential weapon construction and currently owned and…
Associated Press. "Blix: No weapons of mass destruction seen." News Observer. 14 Feb, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.newsandobserver.com/front/digest/story/2203330p-2082399c.html
Chipman, J. "Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Net Assessment."
An IISS Strategic Dossier. London: Arundel House. 9 September, 2002.
Pelletiere, S.C. "U.S. Army War College: NO PROOF SADDAM GASSED THE KURDS" What Really Happened. 2002. 3 April, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/helms.html
War Without Victory
Nominally, the United States achieved victory in the first Gulf War. However, the decades of fighting in the Middle East, punctuated by the second Gulf War demonstrate that the United States was not victorious in that war. However, equally clear is the fact that Iraq was not victorious. This paper examines the politics behind the Gulf War including deterrence, diplomacy, power struggles, and military and political implications to come to the conclusion that there was no victor in the Gulf War.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, ordered an invasion of Kuwait (A&E, 2013). This action alarmed other countries in the area, and these countries asked for intervention from other countries and from the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council responded by ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The United States, working with and through the United Nations, attempted to use deterrence…
A&E Television Networks. (2013). Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from History.com website: http://www.history.com/topics/persian-gulf-war
Morgan, P. (2012). The state of deterrence in international politics today. Retrieved May 5,
2013 from Contemporary Security Policy website: http://www.contemporarysecuritypolicy.org/assets/CSP-33-1%20Morgan.pdf
PBS. (2010). The Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from American Experience
War in Iraq
Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, ush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition,…
Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/
CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04 http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/
Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html
Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/
Nuclear energy is an energy source that has zero emissions, propels our society into the future, and provides electricity around-the-clock. Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of atoms inside a reactor through a process known as fission to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. These atoms have enormous energy in the bonds that hold them together. Nuclear fission will split the atoms into smaller atoms, in essence, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission for the production of electricity. Nuclear energy is considered to be environmentally safe because it causes zero emissions and this is beneficial to the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint (Brook & Bradshaw, 2015). However, nuclear power plants do produce radioactive nuclear waste that must be stored safely to ensure there is no…
Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism
Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.
At this point, however, the match…
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/09/20/rivals-iran-vs.-saudi-arabia/56t9 .
Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/07/02/iran-s-great-game.html
Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from http://www.uni-muenster.de/Politikwissenschaft/Doppeldiplom/docs/IIR.pdf .
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…
Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973.
Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA's Legacy of Technology Transfer and Prospects for Future Benefits." AIAA Space Conference & Exposition. Long Beach, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. 1-9.
Cox, M. "The Cold War as a system." Critique (1986): 17-82.
Lieber, Keir A. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy." Foreign Affairs (2006): 42-67.
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…
Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm
Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.
Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.
Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
Military ar or Campaign
The world has existed amidst a set of wars and conflicts that have shaped political systems, governments, and humanitarian associations. Gulf ar is one of the universal and all time conflicts that rocked the world. ith equitable measures and categorical procedures, philosophies, missions, and visions of these wars, this piece of study exemplifies Gulf ar as one of America's participatory wars in the world. The article tries to establish the basement of Gulf ar together with its consequences and responses it received from the United States of America and the world as a whole.
and the Middle East have been on good terms for quite some time. Various wars between the U.S. And countries including Iraq have occurred. In such instances, military deployment by the U.S. government is intense supported by its foreign policies. This study focuses on the 1990/91 Gulf ar. The America's paradoxical love-hate…
Boyne, Walter J. Gulf War: A Comprehensive Guide to People, Places & Weapons. New York: Signet, 1991. Print.
Bulloch, John, and Harvey Morris. The Gulf War: Its Origins, History, and Consequences.
London: Methuen London, 1989. Print.
Carlisle, Rodney, and John S. Bowman. Persian Gulf War. New York: Facts on File, 2003.
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Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
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limited and total war, and the factors leading to either type of wars.
States will escalate a limited war to total warfare only in cases where they do not have certain limitations.
Key discussion areas:
A definition and a discussion of limited and total wars
A discussion of the Koreas war and how major world powers (the Soviet Union and the United States ) were fighting their own proxy wars in the conflict
A discussion of military imperatives such as nuclear weapons and their scale of destructions and why their possession and use is restricted. And how nuclear asymmetry affects modern warfare.
A discussion of the four main factors limiting war and why such factors are important to making defense policy decisions for nations in the modern day world
Summary of main points:
Limited and total war
Military imperatives; nuclear weapons and military factors
Factors limiting war
What are the…
Conway, 2013. Limited vs. Total War. [Online]
Available at: http://www.mconway.net/page20/files / [Accessed 16 September 015].
Salavrakos, I.-D., 2014. The Defence Economics of Total War 1870-1918: A Literature Review
Article. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(1), pp. 23-45.
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
War against Iraq
War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…
War has undoubtedly shaped the course of human history. Conflicts, through sheer human nature often arise through disagreement. Occasionally these conflicts end with war as opposing sides believe so vehemently in their respective reasonings and doctrinal views. Oftentimes, these war's end with one "victor" and on defeated party, however, in war everyone losses.
The Vietnam War in particular is an example of how war is a zero sum game that only results in losses for all those involved. This paper examines how the conflict started, taking particular care to express both points-of-view regarding core issues followed by a discussion concerning Special Forces operations and their overall impact on the outcome of the war. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about Special Forces in Vietnam in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Origins of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2002, March). Delta Force: Secret Wielders of Death. VFW Magazine 89(7), p. 16.
Beckwith, Charles (with Donald Knox) (1983). Delta Force. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 9780151246571.
Kelly, Francis J. Green Berets of Vietnam - The U.S. Army Special Forces 61-71 - the. S.l: Archive Media Publishing, 2013.
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."
Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.
In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…
Editors. Q&a: Iran and the Nuclear Issue. BBC News. 3 Dec. 2007. Newspaper online. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4031603.stm .Internet. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.
Sadjadpour, Karim. "The Nuclear Players." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 125+.
Sagan, Scott, Kenneth Waltz, and Richard K. Betts. "A Nuclear Iran: Promoting Stability or Courting Disaster?" Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 135+.
Schake, Kori. "Dealing with a Nuclear Iran." Policy Review, no. 142 (2007): 3+.
Selling Nuclear Technology
The sale of United States nuclear technology to other countries has gained more criticism, especially in light of the September 11 attacks and the current war against Iraq. Despite these security concerns, however, many corporations still advocate efforts to repeal federal laws regarding the sale of such technology to countries such as China. This paper examines the pros and cons of both positions, paying particular attention to the history and ramifications of continued sale of nuclear technology.
The United States should continue selling nuclear technology
Common perception holds that foreign countries like China, Pakistan and Algeria are the main supporters of the sale United States nuclear technology. However, many American companies such as estinghouse, Bechtel and General Electric support the move to allow the export of American nuclear technology and parts to countries such as China.
For these companies, the reasons are economic. Domestic demand for nuclear…
Hedges, Stephen J. "China's surprising nuclear helpers." U.S. News and World Report. September 29, 1997. Proquest database.
Lee, Rensselaer. Smuggling Armageddon. New York: St. Martin's Griffin Press, 2000.
Muradian, Vago. "U.S. Gov't Eyes Resuming Weapons Sales To Pakistan, Indonesia." Defense Daily International 21 September 2001. 7 December 2001 http://www.clw.org/atop/restrictions_ddi092101.html .
Nunn, Sam. "U.S. investments in a peaceful Russia." Issues in Science and Technology. Summer 1995. 11(4): 27-31. Proquest database.
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
Barnes & Noble: New York
Rennie, R. (2003) the Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
Checkmark Books: New York
The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)
In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…
Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518
Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004. http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798
Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
Cold War Era
Many films about the cold war era, especially the early films, speak out against its ideals, while others support these ideals. elow is a consideration of selected Cold War era films, and how these were influenced by the Cold War.
Dr. Strangelove is subtitled "How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the omb." Its producer/director is Stanley Kubrick and the film was released during 1964. The film is a satire with the aim of exposing Cold War politics that could result in absurd accidents such as a nuclear attack. The more serious film Fail-Safe, released during the same year, has often been compared with Dr. Strangelove. This is discussed in more detail later.
Part of Dr. Strangelove's theme is the evils of technology. This is the culprit causing the disastrous accident. It is interesting that a disclaimer had to accompany the film's release shortly…
Dirks, T. "Fail-Safe." 1996-2002. http://www.destgulch.com/movies/fsafe/
North by Northwest." 1996-2002. http://www.filmsite.org/nort.html
Heise, H. "Dr. Strangelove." Hannover, 1996-2000. http://www.filmsite.org/drst.html
Hinson, H. "The Russia House" film review. The Washington Post, December 12, 1990.