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Obesity and Its Consequences
Obesity and its Prevalence Trends
Final esearch Paper: Obesity and Health Problems
Obesity has significantly become an issue in the current century, which requires great intervention of the entire society. The research of this proposal aims at analyzing the situations related to obesity including; its causes, the effects it has on individual health, the manner in which it causes illnesses and related diseases and recommendations for easing the spread of obesity to the global arena. There has to be immediate interrogation of the obesity cases, to determine the best way in which problem could be controlled. The research concerning the obesity was done by consulting websites on healthcare, online databases that had journal research papers on obesity and other internet sources that are all referenced in the last page of the paper. The research done had a positive conclusion, as there was a possibility of controlling…
Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D. & Ogden, C.L. (2010). Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among U.S. Adults, 1999-2008. JAMA, 303(3), 235-241.
Crawford, D., Jeffery, R.W., Kylie, B. & Brug, J. (2011). Obesity Epidemiology: from aetiology to public health. Oxford University Press, 1(1), 1.
Stegelin, D.A. (2008). Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 36(1), 8-15.
Khan, L.K., Sobush, K., Keener, D. & Goodman, K. (2009). Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States. Recommendation and Reports, 58(7), 1-29.
Obesity is the health disorder in which there is excess proportion of total body fat. An individual is an obese when his or her weight is approximately twenty or more percent above the normal weight. Scientist uses body mass index (BMI) as the common measure for obesity as the health disorder. Obesity affects the development of human beings. If the weight of an individual is between 25 and 30 in relation to BMI, the individual comes out as overweight. Any rating of BMI that is above the approximation of 30 qualifies an individual as obese. hen an individual weighs either 50 or 100% over the normal weight, scientist categorizes the condition as morbid obesity. This degree of obesity indicates that the individual has more than 100 pounds extra weight (40 BMI and above). This condition might interfere with the health or normal functioning of the body of the victim.…
Youfa Wang, et al. "Race, Place, And Obesity: The Complex Relationships Among Community Racial/Ethnic Composition, Individual Race/Ethnicity, And Obesity In The United States." American Journal Of Public Health 102.8 (2012): 1572-1578. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 Aug. 2012.
Stewart, Laura. "Managing And Preventing Obesity In Infants." Practice Nursing 23.4 (2012): 200-203. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 Aug. 2012.
Ahima, Rexford S. "Digging Deeper Into Obesity." The Journal Of Clinical Investigation 121.6 (2011): 2076-2079. MEDLINE with Full Text. Web. 29 Aug. 2012.
Avery, Amanda. "Managing Obesity in Young Adults." Practice Nursing 23.6 (2012): 291-294. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 29 Aug. 2012.
Obesity Hispanic Population
Obesity means more than just being overweight. It should not be taken for granted because it is a medical condition in which the extra fat of the body accumulates at different sites and causes negative effects on the health of the person (Haslam and James, 2005). This leads to various health problems and thus reduces the quality of life and expectancy. When the body mass index, commonly referred to as MI in medical terms, of a person becomes greater than 30 kg/m2, he or she is labeled as obese (WHO, 2009).
Although the incidence of obesity is increasing the world over, in this paper we shall consider the trends that have currently been observed in the Hispanic population in America regarding the health problems related to obesity and obesity as a health problem itself.
According to a WHO report, among Mexican women in America, 78% of them…
CDC (2012). Health United States, 2011. Table 74.
Flegal, K.M., Harlan, W.R. & Landis, J.R. (1988). Secular trends in body mass index and skinfold thickness with socioeconomic factors in young adult men. Am J. Clin Nutr, 48(3):544-51.
Haslam, D.W. & James, W.P. (2005). "Obesity." Lancet 366 (9492): 1197 -- 209.
Journal Study on Health affairs: Health Affairs, published by Project HOPE, is a bimonthly journal devoted to publishing the leading edge in health policy thought and research.
Therefore, England appears to take the cautious route of employing alternative measures until such time as specific long-term results become evident in the other countries' projects.
The U.K. government's public health policy has been trying to counteract obesity by means of implementing a set of initiatives designed to inform people about the downside of what being overweight and obese involves, and also monitor the average weight of different populations over time. Apart from that, in order to contend with "obesogenic environments" (Colls & Evans, 2010), a series of measures has also been enacted in relation to improving eating habits and enhancing physical activity in targeted communities. For instance, there is the attempt to improve the quality and content of school dinners portrayed in the Channel 4 program series named Jamie's School Dinners, and other national awareness campaigns, such as NHS' Change4Life, which avidly encourages families to eat adequately and take…
Banning, Maggi. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Treatment. (July 2005) the Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, Vol. 125, No. 4.
Colls, R.; Evans, B. Challenging Assumptions: Re-Thinking 'The Obesity Problem'. (Summer 2010) Geography, Vol. 95.
Efrat, M.W., Efrat, R. Tax Policy and the Obesity Epidemic. (Summer 2012) Journal of Law and Health, Vol. 25, No. 2.
Nicholls, S.G., Gwozdz, W., Reisch, L.A.; Voigt, K. Fiscal Food Policy: Equity and Practice. (July 2011) Perspectives in Public Health, Vol. 131, No. 4.
Current United States Strategies to Solve the Obesity Problems
The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (1991) explained many strategies that can be used to solve the issues of obesity
. These strategies together were called CAE, which means Communication, Action, esearch and Evaluation.
The purpose of these strategies is to focus on giving physical education to all school classes, improving the options of food at the campuses and including low fat and low calorie items at the school events. They also suggest having more vegetables, fruits, non-fat, dairy products and whole grain items at these occasions. CAE strategies also emphasize that facilities should be provided to all the people for physical activity, everywhere, even at the work sites.
This plan further focuses that people of United States must reduce their television watching timings and should also change their behvaiour towards the obese people.…
Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Ogden, C., et al. (2010). Prevalence and trends in U.S. obesity among adults, 1999 -- 2008.
Krugmen, P & Wells, R. (2006) .Macroeconomics, Princeton University, Worth Publishers.
Mankiw, G,. (2012). Principles of Macroeconomics. South Western Cengage Learning, 2012, 6th Edition, Printed in USA
Must a, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz GA, Dietz WH. (1999). The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. 282(16):1523-29.
The Problem of Obesity
The problem of obesity is important because it affects roughly a third of all adults in the United States (Flegal, 2010, p. 235). Between 30% and 35% of American men and women are believed to be obese in according to the latest study by Flegel, Caroll, et al. (2010). This alarming news indicates that obesity is truly a problem of epidemic proportions. Because obesity does not merely affect one's appearance, it is necessary to understand the problem in all its manifestations. There are a number of health concerns that surround obesity. For example, it is believed to increase one's chances of developing diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure. Excess weight can also be a factor in the decline of one's mobility. From changing one's diet to changing one's lifestyle, there are many ways to fight obesity -- yet, obesity rates continue to rise in…
Bray, G.A. (2013). Why Do We Need Drugs to Treat the Patient with Obesity?
Obesity, 21(5): 893-899.
Burmeister, J.M. (2013). Weight Bias in Graduate School Admissions. Obesity, 21(5):
Obesity is a contributing factor to various chronic diseases in the contemporary society. It is a global problem that affects close to 300 million people all over the world. A third of the population in the United States is obese. Obesity is often associated with an increase in the cost of healthcare; a reduction in quality of life as well as an increase in the risk of premature death. Obesity prevalence is increasing in both developing and developed nations. In the United States obesity prevalence is on a record high. This is a serious problem as it can be a predisposing factor of diseases like diabetes, cancers, and diseases of the heart. The paper will look at obesity among African-Americans in NYC. It will also look at the etiology and epidemiology of obesity (acette, Deusinger & Deusinger, 2012).I t will further look at whether or not obesity affects…
Centre for Disease Control, (2012). Obesity Prevalence Among Low-Income, Preschool-Aged Children -- New York City and Los Angeles County, 2003 -- 2011.Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6202a1.htm
Department for health, (2013). Obesity Statistics and the Impact of Obesity. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.health.ny.gov/prevention/obesity/statistics_and_impact/
Hollis J., (2012).Obesity rates highest among African -- American Women. Retrieved April 22,2013 from http://atlantablackstar.com/2012/12/10/obesity-rates-highest-among-african-american-women/
Racette S., Deusinger S. & Deusinger, R., (2012). Obesity: Overview of Prevalence, Etiology, and Treatment. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://ptjournal.apta.org/content/83/3/276.long
Obesity and Disability
Overweight and obesity are labels for a wide range of weight that is greater than what is considered healthy for a particular weight. This term also identifies a range of weight that are indicators of the likelihood of development of certain diseases and health problems. Obesity affects different people in different ways and therefore may increase risk of health conditions among people. Obesity is involved with metabolic syndrome at times refereed to as obesity syndrome that involves the enlargement of waist circumference, resistance of insulin, high triglyceride levels and high blood pressure.
For an individual with obesity to qualify as being disabled by social security or SSI disability they need to have more than just a diagnosis of this metabolic syndrome or even diabetes. The obesity has to have caused lot o damage through cardiovascular disease or has to have limited the mobility or an individual's functional…
Obesity and Health Problems
The Solution, First eason
To ensure that the approach adopted in the management of obesity is workable and to avoid the adoption of a potentially discriminatory position against those who prefer a bigger body size; obesity should be classified as a contributing factor to ill health rather than a disease. Those branding obesity a disease can be seen as trying to solve a prevailing problem using the wrong approach. In seeking to classify obesity as a disease, they hope the condition will attract the attention it deserves via insurance and/or enhanced governmental health financing. While the intention in this case is noble, the approach remains untenable in the long-term. McKnight (2006, p.72) points out that it is highly possible that unnecessary focus is being "placed on the impact of medication and not lifestyle changes…" Branding obesity a disease will effectively increase the number of those seeking…
Crawford, D., Jeffery, R.W., Ball, K. & Brug, J. (Eds.). (2010). Obesity Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dalton, S. (2005). Our Overweight Children: What Parents, Schools And Communities Can Do to Control the Fatness Epidemic. Berkeley: University of California Press.
McKnight, T.L. (2006). Obesity Management in Family Practice. New York: Springer.
Obesity in Santa Barbara County
We usually think of pandemics as serious diseases that have the potential to hurt thousands if not millions of people through disease. Ironically, a 21st century pandemic is that many in the developed world, through a combination of a sedentary lifestyle, a high-fat diet, and sugary drinks, become obese to the point in which it having a serious negative affect on their health. There is no disagreement in the literature about the link between our overall health concerns and what we eat and drink. Billboards, television, movies and the Internet all sell us a combination of fast and quick foods and diet aids (Fumento, 1998).
On June 22, 2010, President Obama issued an Executive Order to promote fitness in the schools and workplace and has proclaimed May as "National Physical Fitness and Sports Month." The Executive Order states a presidential request that "Americans work toward…
A Brief History of Santa Maria. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.ci.santa-maria.ca.us/history.html
Obesity Related Statistics in America. (2008, June). Retrieved from Get America Fit: http://www.getamericafit.org/statistics-obesity-in-america.html
Unhealthy America. (2006, September 1). Retrieved from The New Economist: http://neweconomist.blogs.com/new_economist/2006/09/unhealthy_ameri.html
Center for Disease Control. (2011). Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults Between 1985
Obesity has become a health concern for American households. In as much as pundits would argue that obesity is an issue in many industrialized countries, the American rates call for attention as it ranks as the highest in the world. America is ranked as having the second highest rate of obesity after Mexico. In the early 1960s, the average American adult male weighed 168 pounds. Today, he weighs nearly 180 pounds. Very pertinent questions should be asked about such revelations. Is it the habits that have changed or the types of food that people consume that have changed? Over the same time period, the average female adult weight rose from 143 pounds to over 155 pounds (Cutler, Glaeser & Shapiro, 2003). In the early 1970s, 14% of the population was classified as medically obese. Weights of adults and children alike were also on the upward trend throughout the twentieth century.…
Cutler, D.M., Glaeser, E.L., & Shapiro, J.M. (2003). Why Have Americans Become More
Obese? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17(3), 93-118.
Rauh, S. (2013). Is Fat the New Normal? Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/is-fat-the-new-normal
Sifferlin, A. (Feb. 22, 2013). Americans Are Eating Fewer Calories, So Why Are We Still
Community healthy living lesson plan
The community members will come to know what constitutes healthy and unhealthy snacks. They will also figure out why many people are addicted to unhealthy snacks that often lead to obesity and what alternatives could be introduced in their homes in place of the unhealthy snacks.
To be able to sort out the unhealthy snacks from the unhealthy ones as well as telling why they are considered unhealthy.
To be able to find alternatives to the unhealthy snacks as a group or community members.
Calories: the unit used to measure the value that the food holds in terms of the energy.
Nutrition: the valuable nutrients that the body gets.
Healthy living: the habit of eating the right foods within the community
Junk food: foods high in fats, calories, sugar and sodium yet very low in nutritional value.
Racette S., Deusinger S. & Deusinger, R., (2012). Obesity: Overview of Prevalence, Etiology, and Treatment. Retrieved September 29, 2013 from http://ptjournal.apta.org/content/83/3/276.long
Red Ashram, (2013). Obesity & Fast Food. Retrieved September 29, 2013 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IUQoh_wuMQ
Obesity in America: A rhetorical analysis of three articles
According to The Journal of Economic Perspective as well as many popular news articles -- and the Centers for Disease Control -- Americans are getting fatter. Cutler, Glaeser & Shapiro (2003) begin their analysis of the subject with the stark image of the average American man and woman: "in the early 1960s, the average American adult male weighed 168 pounds. Today, he weighs nearly 180 pounds. Over the same time period, the average female adult weight rose from 143 pounds to over 155 pounds"( Cutler, Glaeser & Shapiro 2003: 92). Medical rates of obesity have doubled. The Journal seeks to determine the real reasons for this climb, which has profound consequences for the economy as well as individuals.
Although all nations have experienced a rise in obesity, America's rise has been particularly precipitous, they note. The authors propose what could be…
Cutler, D, Glaeser, E, & Shapiro, J. (2003). Why have Americans become more obese? Journal
of Economic Perspective 17 (3): 93 -- 118. Retrieved from:
Pollan, M. (2009). Out of the kitchen, onto the couch. The New York Times Magazine.
Healthy People 2020 and Obesity among children in California
The obesity epidemic has extensive implications for our public health, both as a state and as a nation. Unfortunately, this epidemic is not limited to adults. To the contrary, the number of children in California who are clinically obese has been on a steady rise as well. According to the U.S. Department of Human Health Services, between 1994 and 2010, "the obesity rate among children and adolescents age 2 to 19 increased by 69% from 10.0% to 16.9%."
This trend means that the future generations of California will be increasingly susceptible to hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and stroke. This in turn dictates a negative pattern for our collective public health interests. This is one imperative underlying the Healthy People 2020 website maintained by the United States Department of Health, as well as the associated Healthy People 2020-page maintained by the…
California Department of Public Health (CDPH). (2012). Healthy People 2020. CDPH.ca.gov.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). (2012). Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Healthypeople.gov
The quality of the food brought into the home can increase caloric intake. For example, calorie-dense foods such as regular milk, sugar sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and fast foods are potential sources of excess caloric intake. Family food preparation practices such as the use of cream, butter, or high-fat cheeses in recipes can be another source of excess caloric intake. An individual's physical activity is also an important factor in the development of obesity (Malnor, 2006).
Impact of Obesity on Society
Evidence of the considerable costs of obesity to individuals and society is rich. At the individual level, obesity is associated with health care costs that average about 30% above those for normal weight individuals. Overall, obesity-related direct and indirect economic costs exceed $100 billion annually, and the number is expected to grow. "In relative terms, obesity accounts for six percent to 10% of U.S. health care spending, compared with…
Blackburn, G., & Walker, W. (2005). Science-based solutions to obesity: what are the roles of academia, government, industry, and health care? American journal of clinical nutrition, 259-261.
Blackwell Publishing. (2007, August 2). Rise of obesity exacerbated by 'social multiplier' effects. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Science daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070801112150.htm
Cawley, J., Olson, C., & Wilkins, J. (2008). Obesity research in the college. Human ecology (peer-reviewed), 19.
Economic impact of obesity. (2008). Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Yale univeristy Rudd center: http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/what_we_do.aspx?id=82
Unhealthy food choices are heavily advertised, and those advertisements are frequently targeted towards children. Moreover, much of today's food marketing is inherently deceptive. Unsophisticated consumers, and most children fall into that category, may make poor food choices, but believe that they are choosing healthy food. For example, many "fruit" snacks do not contain any fruit and are mostly refined sugars and/or high fructose corn syrup, but are marketed in a manner that would lead one to believe that they contain fruit. In fact, the packages of some of these products tout their vitamin content, making them seem even more like a fruit. The crime is not that the manufacturers offer variety to consumers, so that consumers can make educated choices, but that they intentionally market unhealthy foods to consumers, knowing that the majority of consumers are not sufficiently sophisticated or educated to avoid making unhealthy food choices. If manufacturers made…
If children are eating for comfort or binge eating regularly, it would be beneficial to add counseling programs to the Activ8Kids! program.
I think that a spokesperson who is a healthy role model for kids would be great for this program. America Ferrara, the star of Ugly etty, might be a good spokesperson, as she is beautiful and curvy. She represents a healthy weight that is achievable for most people today. As a spokesperson for the program, she could help spread awareness to schools, students, and parents about the program's offering, which would include:
Counseling for children that includes individual treatment goals and approaches
Family support throughout treatment
Regular assessment and monitoring
Recommendations for dietary changes and increases in physical activity, along with support and counseling to ensure success
This program is dependent on the cooperation of families, healthcare providers, healthcare insurers, government agencies, schools, food vendors, and…
American Heart Association. (2008). Obesity and Overweight. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4639 .
Associated Content. (April 24, 2007). Weighing the Pros and Cons of Weight Loss Surgery. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/211937/weighing_the_pros_and_cons_of_weight.html .
Charlton Research Company. (September, 2006). Americans Split on Who's Responsible. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.researchamerica.org/release_06dec13_endocrinepoll .
Daniels, MD, Stephen. Arnett, Donna, Eckel, Robert. (2005). Overweight in Children and Adolescents. American Heart Association Journal:;111:1999-2012.
While there is concern in many circles about the effect of images of beauty in our society on the psychological well-being of children, the reverse receives less study. Despite the fact that obesity rates are rising, there remains prejudice in American society against the obese, perhaps in part because they do not conform in any way to the typical images of beauty. It is worth exploring, however, just how prevalent prejudice against the obese is. Many prejudices have deep antecedents and this is no different -- consider how often the obese are subject to accusations of the "sins" of gluttony and sloth.
This paper focuses on three articles about obesity prejudice. Tausch and Hewstone (2010) asked whether group stereotypes were malleable in the face of disconfirming information. The authors noted that individuals resist changing stereotypes even when presented with such information, but questioned whether that behavior would be observed…
Chambliss, H., Finley, C. & Blair, S. (2004). Attitudes towards obese individuals among exercise science students. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. Vol. 36 (3) 468-474.
Devine, P. (2001). Implicit prejudice and stereotyping: How automatic are they? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 81 (5) 757-759.
Puhl, R. & Brownell, K. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obesity Research. Vol. 9 (12) 788-805.
Puhl, R. & Brownell, K. (2003). Psychosocial origins of obesity stigma: Toward changing a powerful and pervasive bias. Obesity Reviews. Vol. 4 (2003) 213-227.
Obesity in USA
Obesity in United States of America (USA) has become a major problem that affects both the children and adults. People with obesity in most cases have too much fat stored in their body's fatty tissues. Therefore, when the excess fat and cholesterol deposits increases, this means that there will be a corresponding increase to other medical risks, despite some of them having life threatening possibility. This paper analyses obesity as a major problem in the U.S.A. As well as addressing predisposing factors to obesity like availability of affordable healthy foods as food prices increase, exercising and healthy eating and the local environment and trends.
WHO (2013) indicates that over the last 20 years obesity has increasingly become a serious problem, indeed it has doubled since 1980. The obesity in adults has doubled while among children has tripled. The children under the age of 19 years are said…
Courseault, J.(2011). Healthy foods to prevent obesity. Retrieved march 19, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/358633-healthy-food-to-prevent-obesity/
Lopez, R., (2004). Urban Sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese. American Journal of Public Health, 94,1574-1579.
WHO, (2013). Obesity and Overweight. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
Obesity is a public health problem that requires immediate intervention. One third of Americans are obese, clearly marking obesity as an epidemic (CDC, 2014). Obesity is not just an aesthetic problem. Being fat alone is not the issue; it is what obesity does to the body that matters. Serious and often deadly diseases like diabetes, coronary heart disease, many types of cancer, and stroke are directly caused by obesity. These are all preventable problems caused by lifestyle habits. Most obesity is due to the most simple factors possible: diet and exercise. Yet little is actually being done to control obesity. As a result, health care costs are rising. The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008, and "the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight," (CDC, 2014). Obesity places a heavy burden on society, reducing…
Anderson, E. (2014). New research highlights the link between poverty and obesity among teens. The Globe and Mail. Jan 13, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/the-hot-button/new-research-highlights-the-link-between-poverty-and-obesity-among-teens/article16309726/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Adult obesity facts. CDC. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Obesity is a critical issue in the United States, and the problem seems to be getting worse in the country and across the planet. As per the latest estimates, about 34 percent of American adults and 15 to 20 percent of American adolescents and children suffer from obesity. Every demographic of the American population is affected by obesity, and the worst thing about the condition is that it enhances the risk of multiple chronic conditions in both adults and children. Considering its spread in the population, obesity is now an epidemic. To address the problem of obesity in the United States, there is a need for public health officials to come up with programs and policies to address obesity. However, as of now, no significant efforts are being made to address the problem. Because of how complex the problem of obesity is, it is probably going to be a…
The obesity rates for the different Gulf Coast states are as follows:
Note that the lowest rates are in the states that have large populations living away from the Gulf Coast; data is not presented to reflect the obesity rates for Florida and Texas only including people on this coast. This source didn't provide a ranking, but Louisiana was only behind Puerto Rico, Arkansas, Kentucky and West Virginia, so the results are quite poor.
Obesity isn't a disease – it's math. Weight gain is the result of taking in more calories than one burns. Some studies have argued that certain types of calories – carbohydrates in particular – are worse than others for spurring on weight gain (Crichton & Tefft, 2014). However, this merely lets people off the hook for eating too much and exercising too little. One need not spend much time in the region to realize that there…
CDC.gov (2017). Adult obesity prevalence maps. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved October 14, 2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html
Crichton, D. & Tefft, N. (2014). Macronutrients and obesity: Revisiting the calories in, calories out framework. Economics & Human Biology. Vol. 14 (July 2014) 33-49.
Obesity has grown into a worldwide pandemic, with obesity rates constantly increasing. The WHO (World Health Organization) reports that over forty million children and 1.4 billion adult individuals may be categorized as ‘overweight’, while over 10 percent of individuals across the world may be categorized as ‘obese’. Children with BMI (body mass index) ?95% of others their age are regarded as obese. Though, at one time, obesity was thought to only plague industrialized nations, the issue has been on the rise in developing nations as well, particularly among affluent urban populations. Intrinsic hormonal differences render females more prone to becoming obese than males (Sahoo, et al, 187).
Among the gravest public health issues experienced in this era is childhood obesity. It is a universal issue, increasing alarmingly and steadily impacting several underdeveloped and developing nations (especially the urban areas of these nations). In the year 2010, the global…
Burns, Annina, Lynn Parker, and Leann L. Birch, eds. Early childhood obesity prevention policies. National Academies Press, 2011, pp. 4-10
Sahoo, Krushnapriya, et al. \\\\"Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.\\\\" Journal of family medicine and primary care4.2 (2015): 187.
Woolford, Phyllis. \\\\"CHILDHOOD OBESITY: AN OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL EPIDEMIC.\\\\" The Journal of Applied Christian Leadership, vol. 7, no. 2, 2013, pp. 82-101. ProQuest, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1754574005?accountid=30552.
World Health Organization. \\\\"Population-based approaches to childhood obesity prevention.\\\\" (2012).
Zhang, Qi et al. “Food Policy Approaches to Obesity Prevention: An International Perspective.” Current obesity reports 3.2 (2014): 171–182. PMC. Web. 1 Oct. 2018.
Epidemiology of Obesity
The problem of obesity is one that impacts more than one third of the world’s present population (Hruby & Hu, 2015). In America, more people die from diseases related to obesity than they do from gun violence: approximately one-fourth of deaths in America result from heart disease, for instance (Butler, 2015). Obesity is a major epidemic (Mitchell, Catenacci, Wyatt & Hill, 2011) that is sweeping across the nation and across the entire globe, with obesity rates among children rising between 2 and 5 times in recent decades (Flynn, McNeil et al., 2005).
Obesity can be defined as the occurrence of having excessive body weight with regard to one’s height. Obesity is associated with the increase risk of developing chronic disease morbidity—anything from diabetes to cardiovascular disease to depression, cancer and disability (Hruby & Hu, 2015). The current trends shows that obesity is a major problem. Hruby and…
Butler, J. (2015). Running the ‘Gun Violence’ Numbers. Retrieved from http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2015/02/john-butler/running-gun-violence-numbers/
Cunningham-Myrie, C., et al. (2015). Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9): 970-978.
Flynn, M., Mcneil, et al. (2005). Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: A synthesis of evidence with \\\\'best practice\\\\' recommendations. Obesity Reviews, 7(Suppl 1), 7-66.
Hruby, A., & Hu, F. B. (2015). The epidemiology of obesity: a big picture. Pharmacoeconomics, 33(7), 673-689.
Mitchell, N., Catenacci, V., Wyatt, H. R., & Hill, J. O. (2011). Obesity: overview of an epidemic. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 34(4), 717-732.
I: Healthy People
One of the Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicator topics is “Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity” (2020 LHI Topics, 2018). Nutrition, physical activity and obesity and intimately related to one another and to the nation’s health, as the Healthy People 2020 initiative points out. As Healthy People 2020 points out, “Most Americans, however, do not eat a healthful diet and are not physically active at levels needed to maintain proper health” and as a result Americans have “experienced a dramatic increase in obesity. This is a problem because obesity has been linked to major problems down the line for many people—problems that can result in “heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes, which are among the leading causes of death” (2020 LHI Topics, 2018). As Hruby and Hu (2015) note, obesity is fast becoming a major problem in America and needs to be addressed quickly because of…
2020 LHI Topics. (2018). Nutrition, physical activity, and obesity. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/leading-health-indicators/2020-lhi-topics/Nutrition-Physical-Activity-and-Obesity
Cunningham-Myrie, C., et al. (2015). Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9), 970-978.
Flynn, M., Mcneil, et al. (2015). Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: A synthesis of evidence with \\\\'best practice\\\\' recommendations. Obesity Reviews, 7(Suppl 1), 7-66.
Hruby, A., & Hu, F. B. (2015). The epidemiology of obesity: a big picture. Pharmacoeconomics, 33(7), 673-689.
Developing an Advocacy Campaign That Addresses Obesity
Obesity is a serious public health issue and is even considered an epidemic by many health care professionals that affects all populations—old, young, men, women and children, regardless of demographic or location (Mitchell, Catenacci, Wyatt & Hill, 2011). To address this issue, several public advocacy campaigns have been developed. Healthy People 2020, for instance, under the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, is currently advocating to raise awareness about obesity and how to reduce the rising rates of it in the U.S. This paper will examine two scholarly articles about advocacy campaigns centered on fighting obesity, what they say, and what takeaways can be identified to help develop an effective advocacy campaign in the future.
The first article by Giang, Karpyn, Laurison, Hillier and Perry (2008) examines the effectiveness of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative, which was designed to “bring awareness…
Doroghazi, R. (2015). A candid discussion of obesity. The American Journal of
Medicine, 128(3): 213-214.
Giang, T., Karpyn, A., Laurison, H. B., Hillier, A., & Perry, R. D. (2008). Closing the
grocery gap in underserved communities: the creation of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 14(3), 272-279.
Mitchell, N., Catenacci, V., Wyatt, H. R., & Hill, J. O. (2011). Obesity: overview of an
epidemic. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 34(4), 717-732.
Advocacy Campaign on Obesity
Legislative and policy frameworks have formed a fundamental basis of regulating the prevalence of chronic diseases in the past. Obesity has been subject to legislative laws and enactment of policies that seek to create an environment that is difficult for the thriving of obesity. While the “raise a healthy child” campaign proposed in part one will be helpful in dealing with childhood obesity, its effectiveness will be premised on its alignment with the existing laws and policies.
With the desire ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of this campaign, there will be a need to adjust the existing laws to align them with the requirements of this campaign. First, the 2008 Farm Bill created a special fund that aimed at subsidizing cereal-based foodstuffs such as soybeans and corn (American Farmland Trust, 2008). The enactment of this law was meant to reduce the price of such foodstuff and…
American Farmland Trust, (2008). Success in the 2008 Farm Bill, a New Direction for Farm and Food Policy: AFT Overview of the 2008 Farm Bill. Available at www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/analysis/documents/AFT-2008-Farm-Bill-brochure-August2008.pdf
Ogden, C., Carroll. M. & Flegal. K. (2009) “High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 2401–5
Ferraro, K., Thorpe. R. & Wilkinson. J. (2010). “The life course of severe obesity: Does childhood overweight matter?” Journals of Gerontology, Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(2), 110–19
Enns, C., Mickle, S & Goldman, J. (2006). “Trends in food and nutrient intakes by children in the United States.” Family Economics and Nutrition Review, 14(2):56–68
Wang, Y., Bleich S., Gortmaker. S. (2008). “Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among U.S. children and adolescents, 1988–2004.” Pediatrics, 121, e1604–14.
The ongoing politics of the diet offered at schools causes a major debate. There are differing opinions on the government's intervention in the feeding programmes of public schools. The debate results from the question of responsibility of obesity in children. Some feel that the government is to blame and should take the necessary actions to minimize obesity while others feel that it is the responsibility of parents to keep their children healthy. The government should formulate other ways of managing obesity in children in place of regulating intake of meat in school.
The government should leave the decision of diet to citizens. The government of New York recently created a program for all the public schools that ban the inclusion of meat, both red and white, on Mondays. Students will have to consume alternative meals. Politics of food in New York arise in the debate on the reasons for the…
“Enforcing the Regulatory Reform Agenda.” Federal Register, 1 Mar. 2017, www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/03/01/2017-04107/enforcing-the-regulatory-reform-agenda.
Adamson, Allan. “Working Moms Could Be to Blame for Child Obesity Epidemic, Study Suggests.” Tech Times, 11 Mar. 2019, www.techtimes.com/articles/239447/20190311/working-moms-could-be-to-blame-for-child-obesity-epidemic-study-suggests.htm.
Ap. “NYC Will Have \\\\'Meatless Mondays\\\\' in All Public Schools - The Boston Globe.” BostonGlobe.com, 11 Mar. 2019, www.bostonglobe.com/news/nation/2019/03/11/nyc-will-have-meatless-mondays-all-public-schools/mhSlJFhceCvqJI4q0ew06K/story.html.
Chera, Satinder, and Satinder Chera. “When It Comes to Ads and Obesity, Our Kids Are Our Responsibility.” HuffPost Canada, HuffPost Canada, 3 Aug. 2017, www.huffingtonpost.ca/satinder-chera/when-it-comes-to-ads-and-obesity-our-kids-are-our-responsibilit_a_23056534/.
Ducharme, Jamie. “Obesity in America: More Than Half of Kids May Be Obese by 35.” Time, Time, 29 Nov. 2017, time.com/5040902/childhood-obesity-in-America/.
Howard, Jacqueline. “The States Where Childhood Obesity Is Highest.” CNN, 24 Oct. 2018, www.cnn.com/2018/10/24/health/childhood-obesity-state-rates-study/index.html.
Ihnat, Gwen. “New York Mayor Announces ‘Meatless Monday’ Public-School Lunches.” The Takeout, 13 Mar. 2019, thetakeout.com/new-york-mayor-meatless-monday-school-lunches-1833267671.
Jacobs, Andrew. “How Big Tobacco Hooked Children on Sugary Drinks.” The New York Times, 14 Mar. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/03/14/health/big-tobacco-kool-aid-sugar-obesity.html.
Developing an Advocacy Campaign
The proposed policy is for dealing with the public health concern of obesity focuses on promoting interactions between doctors and patients through which patients take personal responsibility for their weight problem and become active participants in addressing environmental factors. This proposed policy is based on the premise that dealing with obesity requires patients to understand and responsibility for personal dietary and exercise habits (Doroghazi, 2015). As patients take personal responsibility through empowerment by physicians, they effectively address their weight problems, which in turn contribute to better health outcomes. However, the implementation of this policy requires modification of existing laws/regulations. The existing laws or regulations would affect health advocacy efforts as several obstacles could emerge in the legislative process.
Modification of Existing Laws or Regulations
As previously mentioned, the implementation of the proposed policy would require modification of existing laws or regulations on obesity. The existing laws…
Dietz, W.H., Benken, D.E. & Hunter, A.S. (2009, March). Public Health Law and the Prevention and Control of Obesity. The Milbank Quarterly – A Multidisciplinary Journal of Population Health and Health Policy, 87(1), 215-227.
Doroghazi, R. (2015). A Candid Discussion of Obesity. The American Journal of
Medicine, 128(3), 213-214.
Ferguson et al. (2009, June 1). Review of Obesity Related Legislation & Federal Programs. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://stopobesityalliance.org/wp-content/assets/2009/06/federal_cover.pdf
Milstead, J.A. (Ed.). (2013). Health policy and politics: A nurse\\'s guide. (Laureate Education, Inc., custom Ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Siedlecki, C.R. (2016, August 10). Political Influence: Why and How Healthcare Leaders Must Get Involved. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://www.mgma.com/Libraries/Site-Images/Education%20Certification/Fellows/2015/Political-Influence-Why-and-How-Healthcare-Leaders-Must-Get-Involved.pdf?ext=.pdf
The group chosen for this project consists of African American women and one of the major health issues that they face is obesity. African American women who suffer from obesity can range in place and demographic. 56% of African American women are currently obese or overweight (State of Obesity, 2018). The numbers also indicate a stark disparity between whites and blacks regarding obesity: “Nationally, in 2011 to 2012, 20.5 percent of African American girls were obese compared with 15.6 percent of White girls” (State of Obesity, 2018). In many cases, however, class does serve as an indicator of the risk of obesity for many African American women as “lower-incomes and poverty correlate strongly with an increase in obesity, since less nutritious, calorie-dense foods are often less expensive than healthier foods. African American families have earned $1 for every $2 earned by White families for the past 30 years” (State of…
Banerjee, E. S., Herring, S. J., Hurley, K. E., Puskarz, K., Yebernetsky, K., & LaNoue, M. (2018). Overcoming obesity: a mixed methods study of the impact of Primary care physician counseling on low-income African American women who successfully lost weight. American Journal of Health Promotion, 32(2), 374-380.
Modell, S., Mathew, E., Greenberg, S. (2015). Status Report: Oncogenomic Testing in the Wake of Health Care Reform. Annals of Public Health and Research, 2(3), 1022.
State of Obesity. (2018). Current status. Retrieved from https://stateofobesity.org/disparities/blacks/
Walcott, F.L., Dunn, B.K., DeSheilds, M., & Baquet, C. (2014). The affordable care act and genetic testing for inheritable cancer syndromes: Impact on high risk underserved minorities. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 15, 46-62.
Yanek, L. R., Becker, D. M., Moy, T. F., Gittelsohn, J., & Koffman, D. M. (2016). Project Joy: faith based cardiovascular health promotion for African American women. Public Health Reports, 116(1), 68-81.
This paper examines three scholarly articles and discusses the sampling technique associated with the studies. The first is a critique by Mayes (2015). The second is a Level VII study by Wetter and Hodge (2016). The third is a Level V study by Pause (2017). These three studies offer different approaches to the sample of data used in each of the studies and thus examining each provides an opportunity to understand how different sets of data may be obtained and what the ethical parameters associated with each one should be.
In the study by Mayes (2015), the study examines the work of bioethicists Peter Singer and Dan Callahan in order to provide a critique of their arguments regarding obesity. The study defines their arguments as essentially that “obesity is not simply a clinical or personal issue but an ethical issue with social and political consequences” (Mayes, 2015, p.…
Obesity in Florida
Obesity refers to when a person has more weight than it is required by his height. Excessive fats are being gathered in the body parts in a condition. It has a number of adverse effects. It has been increasing in the various countries over the recent years. Physical training and diet are done in order to prevent obesity. Sugar and fat free products are to be consumed for proper dieting (Murphy, 2012).
What facilitates obesity?
Eating a lot of junk food
Unhealthy items available in nearby markets
Lack of exercises and physical activities.
Florida ranks 27 in state ranking according to the obesity. The obesity rate in Florida is 26.1%. The percentage of males having obesity is 73.6% and the number of females having obesity is 56.5% from 2008-2010 the percentage of average adult having obesity was 26.1% and the percentage of adults who…
Murphy, W. (2012). Obesity. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.
Nies, M.A., & McEwen, M. (2011). Community/Public Health Nursing. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Saunders.
As it is, obesity emerges in cultures that become wealthy and start eating fast food.
Doctors are also responsible for promoting the myth that obesity is related more to genetics than to lifestyle by misrepresenting the statistics about the disease. As ebMD points out, "If one of your parents is obese, you are 3 times as likely to be obese as someone with parents of healthy weight." hat the ebsite fails to mention is that the reason why parents pass on obesity to children might not be related at all to genes, but to lifestyle habits. A child who grows up watching a parent eat potato chips and fast food while watching television might model behavior after that parent. If the parent is obese, the child will become obese not necessarily because of genes but because of behavior modeling.
Public policy is also to blame for obesity. It is a…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obesity and overweight. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm
Sifferlin, Alexandra. "Americans Are Eating Fewer Calories, So Why Are We Still Obese?" Time. 22 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://healthland.time.com/2013/02/22/americans-are-eating-fewer-calories-so-why-are-we-still-obese/
WebMD. Obesity -- Cause. 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/diet/tc/obesity-cause
During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being
In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.
A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.
Another important step…
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912
Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.
Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
S Gubbels. Talks about how obesity is a major problem of our society and how it is affecting the children and adults. The article talks about the causes and the consequences of obesity and provides certain prevention for this problem. The article relates the problem of obesity with the Health Belief Model and talks about how the Model contributes in motiving the people to bring Health behavior change in their lives. It point out the reasons for people in bringing behavior changes associated with the Health Belief Model. (J.S Gubbels, 2013)
In the article "Health Belief Model in the Town of Obese Elderly Women use Health Education" by Zeng Gui Ying, the writer talks about how the Health Belief Model is a major source of information and education for the obese women living in towns and villages .It tells that how the model motivates and encourages the obese women to…
Baranowski, T. (2012, September 6). Obesity. Are Curent Health Behavior Change Models Helpful in Guiding Prevention of Weight Gain Efforts.
Boskey, E. (2010, 24 March). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Health Belief Model.
Galletta, G.M. (2012). Medicine Health. Obesity.
J.S Gubbels, M.J. (2013). ISRN Obesity. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity.
Blacks also have a 320% higher rate of hypertension-related end-stage renal disease than the general population (Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
According to a study of diet-related chronic diseases among black men in Florida, it was found that almost two-thirds of blacks in Florida are estimated to be at risk for health problems related to being overweight. The percent of the total population that is at risk for health problems related to being overweight compared to the State of Florida in shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Percentage of Black/White Population at isk for Overweight Health Problems - Florida vs. The U.S. (Source: Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
The authors of this study point out that many blacks do not eat a sufficient amount of vegetables and other foods that require the recommended levels of nutrition. Clearly, there is more involved in the epidemiology and…
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Collins, C.F. (1996). African-American women's health and social issues. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Diet-Related Chronic Diseases that Disproportionately Affect African-American Men. State of Florida: Health. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from www.5aday.gov/aahealth/aamen/diet/pdfs/FL_state.pdf.
Drevenstedt, G.L. (1998). Race and Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Religious Attendance on Subjective Health. Review of Religious Research, 39(3), 246.
Obesity Prevention Nonprofit Organizational Marketing Plan
The primary purpose of this report is to help investors understand the need for a program which will help reduce obesity throughout the UK and then less developed countries in Eastern Europe. The problem is that the environment that many developed countries have created for themselves advances obesity without intending to. There is also the danger among less developed countries, that are beginning to see some amount of prosperity, that they could have the same issues that the rest of the developed world is having (Hill, Wyatt & Peters, 2005).
The goal is to use a program that has been proven to be effective to make sure that people have the tools that they need to be able to combat obesity. The issue is that the predominance of obesity is among the poor and especially with women and children. Therefore,…
Arozian, M. (2003). Branding for nonprofits: How a community nonprofit can establish a presence among those it serves and those it depends on for support by linking its name to a very recognizable symbol. The Public Manager, 32(2), 9-11.
Barreto, R.A., & Hughes, A.W. (2004). Under performers and over achievers: A quantile regression analysis of growth. Economic Record, 80(248), 17-33.
Colls, R., & Evans, B. (2010). Challenging assumptions: Re-thinking the "obesity problem." Geography, 95, 99-104.
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace? Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-277.
This is an area that receives little attention, but it promises to be fruitful if attention is given to it. The health practitioner will combine attempts to reach this group with administrative policy and in combination; there will be a moderation of the problem at school.
The popular kids at school set the norms of the schools and influence the values within the school. The popular kids are generally not the ones who are obese they may make fun at obese children. An awareness program that allows popular children to observe the impact of their taunts and other unkind comments on their peers may strike within their hearts a desire to become part of the solution rather than the problem. When combined with an administrative approach that encourages more exercise that is physical and coupled with a school climate of support for eating healthy food. This strategy will create changes…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher Kristin F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential
Causes the Future of Children, 16: (1): 19-45.
CDC Fact Sheet: Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meal Programs.
Crosnoe Robert & Muller Chandra (2004) Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and School Context: Examining the Educational Experiences of Adolescents at Risk of Obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (4):393-407.
In that regard, such foods are more likely to be consumed by those in the lower income brackets as they seek to shelter some dollars. hen it comes to technological and agricultural innovations, Nnakwe explains that such occurrences drive down the prices of food (209). Cheaper food could motivate people to eat much more than their regular portions. Further, weight gain and thus obesity may be as a result of giving up smoking. There are various reasons that support this assertion. To begin with, those who quit smoking may increase the food portions they ingest largely because individuals tend to taste their food better after they quit smoking (National Institutes of Health). Further, quitting smoking affects the body's calorie burning rate. According to the National Institutes of Health, "nicotine raises the rate at which your body burns calories."
In conclusion, it is important to note that although most of…
Centers for Disease Control -- CDC. "Adult Obesity Facts." CDC. N.p., 27 April, 2012. Web. 22 July, 2012.
National Institutes of Health -- NIH. "What Causes Overweight and Obesity?" NIH. N.p., 01 November, 2010. Web. 21 July, 2012.
Nnakwe, Nweze E. Community Nutrition: Planning Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2009, Print.
Rossen, Lauren M. And Eric a. Rossen. Obesity 101. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. 2011, Print.
Interview with an Obese Individual
For this assignment I interviewed an obese individual from the South Florida area. I found it difficult to select an individual based on their physical condition. It was definitely a challenge to, not only identify such an individual, but also find a way to approach them without being insulting or making the person feel uncomfortable about their condition obesity in any way. Although I am familiar with some obese people through my network of friends and family, I chose to select an individual that I was not acquainted with so that there was slightly less pressure to not be offensive in anyway. For example, I obviously know that this is a sensitive subject for many obese people, and I was personally worried that if I somehow offended someone that was within my network that it would cause some kind of issue for my…
Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.
Fast Food's link to Obesity
1. Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser, 2000
2. Mayo Clinic: Obesity www.cnn.com/mayo
3. BBC Health: Why fast food makes you fat, October 2003
4. Overweight and Obesity, Healthy People 2010: Leading Health Indicators and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Obesity's a condition in which people have too much fat in their body and as a result of this excess fat, they end up having health problems such as diabetes and heart-related problems including mobility issues and a decreased life expectancy. A person is considered to be obese when their Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 30 gm and the BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight in grams by the square of a person's height in meters.
Today, obesity is a major problem facing our society and more than one-third (35.7%) of Americans are obese (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). There are many implications of obesity for the society and one such outcome is the higher medical costs for obese people. It is estimated that in 2008 alone, $147 billion was spent for treating diseases related to obesity. Some groups are more affected by obesity than others…
Adult Obesity Facts. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The former are commissioned to improve the balance and affordability of healthy food options and the latter are considered valuable policy advocates, with prominent entertainers and athletes serving to the proliferate an important message. ith respect to the distribution of this method, though certain demographics are targeted for their heightened vulnerability, the state of California is the population served on the whole here. The implications of this service direction are crucial to such large-population contexts as the Los Angeles County and metropolitan area.
The program is generally facilitated by public funding such as the taxpayer's allotment which is given to the California Department of Public Health.
The primacy of prevention is crucial to what the COPP does. Therefore, one its core services is the provision of outreach to those demographics which are recognized as being high risk. In our research, populations of particular note are those living in…
Brownell, KD. (2007). Culture Matters in the Obesity Debate. Los Angeles Times.
California Department of Public Health (CDPH). (2010). California Obesity Prevention Plan (COPP). State of California.
Los Angeles County Public Health. (2006). The Obesity Epidemic in Los Angeles County Adults. Retrieved July 10, 2010, from http://lapublichealth.org/wwwfiles/ph/hae/ha/obesity05.pdf
Schwarzenegger, A.; Belshe, K. & Shewry, S. (2006). California Obesity Prevention
For adolescents living in the Delta, health education on modifiable risk factors is mandatory if any change is to be seen.
FINDINGS of the REVIEW of LITERATURE
Findings of the literature reviewed in this study include the key roles of mothers, cafeterias in schools, physical education teachers and food accessibility in overweight African-Americans. Community initiatives which are combined and integrated with school and home initiatives focused toward healthier eating have been found to be effective in educating and treating African-Americans who are suffering from obesity. Sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits coupled result in not only obesity but also oftentimes more serious diseases and complications such as experienced by those with diabetes mellitus, which is a common complication of obesity among African-American individuals.
RECOMMENDATIONS for PROGRAM DESIGN
ecause there are cultural factors that greatly impact the rate of obesity among African-American individuals it is necessary that these types of programs…
Environmental Influences on Physical Activity and Obesity in African-American Adolescents - a Multilevel Perspective. (2008) Active Living Research. Online available at http://www.activelivingresearch.org/node/11623
Dietz, William, (2000) Focus Group Data Pertinent to the Prevention of Obesity in African-Americans. From the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.
Cultural Attitudes Toward Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity Among Overweight African-American Girls" by Josephine E.A. Boyington and colleagues is found at http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/apr/07_0056.htm?s_cid=pcd52a36_e .
Hughes, Gail D. (2002) Obesity and the African-American Adolescent, the Mississippi Delta Report. 130th Annual Meeting of APHA. 11 Nov. 2002. Board 8. Online available at http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_46137.htm
Indeed, we spend more money on healthier food by comparison to fast food products. While the former require a larger amount of money, the latter is accessible to even low income families.
By comparison to smoking and alcohol, obesity is not different at a first glance. They all create a certain dependence of a taste or flavor. At the same time, this dependence can be stopped and controlled through a strong will. However, obesity can transform a healthy body into a heart suffering one, with circulation problems and even psychological disorders and social rejection.
Obesity has become a strain even for the health care system. This is due to the fact that it represents the cause of heart diseases, blood pressure, and weakness of the immune system because there are not enough vitamins consumed and too much negative substances in turn. Thus, the health care system, by providing assistance in…
Evangelista, Arlene, et al. The Fast Food Nation: Obesity as an Epidemic. Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, New York: Cornell University, Ithaca, 2004 15 January 2008 http://mtbi.asu.edu/downloads/Obesity.pdf
Medical News Today. Obesity Among Women in U.S. Becoming More Socially Acceptable, Study Says. 2007. 15 January 2008 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/79184.php
Sibbald, Barbara. Obesity may soon be leading cause of preventable death in U.S.. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2002. 15 January 2008 http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/166/5/642-a
Obesity -- More the Fault of the Individual Than of Society
Obesity is a tremendous problem in American society with more than two-thirds of all adults and nearly half of all children either overweight or clinically obese (Baldauf, 2008; Sizer & Whitney, 2003). There are many reasons that account for this, some of which have to do with modern life and others that are attributable to personal choices made by individuals and families on behalf of children. Granted, modern life does entail far less physical activity: personal vehicles and public transportation have taken the place of walking; most work is sedentary rather than physical; and food companies invest heavily in marketing non-nutritious high-calorie food. However, being overweight or obese is not inevitable and many people maintain healthy body composition and weight throughout their lives. Among all of the contributing factors, those that are purely a matter of choice are the…
Baldauf, S. "Too Fat? No More Excuses: Research Is Revealing How Very Damaging
Extra Baggage Is." U.S. News & World Report. (January 14, 2008): 57-61.
Sizer, F. And Whitney, E. (2003). Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Belmont:
Budget constraints made it necessary to use grants and volunteers to staff the Cape May initiative, but by working within the community, CE was able to create an effective campaign: for example, walking was stressed, given the low income and the need for affordable exercise amongst community residents. The community also began a collective dialogue to improve the quality of nutritional and physical education support within the large juvenile population.
Discuss overall community efforts to resolve this problem
CE stresses the need for communities to help themselves. By staging conferences and working within the community, it strives to tailor its programs in a highly specific fashion. New Jersey is a densely populated state with many budgetary challenges: its geographical diversity, spanning rural areas in the south and urban areas in the north demands a targeted effort to effectively address community obesity.
Discuss the community health nurse's role in…
Rochford, Marilou & Elizabeth Kaminsky. (2004, October). Fighting back against childhood obesity through the Cape May County Children's Health Summit. Prev Chronic Dis. 1(4): A17. Retrieved March 29, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1277957/
Rutgers Cooperative Extension. (2010). Rutgers University. Retrieved March 29, 2010 at http://njaes.rutgers.edu/extension/
Homework assignments can include discussing with parents at least one healthy food that can be added to the family diet.
Gym sessions can be increased during the school day, supplemented by field trips that encourage physical activity. Homework assignments, especially for young children, could include physical activities undertaken with parents. Children could then report on these in writing or orally.
chool policies can therefore be modified in simple and small ways to change the daily habits of children, and to encourage parents to do the same. These can be implemented while the more complicated issues such as fast food at school cafeterias are addressed by legislation. The important aspect of this is that the root of the problem is addressed by involving the whole family in a policy of exchanging unhealthy habits for healthy ones.
Richards, Edward P., Gold, Jay & McLean, Thomas (2004, June). Legislative trategies to Reduce…
School policies can therefore be modified in simple and small ways to change the daily habits of children, and to encourage parents to do the same. These can be implemented while the more complicated issues such as fast food at school cafeterias are addressed by legislation. The important aspect of this is that the root of the problem is addressed by involving the whole family in a policy of exchanging unhealthy habits for healthy ones.
Richards, Edward P., Gold, Jay & McLean, Thomas (2004, June). Legislative Strategies to Reduce Obesity. Third Annual CDC Public Health Law Conference.
It will not focus on achieving a certain standard of thinness, and will emphasize the importance of behavioral modification as an essential component of healthy living. A national and comprehensive obesity campaign can be effective, if implemented correctly and in a fashion that promotes overall wellness, not simply achievement of a standard of thinness. Obesity can be conquered if it is approached from the perspective that healthy and well people are the norm and the ideal American person.
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
Behrens, Laurence & osen, Leonard J. Writing and eading Across the Curriculum.
A pp. 440-516). New York: Longman: 2001.
Crister, Greg. "Too much of a good thing." (2001). In Laurence Behrens and Leonard J.
osen (Eds.) Writing and…
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
Participants will be recruited with announcements in local newspapers and school newsletters. Flyers are posted in the nurse's offices and in the clinic. esponse cards will be given to parents who indicate an interest in participating in the study. See the participation invitation -- Appendix 1.
Once enrolled, participants will answer a series of questions related to food choices, influences, physical activities and food and beverage advertisements. The first measure will involve showing the children a set of distinct images. The children will then be asked 1) what company the image belongs to; 2) what they feel about that company; 3) if the images make them feel good/bad/nothing; 4) if they enjoy the food; 5) how they feel after eating the food; and, 6) what their parents think of the type of food or company. The following 15 images are examples of popular logos. These 15 will be used…
Caprio, Sonia. (2006). Treating child obesity and associated medical conditions. The Future of Children,16(1), 209+. Gale Group.
Darwin, David. (2009). Advertising obesity: Can the U.S. follow the lead of the UK in limiting television marketing of unhealthy foods to children? Vanderbilt journal of transnational law,42(1), 317+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Enz, C., & Lundberg, C. (1993). A Framework for student case preparation. Case Research Journal,13, 134.
Evans, W. Douglas. (2008). Social marketing campaigns and children's media use. The Future of Children,18(1), 181+. Gale Cengage Learning.
The effects of obesity are numerous and include both physical and psychological factors. The physical effects of obesity include heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, respiratory issues, and sleep apnea (Health Consequences). Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United Sates. In many cases heart disease is preventable or controllable through weight loss and healthy living. Another major effect of obesity is diabetes. Diabetes is a very detrimental disease because it can affect every organ in the body and it is a major cause of blindness in the United States. In addition, many people with diabetes experience kidney failure and even the amputation of limbs as a result of nerve damage and poor circulation (Health Consequences).
Respiratory problems and sleep apnea are also high amongst people who suffer from obesity. Respiratory problems may lead to dependence on oxygen machines. Sleep apnea is particularly…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/contributing_factors.htm
Health Consequences." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
This association between education, socioeconomic level and obesity has not yet been fully explored, and may be false, since rates of obesity are increasing in high and middle income groups as well.
Medical issues may lead to weight gain, and must be considered in the differential. Conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome are often associated with weight gain. Lack of knowledge surrounding the condition may also contribute to rates of obesity. In a recent study published in American Family Physician (2007), Americans were surveyed asking to report approximate height and weight, which was then used to calculate BMI. esponses showed 20% of Americans were obese and 38% were overweight. Since this study is based on self-report, it is quite possible that there is an even higher degree of obesity, since many people underreport their weight. These figures certainly differ from objective data gained from the Centers…
International Obesity Task Force (2007) Global Rates of Obesity, 2006. Accessed on the Internet on 14 October 2007 at http://www.iotf.org/database/GlobalAdultTableJune07.htm
Davidson M, Knafl KA. (2006) Cultural Analysis on the concept of Obesity. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 3, 342-350
No Author Listed. (2007) Poll Shows Americans Underestimate Obesity Problem. American Family Physician. 2; 15-16.
Katz DL, O'Connell M, Yeh MC, Nawaz H, Nijke V, Anderson LM, Cory S, Dietz W. (2007) Public Health Strategies for Preventing and Controlling Overweight and Obesity in School and Worksite Settings MMWR,
The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…
CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.
Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
' (EurActiv 2008)
'The traffic light Scheme was shown to be the most effective of by the FSA. hat they also discovered was that consumers wanted product labeling; they liked separate information on 4 key nutrients that include fats, carbohydrates, proteins and salts and sugars.' (EurActiv, 2010) Consumers found traffic color coding easy to understand and use. As a result they wanted numerical information on amount of nutrients in a serving. However they found GDA percentage rather confusing. Also the importance of making nutrition and ingredient labeling mandatory on wines, beers and spirits and having a consistent mandatory labeling system with color codes was emphasized by the NGOs representing different areas of health at the hearing. These products could not be eliminated from the labeling because they were part of the foods that contributed to obesity.
At the public hearing on efficient food, (Public Hearing on Efficient foods, 2011) Mr.…
DN Sanco, (2011) European Vegetarian and Animal News Alliance (EVANA): Renewed Commitment of stakeholders to Combat Overweight and Obesity Related Health Issues Brussels, Belgium
European Public Health Alliance, (2011) putting citizens' health at the heart of Europe, Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from www.epha.org/a/3107
EurActiv, (2008) European Food Safety Authority: Food industry, food labeling Retrieved from http://www.euractiv.com/en/cap/smes-hit-cost-eu-food-labelling-proposals/article-174970
EurActiv, (2011) Europe Urged to recognize Chronic Obesity Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from http: / www / euractiv.com.en/health / Europe
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…
Obesity and Genetics
esearch shows that science has been displaying that genetics have always been playing a position in obesity for quite a while. It is clear that the genes can openly produce obesity in syndromes for instance, with the Prader-Willi syndrome. Nevertheless, genes do not at all times forecast future health (Genetics, 2006). Behavior and genes could both be required for an individual to be heavy. In some circumstances multiple genes possibly will raise one's weakness for obesity and necessitate outside factors; such as abundant food supply or not having much physical activity. With that said, this paper will discuss genetics and the role it plays in obesity.
Obesity is Complex
Obesity is not that simple but it is a complex disease. It results from the dealings of an extensive variability of hereditary and ecological factors (Hirschhorn, 2005). The mutual progress in measureable heredities, genomics and bioinformatics…
Chouet, H. (2011). Genetics of Obesity: What have we Learned? Current Genomics, 12(3), 169-179.
Farooqi, S. O. (2006). Genetics of obesity. Biological Science, 361(1471), 1095-1105.
Genetics, H. M. (2006). Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Oxford Journals, 15(2), 124-R130.
Hirschhorn, H. N. (2005). Genetics of common forms of obesity: a brief overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1), 215S-217S.
Many Americans would rather die or cut off a limb than be fat... (Worley). There is an underlying prejudice towards the excessively overweight that has, to a large extent, become an accepted part of society. As Worley states, it has become "...acceptable to shun fat people and make them the butt of cruel jokes" (Worley). Worley, Schwartz and others also emphasis the negative way that fat people are treated in public, as well as by family members. This leads to feelings if shame and a loss of self-esteem, with all the negative psychological aspects that this implies.
However, there are organizations that have realized the extent of this problem and who actively involved in raising public awareness about unfair prejudice and in helping combat such prejudice in society. The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) has reacted against this innate prejudice in society by providing a platform and a…
Hearne. S. et al. F as in Fat: How obesity policies are failing in America. April 20, 2008. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:pbbUEelBegwJ:healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity/ObesityReport.pdf+the+Centers+for+Disease+Control+reports+only+eight+percent+of+elementary+schools+offer+daily+physical+education+classeshl=en
Kreulen G. Informing the Debate. 2002. April 18, 2008.:
NAAF Policy: ADOPTION DISCRIMINATION. April 18, 2008. http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/adoption.html
Obesity: An Overview
hat is the disease?
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder whereby a patient's BMI or body mass index, defined as the patient's weight in kilograms divided by the patient's height in meters squared in kilograms, is greater than 30. Obesity puts one at greater risk for a number of ailments, and a BMI less than 21 is associated with the greatest protection from coronary heart disease mortality and other life-threatening ailments affecting the heart, other vital organs, and the body's metabolism. (Eckel, 1997)
However, there are problems with the BMI-based definition of obesity, as many women with a BMI of near 30 may be less at risk for heart disease if their increase in adipose tissue is distributed in the pelvis and not the abdomen. Substantial evidence now indicates that an increased waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, better predicts co-morbidities and mortality from obesity, such as…
Benson, Lorna. (2003) "MPR: Obesity as a Disease." Minnesota Public Radio (MPH) Special Report. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2004/03/29_bensonl_desease/
Eckel, Robert H. (1997) "Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 96:3248-3250. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/96/9/3248#SEC1
Obesity can be defined as a state where surplus body fat is accumulated to the point that turns out to create an unfavorable consequence on an individual health. According to Haslam DW, James WP (2005) this situation brings about shortens life expectancy as well as amplified health complications. Individuals are well thought-out to be obese the moment their body mass index goes past 30 kg/m2. This extent is reached at by dividing an individual's heaviness in kg against the square of the individual's height in meters. It has been observed that obesity inflates the probability of a range of diseases, for the most part heart disease, type 2 diabetes, disruptive sleep apnea, particular kind of cancer, as well as osteoarthritis.
This condition (obesity) is usually caused by a mixture of extreme energy foods ingestion, be deficient in physical activity, as well as hereditary defenselessness, even though a small number of…
Adams JP, Murphy PG (July 2000). "Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care." Br J. Anaesth 85 (1): 91 -- 108. doi:10.1093/bja/85.1.91. PMID 10927998 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=47995
Haslam DW, James WP (2005). "Obesity." Lancet 366 (9492): 1197 -- 209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.ijser.org/researchpaper%5CA-Review-on-Obesity-and-its-Management.pdf
Imaz I, Martinez-Cervell C, Garcia-Alvarez EE, Sendra-Gutierrez JM, Gonzalez-Enriquez J (July 2008). "Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis." Obes Surg 18 (7): 841 -- 6. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9331-8. PMID 18459025 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18459025
Kushner, Robert (2007). Treatment of the Obese Patient (Contemporary Endocrinology). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 158. ISBN 1-59745-400-1 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.webmedcentral.com/wmcpdf/Article_WMC001927.pdf