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Olympic Games were incredibly popular, sold out events that ran every four years for twelve centuries. That they were so popular and so long-lived indicates that the Olympic Games held a vital place in Greek society. As Perrottet () notes, the Greek writer Epictetus saw the Games as a metaphor for human existence. As noted, the Games were a difficult experience, fraught with heat, crowds, dirt, clamor, insect infestations and other hassles. Yet, despite these hardships, they were "an unforgettable spectacle" (p. 11). Life itself has always been full of difficulty, born of our environment and the human condition, yet we persevere because we want to experience life as richly as we can. The metaphor holds well, because just as Olympic champions are those who overcome the most, estern society in particular also places emphasis on heroes and champions, those who overcome all of the challenges in order to triumph.…
Perrottet, T. (2004). The Naked Olympics. New York: Random House
As the Summer Olympic Games staged in Rio de Janeiro come to a close, the estimated $50 billion-plus spent on sporting venues has become the source of growing criticism by city residents who maintain that their needs were sacrificed for the political prestige that comes from hosting the Games. Unfortunately, this same scenario has played out in other host cities, but the problem is especially pronounced in developing countries that lack the infrastructure and financial resources required to contract massive sporting venues and support thousands of international athletes for just a 2-week period. In response, there have been increasing calls for the construction of permanent homes for the Summer and Winter Olympic Games. This essayreviews the relevant literature to provide a brief history of the Olympic Games and to analyze the arguments in support of establishing a permanent home for them, followed by a summary of the research and…
Marketing Strategies London 2012 Olympic Games
Similar to the rest of the world, the United Kingdom has been faced with the devastating effects of the internationalized economic crisis. But as the crisis continues to unfold, the country moves on to address its other issues as well.
One of these issues is represented by the fact that the country's capital would represent the host of the 2012 Olympic Games. The preparations for organizing such an event are currently undergoing and they involve a series of efforts, resources and commitments.
The hosting of the 2012 Olympic Games is both an opportunity, as well as a challenge for the organizers. At this level, the process would be assessed from the marketing perspective and recommendations would be formulated based on the specifics of the problems identified.
Issues and problems
London would be hosting the 2012 Olympic Games and it is as such presented with…
Fullerton, S., 2009, Sports marketing, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill
Hoyle, L.H., 2002, Event marketing: how to successfully promote events, festivals, conventions and expositions
Mills, G., 2002, Retail pricing strategies and market power, Melborne Univ. Publishing Schlossberg, H., 1996, Sports marketing, Wiley-Blackwell
The London 2012 Olympic Games case
Marketing Chinese Businesses
Implications and Impact of Olympics 2008
The purpose of this work is to research and render citations in relation to implications and possible impact to local businesses in China's City of Beijing, host city for the 2008 Olympics.
The host city for the 2008 Olympics is Beijing, China. Beijing is China's capital city and was awarded the right to host the 2008 Olympics on July 13, 2001 in Moscow. The opportunities are unbounded and from all reports the Chinese people are excited and honored to be hosting the Olympics. 94.6 of the Chinese people support the hosting of the Olympics in Beijing according to a poll conducted by the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Bid Committee (BOCOG).
According to a Beijing 2008 Marketing eport: "For Chinese firms, the Olympic Games provide an honorable opportunity to ... demonstrate their strengths in key technologies, products and services. .…
Researchers Work for High Tech Beijing Games in 2008 (nd) Poeples Daily online available at: http://english.people.com.cn/20040710_149138.html
China's Cultural Revolution (2004) Zions Bank Tea Leaf 3 Nov 2004 [Online] available at: http://www.zionsbancorporation.com/zionsbank/tl/tl200410103.html
history of Olympic posters. The author explores five of the previous Olympic posters and comments on the use of color and art within the era that they were developed. The author explores the history of the Olympic poster, focusing on the artistic element with respect to the economic and social conditions that prevailed at that time. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Regardless of what is going on in the world, the Olympic games bring nations together for a time of fellowship, competition and peace. Nations can be fighting each other at the United Nations, in the fields of war, or with regards to NATO but the Olympic games is a neutral zone for all involved. Each year Olympic posters grace the world as the games draw near and each poster reflects the social and economic era of that time. The Olympic posters, throughout their history, present…
By the time the 1990's rolled around the hippie generation had grown up and the world had returned to a more exact place. The poster for the Olympics in 1992 was all about strong and clear lines, which were indicative of the yuppie generation that had been riding the economical success train for a few years. The poster produced clear and colorful Olympic rings and it place them above what looks like a successful and industrialized city. All of the elements of the poster are clearly set up to portray success and strength including the color swatches that are in an abstract type design. The colors used against the stark white backdrop also strengthened the feeling of success and sureness that the world was feeling for the most part.
The Olympics and the posters advertising the Olympics were largely influenced by America. This was more evident as years went forward. The various posters were heavily influenced not only by American value systems of their era but also of the culture and tradition of the host nations along the way. Whether it was 1932 or 1992 the posters depict the general mood of civilized society while also adding touches from the current era. The use of artistic style and color for Olympic poster not only provides history regarding the Olympics but provides history for future reference regarding the world at large.
In an attempt to fuse building construction with artistic intentions allows for a unique expression of human ingenuity and wonder. The purpose of this essay is to describe the total design concept as it was used in the case study 'Arup: Building the Water Cube." This essay will describe this effort, how it was implemented and how its design process contributed to the project's success. The essay will also discuss the lessons learned from the analysis in this case study to help generalize problems and solutions for future construction projects.
The Total Design Concept
The Olympic Games are opportunities for the world to demonstrate its athletic, social and artistic prowess. In 2008, the games were hosted by China in Beijing and many buildings were needed to be constructed in order to successfully host a worthwhile Olympic event. One such idea was to design an aquatic center to host…
Eccles, R., Edmondson, A. & Karadzhova, D. (2010). Arup: Building the Water Cube. Case Study.
Ian Volner. "How Arup Became The Go-To Firm for Architecture's Most Ambitious Projects" 16 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 09 Apr 2014.
City of Boston: Olympic Venue Bid Process
The City of Boston, Massachusetts stands as one of America's iconic cities. Its history goes back to the American evolution and the city continues to represent America's prosperity and wealth. Boston is an excellent site for the 2020 Olympic Games. The IOC has a specific life cycle of the bid process (Olympic.org, 2012a) . The bid process begins many years prior to the scheduled Olympic Games (Olympic.org. (2012d).This proposal will represent the first stage of the bid process (IOC, 2012 Games Lifecycle).
The bid and election process takes many years. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has a subcommittee that is responsible for elections of the host city (Olympic.org, 2012b). The committee makes a careful evaluation of the cities that have submitted a bid. All must meet certain criteria. An impact study must be conducted to determine how hosting the games would…
Olympic.org. (2012a). Choice of the Host City. Retrieved September 7, 2012 from http://www.olympic.org/host-city-election .
Olympic.org. (2012b).Making the Vision of Sustainable Games A Reality. Retrieved September
7, 2012 from http://www.olympic.org/videos/making-the-vision-of-sustainable-games-a - reality.
Olympic.org. (2012c).Report of the Evaluaiton Committee. Retrieved September 7, 2012 from http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Host_city_elections/2012_OG - Report_of_the_Evaluation_Commission.pdf .
Areas for Additional Research:
The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
August 8-24 2008
From Scholastic [http://teacher.scholastic.com/researchtools/researchstarters/olympics/]
The history of the ancient Greek Olympic Games, including the nature of the competition and the reasons behind the cessation of the games.
The statistics and demographics of the Olympics.
Evidence and impact of nationalism on the Olympic Games.
More Olympic links: •
The Olympic rowing venue must adhere to standards including the incorporation of 20 network points for 20 employees, including cable along with 802.11 Wireless Access within the media centre; availability of internet laptop access and WiFi for visiting media to be able to allowed email, SSH, and internet availability; extended seating with Olympic Games wireless coverage for registered media personnel; coverage network requirements in accord with the installation of…
The final decision will be made at the IOC general assembly in eptember in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Politics may also have played a part in pushing out the sport. Modern pentathlon, for instance is even less popular than wrestling, but it remains largely due to the fact that its sport was invented by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Games and that it is supported by Juan Antonio amaranch Jr., son of a former I.O.C. president and a member of its executive board.
The IOC is correct: Olympic style wrestling does not have the same luster as the other events possess. It lacks the celebrities and, in the U..A., is suppressed by the staged allure of professional wrestling. Other more contemporary sports such as rock climbing, rollerblading and wakeboarding have also climbed in to demote it.
On the other hand, wrestling also has its advocates. And many…
Longman, J (February 12, 2013) Olympic Fixture Since 708 B.C. Will Be Dropped. The New York Times
(Feb 26, 2013)
Wrestlers not happy to see Olympic sport eliminated http://www.lancastereaglegazette.com/article/20130225/HSSPORTS/302250035/Wrestlers-not-happy-see-Olympic-sport-eliminated
ather than functioning solely as a sporting event, the '84 Summer Games delivered a broader scope of entertainment never before seen or attempted. The event encompassed entertainment not only in the form of sporting competition, but also in music and arts (Masterman, 2004). It is now understood that special events possess a powerful role in the society.
2012 Olympic closing ceremony will be a mega event as it will have a large effect on the entire economy of the UK. The event is going to get huge media coverage that is why it is important to adopt right marketing strategy for this event.
Issues of human resource management
Human resource management is vey important aspect of this grand event. The better evetn mangers and event management organizations understand the labor force and employs hired for the event the better resources can be allocated to effective recruitment and retaining strategies.
Hoy, W., & Miskel, C.1982. Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice. NEw York: Random House.
Masterman, G.2004. In Lashley C.(Ed), Strategic sports event management: An international approach. Great Britian: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
McDonnell, I., Allen, J., & O'Toole, W.1999. Festivals and special event management. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Australia
National Survey on Giving, Volunteering and Participating. 2004. Ottawa: Stastics Canada
management, in particular the management of mega events. It also delves deeply into the positives and negatives of the London Olympic Games and the 2006 orld Cup events in Germany. Those who manage mega events have an enormous task and an almost impossible responsibility to the public, to those participating in the events, and to the countries where mega events take place. Those issues and more are covered in this paper.
Theoretically review the key aspects of event management
Form and Function
Theoretically an event is a kind of convergence, according to Professor Donald Getz (School of Tourism, The University of Queensland); it is a blending of forms and functions, and those in turn converge into a worthwhile experience for the tourist / participant. Getz uses two huge events to illustrate how form and function come together to produce a grand experience for the attendee. He points to the 2012…
Baumard, P. (1999). Tacit Knowledge in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
BBC News. (2005). Four suicide bombers struck in central London on Thursday, July 7,
killing 52 people and injuring more than 770. Retrieved September 30, 2013, from http://news.bbc.co.uk .
BBC News (2012). London 2012: How the world saw the Olympic Games. Retrieved September
normal I offer. hy? Because I potential a false flag attack London Olympics worth researching. Okay,'s deal. You write a paper length normal extra credit assignment explained Extra Credit Unit.
Conspiracy theory or terrorism? -- The 2012 London Olympics
There has been a lot of controversy in the recent years regarding conspiracies and how some of the world's most influential individuals are actively engaged in a plot to exploit mankind. False flag attacks are believed to be attempts performed by these individuals with the purpose of justifying their intervention in particular areas that they are interested in. This year's London Olympics represents one of the most intriguing opportunities for certain actors to put their strategies into work, considering that the world's attention is focused on the event and that the number of people present there would surely draw significant responsiveness from an international public concerned in penalizing individuals and groups…
Donald, Brooke, "Q&A: Stanford terrorism expert Martha Crenshaw on Olympic security," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Stanford University Website: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2012/july/terrorism-expert-olympics-072712.html
Jennings, Will, "London 2012: Olympic Risk, Risk Management, and Olymponomics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the University of Southampton Website: http://soton.academia.edu/WillJennings/Papers/132752/London_2012_Olympic_Risk_Risk_Management_and_Olymponomics
Joseph Watson, Paul, "Whistleblower Reveals Plan To Evacuate London During Olympics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the InfoWars Website: http://www.infowars.com/whistleblower-reveals-plan-to-evacuate-london-during-olympics/
Nieuwhof, Adri, "UK security firm G4S provides services to Israeli prisons, police and army," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Open Democracy Website: http://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/adri-nieuwhof/uk-security-firm-g4s-provides-services-to-israeli-prisons-police-and-army
History Of Softball
Softball has its origins in the game of baseball, the bat-and-ball sport which was first played in America with a codified set of rules in Hoboken, New Jersey on 19 June 1846. The game of softball appeared in the U.S. just over thirty years later in 1887. While the two sports are similar in many ways, they also contrast in a number of ways -- as does their history. This paper will examine the history of softball and show how and why it developed out of the game of baseball.
With the first known game of softball being played on Thanksgiving Day in Chicago between Yale and Harvard football fans. The game began quite by accident and quite spontaneously when, after the results of the football game between the two rivals were announced and winning parties were awarded their money, a graduate from Yale hurled a boxing…
From the 1950s onward, an organization known as the International Softball Federation began to oversee softball competition across the entire world. In Australia in 1965, women competed for the first time in an international championship match that included five teams from around the world. Even though the game was invented by men, the women beat them in holding the world's first world championship softball tournament. The first men's world tournament did not take place until the following year in 1966 and it was held in Mexico City. The United States men's team won the championship. From that time on, every four years, a world tournament has been held for competing times within the international community.
Softball even became an Olympic event in 1996 when women's softball was included as an official sport in the Olympic Games. The United States women's team has shown nothing but dominance in the Olympic Games since softball was inaugurated, winning three gold medals. The sport was cut, however, not even a decade after its inauguration, by the International Olympic Committee. (Baseball was removed from the Games as well). Still, some speculate that softball will return to the world stage along with all the other major sporting events of the Summer Olympics.
In conclusion, softball was a game that began quite by accident when rowdy college football enthusiasts took up hitting around a boxing mitt in a boat club in Chicago. Thanks to the determination of a man named George Hancock, the oversight of Lewis Rober (a fireman in Minneapolis), and the organization skills of Leo Fischer and Michael Pauley, softball evolved from the boat club to the Olympics as one of the world's most popular sports for men, women and children.
One idea could be to use the Olympic rings as cogs in a wheel of motion featuring UPS as one of the cogs.
Their approach to the Chinese public is the right approach and is done in the correct style. The ad appeals to the Chinese national pride and seeks to show that UPS understands that pride and wishes to ensure that the pride is justified. The public will likely show curiosity as to an American product such as UPS and will very likely pick up on the somewhat heavy-handed approach to patriotism used by UPS.
The advertisement also does an excellent job of touting UPS attributes and the many different services the company provides. Using phrases such as; receiving, shipping, packaging, transportation and storage informs the reader of the many services offered by UPS that many consumers may not have previously considered. UPS also does a good job in…
One hundred thousand people packed into the Museumplein near the city's famous museums in Amsterdam, according to Jolly, et al., writing in The New York Times. In China, fans who decided to become vendors were profiting by the sale of vuvuzelas (those annoying horns that are blown throughout all the World Cup games) for $3 U.S. money. "They're all made in Zhejiang," the vendor said, working the rainy streets at Sanlitun, "the rowdiest place in the city." In ogota Columbia, vendors profited from the sale of "pink cotton candy" to the crowds watching the games at the Palace of Justice in olivar Square (Jolly, p. 3).
In Nigeria the results of the World Cup -- with the help of social media on the Internet -- helped change a politician's policy. In this African country, politicians are not known to be responsive to citizens. After the Nigerian soccer team's "dismal performance"…
Amabebe, Eremipagamo, 2010, 'Nigeria: Who changed the President's mind -- Facebook or FIFA?' Global Voices, Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://globalvoicesonline.org .
Elliott, Stuart. 2010, 'An Underdog Amid the Giants Lining the World Cup's Fields,' The New York Times, Retrieved July 29, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Gaffer. 2010. '2010 World Cup Final: The Most Watched Soccer Game in U.S. History,' . Epltalk.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://www.epltalk.com .
Hjarvard, Stig, 2008, 'Global Media Cultures: A Research Programme on the Role of Media in Cultural Globalization,' Department of Film and Media Studies, University of Copenhagen. Retrieved July 29, 2011, from www.nordicom.gu.se/common/publ_pdf/37_hjarvard.pdf.
In addition, he notes that the Chinese and ussians somehow "choose" to be continuing autocracies, and then acknowledges the power of their leaders. Thus, the people are under the thumb of their leaders, and may be "settling" for autocracy because they see democracy as unattainable and out of reach. Take the ussians, for example, who had a real shot at democracy when the Soviet Union fell, and have instead allowed Putin to create another autocracy not unlike much of the Soviet regime before the fall. Indeed, people may choose autocracy, or they may be bullied into it, or they simply may be more comfortable with it, because it is so ingrained in their lives.
Gee does make valid points throughout his essay, including the notation that most large, successful countries fail without democracy. ome and Greece are two of the dominant democratic cultures that notoriously fell from power and crumbled…
Gee, Marcus. "Nations Can Thrive Without Democracy, but Only for so Long."
Business Environemnt of China
Main issues in the case
The case points to China's unprecedented growth and expansion on the world stage vis-a-vis business performance. Many observers expect China to become the economic superpower of the future replacing America in that role. China started off with supreme difficulties and it was only in the post-Deng period that it has overcome its challenges. Problems that it faces however exist in conjunction with its political and democratic system. The question of whether these elements will or will not impede China from achieving world dominance is one that occupies many observers.
China is more than 10,000 years old. During much of that time, it has lived in tumultuous change and poverty with effective reform only occurring in the post-1980s. Since then, it has reduced the number of its citizens living in poverty by over 200 million people as well as achieving a sevenfold…
Business Source Premier (Nielson Library) deals marketing issues. The article current ( month). efer text chapter titles heading topic suggestions. Make include article attachment include UL I refer article.
Business Article Analysis
The article that is reviewed in this paper is titled "Off and unning: Professors Comment on Olympics" and presents certain important opinions on the Olympic games. The article presents the comments and opinions of important specialists that focus on marketing and business administration, like Stephen Greyser, John Macomber, and John Gourville. These are some of the most important professors at the Harvard Business School. The most important points of this article refer to the explanations these experts try to provide on the marketing success of the Olympics in comparison with other sports competitions. In addition to this, they try to identify some of the factors that determine the success of the organizers (Greyser et al., 2012). The pricing…
1. Greyser, S. et al. (2012). Off and Running: Professors Comment on Olympics. Harvard Business School. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/7072.html .
2. Blanding, M. (2012). Why Good Deeds Invite Bad Publicity. Harvard Business School. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/7001.html .
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…
FIBA World Championship
Basketball has become a prominent sport that attracts many fans, researchers, and sport specialists from diverse points-of-view. Any game provides some exciting moments of entertainment. Various studies have analyzed the execution of basketball teams at diverse levels of competition, like European Basketball Leagues, FIBA World Championships, American NBA, and the Olympic Games. Many of these studies looked to establish factors that contribute to a team's success utilizing game related statistics throughout the finals games or the span of a season. Distinctive variables that associate to a team's prosperity have been recognized. Ibanez et al. (2008) followed the Spanish Basketball League for two consistent seasons. The outcomes indicated that teams' and players' passing skills and preventive planning might determine great season-long performance. In an alternate comparable study, parameters of shooters' field objective proficiency, prowess in the rebound, and number of points created bench players were variables that had…
Barney, J.B. (2012). Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dyer, J.H., & Dyer, W.G. (2013). Team building: Proven strategies for improving team performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Goudsouzian, A. (2010). King of the court: Bill Russell and the basketball revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Krause, C. (2009). Athletes wanted: The complete guidebook for maximizing collegiate recruiting and life potential. Chicago, IL: Collegiate Athletic Educational Foundation.
The Wimbledon Tennis tournament as a hallmark-sporting event creates these social and cultural impact of the community. This is because according to theory transient and recurring events act as important methods of collecting identification of host communities. They present opportunities of asserting, reproducing, reinforcing, and contesting prevailing cultural values and beliefs and social norms (Quinn 2009). Hallmark events are identified as functions that support and reinforce the image of established social and cultural norms.
PR Newswire (2012) indicates the unpredictability of the effects of Olympics as its impact may be difficult to evaluate. However, in the case of London's 2012 Olympics, the games left a lasting impression on the socio-cultural context of ritain. According to Dhar (2012), the games led to the unification and social spirit of unity among the ritish during 2012, as compared to the divided and lawlessness associated with urban riots in 2011. The games increased the…
Akerlund, U 2008. Implementation of hallmark events among tourism stakeholders: the discourses of Umea's bid for European Capital of Culture 2014
Andersson, TD, Armbrecht, J and Lundberg, E, 2008. Impact of Mega-Events on the Economy. Asian Business & Management, 7(2), pp. 163-179.
Andrea, C, Andrew, F, Munday, M, and Roberts, a 2007. Assessing the Environmental Consequences of Major Sporting Events: The 2003/04 FA Cup Final. Urban Studies, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 44(3), pp. 457-476.
Anonymous 2012, Apr 18. Olympics 2012: The Economic Impact Market Assessment 2012. PR Newswire.
The claim is organized by showing a single photograph. There were no correspondents listed. ("Good Reasons") ("Olympic Ring")
hat is the medium and genre?
The medium is from an online news organization called ITN. It appears as both a still photograph and a video. The genre is a single picture. It is illustrated is through a new event that is occurring. ("Good Reasons") ("Olympic Ring")
hat appeals are used?
The photographer represents themselves as a member of a major news organization. There is no authority other than the assumption that they are an expert. However, this helps to build upon the belief that the information they are providing to the audience is accurate. The logos are being represented through direct observation and by watching the activities of the people on the boat with the flame. The pathos is to invoke an emotional response such as national pride and awe. ("Good…
Olympic Ring. 2012. ITN News. London.
Good Reasons, n.d.
Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…
Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.
Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu .
Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math." The New York
Times. 25 Mar 2006. 29 May 2007. http://www.nytimes.com /2006/03/26/education/26child.html?ex=1301029200en=0c91b5bd32dabe2aei=5088partner=rssnytemc=rss
The challenges for the project managers relative to protecting the digital rights of the book are tough to counter, outside of creating a special ink that cannot be accurately photographed digitally or scanned. To attempt this strategy of creating ink that is not easily duplicable would have significantly increased the production costs, squeezing margins on the book as it moved through distribution channels. The risks of electronic duplication at this point can only be met with litigation against those distributors who violated the embargo, thereby making it possible for those fans wanting to gain notoriety by posting pages before the book was available to get the attention they want, even if it means ruining to books' value. In summary, the project managers did assess and respond to the risks they could foresee, and outside of significantly increasing the production cost, they did mitigate the larger risks of the books being…
Chapin (2007). Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Information Technology Overview. March, 2007. Ward Chapin.
Sutton (2007). Vancouver Olympics 2010's CIO starts training. Neil Sutton. Computerworld Canada. June 14th, 2007. Downloaded July 20th, 2007 from location: http://www.itworldcanada.com/a/ComputerWorld/10cd14aa-3fae-4c01-a7e2-5242397f9a1e.html
The sportsmen and the team enter competition to win prizes and they end up as winners, runner ups, or other positions, which are crucial in sports; they come in first place or second place and yet score that many goals. The performances of the sportsmen are records to be remembered for years to come and these are all quantitative variables, rather than qualitative.
Also, at the level of the increased attention offered by the business community on sports and sporting events, the measures used are again quantitative ones. Some examples in this sense include the money brought in by the investors in the sports teams, the number of people attracted by a sports event, the commercial value of a sports events and so on; for instance, the Olympic games can also be measured in terms of the investments allocated to improve the infrastructure in the region, the increase in the…
Dunning, E. Coakley. J. (2000). Handbook of sports studies. SAGE.
Jones, I. (1997). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods in sports fan research. The Qualitative Report, Vol. 3. No. 4. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR3-4/jones.html accessed on November 13, 2012
Toohey, K. Veal, a.J. (2007). The Olympic games: a social science perspective. CABI.
Qualitative and quantitative research: fundamental assumptions. The Bangor University. http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~pes004/resmeth/assumpmain.htm accessed on November 13, 2012
It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.
This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that…
Author not Available. "Caminiti Comes Clean." Sports Illustrated.com. 28 May 2002. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/si_online/special_report/steroids/
Bodley, Hal. "Palmeiro Suspended for Steroids Policy Violation." USA Today. 1 Aug. 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/orioles/2005-08-01-palmeiro-suspension_x.htm
Jenkins, Chris. "Players Admit Steroids Changed Baseball. USA Today. 15 March 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2005-03-15-steroids-mlb-cover_x.htm
The effectiveness of promotional strategies is highly dependent on their ability to resonate and be relevant to the target audiences over time (Reference). This is the basis of the research being undertaken; to determine which promotional tools and strategies are the most effective in attracting, training and retaining the most talented and motivated volunteers for the London 2012 Olympic Games.
The following are the aims and objectives of this analysis. The primary objective of this study is to determine which promotional tools are the most effective in recruiting and retaining volunteers. In support of this objective, the following goals are defined:
a. To understand and segment the volunteer population in westernized nations including the UK, and determine the characteristics of these markets as they relate to volunteering for events.
b. To determine the psychographic attributes of each group as they relate to propensity to participate, contribute and assist in keeping…
Bibliography / references
Gary Adamson, Joe Pine, Tom Van Steenhoven, and Jodi Kroupa. 2006. How storytelling can drive strategic change. Strategy & Leadership 34, no. 1, (January 1): 36-41.
Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P., 2005. Marketing: An Introduction (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bardhi, F., Rohm, A., & Sultan, F.. (2010). Tuning in and tuning out: media multitasking among young consumers. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 9(4), 316.
Belch, G.A., & Belch, M.A.., 2004. Advertising and Promotion; An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective (6th ed.). New York: McGraw- Hill/Irwin.
Gender Bias in Coverage of the 2016 Rio Olympics
Over the past centuries, gender bias has been one of the dominant issues in the Olympic games. hile there has been a noticeable increase in the women participation in the Olympic games, nevertheless media bias has been largely remarkable where men receive more media attentions than female counterparts. In the recent 2016 concluded Olympic game in Rio, media have been found using the sexiest languages to refer the female athletes. Based on the tone of the commentators, it is clear that women athletics are treated differently compared with the male counterpart in sport. The commentators lay emphasize on clothing and physique rather than their abilities and performances.
Analysis of more than 160 million words from academic papers, newspapers, and social media reveals that men are three times mentioned than women referring men as big, strong, fastest, or real. However, women are…
Angelini, James R., Paul J. Macarthur, and Andrew C. Billings. "What's The Gendered Story? Vancouver's Prime Time Olympic Glory on NBC." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56.2 (2012): 261-79. Print.
Billings, Andrew C., James R. Angelini, and Andrea H. Duke. "Gendered Profiles of Olympic History: Sportscaster Dialogue in the 2008 Beijing Olympics." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 54.1 (2010): 9-23. Print.
Bates, Claire. "Is some Olympic commentary sexist?" BBC News Magazine 11 Aug. 2016: 1+. Web. 19 Sept. 2016. .
It was a beautiful summer, as I was thinking about the junior world championship in Bucharest, I was very nervous and my legs literally felt like they weighed a million pounds each. As I climbed up the stairs and stepped on the mat, I felt as if I stepped onto a giant Tempurpedic mattress.
My feet sank in, and my heart was beating a faster mile a minute. I knew that the next thing to do is to read my daily affirmation before each match and this would calm me down. However, this was the world championships, the biggest stage that a boy of between 17 and 20-year-old could wrestle at in the world. I knew that going into the match is going to be a big challenge because I was up against a two-time world champion who had accumulated a lot of experience in the field.
If the bond issues do not pass, it is still possible to request for private donations to build the stadium. With the help of local and national businesses, raising the additional $375 million would not be impossible, although it may take longer than those who believe the stadium is required for the Olympic bid may support. However, even if the Olympic committee decides that New York is not the place for the 2012 Olympic games, the private funding could still be used for the stadium, and could still result in an increase in jobs and tax revenue for the state.
Whether or not the stadium is ever built, there can be no doubt that the fight over the issue will continue. While those against the project see it as a waste of taxpayer money, those for the project see it as a minimum public investment to gain a maximum private-sector…
Berkowitz, Harry. "Jet Stadium Feud Plays Out in Public." Newsday, 17 December 2004, sec. IV, p. D3.
Horowitz, Craig. "Stadium of Dreams." New York Magazine, 21 June 2004, cover story, p. 28.
Jones, Charisse. "Sides Square Off Over New York Stadium." USA Today, 5 December 2004, sec. III, p. C4.
Ouroussoff, Nicolai. "Sobering Plans for Jets Stadium." New York Times, 1 November 2004, sec. F, p. F3.
b) The Football Championship in Lisbon
The capital of Portugal has received little investments in developments and infrastructure from both the public as well as the private sectors. But the football championship has stimulated the construction and development of two stadiums in north and northeast parts of the capital, namely the Benfica and Alvalade stadiums.
The hosting of the football championships, supported by the two stadiums, draws the attention of investors and stimulates their efforts to set out new operations in the community, supporting as such its social and economic development.
"In general terms, those buildings give support to a modern city vision, that attempts to preserve its ancient culture at the same time it projects an image of progress.
Those infrastructures, given their magnitude in the urban context, might help to promote Lisbon as an international capital. They will certainly allow the city to re-structure its present functional structure.…
Barghchi, M., Omar, D., Aman, M.S., 2009, Cities, sports facilities development and hosting events, European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 2
Copley, J., 2005, Sports events leave a giant 'ecological footprint', New Scientist, http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/Papers/Impacts08-FLangen_and_BGarcia_May_2009_Events_Review.pdf last accessed on October 26, 2011
Cugola, G., Nitto, E.D., Fuggetta, A., 1998, Exploiting an event-based infrastructure to develop complex distributed systems, ICSE '98 Proceedings of the 20th international conference on software engineering, IEEE Computer Society Washington
Gursoy, D., Kendall, K.W., 2006, Hosting mega-events: modelling locals' support, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No. 3
In a reversal, which is worth two points, the prone person comes from underneath and gains control. A near fall is worth 2-3 points and is a 'near pin.' The points awarded for a 'near fall' are based upon how long the 'near pin' lasts. Points are also awarded based upon the opponent's infractions. These may include illegal holds, technical violations (like leaving the mat), grabbing clothing, the mat, or the opponent's headgear, locking or overlapping hands, improper or illegal equipment, "stalling," "unnecessary roughness" and "unsportsmanlike conduct" ("Overview of wrestling rules," est Virginia resting, 2010). Scholastic wrestling is scored as a team sport as well as individually.
The issue of women in wrestling has proved to be a controversial issue. On the Olympic level, women competed in wrestling for the first time in 2004. "omen from 21 nations competed in four freestyle weight classes. Medals were awarded to wrestlers from…
Dicker, Ron. "Olympic wrestling." Lifewire. [28 Feb 2012]
"Cutting weight." Independent Lens, 2000. [28 Feb 2012
Porter, P. & Fletcher, D. (2008). The economic impact of the Olympic Games: Ex-Ante predictions and ex-poste reality Journal of Sport Management, 22, 470-486.
A CPR analysis (context, purpose, research design) of Porter and Fletcher's article on "The economic impact of the Olympic Games" would note that the authors were conducting analyses of two past Olympics that took place in 1996 and 2000 to analyze the overall economic impact of the Olympic Games on two host American cities. The purpose of the research was to examine the common claim that hosting the Olympics is an economic boon to the host nation. Alleged economic benefits are often used to justify the considerable expenses required to construct the necessary facilities and fund the needed city improvements to host the Games. However, the authors found that no such economic benefit was accrued by the host cities of the Olympics of the years they…
CHISTINE BENNAN is a famous figure in the sports world because of her best selling books, her career as sportswriters, her TV and radio appearances on sports show and her genuine interest in sport related issues. Working with Washington Post and USA Today, Brennan has been relentlessly following and covering sports events all over the world, which is, she is often considered a trusted name in sports journalism. However lately she has been charged with biased reporting and her books have come under attacks for exposing the dark inner world of figure skating.
Brennan is an award-winning writer. Having earned her undergraduate and Master's degree in journalism from Northwestern University in 1980, she joined Miami Herald as their first ever woman sports writer. She worked with the Herald for four years from 1981-1984 during which she covered various sports events but it was not until she joined Washington Post that…
Christine Brennan: Women Legends
Christine Brennan-Lordly and Dame Inc. http://www.lordly.com/talent/lordly/BrennanChristine.html
Shipnuck, Alan, Christine Brennan: The U.S.A. Today columnist who ignited the Augusta debate can't wait to grill Hootie again.(Golf Plus/Masters Preview/The
Today, the Paralympics are widely regarded as being the second-largest sporting event in the world after the Olympic Games themselves and there is growing recognition of the extraordinary abilities of athletes with disabilities as a result (Davis 2012). This paper provides a review of a commercial video, "Meet the Superhumans," that was used to promote the 2012 London Paralympics on a local television station, including an analysis of the brand being marketed, the targeted market segments, the key objectives of the video, and the video's key integrated marketing communications messages. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the "Meet the Superhumans" video are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Analysis of the video as a sport product promotional tool
Brand being marketed. The brand being marketed in the subject video is the 2012 Paralympic Games. Originally established by Sir Ludwig Guttman in the late 1940s…
Brunello, A (2013, January-March). 'The Relationship between Integrated Marketing
Communication and Brand Equity.' International Journal of Communication Research,
Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 9-15.
Davis, RW (2012, March). 'Introduction: The Paralympics Advocate for, and Build Awareness
Gender and Society
Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage
Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes,…
Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662
Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.
Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114
Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…
Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.
Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.
Oxford University Press. 1935.
Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
Role of Conferences in the trategic Development of the Hotel Industry
Case tudy of Five tar Hotels in Jordan
Jordan has a rich cultural and archaeological patrimony. Many natural wonders and a particularly welcoming people make tourism a natural resource and vehicle for Jordan's economy.
Conversely, the Jordan tourism industry has demonstrated poor performance in past few years relative to the volatile political situation in the region.
Analyzing both the natural potential for success and the historical evidence for failure within Jordan's tourism industry through scientific research methodology may well provide viable alternatives to current widely held practices and beliefs.
This study will delve into the specific revenue producing areas of developing conferences in Jordan, how to conduct them, facility use and maximization, and the issues that surround successful delivery of this medium. This thesis will also provide data on the means of offering the world a safe, beautiful, and…
Swan TW, 'Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation', Economic Record, 32, 1956.
Tourism Forecasting Council, Forecast, Commonwealth Department of Tourism, August 1994.
Wilcox DA, 'Lessons for Tourism Industries from the 1984 Olympics at Los Angeles' A Report by Economics Research Associates to THC'94, 1994
Production of Caps and Shirts
A part written report assignment-based forthcomming olympics produce a company I production shirts caps named company GLOBAL SUCCESS PLC.
Global Success PLC is a company that deals with event planning marketing and organization. In the forth coming Olympics, the company wishes to venture in the production of Shirts and caps for corporations. The forthcoming Olympic Games present an opportunity for firms to gain recognition on an international scale. Global success intends to take this opportunity to provide services to willing corporations to capitalize on the event and build their company and product reputation.
Global success tag line in the campaign for production of the shirts and caps is "create a long lasting impression on potential consumers"
According to Brynard P.A. & Hanekom S.X., 2006()
branding is a measure targeting to make known a product, service or company to a market or potential…
Brynard P.A., & Hanekom S.X. (2006). Introduction To Research In Management-Related Fields. 2nd Edition. Pretoria: Van Schiak.
Cravens D., Merrilees B., & Walker R. (2000). Strategic Marketing Management For The Pacific Region. Sydney: Mcgraw-Hill.
Graham S., Nerotti L.D., & Goldblatt J.J. (2001). The Ultimate Guide To Sport Event Management And Marketing. 2nd Edition. United States Of America: Mcgraw-Hill.
Gratton, C., Shibli, S., & Coleman, R. (2005). Sport and economic regeneration in cities. Urban Studies 42(6), 985-999.
1948?" It will inform the reader of important events that occurred in the world in 1948. For America and the world, 1948 was a year in transition. World War II had ended, but there was still war in the world. America was entering into an era of prosperity, and families were engaging in the "baby boom." 1948 was a banner year for many improvements and innovations that would prove to be important in the years ahead.
War and Peace
It would seem that 1948 would be a year of peace, and that the world would be at peace after the horrors of World War II, but that is not the case. The State of Israel became reality in May 1948, and the day after it was created, the neighboring Arab nations of Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia declared war on the fledgling nation. First created as Palestine…
References (17 April 2004). 1948. Retrieved from the Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948
Author not Available. (2004). 1948 in History. Retrieved from the BrainHistory.com Web site: http://www.brainyhistory.com/years/1948.html21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (2004). Highlights of 1948. Retrieved from the BabyBoomers.com Web site: http://www.babyboomers.com/years/1948.htm21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (2004). IBM Archives: 1948. Retrieved from the IBM.com Web site: http://www-1.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1948.html21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (1999). The 1948 Tucker. Retrieved from HenryFord.org Web site: http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/showroom/1948/tucker.html21 April 2004.
The Chinese sport has been identified as one of the most dynamic sectors in China based on the market value of the sports industry. In 2013, the market value of the Chinese sports industry was more than $2.91 Billion and increased to $3.44 Billion in 2014 revealing an increase of 18.01%. Typically, Chinese sports industry also recorded the market values of $3.43 Billion at the end of 2015 fiscal year. Although the Chinese sports industry only contributes to 0.63% of the GDP in 2013, however, since 2000, the sports industry has recorded more than 4% annual growth rate based on the increase in the household spending. After the Olympic game in 2008, the market value of the Chinese sports industry has increased by 20%. A report by the Chamber of Commerce (2015) shows that before the success of Lina's, the CSSM ("Chinese Sports Sponsorship Market") value (p 1) was approximate…
Pindar and the Olympian Ode
In general, sports are competitive physical activities that may be individual, group, team, or a combination. The idea of sports is to improve physical abilities as well as to provide entertainment to both participants and observers (spectators). One of the longest and most famous traditions in sports was, in fact, the Ancient Olympic Games of Greece. These games were not just sporting events for the Greeks, but were religious and athletic festivals held every four years in Olympia -- the site of a temple to their chief God, Zeus. These games were competitions among the several city-states in Ancient Greece, and were so ingrained into their society that any wars or conflicts or even legal disputes between any of the region's participating were put on hold during these Games.
In Ancient Greek society, sports were not just entertainment. The idea of the professional athlete did…
When io de Janeiro recently won its bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games, they had one world famous representative on their Olympic committee that may have actually been more famous than our President Barak Obama. This individual may not be a household name in America, but he is most famous for scoring 2 goals in the 1958 World Cup championships when he was only 17 years old. This made him the youngest player to ever play in these renowned championships and over the course of his distinguished career; the majority of the football world would certainly consider him to be the best soccer player ever. Brazil actually has declared this individual as a national treasure in order to thwart other teams and countries from stealing him away and out of their country. His name is Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, but you may know him simply as --…
Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.
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Leawoods, Heather. "Gustav Radbruch: An Extraordinary Legal Philosopher." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://law.wustl.edu/journal/2/p489leawoods.pdf.
Magill, R, A. (2007) "Motor Learning Control: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill: Louisiana State University, USA.
, 2003, p. 3).
The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.
Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.
Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).
NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.
Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
In very day life, it is a common occurrence to attend various special meetings to celebrate a given occasion. These meetings can also be for education purposes, promotions or commemorations. The occurrence of such special meetings constitutes an event. Therefore, to make this event happen, a long process of planning and preparing for the event takes place. Thus, this process of applying the skills and structures of project management to create and develop a festival, celebration, conference or social gathering is what makes event management (eid & Bojanic, 2010). Event management is significantly involving for the people who are organizing the event as they have several factors to ensure are in place for the event. Currently, there are several events; world events all over the world such as the Olympics and the world-cup games, which involve not only a portion of the bodies involved, but also the whole country…
Allen, J. (2009). Event planning: The ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fund-raising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events.
Ont: J. Wiley & Sons Canada.
Anholt, S. (2009). Places: Identity, image and reputation. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave
A History of iving and a escription of iving Techniques
iving is one of the most exciting and complex sports known today. Some call it an art, but the truth is that diving goes back through history as one of the most fantastic gymnastic movements. Its origin is found in 17th century Germany and Sweden, when gymnasts moved equipment to beaches in the summer for the sole purpose of practicing this sport.[footnoteRef:1] According to history, diving, then, is more related to gymnastics than to swimming, but since both diving and swimming involve water, they have become naturally and inextricably linked. [1: O'Brien, R. (2011). History of iving. USA iving. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from . ]
Platform diving, which the official U.S. diving website qualifies at 33 feet high, according to the website, achieved notice at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, "when it was included as an…
Due to their history in this sport, Germany and Sweden dominated the competition from the start; however, in the 1920's the United States, according to the U.S.A. Diving website, "reached worldwide prominence in diving by winning three of the gold medals in the Olympics (men's and women's springboard and men's platform events). From that time through 1992, the United States has been the world leader in diving. The total count is 46 of 75 Olympic gold medals for the United States."[footnoteRef:3] [3: O'Brien, R. (2011). History of Diving. USA Diving. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from . ]
Another important issue to discuss with regards to this sport is the technique. There are many websites that explain these, and they include anything from a springboard dive, to a shallow dive. A springboard or platform dive, for example, is, as mentioned above a high or fancy dive.[footnoteRef:4] A shallow dive, on the other hand, is just that: diving into shallow water. The record for this, for example, is held by Darren Taylor, who jumped from 36.2 feet into a child's wading pool.[footnoteRef:5] [4: Springboard Dive. (2011). USAdiver. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from ] [5: Francis, E. (2011). Shallow Diver Breaks World Record. ABC News. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from < http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/shallow-diver-breaks-world-record/story?id=13160247 >.]
Perhaps the most important thing to learn, however, is how to dive correctly, no matter what kind of dive one makes. For this, children are encouraged to learn about diving from an early age. There are many websites that can teach what to do to begin a course, and even how to prep for diving.[footnoteRef:6] Thus, this tradition will go on for many centuries to come. [6: Franklin, W. (2011). Springboard Dive Lessons. About.com. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from < http://diving.about.com/od/forbeginners/a/getStarted.htm >. ]
Munich Massacre of 1972 was an organized terrorist attack on 11 Israeli Olympic athletes at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. By the end of day-long the conflict, 11 Israelis, five Arab terrorists, and a German policeman were dead.
On September 5, 1972 at 4:30 AM, Arab terrorists wearing tracksuits and carrying weapons in athletic bags scaled the fence of the Olympic Village in Munich. Security was lax or non-existent, enabling a quick and efficient entry. Upon breaching the Village, the terrorists rendezvoused with an under-cover terrorist, who had been working for the Village, and thus knew exactly where the future hostages were sleeping. At 5AM, the terrorists knocked on the door of Israeli wrestling coach Moshe Weinberg, who immediately recognized that something was awry. He shouted a warning to his players and, with wrestler Joseph omano, tried to keep the terrorists out while some of the players escaped out…
Palestine Facts 2010, Israeli 1972 Olympic Team Murdered in Munich, viewed 8 February,
2010, < http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_munich.php>.
Bob Hayes -- Sports Hero
One of my all-time inspirational heroes is Bob Hayes, known as the only athlete to win a gold medal in the Olympics and also a Super Bowl ring. Hayes as a young man with a great deal of athletic talent grew up in a segregated community in Jacksonville, Florida, but he went on to dazzle the world with his accomplishments. This paper details that rise to fame.
Bob Hayes struggled from childhood on to become what he knew he could become, and his career should serve as a positive role model for any young man caught in a socioeconomically underserved neighborhood with odds against him because of the color of his skin and because of racial stereotyping.
Bob Hayes' Life and Times
Hayes was born to Mary (Green) Hayes and George Sanders on the 20th day of December, 1942 in a ghetto on the east…
Gale Biography in Context. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context,
Web. (2013): pp. 1-2.
Pro-Football Hall of Fame. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from http://www.profootballhof.com
Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context (2013): pp. 1-3.
Using Kotter's 8 steps, the three most significant errors made out of all the change stories presented were: McDonald's failure to create urgency when it implemented its initial menu changes; Kodak's failure to communicate its vision for change; and Fiorina's failure to form a powerful coalition prior to the merger between HP and Compaq Computer Corp. However, it is important to keep in mind that Kotter's approach may not best describe organizational change; its popularity may be more attributable to its usable format than from any evidence that Kotter's approach to change management is superior to competing approaches (Appelbaum et al., 20120).
McDonald's made half-hearted efforts to respond to consumer demands for healthier menu options. However, at that time, it had not seen any reduction in profits because of the perceived lack of nutritional value of its offerings and was not committed to expanding beyond its traditional fast-food repertoire.…
Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting
Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.
"Our growth strategy is to increase the number of customers benefiting from repeatable supply chain solutions, particularly in the healthcare, high tech and retail sectors, and to increase the amount of small package transportation from these customers. We intend to leverage our small package and freight customers through cross-selling the full complement of UPS services" (UPS 2008 Annual eport).
Focus on environmentally friendly operations -- UPS has already declared a supporter of environmentally friendly operations and in order to prove this standpoint they have already purchased 200 hybrid electric and 300 compressed natural gas vehicles. The move not only increased their fleet to the largest private fleet in the industry, but also made a strong statement. UPS has also invested in the purchase of hydraulic hybrid automobiles, a new technology that promises to reduce emissions and fuel consumption (UPS 2008 Annual eport).
3.2. Available Strategic Courses of Action
Dickerson, B., Massott, FedEx and UPS in China -- Competing with Contrasting Strategies, Drexel University, http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~mcm38/FedEx%20and%20UPS%201.ppt last accessed on June 3, 2009
Stroman, J., Wilson, K., Wauson, J., 2008, Administrative Assistant's and Secretary's Handbook, 3rd Edition, AMACOM Div American Management Assn, ISBN 081440913X
2009, United Parcel Service Inc.,, Hoovers, http://hoovers.com/ups/--ID__40483 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtml last accessed on June 2, 2009
2009, United Parcel Service, Inc., Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/ratios?symbol=UPS.N&rpc=66 last accessed on June 2, 2009
Instead of allowing an end to this conflict that will become a beginning to a longer and more vicious conflict, the current fighting and disagreement must be ended with a mutually accepted border drawing to which both parties agree and that is backed up by treaties.
Thus, while countries competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics as a symbol of international compatibility, fighting raged in Georgia. Although it only lasted for five days, the most recent conflict between Russia and Georgia had seeds in pervious years of land disputes and ethnic dividing lines, characteristics that label the area a problem spot in international relations. hile Russia has ended its aggression in this most recent conflict, both Russia and Georgia have admitted to being poised for war. If fighting in the area continues, implications are significant both for the international world and for the region as both Russia's reputation and local ethnic…
Chronology -- Russia Orders End to Fighting in Georgia." 12 August 2008. Reuters. 1
September 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/europeCrisis/idUSLC434252
Central Intelligence Agency. "Georgia." 21 August 2008. The World Fact Book. 31
August 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gg.html
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
"Reponses given were on a 5-point Likert scale anchored at the extremes by strongly disagree and strongly agree." (Marcos, Miguel, Oliva, and Calvo. 2009, p.1) the results reported "show a significant relationship between team members' perceptions of efficacy and each of the four sociogram factors, with correlations exceeding .30 in each case and in the hypothesized direction." (Marcos, Miguel, Oliva, and Calvo. 2009, p.1) Individual self-efficacy in relation to the link with cohesion factors resulted in findings as follows:
"…individual level self-efficacy was significantly correlated with each of the cohesion dimensions except for unity of purpose. Self-efficacy by itself was only significantly related to positive social relations, and to the two cohesion dimensions of teamwork and attraction to group." (Marcos, Miguel, Oliva, and Calvo. 2009, p.1)
Also found to be among the cohesion factors were relationships and teamwork is reported to have had "a significant relationship with the rest of…
Bandura, a. (1997) Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. Freeman, New York.
Bandura, a. (2006) Guide to the construction of self-efficacy scales. in: Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Eds: Pajares, F. And Urdan, T. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. 5, 307-337.
Carron, a.V. And Brawley, L.R. (2000) Cohesion: Conceptual and measurement issues. Small Group Research331, 89-106.
Carron, a.V., Colman, M.M., Wheeler, J. And Stevens, D. (2002) Cohesion and performance in sport: A meta analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 224, 168-188.
Hipster Consumer Behavior
Following the publication of Norman Mailer's essay, "The White Negro" in 1957, the term "hipster" has become part of the American lexicon. The image of hipsters has changed in fundamental ways since that time, though, and marketers interested in this segment are therefore faced with some significant challenges in fine-tuning their marketing mixes to appeal to young adults who define themselves as hipsters or who are attracted to the image for other reasons. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning hipster consumer behavior, including a background, a description of the lifestyle branding theoretical foundation that can be used to formulate marketing initiatives, and the findings that emerged from the research. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Although adults of any age may be regarded as "hipsters," this category is commonly regarded as…
Clark, L.S. (2007). Religion, media, and the marketplace. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Fabre, J. (2005). Smart nursing: How to create a positive work environment that empowers and retains nurses. New York: Springer.
Greif, M. (2010, November 15). A hipster's paradise: In the late 1990s, a down-at-heel 'hood in New York's Lower East Side became an enclave for rich white kids. New Statesman,
Gun Control Legislation
Gun control is not one concern, but several. To some people gun control is a crime issue; to others it is a rights issue. Gun control is a safety issue, an education issue, a racial issue, and a political issue. Within each of these issues, there are those who want more gun control legislation and those who want less. Guns are not for everyone. Certain individuals cannot handle a firearm safely, and some individuals choose to use firearms inappropriately. Our society has passed laws regulating the ownership and use of firearms, and additional legislation is being considered. Most of this legislation restricts, to some degree, the rights of individuals to possess or use firearms. Some restrictions may be necessary, but some recent legislation has gone too far. Society benefits from firearms in the hands of responsible citizens, and taking firearms away from such citizens will do more…
1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
Black Power Salute (Dominis, 1968)
Photograph Description and Context
The picture is a black and white photo that was taken at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. Two Olympics sprinters stood atop the podium wearing the gold and bronze medals. Their names are Tommie Smith and John Carlos. They are shown holding their first in the air as an expression of solidarity with the Black Power movement. It is argued that they are expressing their disillusionment with a nation that so often fell behind, and still does, relative to racial equality (Dominis, 1968).
The two individuals received significant negative reaction to their expression. For example, they were suspended from the U.S. Track team. They were vilified at home and they even later received death threats for their public display. Yet, the picture has become one of the iconic photographs from this period that deals with…
Dominis, J. (1968). John Dominis Collection. Retrieved from Photographers Gallery: http://www.photographersgallery.com/photo.asp?id=4037
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
Globalization arguably began even before Marco Polo’s expeditions, possibly being traceable to Alexander the Great’s establishment of overland routes between Eastern Europe and India. The assumption that globalization equals Americanization is profoundly arrogant, and is also ignorant of the history, meaning, and implications of globalization. Globalization implies integration and interdependence of the world. Predating the United States of America, globalization nevertheless reached a peak in the 20th century, when a globalized economic, political, and cultural landscape became inevitable and entrenched. While it seemed that McDonald’s, Coca Cola, Shell, and other proudly American companies have dominated the corporate landscape of a globalized international economy, a wealth of non-American companies have likewise participated in the dissemination and distribution of ideas and neoliberal policies that characterize postmodern globalization.
In some ways, globalization is the antithesis of Americanization. As Collins (2015) points out, globalization “has led to the continuing deindustrialization of America,” as labor…
Not only do his designs blend well with their settings, they are extremely functional and usable. In addition, his designs strictly adhere to the tenets of marketability and production that are the backbone of industrial design. The Elephant Stool is molded out of one sheet of fiberglass, and stacks for storage, display, and shipping. The Butterfly Stool pieces nest together when they are not assembled, making them easy to store and ship, and there is only one part that must be attached to make the stool functional, the brass rod or stretcher that holds the two pieces together. Many of his other designs use these same elements to combine simplicity with ease of production and marketing.
His other designs include many functional pieces that can be mass-produced, just like his stools. They include teakettles made out of metal and stoneware, dinnerware, flatware, and even office products like Scotch tape dispensers.…
http://www.dwr.com/designers/?designer_id=166May 8, 2007. http://www.kettererkunst.com/bio/sori-yanagi-1915.shtml . May 8, 2007. http://www.japon.net/yanagi/indexe.shtml. May 8, 2007. http://www.tortoiselife.com/new/itempage/soriyanagi.html . May 8, 2007. http://www.velocityartanddesign.com/syes.html . May 8, 2007.
Santiago Calatrava's name is synonymous with modern architectural design. This Spaniard architect single-handedly revolutionized our concept of modern, chic, futuristic yet functional architecture by giving putting some of the most unforgettable structures on global landscape. Calatrava had once aspired to become a sculptor and was keenly interested in arts but an early encounter with the work of Ludwig Mies van der ohe forced him to change directions. But art was never completely given up. Calatrava found an interesting way of merging art and architecture for his structures are always categorized as true pieces of genuine art.
With twelve honorary degrees and countless awards, Calatrava is the most sought-after architect around the world and he has bagged all these prestigious credentials at relatively young age of 53. There are far too many buildings and memorable structures around the world that serve as constant reminders of Calatrava's unique style of work and…
1) Velazquez, Gabriela. Santiago Calatrava: a redefinition of 21st century urbanity. (Business Executive)(Biography) Latino Leaders; 10/1/2004;
2) Usher, Rod. The Fine Art of Science: What looks like a forest of petrified trees or a dinosaur spine caught in an ice floe? The work of Santiago Calatrava, Time International; 1/1/2001;
3) Lacayo, Richard. Structures That Take Flight. Time; 3/8/2004;
4) Paula Deitz. Calatrava's Creativity. The Architectural Review. Volume: 209. Issue: 1248. February 2001.