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Olympics a Waste of Money?
Over the years, the Olympic Games have withered many trials including but not limited to boycotts, wars and poor organization. Further, there have been claims that the benefits derived from the Games do not justify the costs. In that regard, some continue to view the Olympic Games as a waste of money. Those of a similar opinion are convinced that the money 'wasted' in seeing the Olympics through would rather be used to help the poor. Despite the challenges as well as criticism that has been leveled against the Olympic Games over time, the relevance of the Games from both an economic and social perspective cannot be overstated.
Are the Olympics a Waste of Money?
In the words of Humphreys and Howard (2008), "sporting events produce two types of economic benefits: direct and indirect." In the opinion of the authors, direct economic benefits in this…
" (Toohey, 27) Since then the Olympic Games have gradually grown in international, political, as well as economic significance. The documentary does a good job of comparing the ancient games to the modern games. Since the ancient games had a restricted number of events, the comparisons are made between similar events, and modern events are not mentioned. But the different ways the games were operated are discussed, for instance the discus used in the past was as much as three times the weight of the modern discus. Ancient athletes also were allowed to use weights when performing the long jump, allowing for jumps that were as much as 20 feet longer than the modern record. ("The First Olympics," 20:00-23:00) And the ancient games were performed in the nude, which the documentary explains in detail in order to remove the modern "shock value" of such a discussion.
hile the documentary The…
"London 2010 Summer Olympics Games Bid.: Gamesbid.com. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.
Toohey, Kristine, and Anthony James Veal. The Olympic Games: A Social Studies
Perspective. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Pub., 2007. Print.
Olympics, being one of the world's biggest sporting events, is a natural fit for social media. The Olympics are already a media circus, and social media adds several extra dimensions for this. First, social media is a low cost form of media, but one where there is potential for vast reach. It is popular with consumers, and the accounts of both media and athletes attract a large number of followers. With each successive Olympics since the advent of social media, the use of social media has grown larger and more significant. In Sochi, social media reached a new apex, in part because of a high level of athlete participation, and in part because of the strength of social media networks in other countries -- both ussia and China have their own social networks that are arguably stronger than American ones (Laird, 2014).
The way that Olympics unfold is naturally built…
Butler, N. (2014). Social media Olympics in Sochi sets unprecedented online records, IOC reveals. Inside the Games. Retrieved April 6, 2015 from http://www.insidethegames.biz/olympics/winter-olympics/2014/1018642-first-social-media-olympics-in-sochi-sets-unprecedented-online-records-ioc-reveal
Jessop, A. (2014). The growth of social media usage poses new concerns for Olympic Games organizing committees. Forbes. Retrieved April 6, 2015 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/aliciajessop/2014/02/24/the-growth-of-social-media-usage-poses-new-concerns-for-olympic-games-organizing-committees/
Laird, S. (2014). The Olympics' social media secret weapon. Mashable. Retrieved April 6, 2015 from http://mashable.com/2014/01/16/olympics-russia-vk/
United States Deaf Olympics
While sport is vital in anyone's life, it may be even of great significance to the individual with a disability. This is due to sport's rehabilitative power to affect persons especially power based on prestige and because sport may be a means of including an individual into society. The American Athletic Association of the Deaf recognized this and began a new approach to rehabilitating people with hearing impairment (Deaf People) by means of establishing and introducing the Deaf Olympics and other sporting events.
With the introduction of Deaf games, it later developed to recreational sport, and afterwards led to competitive games like the Deaf Olympics. The Deaf Olympics gave individuals with hearing impairment an equal opportunity or fair chance to excel in sport often means a complete transformation of lifestyle and attitude.
Presently, the inclusion of athletes with a disability within one competitive sports…
Gallaudet University. (2007). Overall style requirements for proposal and final document. Writing style. Retrieved July 31, 2007, from http:/ / aaweb.gallaudet.edu/Documents/Academic/GSPP/Dissertation_and _Masters_Thesis_Handbook_11_2007_OVERALLSTYLE.pdf.
ICSD News. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 5th June 5, 2012.
Paciorek, M.J., & Jones, J.A. (2006). Disability sport and recreation resources (4th ed.). Carmel, IN: Cooper.
Stewart, D.A. (1990). Global dimensions of world games for the deaf. Palaestra. 6(2), 32-35.43.
hosting the Olympics
Boston is under consideration as a possible Olympic site in 2024. Although the bid is still in its beginning stages, already an intense debate is emerging about the potential benefits this might yield for the city. Obviously, hosting the games is considered a great honor in the eyes of the world and many cities lobby to have this chance for years, spending huge amounts of time and money to persuade the Olympic Committee to give them a chance. But a number of differing viewpoints are at war within the city: some opposed to hosting the games altogether, others strong proponents, and still others suggesting that a 2026 winter rather than a summer bid might be better suited to Boston's climate and infrastructure. egardless, despite the naysayers, the overall consensus is that Boston should make a bid, even though whether the summer or the winter bid is more…
Annear, S. (2014). There's an Olympic-Sized feud happening about Boston as host city. Boston Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/blog/2014/02/21/olympics-in-boston-2024-commitee/
Cloherty, S. (2014). The Pros and Cons of Hosting the Olympics. The Milton Measure.
Advertising, Public elations, 2008 Beijing Olympics
Public relations are an image-shaping tool for an individual, a group, firm or country that wishes to penetrate a certain market. The need for public relations continues to grow and evolve, as the field becomes a stronger discipline. Notably, public relations are not marketing tools but rather they are essential for fostering successful marketing. In 2008, Beijing got the award to host the famous Olympics event (Brady, 2009). However, the joyful china did not expect the road to the summer of 2008 would be bumpy as they found. Politics marred the games after the awarding, through organizing, to the events and the after event period. China surprised the international community by hiring western-based public relations firms to organize events.
Why Chinese government hired a western public relations firm to organize 2008 Beijing Olympics
The awarding of the opportunity to Beijing to host, the Olympics…
Leibold, J. (2010). The beijing olympics and china's conflicted national form. The China
Journal, (63), 1-0_7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/222740503?accountid=35812
Brady, A. (2009). The beijing olympics as a campaign of mass distraction. The China
Quarterly, 197, 1-24. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741009000058
sensational images in the media, especially as social media has led to the instantaneous reproduction of memes in popular culture. Even before social media and even the Internet, sensational images could spread relatively rapidly via film and television as well as print media such as daily newspapers or weekly and monthly magazines. These images convey various meanings and mean different things for different audiences. A perfect example of how one image can convey different meanings and semantics to different audience groups is the 1968 image taken of the Olympian athletes from the United States using the Black Power "salute." The original image by John Dominis has left an indelible mark on the American public and has even caused an international sensation. It came in the era of Civil Rights and at the time when celebrity black athletes were using their fame to spread awareness about racism and unfair treatment in…
"1968: Black athletes make silent protest." BBC. 17 Oct, 2005. Retrieved online: http://news.bbc.co.uk /onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/17/newsid_3535000/3535348.stm
Cosgrove, Ben. "The Black Power Salute that Rocked the 1968 Olympics." Time. 27 Sept, 2014. Retrieved online: http://time.com/3880999/black-power-salute-tommie-smith-and-john-carlos-at-the-1968-olympics/
Cushing, Lincoln. "A Brief History of the 'Clenched Fist' Image." Retrieved online: http://www.docspopuli.org/articles/Fist.html
DuBois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Retrieved online: http://www.bartleby.com/114/
Gender ias in TV Coverage at the Olympics
International Olympic Committee figures reveal that the latest Olympics at Rio had a record 4,700 female athletes competing -- which makes up nearly 45% of all participants. Many countries including the U.S. and Australia broke records with regard to female participation -- the former nation's delegation included 292 female athletes, which is the greatest number of women ever, from a single nation, to have participated in any Olympics, whereas the latter's delegation had more women competitors than male (Hunt, 2016). Despite this progress in women participation, numerous instances can be found during the Rio Olympics when commentators have been slammed for the use of sexist language when referring to female athletes. Sarah Grieves -- Cambridge University Press's language researcher -- recently completed a research which reveals that this issue is graver than mere commentating blunders. Several viewers have raised this issue on…
Billings, A. C. (2008). Clocking Gender Differences: Televised Olympic Clock Time in the 1996 -- 2006 Summer and Winter Olympics. Television New Media, 429-441.
Desmond-Harris, J. (2016, August 20). Olympics coverage and commentary managed to offend, annoy, and alienate almost everyone. Retrieved from Vox Identities: http://www.vox.com/2016/8/20/12526000/rio-2016-olympics-racism-sexism-homophobia-coverage-media-commentary
Feeney, N. (2014, February 21). A Brief History of Sexism in TV Coverage of the Olympics. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/02/a-brief-history-of-sexism-in-tv-coverage-of-the-olympics/284003/
Garcia, M. (2016, August 19). More women compete on primetime TV at the Olympics than any other point in the year. Retrieved from Vox Identities: http://www.vox.com/2016/8/19/12547192/women-primetime-tv-olympics-sexism
Although there are no statistics to actually show the impact of the Games on the population, assumptions can be made, based on the potential impact the event might have had. According to analysts however, it appears that the impact the Olympics had on the job market was different from the expectations of the organizers. In this sense, "between 1987 and 1991 the number of jobs created in the construction sector were only 33.000, a figure much lower than was expected considering that three quarters of the total investment went towards the construction sector" (Games Monitor, 2007). There is no clear account on why the issue of job opportunities took such a turn especially taking into account the importance of the construction works that were undergone.
Another aspect marked the social issues concerning the arcelona Games and their impact on the job market which is the lack of consistency for the…
International Marketing of the Winter Olympics
Properly planned and executed, hosts of the Winter Olympic Games stand to gain a great deal in terms of investments in infrastructure, the multiplier effect of travel and tourism, and the enhanced prestige on the global stage that goes hand in hand with hosting these international games. Improperly administered, though, hosts and corporate sponsors of the Winter Olympic Games are faced with some staggering economic losses, as well as the damage that failures cause to the hosts' prestige and legitimacy in the international community. Therefore, identifying opportunities for improving the marketing of the Winter Olympic Games represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, this paper provides a review of the literature concerning the marketing of the Winter Olympics Games drawing on a relevant case study as well as peer reviewed and other scholarly sources. A discussion concerning the key international market entry…
Adidas operational and sporting highlights 2006. (2009). Adidas Group. Retrieved from www.adidas-group.com/.
Elam, E.L. & Hamakawa, C.L. (2008, Fall). International sport marketing: Branding and promoting the 2006 Olympic Winter Games. The Journal of Business Cases and Applications, 1-7.
Smith, R. (1976, Summer). The Olympic Games. Horizon, 19(3), 109-112.
Subs, H. (2009, June 10). Adidas. Marketing, 19.
celebrates the Winter Olympics. There is an ad of page 19 with a hockey goalie guarding a Bank of America open safe. The slogan is "Bank of America does not embrace ambiguity." There are several subliminal messages in this ad that can be deciphered by cultural theories that certain writers have applied to "pop" culture. Not only does this photo promote a false sense of patriotism, capitalizing on the Olympics and the recent 9/11 events, but also it condones the uniformity of banking institutions.
Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno coined the phrase "the culture industry" to describe the processes and products of mass culture. They state that it is uniform, predictable, and, to the trained eye, transparent. In their essay, "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment As Mass Deception," Horkheimer and Adorno expound on the elements of the culture industry, and their observations can be applied to the Bank of America…
Williams needs to optimize on a number of different dimensions. The Olympic Committee wants to maximize total ticket sales, but also needs the revenue that is generated. However, the Committee also has motives for ensuring that tickets are affordable for locals, and that fans of the various sports can get tickets to events should they so desire. There are other sources of revenue, but the public relations dimensions of not selling out events or locals not being able to access tickets were both considerable concerns for the Organizing Committee. Empty seats on global television would look terrible for London, the Olympics and the Organizing Committee. Ensuring that the public could afford the tickets was important for PR for the Games, something the Committee needs in order to obtain public support, local media support and political support. Thus, maximizing revenue was seen as less important, despite the importance of…
Macur points out that the IOC recently decided to use testosterone testing to determine whether an individual entering a competitive event can compete as a woman. Several political and ethical issues are raised as a result of this decision, including the right to privacy and what constitutes a fair competition. As Macur notes, using testosterone as the benchmark for determining gender can be problematic. This is because "the upper range of a woman's testosterone level and the lower range of a man's do not overlap, and between them is 'a huge no man's land,'" (p. 2). Thus, a woman with highly elevated testosterone enters this "no man's land," or "no woman's land," and is disqualified from competing. This entails outright discrimination against individuals who do not conform to set standards of what it means to be biologically male or female. Even intersex conditions, which create elevated testosterone levels for…
Construction of London Olympic Stadium
Within the management-orientated system, the solution proposed is Construction Management (CM). Under the CM system, the Client employs an Architect and a Construction Manager, who oversees the works of individual Contractors (Smith, 2003). The system ensures that the Contractor and the Architect are put on an equal footing before the Client, and that the Construction Manager is able to provide design advice, particularly in regards to buildability. Compared to the Management Contracting (MC) system, the Client still enters in a contractual relationship with the Contractors (Masterman, 2002). This relieves some of the risk from the Construction Manager, and also allows the Client to better control the hiring process and the performance of the Contractors. This may be a key element in ensuring the timely and quality delivery of the Stadium project (Turner, 2005).
The organizational structure proposed is summed up below:
1. Smith, N.J. Engineering Project Management. 2nd edition, Oxford, Blackwell Science, 2003, pp. 237.
2. Turner, J.R. The Commercial Project Manager. London, McGraw Hill, 2005, pp. 259.
3. Masterman, J.W.E. Introduction to Building Procurement Systems. 2nd edition, London, Spon Press, 2002, pp. 61.
4. Turner, J.R. The Commercial Project Manager. London, McGraw Hill, 2005, pp. 259.
Gender Bias in Coverage of the 2016 Rio Olympics
Over the past centuries, gender bias has been one of the dominant issues in the Olympic games. hile there has been a noticeable increase in the women participation in the Olympic games, nevertheless media bias has been largely remarkable where men receive more media attentions than female counterparts. In the recent 2016 concluded Olympic game in Rio, media have been found using the sexiest languages to refer the female athletes. Based on the tone of the commentators, it is clear that women athletics are treated differently compared with the male counterpart in sport. The commentators lay emphasize on clothing and physique rather than their abilities and performances.
Analysis of more than 160 million words from academic papers, newspapers, and social media reveals that men are three times mentioned than women referring men as big, strong, fastest, or real. However, women are…
Angelini, James R., Paul J. Macarthur, and Andrew C. Billings. "What's The Gendered Story? Vancouver's Prime Time Olympic Glory on NBC." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56.2 (2012): 261-79. Print.
Billings, Andrew C., James R. Angelini, and Andrea H. Duke. "Gendered Profiles of Olympic History: Sportscaster Dialogue in the 2008 Beijing Olympics." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 54.1 (2010): 9-23. Print.
Bates, Claire. "Is some Olympic commentary sexist?" BBC News Magazine 11 Aug. 2016: 1+. Web. 19 Sept. 2016. .
Outstanding student athletes are undoubtedly viewed as potential value added to a college team. At that point, sports cease to be played just for fun. Missing a practice is like missing a day at work. The student who receives an athletic scholarship understands that his or her performances is directly correlated with career success. Fun is only an afterthought. As with all amateur athletes, sports as fun begins after the day's serious practice has ended.
Still, the term "to play sports" underscores the inextricably enjoyable nature of the game. Professional and amateur athletes alike enjoy the physical exercise, skill, and coordination that sports entail. Many athletes also thrive from the opportunity to socialize with peers during game play. Sports, even when they are big business, will always be about playing and having fun.
Berlage, Gai Ingham (1982). Are children's competitive team sports socializing agents for corporate America? Chapter 19…
Berlage, Gai Ingham (1982). Are children's competitive team sports socializing agents for corporate America? Chapter 19 in Studies in the Sociology of Sport.
normal I offer. hy? Because I potential a false flag attack London Olympics worth researching. Okay,'s deal. You write a paper length normal extra credit assignment explained Extra Credit Unit.
Conspiracy theory or terrorism? -- The 2012 London Olympics
There has been a lot of controversy in the recent years regarding conspiracies and how some of the world's most influential individuals are actively engaged in a plot to exploit mankind. False flag attacks are believed to be attempts performed by these individuals with the purpose of justifying their intervention in particular areas that they are interested in. This year's London Olympics represents one of the most intriguing opportunities for certain actors to put their strategies into work, considering that the world's attention is focused on the event and that the number of people present there would surely draw significant responsiveness from an international public concerned in penalizing individuals and groups…
Donald, Brooke, "Q&A: Stanford terrorism expert Martha Crenshaw on Olympic security," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Stanford University Website: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2012/july/terrorism-expert-olympics-072712.html
Jennings, Will, "London 2012: Olympic Risk, Risk Management, and Olymponomics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the University of Southampton Website: http://soton.academia.edu/WillJennings/Papers/132752/London_2012_Olympic_Risk_Risk_Management_and_Olymponomics
Joseph Watson, Paul, "Whistleblower Reveals Plan To Evacuate London During Olympics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the InfoWars Website: http://www.infowars.com/whistleblower-reveals-plan-to-evacuate-london-during-olympics/
Nieuwhof, Adri, "UK security firm G4S provides services to Israeli prisons, police and army," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Open Democracy Website: http://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/adri-nieuwhof/uk-security-firm-g4s-provides-services-to-israeli-prisons-police-and-army
The challenges for the project managers relative to protecting the digital rights of the book are tough to counter, outside of creating a special ink that cannot be accurately photographed digitally or scanned. To attempt this strategy of creating ink that is not easily duplicable would have significantly increased the production costs, squeezing margins on the book as it moved through distribution channels. The risks of electronic duplication at this point can only be met with litigation against those distributors who violated the embargo, thereby making it possible for those fans wanting to gain notoriety by posting pages before the book was available to get the attention they want, even if it means ruining to books' value. In summary, the project managers did assess and respond to the risks they could foresee, and outside of significantly increasing the production cost, they did mitigate the larger risks of the books being…
Chapin (2007). Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Information Technology Overview. March, 2007. Ward Chapin.
Sutton (2007). Vancouver Olympics 2010's CIO starts training. Neil Sutton. Computerworld Canada. June 14th, 2007. Downloaded July 20th, 2007 from location: http://www.itworldcanada.com/a/ComputerWorld/10cd14aa-3fae-4c01-a7e2-5242397f9a1e.html
The Wimbledon Tennis tournament as a hallmark-sporting event creates these social and cultural impact of the community. This is because according to theory transient and recurring events act as important methods of collecting identification of host communities. They present opportunities of asserting, reproducing, reinforcing, and contesting prevailing cultural values and beliefs and social norms (Quinn 2009). Hallmark events are identified as functions that support and reinforce the image of established social and cultural norms.
PR Newswire (2012) indicates the unpredictability of the effects of Olympics as its impact may be difficult to evaluate. However, in the case of London's 2012 Olympics, the games left a lasting impression on the socio-cultural context of ritain. According to Dhar (2012), the games led to the unification and social spirit of unity among the ritish during 2012, as compared to the divided and lawlessness associated with urban riots in 2011. The games increased the…
Akerlund, U 2008. Implementation of hallmark events among tourism stakeholders: the discourses of Umea's bid for European Capital of Culture 2014
Andersson, TD, Armbrecht, J and Lundberg, E, 2008. Impact of Mega-Events on the Economy. Asian Business & Management, 7(2), pp. 163-179.
Andrea, C, Andrew, F, Munday, M, and Roberts, a 2007. Assessing the Environmental Consequences of Major Sporting Events: The 2003/04 FA Cup Final. Urban Studies, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 44(3), pp. 457-476.
Anonymous 2012, Apr 18. Olympics 2012: The Economic Impact Market Assessment 2012. PR Newswire.
ather than functioning solely as a sporting event, the '84 Summer Games delivered a broader scope of entertainment never before seen or attempted. The event encompassed entertainment not only in the form of sporting competition, but also in music and arts (Masterman, 2004). It is now understood that special events possess a powerful role in the society.
2012 Olympic closing ceremony will be a mega event as it will have a large effect on the entire economy of the UK. The event is going to get huge media coverage that is why it is important to adopt right marketing strategy for this event.
Issues of human resource management
Human resource management is vey important aspect of this grand event. The better evetn mangers and event management organizations understand the labor force and employs hired for the event the better resources can be allocated to effective recruitment and retaining strategies.
Hoy, W., & Miskel, C.1982. Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice. NEw York: Random House.
Masterman, G.2004. In Lashley C.(Ed), Strategic sports event management: An international approach. Great Britian: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
McDonnell, I., Allen, J., & O'Toole, W.1999. Festivals and special event management. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Australia
National Survey on Giving, Volunteering and Participating. 2004. Ottawa: Stastics Canada
history of Olympic posters. The author explores five of the previous Olympic posters and comments on the use of color and art within the era that they were developed. The author explores the history of the Olympic poster, focusing on the artistic element with respect to the economic and social conditions that prevailed at that time. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Regardless of what is going on in the world, the Olympic games bring nations together for a time of fellowship, competition and peace. Nations can be fighting each other at the United Nations, in the fields of war, or with regards to NATO but the Olympic games is a neutral zone for all involved. Each year Olympic posters grace the world as the games draw near and each poster reflects the social and economic era of that time. The Olympic posters, throughout their history, present…
By the time the 1990's rolled around the hippie generation had grown up and the world had returned to a more exact place. The poster for the Olympics in 1992 was all about strong and clear lines, which were indicative of the yuppie generation that had been riding the economical success train for a few years. The poster produced clear and colorful Olympic rings and it place them above what looks like a successful and industrialized city. All of the elements of the poster are clearly set up to portray success and strength including the color swatches that are in an abstract type design. The colors used against the stark white backdrop also strengthened the feeling of success and sureness that the world was feeling for the most part.
The Olympics and the posters advertising the Olympics were largely influenced by America. This was more evident as years went forward. The various posters were heavily influenced not only by American value systems of their era but also of the culture and tradition of the host nations along the way. Whether it was 1932 or 1992 the posters depict the general mood of civilized society while also adding touches from the current era. The use of artistic style and color for Olympic poster not only provides history regarding the Olympics but provides history for future reference regarding the world at large.
In a democratic system, whose underlying foundation is a philosophy of independence and equal representation, giving somebody the power to buy political power or interest is unethical. For this reason, must governing boards have codes of ethics that specifically prohibit bribery.
The mayor's proposed plan to lure tourism to igtown is akin to the illegal bribery committed by the SLOC. In other words, what the mayor proposes is to give convention planners government contracts for coming to igtown, which is essentially giving the planners political power not available to the city's citizens. According to the governing rules, this form of political bribery is illegal. If the mayor does go through with this plan, he could be punished with such actions as fines or an impeachment from his position.
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt…
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt Lake City as Olympic Scandal Details Grow." New York Times.
Business Source Premier (Nielson Library) deals marketing issues. The article current ( month). efer text chapter titles heading topic suggestions. Make include article attachment include UL I refer article.
Business Article Analysis
The article that is reviewed in this paper is titled "Off and unning: Professors Comment on Olympics" and presents certain important opinions on the Olympic games. The article presents the comments and opinions of important specialists that focus on marketing and business administration, like Stephen Greyser, John Macomber, and John Gourville. These are some of the most important professors at the Harvard Business School. The most important points of this article refer to the explanations these experts try to provide on the marketing success of the Olympics in comparison with other sports competitions. In addition to this, they try to identify some of the factors that determine the success of the organizers (Greyser et al., 2012). The pricing…
1. Greyser, S. et al. (2012). Off and Running: Professors Comment on Olympics. Harvard Business School. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/7072.html .
2. Blanding, M. (2012). Why Good Deeds Invite Bad Publicity. Harvard Business School. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/7001.html .
The final decision will be made at the IOC general assembly in eptember in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Politics may also have played a part in pushing out the sport. Modern pentathlon, for instance is even less popular than wrestling, but it remains largely due to the fact that its sport was invented by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Games and that it is supported by Juan Antonio amaranch Jr., son of a former I.O.C. president and a member of its executive board.
The IOC is correct: Olympic style wrestling does not have the same luster as the other events possess. It lacks the celebrities and, in the U..A., is suppressed by the staged allure of professional wrestling. Other more contemporary sports such as rock climbing, rollerblading and wakeboarding have also climbed in to demote it.
On the other hand, wrestling also has its advocates. And many…
Longman, J (February 12, 2013) Olympic Fixture Since 708 B.C. Will Be Dropped. The New York Times
(Feb 26, 2013)
Wrestlers not happy to see Olympic sport eliminated http://www.lancastereaglegazette.com/article/20130225/HSSPORTS/302250035/Wrestlers-not-happy-see-Olympic-sport-eliminated
Vienna and Paris
in the Decade 1900-1910
Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910
Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the orld. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the orld's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also…
Bloy, M. (2011, January 5). The third republic: 1870-1914. Retrieved from Historyhome.co.uk Web site: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/europe/3rd-rep.htm#dreyfus
Bonyhady, T. (2011). Good living street: portrait of a patron family, Vienna 1900 . New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Brandstatter, C. (2006). Vienna 1900: art, life & culture. New York, NY: Vendome Press.
George, H.S. (2008). Paris 1900. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City Museum of Art.
Ambush Marketing: Should Tough ules be introduced to Protect Sports Sponsors?
This is a paper that describes the concept of ambush marketing and outlines how it can be detrimental for the official sports sponsors of events such as the World Cup, Tournaments etc. It argues whether there should be laws for curbing this marketing tactic. It has sources.
Lack of business ethics is a problem that is of growing concern in the field of business today. Many individuals and organizations either easily forget or ignore ethical codes when they see business opportunities. This is an issue of immense concern because of the fact that millions of dollars can be jeopardized easily on the part of rightful contractors. Speaking more specifically, this refers to the manner in which sports sponsors at major events are denied their total rights over an event due to interfering investors. These rights are denied as the…
Aaker, David. A. Building Strong Brands, New York, NY: The Free Press, 1996.
Donaldson, Michael. Crik: Ambush marketers face jail in South Africa. AAP Sports News (Australia). 2002.
Greising, David. "Run, Jump and Sell: Commercial Exploitation of Sports Explodes." Business Week, July 29, 1996.
Gwinner, Kevin. "A Model of Image Creation and Image Transfer in Event Sponsorship." International Marketing Review 14, 3: 145-58. 1997.
In a reversal, which is worth two points, the prone person comes from underneath and gains control. A near fall is worth 2-3 points and is a 'near pin.' The points awarded for a 'near fall' are based upon how long the 'near pin' lasts. Points are also awarded based upon the opponent's infractions. These may include illegal holds, technical violations (like leaving the mat), grabbing clothing, the mat, or the opponent's headgear, locking or overlapping hands, improper or illegal equipment, "stalling," "unnecessary roughness" and "unsportsmanlike conduct" ("Overview of wrestling rules," est Virginia resting, 2010). Scholastic wrestling is scored as a team sport as well as individually.
The issue of women in wrestling has proved to be a controversial issue. On the Olympic level, women competed in wrestling for the first time in 2004. "omen from 21 nations competed in four freestyle weight classes. Medals were awarded to wrestlers from…
Dicker, Ron. "Olympic wrestling." Lifewire. [28 Feb 2012]
"Cutting weight." Independent Lens, 2000. [28 Feb 2012
His coaching resume includes serving as head coach of the orld Team in 1977, 1978, 1979, 1983, 1994, and 1999, according to www.cstv.com. It also includes the fact that he was the head coach of the Goodwill Games' wrestling team in 1981; his team won the Bronze medal. He retired from coaching in 1997, ESPN writes, because after a dozen knee and back surgeries, he was no longer physically able to get down on the mat in order to "…demonstrate holds and escapes" (ESPN).
In Gable's book, Coaching restling Successfully, he covers many issues that of course revolve around wrestling, but he also delves into subjects that coaches may need to know no matter what sport they are coaching. For example, the skill of communicating is important for a coach, so he recommends starting "in small groups" that a person feels comfortable with. Once a coach's confidence is built up,…
CBS College Sports. "Dan Gable." Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.cstv.com .
Gable, Dan. Coaching Wrestling Successfully. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1999.
Iowa Wrestling Hall of Fame. "Dan Gable, 1977 Iowa Wrestling Hall of Fame Inductee."
Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.iowawrestlinghalloffame.com/inductees/dan-gable.html .
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
Production of Caps and Shirts
A part written report assignment-based forthcomming olympics produce a company I production shirts caps named company GLOBAL SUCCESS PLC.
Global Success PLC is a company that deals with event planning marketing and organization. In the forth coming Olympics, the company wishes to venture in the production of Shirts and caps for corporations. The forthcoming Olympic Games present an opportunity for firms to gain recognition on an international scale. Global success intends to take this opportunity to provide services to willing corporations to capitalize on the event and build their company and product reputation.
Global success tag line in the campaign for production of the shirts and caps is "create a long lasting impression on potential consumers"
According to Brynard P.A. & Hanekom S.X., 2006()
branding is a measure targeting to make known a product, service or company to a market or potential…
Brynard P.A., & Hanekom S.X. (2006). Introduction To Research In Management-Related Fields. 2nd Edition. Pretoria: Van Schiak.
Cravens D., Merrilees B., & Walker R. (2000). Strategic Marketing Management For The Pacific Region. Sydney: Mcgraw-Hill.
Graham S., Nerotti L.D., & Goldblatt J.J. (2001). The Ultimate Guide To Sport Event Management And Marketing. 2nd Edition. United States Of America: Mcgraw-Hill.
Gratton, C., Shibli, S., & Coleman, R. (2005). Sport and economic regeneration in cities. Urban Studies 42(6), 985-999.
Global Sporting Events Market
There is little doubt that international sporting events are the acme of sports. Although it is possible that sports in the United States -- such as basketball, baseball, and football -- might draw in more overall revenue, this fact is attributed to the reality that not only do these sporting events take place year after year, but they also are able to gain media exposure and advertising money over the course of an entire season. Truly international sporting events, such as the Olympics, the orld Cup, and to a lesser extent, the European Cup, are able to generate comparable hype and money in a shorter period of time. The Olympics lasts less than a month and the orld Cup lasts approximately a month. hen attempting to calculate approximately how much bigger such international sporting events might grow in the years to come, there are several considerations…
Baker, Peter, Cooper, Helene, Mazzetti, Mark. Bin Ladin is Dead, Obama Says. The New York Times. 2011. Web. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/02/world/asia/osama-bin-laden-is-killed.html?hp&_r=0
Perrucci, Robert and Wysong, Earl. The New Class Society: Goodbye American Dream? New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2008. Print.
The culture associated with the religion has become very popular all over the world, and has spread to many regions of the globe.
Religion has also influenced several artistic manifestations in Jamaica. Music is undoubtedly the most prominent example. Reggae is the most well-known style of music coming from Jamaica, but there are many other styles which were generated by Jamaican folk music which in turn, was a result of African influence which has always been present on the island. Dancehall is another popular style. Dance is also a very important local cultural product; celebrations and are oftentimes accompanied by dance and costumes.
However, one cannot talk about Jamaica without referring to sports. There are several popular sports on the island such as football, cricket and basketball, to name just a few. Nonetheless, Jamaicans excel at track and field; Jamaica's success started in 1948 when Jamaica's first track Gold Medalist,…
Without a shadow of a doubt, one of the most intriguing and interesting aspects of Jamaica is its spirituality. Jamaicans have adopted several forms of spirituality embodied in an impressive number of denominations, and all of them are reflected in the country's diverse and unique culture. However, apart from Christian religions, Rastafari is the "local" religion of the island. Rastafarians believe in the cultivation of the inner spirit, and the detachment from exterior appearance, or material goods. The Rastafari religion was born as an alternative to Christian and non-Christian white-oriented religions which were dominant on the island at the beginning of the twentieth century. It promotes the existence of the inner self, as well as meditation. The culture associated with the religion has become very popular all over the world, and has spread to many regions of the globe.
Religion has also influenced several artistic manifestations in Jamaica. Music is undoubtedly the most prominent example. Reggae is the most well-known style of music coming from Jamaica, but there are many other styles which were generated by Jamaican folk music which in turn, was a result of African influence which has always been present on the island. Dancehall is another popular style. Dance is also a very important local cultural product; celebrations and are oftentimes accompanied by dance and costumes.
However, one cannot talk about Jamaica without referring to sports. There are several popular sports on the island such as football, cricket and basketball, to name just a few. Nonetheless, Jamaicans excel at track and field; Jamaica's success started in 1948 when Jamaica's first track Gold Medalist, Dr. Authur Wint won the 400m in the Olympics, and has continued through to this day.
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…
Anders, Chris. "Senators Demand the Military Lock Up of American Citizens." ACLU.
23 Nov 2011. Web. 13 Feb 2012.
Buchanan, Patrick. "Why Are We Baiting the Bear?" 23 Aug 2011.
Corbett, James. "9/11: A Conspiracy Theory." Corbett Report. 11 Sep 2011. Web. 13
Currently, I am working as a surgical technologist in two hospitals in Arkansas - Arkansas Children Hospital and the VA Hospital. I do surgical scrub on various cases of all surgical services, general, orthopedics, vascular, ENT, neurology, urology, and burns. To update and enhance my skills, I attended different medical training courses.
Since my youth, I had been in the scene of medicine. At the age of seventeen I was diagnosed with diabetes. Hence, in y sophomore years in college, I did a presentation on diabetes where I provided information on the symptoms, complications, and how to cope with diabetes. During my Junior year, I had family members that were diagnosed with breast cancer, glaucoma, heart attacks and thyroid problems.
Such experiences are my motivations in becoming a Physician Assistant. The feeling that I get from providing medical services is unfathomable and cannot be measured by anything.
Bob Hayes -- Sports Hero
One of my all-time inspirational heroes is Bob Hayes, known as the only athlete to win a gold medal in the Olympics and also a Super Bowl ring. Hayes as a young man with a great deal of athletic talent grew up in a segregated community in Jacksonville, Florida, but he went on to dazzle the world with his accomplishments. This paper details that rise to fame.
Bob Hayes struggled from childhood on to become what he knew he could become, and his career should serve as a positive role model for any young man caught in a socioeconomically underserved neighborhood with odds against him because of the color of his skin and because of racial stereotyping.
Bob Hayes' Life and Times
Hayes was born to Mary (Green) Hayes and George Sanders on the 20th day of December, 1942 in a ghetto on the east…
Gale Biography in Context. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context,
Web. (2013): pp. 1-2.
Pro-Football Hall of Fame. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from http://www.profootballhof.com
Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context (2013): pp. 1-3.
The effectiveness of promotional strategies is highly dependent on their ability to resonate and be relevant to the target audiences over time (Reference). This is the basis of the research being undertaken; to determine which promotional tools and strategies are the most effective in attracting, training and retaining the most talented and motivated volunteers for the London 2012 Olympic Games.
The following are the aims and objectives of this analysis. The primary objective of this study is to determine which promotional tools are the most effective in recruiting and retaining volunteers. In support of this objective, the following goals are defined:
a. To understand and segment the volunteer population in westernized nations including the UK, and determine the characteristics of these markets as they relate to volunteering for events.
b. To determine the psychographic attributes of each group as they relate to propensity to participate, contribute and assist in keeping…
Bibliography / references
Gary Adamson, Joe Pine, Tom Van Steenhoven, and Jodi Kroupa. 2006. How storytelling can drive strategic change. Strategy & Leadership 34, no. 1, (January 1): 36-41.
Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P., 2005. Marketing: An Introduction (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bardhi, F., Rohm, A., & Sultan, F.. (2010). Tuning in and tuning out: media multitasking among young consumers. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 9(4), 316.
Belch, G.A., & Belch, M.A.., 2004. Advertising and Promotion; An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective (6th ed.). New York: McGraw- Hill/Irwin.
Ethnicity and Tourism
Ethnicity affects many aspects of tourism but is an aspect that is still poorly understood. Ethnicity is a concept that is quite problematic due to its variability and complexity in relation to social structure. Tourism has contributed to the process of the formation of identity in new nations and at the same time may encourage the majority population to reevaluate the perceptions they have on minorities.
Sporting activities have given rise to a new form of tourism. This is what is now known as sports tourism. If we talk of sport as a way of tourism we must first give a definition of sport tourism. Therefore sport tourism includes travelling away from an area where one resides to either take part in a sport for recreation, for competing, traveling to observe sports at grassroots or elite level or travelling to visit a sport attraction like sport hall…
Ottevanger, H.(2007). Sports Tourism: Factors of influence on sport event visit motivation. Retrieved October 1, 2013 from http://www.du.se/PageFiles/5054/Ottevanger.pdf
Luna, E.(2010). How the 1992 Summer Olympics Benefitted Tourism in Barcelona. Retrieved October 1, 2013 from http://www.articlesbase.com/vacation-rentals-articles/how-the-1992-summer-olympics-benefitted-tourism-in-barcelona-2889994.html
Areas for Additional Research:
The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
August 8-24 2008
From Scholastic [http://teacher.scholastic.com/researchtools/researchstarters/olympics/]
The history of the ancient Greek Olympic Games, including the nature of the competition and the reasons behind the cessation of the games.
The statistics and demographics of the Olympics.
Evidence and impact of nationalism on the Olympic Games.
More Olympic links: •
The Olympic rowing venue must adhere to standards including the incorporation of 20 network points for 20 employees, including cable along with 802.11 Wireless Access within the media centre; availability of internet laptop access and WiFi for visiting media to be able to allowed email, SSH, and internet availability; extended seating with Olympic Games wireless coverage for registered media personnel; coverage network requirements in accord with the installation of…
At the moment, the situation in this region is rather dim and the actions undertaken by the Russian Federation will clearly impact the employment rates.
Another element related to the economic aspect is the current embargo imposed by the Russian Federation. Indeed, it is the sovereign right of every state to take any peaceful measures it considers fit in order to restore a status ante. However, the action undertaken at this level must be proportional to the threat incurred or the damage caused. This case being, it is rather difficult to ascertain the implication of either Chechen terrorists or Georgian intelligence officers. Therefore, for the upcoming summit it is important that this point-of-view is made because the embargo set in place by the Russian Federation has massive repercussions on the well being of both nations. This aspect must clearly be pointed out as the measures undertaken affect innocent people throughout…
management, in particular the management of mega events. It also delves deeply into the positives and negatives of the London Olympic Games and the 2006 orld Cup events in Germany. Those who manage mega events have an enormous task and an almost impossible responsibility to the public, to those participating in the events, and to the countries where mega events take place. Those issues and more are covered in this paper.
Theoretically review the key aspects of event management
Form and Function
Theoretically an event is a kind of convergence, according to Professor Donald Getz (School of Tourism, The University of Queensland); it is a blending of forms and functions, and those in turn converge into a worthwhile experience for the tourist / participant. Getz uses two huge events to illustrate how form and function come together to produce a grand experience for the attendee. He points to the 2012…
Baumard, P. (1999). Tacit Knowledge in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
BBC News. (2005). Four suicide bombers struck in central London on Thursday, July 7,
killing 52 people and injuring more than 770. Retrieved September 30, 2013, from http://news.bbc.co.uk .
BBC News (2012). London 2012: How the world saw the Olympic Games. Retrieved September
In very day life, it is a common occurrence to attend various special meetings to celebrate a given occasion. These meetings can also be for education purposes, promotions or commemorations. The occurrence of such special meetings constitutes an event. Therefore, to make this event happen, a long process of planning and preparing for the event takes place. Thus, this process of applying the skills and structures of project management to create and develop a festival, celebration, conference or social gathering is what makes event management (eid & Bojanic, 2010). Event management is significantly involving for the people who are organizing the event as they have several factors to ensure are in place for the event. Currently, there are several events; world events all over the world such as the Olympics and the world-cup games, which involve not only a portion of the bodies involved, but also the whole country…
Allen, J. (2009). Event planning: The ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fund-raising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events.
Ont: J. Wiley & Sons Canada.
Anholt, S. (2009). Places: Identity, image and reputation. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave
Porter, P. & Fletcher, D. (2008). The economic impact of the Olympic Games: Ex-Ante predictions and ex-poste reality Journal of Sport Management, 22, 470-486.
A CPR analysis (context, purpose, research design) of Porter and Fletcher's article on "The economic impact of the Olympic Games" would note that the authors were conducting analyses of two past Olympics that took place in 1996 and 2000 to analyze the overall economic impact of the Olympic Games on two host American cities. The purpose of the research was to examine the common claim that hosting the Olympics is an economic boon to the host nation. Alleged economic benefits are often used to justify the considerable expenses required to construct the necessary facilities and fund the needed city improvements to host the Games. However, the authors found that no such economic benefit was accrued by the host cities of the Olympics of the years they…
Role of Conferences in the trategic Development of the Hotel Industry
Case tudy of Five tar Hotels in Jordan
Jordan has a rich cultural and archaeological patrimony. Many natural wonders and a particularly welcoming people make tourism a natural resource and vehicle for Jordan's economy.
Conversely, the Jordan tourism industry has demonstrated poor performance in past few years relative to the volatile political situation in the region.
Analyzing both the natural potential for success and the historical evidence for failure within Jordan's tourism industry through scientific research methodology may well provide viable alternatives to current widely held practices and beliefs.
This study will delve into the specific revenue producing areas of developing conferences in Jordan, how to conduct them, facility use and maximization, and the issues that surround successful delivery of this medium. This thesis will also provide data on the means of offering the world a safe, beautiful, and…
Swan TW, 'Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation', Economic Record, 32, 1956.
Tourism Forecasting Council, Forecast, Commonwealth Department of Tourism, August 1994.
Wilcox DA, 'Lessons for Tourism Industries from the 1984 Olympics at Los Angeles' A Report by Economics Research Associates to THC'94, 1994
Sustainable Tourism Development
The aim of the essay is to gain an understanding of the rational and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.
The aim is to increase awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism destinations within an international, national, regional, and local framework. Investigate current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are discussed and apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.
Understand the differing approaches to tourism planning and development and understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry (1000+ words)
Using the EBSCO article: The effectiveness of public policies and structural funds in enhancing tourism development.The case of Romania.
a) Discuss, using appropriate references, why a long-term approach is beneficial to destinations like Romania, and state the advantages to stakeholders…
Hence, the conflict for the London Olympics 2012 surface when the choice between the two developments had to be made. There was no denying that the city needed development but the choice was made to prepare and finish the Canary Wharf development first so as to have a good, sustainable and efficient mode of transportation that would lead the Olympic grounds to the main city. Once, the Canary Wharf was completed, the focus then turned towards the docklands. It was far more important to have the Canary Wharf structure up and ready for clear and trouble-free transportation structure during the London Olympics 2012.
Task 3B - Explain the implications of balancing supply and demand which will need to be considered in the Olympics development. You need to state why there is a need to balance the supply and suggest possible consequences if this is not considered by the planners:
Evaluation of the Canary Wharf advancement has actually been extremely polarized. A brand-new monetary center has actually been built and analyses recommend that 'every a-g 1 million of public sector expense produced net extra advantages in the Urban Advancement Location of 23 tasks, 8300 sq m of workplace flooring area, 7.8 real estate devices plus numerous various other varied perks' (Rhodes and Tyler, 1998:32 estimated in Hamnett 2003:242). However, criticism has actually concentrated upon the elimination of neighborhood democratic controls and the replacement of the existing populace by a brand-new, more thriving team of young experts. In between 1981 and 1991 Tower
On the other hand, we might be able to "incubate" a cable network by playing a Thursday night series of cable games, and such a network could be a long-run success that would strengthen our product as well." (Tagliabue, 2004)
Tagliabue states that prior to proceeding with a new package it is necessary to ensure that this new package is based on "sound television premises and that it is structured to complement our other television packages rather than to cannibalize our Sunday and Monday night audiences and move us down the road to commoditization. As previously mentioned, commoditization is ultimately very negative in a 400-channel universe, and the challenge we face is how to balance the need for revenue and viewers to ensure the long-run success of our sport. In theory, greater revenues are available from cable television, which is both advertiser and subscriber supported, than from broadcast television, which…
Badenhausen, Kurt, Ozanian, Michael K. And Rondey, Maya (2006) The Business of Football. Forbes. 31 Aug 2006. Online available at: http://www.forbes.com/lists/2006/30/06nfl_NFL-Team-Valuations_land.html
Barros, Carlos Pestana and Barrio, Pedro Garcia-del (nd) Efficiency Measurement of the English Football Premier League with a Random Frontier Model. Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia.
Brenner, Adam (2004) Welcome to the Club. The Business of Football. Forbes 2 Sept 2004. Online available at: http://www.forbes.com/2004/09/02/cz_ab_0902nflclubseats.html
English Football and its Governance (2009) All Party Parliamentary Football Group. April 2009. Online available at: http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/federation/01/05/04/18/apfgreportonenglishfootballanditsgovernanceapril2009.pdf
1980 was, like so many years after and before it, a year full of great and small tragedies, of hope deflated and grief overwhelming. Two weeks before the year started, Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall" topped the charts, and stayed there well into the new year. The Wall would become a sort of sign for the times, and for the almost surreal year that would follow. This would be the year that the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and after learning that the U.S. Boxing team had been killed in a plane crash, the American President responded by forbidding all American athletes to compete in the summer Olympics. 1980 would be the year that America sent in troops to save our hostages in Teheran -- only to accidentally kill so many of our own soldiers, through sheer ineptitude and poor planning, that we had to retreat without being fired…
James "Jesse" Cleveland Owens, who lived from 1913 to 1980, and Frederick Carl Lewis, born in 1961, have been two of the United State's greatest track stars. Their lives have some similarities and differences.
Jesse Owens was born in Alabama. His parents were sharecroppers, which means they farmed land owned by someone else. His grandparents had been slaves. Jesse Owens had six older brothers and sisters, and his family lived in poverty in his childhood. His family moved to Cleveland when he was young.
He started setting local track records when he was in junior high, and in high school he won state championships three years in a row and set high school national records.
Jesse chose to go to Ohio State University. This school had no track scholarships at the time, and Jesse worked to support himself and his wife while he attended college. He continued to be an…
One idea could be to use the Olympic rings as cogs in a wheel of motion featuring UPS as one of the cogs.
Their approach to the Chinese public is the right approach and is done in the correct style. The ad appeals to the Chinese national pride and seeks to show that UPS understands that pride and wishes to ensure that the pride is justified. The public will likely show curiosity as to an American product such as UPS and will very likely pick up on the somewhat heavy-handed approach to patriotism used by UPS.
The advertisement also does an excellent job of touting UPS attributes and the many different services the company provides. Using phrases such as; receiving, shipping, packaging, transportation and storage informs the reader of the many services offered by UPS that many consumers may not have previously considered. UPS also does a good job in…
In both the conflicts, the strong will of the athletes help them to overcome the obstacles or conflicts that they faced.
The aesthetic appeal was the main characters Lidell played by Ian Charleson and Abrahams played by Ben Cross. Both the actors had execute their role well and make a big impact on the viewers. The screenplay is also realistic and the story line is strong and powerful. This makes it an all-time great classic for viewers.
1. In this review, the critics felt that the movie was much slower than it should have been. But, they still liked the strong concepts and its underlying themes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/chariots_of_fire/
2. The critics in this review rate it as one of the best movies that is ideal for children aged ten and up. They critic it as a good family movie that can lay the foundation for kids to understand…
Koster, Olinka. (26 October 2007). Modern Day Hero runs away with Chariots of Fire Chellnge. Daily Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-490027/Modern-day-hero-runs-away-Chariots-Fire-challenge.html
Mosher, Stephen David. (February 1982). Sport Movies Grow Up. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Pp35-36.
minimum sources... research 1920 sport write ... A thesis, attention catcher, topic sentence?
1920s sport: Swimming
The 1920s was called the 'Roaring 20s' in America. It was accompanied by expanded prosperity for many middle class Americans and the rise of the 'flapper,' the sexually liberated and independent young woman. The rise of the middle class and the larger percentage of Americans with considerable disposable income and leisure time also allowed greater participation in sports. "The 1920s has been called the Golden Age of American Sports. It also has been called the Age of the Spectator" (Summer 2004:1). Thanks to the strength of the U.S. economy, more stadiums for professional and recreational sports were constructed, and radio and newspapers enabled fans to keep abreast of the latest developments of professional teams. "Improvements in roads made it possible for fans to travel to athletic events in distant cities. For the first time,…
Carter, D. Robert. 1920s swimming craze captures Provo's heart. Daily Herald. 16 Jun 2007.
[5 February 2013].
Drowne, Kathleen & Patrick Luber. The 1920s: American popular culture through history.
a) What type of cultural communication examples AND cultural miscues were made during the visits
Mitt omney seriously offended his hosts in London by making criticism of their preparations for the games, instead of staying positive: According to reporters, he "offended his British hosts by questioning London's preparation for the Olympics." (cited in "Mitt omney's London Olympics Gaffe Sparks Outpouring Of eaction")
omney's attempt humor was immature, misguided, and not even funny. " He raised some eyebrows when his comments that he had enjoyed looking 'out the backside of Downing Street' were lost in translation," (cited in "Mitt omney's London Olympics Gaffe Sparks Outpouring Of eaction").
omney attributed income disparity in Israel to "cultural differences" between Israelis and Palestinians (Hunt & Laub, 2012)
omney called Jerusalem the capital even though USA maintains embassy in Tel Aviv.
omney made analogy between USA and Mexico as well as other neighboring countries…
Hunt, K. & Laub, K. (2012). "Mitt Romney Comments At Fundraiser Outrage Palestinians."
"Mitt Romney's London Olympics Gaffe Sparks Outpouring Of Reaction."
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…
1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
Black Power Salute (Dominis, 1968)
Photograph Description and Context
The picture is a black and white photo that was taken at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. Two Olympics sprinters stood atop the podium wearing the gold and bronze medals. Their names are Tommie Smith and John Carlos. They are shown holding their first in the air as an expression of solidarity with the Black Power movement. It is argued that they are expressing their disillusionment with a nation that so often fell behind, and still does, relative to racial equality (Dominis, 1968).
The two individuals received significant negative reaction to their expression. For example, they were suspended from the U.S. Track team. They were vilified at home and they even later received death threats for their public display. Yet, the picture has become one of the iconic photographs from this period that deals with…
Dominis, J. (1968). John Dominis Collection. Retrieved from Photographers Gallery: http://www.photographersgallery.com/photo.asp?id=4037
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
Licenses and Requirements
CSR and Sustainability
ABC London Events Co. will have many considerations to make before deciding on whether to host an event. One of the initial decisions will undoubtedly be financial as for-profit event management companies must return an adequate return to their investors. However, once the business case for the event is made, this is only the beginning and there are many subsequent decisions to be made. The planning phase of any event is arguably the most important aspect of hosting an effective event. There are many different objectives that events can address and planning for different types of events can take different approaches. This analysis will focus on cultural and sporting events and discuss various considerations that an event manager will have to make in order for the event to be a success. The research found that planning and risk…
Benta, D., 2011. On Best Practices for Risk Management in Complex Projects.. Informatica Economica, pp. 142-152.
COSO, 2004. Enterprise Risk Management. Treadway Commission, pp. 1-7.
Eventum, 2015. Events Management Resources Handbook. Events Management Program Team, Volume 1, pp. 1-45.
Gibson, O. & Watts, J., 2013. World Cup: Rio favelas being 'socially cleansed' in runup to sporting events. [Online]
However, when it comes to the long-term effects, the policies are exacerbating social problems, by forcing the poor and middle class from their homes. This is because many of these communities are targeted by wealthy developers. Over the course of time, this causes large projects to be constructed that are not economically viable. At which point, many governments are facing the twin forces of having to maintain such facilities, while seeing an increase in social assistance from those who lost their homes. In order to prevent this situation from becoming worse, alternative policies need to be coordinated with members of the community. There also needs to be a long-term economic viability studies conducted in the initial stages of planning, where various members of the community and businesses should play a major role. This will help to determine if such projects are sustainable in the community. If these two elements can…
This has led to reconciliation among the divided states. It is this unifying theme that is also expressed in both the book, Friday Night Lights, as well as the movie, Miracle.
The Unifying Effects of Representative Sports as Demonstrated in Friday Night Lights and Miracle:
In Bissinger's Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team, and a Dream, the author explores the societal webwork that is Odessa, Texas. An oil town that soars and plummets as oil comes and goes, is held together by the local high school football team -- the Permian Panthers. In the book, Odessa is a town that is both metaphorically and literally divided. There is the racial division of hites vs. Blacks and Hispanics. Reminiscent of a far earlier time in America, hites in Odessa in the late 1980s, on the whole are bigots, who feel Blacks are inferior.
There is only thing Blacks are valued…
Bissinger, H.G. Friday Night Lights. New York and Washington D.C.: Da Capo Press, 2000. Print.
Coakley, Jay. Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.
Eitzen, D. Stanley. Fair and Foul: Beyond the Myths and Paradoxes of Sport. Lantham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003. Print.
Hoglund, Kristine & Sundberg, Ralph. "Reconciliation Through Sports? The Case of South Africa." Third World Quarterly Jun 2008: 805-818. Print.
In approaching sports marketing, many advocate what is called the 'JOBS' approach: hat 'job' is the product doing -- what fundamental problem is your customer trying to solve? hat objectives do your customers use to evaluate solutions? hat barriers limit your customers' ability to use your solution? hat solutions do your customers consider? The problem might be a perceived lack of purpose in life or 'respect' -- which may cause many fans to identify heavily with local sports teams, for example. Objectives might be entertainment, a feeling of fan identification with a player or a team, or enjoying a rivalry between two teams. Barriers might be cost, a feeling that the players are overly market-driven and don't care about the fans, and solutions might include increased interactivity between fans and players, ideally through an online format (Poe 2009).
Online interaction and connectivity will be vital to sports marketing of the…
"ABA" Hoopedia: NBA. May 22, 2009.
Abrams, Jonathan. Talk to the Newsroom: N.B.A. Reporter. The New York Times.
May 11, 2009. May 22, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/11/business/media/11askthetimes.html?pagewanted=all
Brand Reinvention: The New, Old McDonald's
The name McDonald's is virtually synonymous with the idea of 'branding.' The idea of McDonaldization seems to imply the standardization and Americanization of both culture and food. However, the brand image of McDonald's has in fact gone through a number of reincarnations, over the company's long history. One of the most notable shifts occurred when the company shifted from its slogan of "You deserve a break today," or "It's a good time for the great taste," to "Mmm...I'm lovin' it."
During the 1970s, when more and more women were becoming 'liberated' from the stove, and going to work in record numbers, the idea of being not having to slave over a hot stove was seen as a positive benefit of eating McDonald's hamburgers. The idea that it's always a good time to eat burgers and fries similarly stressed the ease and convenience of fast…
Dreams." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5184llMCDwA
School is Hard." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rtdrjt_1zUU
McDonald's Recital Commercial." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2yklZeEbFE&feature=related
McDonald's 1996 Winter Olympics Commercial." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHiVhCqqvUw
How the airport management activities will have to adapt to the low cost airline community (e.g. charges structure)?
The management of London Southend will have to be more accommodating to LCCs. This is because; these carriers have a choice of airports that they can fly into. To adapt to these new realities, executives will have to offer a superior product with lower costs. The way that this can be achieved is to have lower fees in comparison with other facilities. Then, implement a program of continually updating and improving upon the physical plant. Once this occurs, is when the airlines will see the economic benefits of using London Southend vs. others.
At the same time, the management structure will have to become more responsive. This means that there must be a clear channel of communication between: Stobart Air and Stobart. The way that this can be achieved is to offer…
"Air Operations." Stobart, 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011
"All New London South End." Stobart Group, 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011.
"Easy Jet to Fly from London South End Airport." BBC, 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011.
"London South End Airport." South End, 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011
Public relation is one marketing strategy that helps in the growth of product branding. An effective public relation activity can increase the popularity of one brand if done in a method that would provide benefits to the public. Among the many companies that race to being number one in the eyes of the public and within the industry where they belong is McDonald's. Since the company's birth decades ago, there have been a large number of public relation activities that they have pursued to gain the trust of the public in the fast food industry. Today, the company is among the famous fast food chains that are strategically located in many towns and cities, and most especially around the world.
In this paper, we will try to evaluate how public relation contributes to the brand of McDonald's. McDonald's is a well-known global fast food chain company and it is apparent,…
PRBLOG 2004, Strategic Public Relations, Available at:
BBC NEWS 2004, Burger Giant Plans Clothing Range, Available at: