143+ documents containing “organ transplant”.
In theory, such evaluations could be useful, but as is, they are fairly useless. Plus, the validity and necessity of evaluations are up for debate themselves, besides the actual results from the evaluations being up for debate. Thus, the bioethical dilemma in those who abuse their bodies before and after receiving organ transplants lies not necessarily just with the recipients, but also with society, and with the medical field with respect to the issue as well.
Taking an Ethical Stand:
This is not a simple issue and ethics are very much a part of the stance on takes in this matter. It is, to a degree, unfair for people who abuse their bodies to receive organ transplants. As aforementioned, there are a number of instances that lead to the necessity of an organ transplant in the first place -- some of which are entirely avoidable and under an individual's control, if they….
Allmon, Allison, Shaw, Kari, Martens, Jessica, Yamada, Torricia, Lohnberg, Jessica, Schultz, Jessica, Tallman, Benjamin & Altmaier, PhD, Elizabeth. "Organ Transplantation: Issues in Assessment and Treatment." National Register of Health Service Psychologists, Web, Available from: http://www.e-psychologist.org/index.iml?mdl=exam/show_article.mdl&Material_ID=103, 2013.
Anderson, PhD, Rebecca Cogwell. "Measuring both sides of the transplant equation: Psychological tests help evaluate organ recipients and donors." Bridging the Gap, Web, Available from: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/NR/rdonlyres/69DCA659-1B93-432F-B2FD-7154EEDA5E42/4755/_BTG_March08p2.pdf , 2008.
Minelli, Erin & Liang, Bryan a. "Transplant Candidates and Substance Use: Adopting Rational Health Policy for Resource Allocation." University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, Vol. 44, No. 3, 667 -- 699.
Olbrisch, Mary Ellen, Benedict, Sharon M., Ashe, K., & Levenson, James L. "Psychological Assessment of Care of Organ Transplant Patients." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 70, No. 3, 771 -- 783.
Ethical Considerations Behind Organ Transplants
The idea of organ transplants has suffered several criticisms over the years from the civil society, to the various religious groups and even philosophers. It is challenging to have one perspective on the idea of transplants and apply it universally since not everyone will share the religious view, or the philosophical view. In the context of this memorandum, the utilitarian philosophy will be the baseline for the justification.
Inline with the utilitarian approach that Joh Mill Stuart proposes, that which is useful is that which is right. In his argument, he insists on the virtue of each individual to act in restraint and this is what is right and useful. His perspective of the utilitarian philosophy is important in allowing free will and individual decision making and self nurtured good behavior. He does not believe in people being forced to do good by the state, a stand….
In the U.S. For instance, Abuona (2003) indicated that the very first criterion is the donor's geographic location as compared to that of the recipient followed by the histocompatibility matching and blood group compatibility. The third criterion is a point system that each of the waiting-list patients accumulate in regard to the following variables; waiting time, medical urgency, as well as the age of the patient. This allocation technique is highly flawed. This is because in case of kidney as well as other organs that have to be transported to the place where the recipient is located, the long hours of transportation may cause a lot of damage to the organs as a consequence of the ischemic reperfusion injury that occurs as a result of long hours of organ transportation. At the same time, should the organ arrive to the intended destination but from a marginal donor, then it….
Abuona, GM (2003).Ethical Issues in Organ Transplantation. Med Princ Pract 2003;12:54 -- 69
Arthur L. Caplan, AL., Coelho, DH (Eds.). (1998). The Ethics of Organ Transplants: The Current Debate
Center for Bioethics (2004). Ethics of Organ Transplantation
Denying Mrs. Burgone the organ transplant could be ethically justified under certain conditions and circumstances. However, denying her organ transplantation surgery under these circumstances is not one of those instances and cannot be ethically justified. The decision is arbitrary and serves no purpose for any stakeholders in the outcome of the issue. Moreover, the ethical justification purported to be at the heart of the decision is logically flawed and ethically untenable.
Consistency with the Notion of Equal Access to Medical Care
The notion of equal access to healthcare justifies many types of decisions that may, unfortunately, lead to undesirable outcomes in individual cases (Tong, 2007). Typical examples of that notion in relation to organ transplantation cases would include decisions to conserve public financial resources by cutting off eligibility as a function of objective criteria, such as the statistical likelihood of surgical success and post-surgical survival. Likewise, it would be justified to….
Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 6th
Edition. Oxford University Press.
Helwege, A. "Preventive vs. Curative Medicine: A Policy Exercise for the Classroom." The Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 27, No. 1. (Winter, 1996):
59-71. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from:
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) contains over 128 functional genes. This is the densest part of the human genome and is responsible for most autoimmune diseases. This region also determines vaccine responsiveness, adverse drug reactions, disease progression and transplant rejection. The MHC genes are multigenic with a high degree of allelic polymorphism. There are over 7,500 different alleles and over 5,458 expressed MHC antigens currently known. (DeFranco, Locksley & obertson, 2007). Genomic evolution and HLA screening have been extremely profitable to Transplant Medicine.
A brief analysis of MHC variability reveals two classes of antigens belonging to this complex; class I (A, B, and C) and II (D, DQ, and DP). Both classes of molecules are expressed in a co-dominant fashion. These molecules are designed to recognize antigens that are foreign to the body and present them to the T cells. (Janeway, Travers & Walport, 2001)
The co-dominant mode of inheritance of….
Appel J.Z., Hartwig M.G., Cantu E., Palmer S.M., Reinsmoen N.L., Davis R.D. (2006). Role of flow cytometry to define unacceptable HLA antigens in lung transplant recipients with HLA-specific antibodies.Transplantation 81(7),1049-1057.
Badders J.L., Houp J.A., Sholander J.T., Leffell M.S., Zachary A.A. (2010). Considerations in interpreting solid phase antibody data. Hum Immunol 71(1),S18.
DeFranco, A.L., Locksley, R.M., & Robertson, M. (2007). Immunity: The immune response in infectious and inflammatory disease. (1st ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/nsp-mhcpolymorphism.pdf
Janeway, C.J., Travers, P., & Walport, M. (2001).Immunobiology: The immune system in health and disease.. (5th ed.). New York: Garland Science. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27163/
Why Organ Donating is a Social esponsibility
Life is a sentence. It begins with a capital letter, has something in between, and then a punctuation mark at the end. Organ donation allows part of our physical body to be of use to someone else for short time after we have passed. It is a beautiful gift to be able to make someone else's life a little longer. This gives them more time to love, more time to laugh, and more time to heal spiritually from the pain that this life sometimes brings. Organ donation is the last gesture of love that we can make on earth. This essay will explore the organ donation as a social and humanitarian responsibility.
Currently, there are approximately 113,984 people who will die soon if they do not receive a donor organ before their time is up if (Organdonor.gov). Every ten minutes a new person is….
Directgov.UK. Organ and body donation. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Governmentcitizensandrights/Death/WhatToDoAfterADeath/DG_066800 Accessed April 19, 2012.
Donatelifeny.org. Organs and Tissues. 2010. http://www.donatelifeny.org/about-donation/what-can-be-donated / Accessed April 19, 2012.
Organdonor.gov. "The Need is Real." http://www.organdonor.gov/about/data.html Accessed April 19, 2012.
Organtransplants.org. Religion and Organ and Tissue Donation. The Gift of a Lifetime. Reprinted from SEOPF/UNOS, Organ and Tissue Donation: A Reference Guide for Clergy, 4th ed., 2000. Cooper ML, Taylor GJ, eds. Richmond, VA. http://www.organtransplants.org/understanding/religion / Accessed April 19, 2012. Five
A new State of Wisconsin Senate bill asks voters to decide upon a program to compensate living organ donors who choose to donate one or more of their organs. The bill which would provide a fully refundable tax credit of $20,000 for donations is an add-on to the existing legislation passed in 2004 "which allows living donors in Wisconsin to receive an income tax deduction to recoup donation expenses like travel costs and lost wages" (University of Minnesots.edu. February 2004). The bill is not a unique one as other states have introduced legislation to provide some measure of financial support to living organ donors. An example is the recent "Pennsylvania gift giving program, awarding money to a living donor or to the family of a deceased donor that can be used for reimbursement of food and lodging expenses incurred during the donation process" (ABC News.go.com. June 16, 2002).
Interestingly, this position is also aligned with the financial realities of health care financing, as the "cost of keeping a patient on kidney dialysis is so expensive-around $65,000- $70,000 a year- that it would be in the government interest to pay for a transplant as well as an incentive; the transplant pays for itself vs. dialysis after 18 months" (Rettner, R. August 10, 2009).
For many however, the mere thought of financial compensation for living organ
Argumentative essay for organ transplantation Organ transplantation is the donating of one’s organ to another human being for replacing his or her damaged organ (County 2). This procedure has been proven to be successful in children and young adults and the elderly with comorbidities (Grinyó 1). This can prove to be life-saving for patients with terminal organ failures and painful therapies for survival (Grinyó 1). Over the last 60 years, the organ transplantation process has been growing with numerous cases, while the introduction of cyclosporine, thirty years before, improved the transplantation procedure (Grinyó 2). It was identified that the heart, kidneys, lungs, uterus, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus, can be transplanted successfully (Grinyó 2). The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) established by the US congress in 1984 focuses on the policies and legal frameworks of organ transplantation. At the same time, the Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) are the non-profit organizations….
Many of the arguments advanced by those in support of organ sales are actually valid: the choice is substantially indistinguishable from other choices permitted for different reasons; and any addition on donor organs to the very tight "market" of available donor organs would likely mean that one additional organ would become available to other potential recipients. However, the principal argument against the permissibility of selling donor organs is not the denial of those admitted benefits. ather, it is a function of the inevitable consequences of wealth disparity and the traditional economic principles of supply and demand. Moreover, the fact that organ sales are permissible in other countries provides an opportunity to observe the actual consequences of that permissibility.
Precisely because donor organs for transplant are in such critically short supply, they would command a high price that only the wealthy could afford to pay. Since selling an organ is a considerably….
Who owns donated organs according to the author? Why is it important to clarify ownership of donated organs?
With reference to the American context, cadaveric organs are not actually owned by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). UNOS is granted custody as well as control of organs, depending on the conditions placed on the organs by their donors. He obtains an analogy with charity trustees and claims that they are required to address and deal with the trust resources according to the terms of the trust as drafted by the settler. They are naturally a conditional gift for which the transplanters are legally considered as 'trustees' or 'custodians' (Cronin & Price, 2008). Even though this matches well with the concept of a 'gift of an organ' by the deceased individual, there is, however, significant negativity that surrounds the notion of body ownership, majorly as a function of issues associated….
Bramstedt, K.A., Florman, S. & Miller, C.M. (2005). Ethical challenges in live organ donation. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation 10 (4), 340-344.
CHILDRESS, J.F. (2001). Putting Patients First in Organ Allocation: An Ethical Analysis of the U.S. Debate. CAMBRIDGE QUARTERLY OF HEALTHCARE ETHICS 10(4):365-76. DOI: 10.1017/S0963180101004054
Cronin, A. J., & Price, D. (2008). Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner? Clinical Ethics, 3(3), 127-31. doi. 10.1258/ce.2008.008018
Hilhorst, M. (2005). Directed altruistic living organ donation: partial but not unfair. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 8, 197-215.
Salt Lake City Utah, Dr. William DeVries operated on arney Clark, a dentist from Seattle, to replace his failing heart with a mechanical one. Clark suffered multiple complications, both involving his own body and the functionality of the Jarvik-7 mechanical heart, and after 112 days of extraordinary efforts to keep Clark alive, his heart was turned off on March 23, 1983, and he died. When he died, the Jarvik-7 heart had beaten 12,912,499 times (Pence, DATE).
This medical event raised a number of medical, legal and ethical issues involving The ability of Clark to continue to make his own medical decisions, the NIH decision to allow DeVries to use the heart on a human, whether the state of Clark's health following his surgeries justified the extreme measures taken to try to extend his life, and possible conflicts of interest regarding Dr. DeVries.
Shortly after World War II, two members of congress….
Academy of Achievement. "Willem J. Kollf, M.D., Interview."
Ehrenman, Gayle. 2003. "A Whole New Heart." Mechanical Engineering 5:8, pp. 51-54, Aug.
Pence, Gregory E. "Artificial Hearts: Barney Clark" in Classic Cases in Medical Ethics, 2nd Ed.
Simmons, Paul D. 2001. "The Artificial Heart: How Close Are We, and Do We Want to Get There." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, pp. 401+.
elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue
elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.
Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to donate their….
Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.
Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.
Borna, S (1987) Morality and Marketing Human Organs, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 37-44.
Perform a health history on an older adult.
John is 74 years old. He runs his own business with his wife Pam. They have three children i.e. Susan, Debbie and Henry. In the last thirty years, John has been dealing with major health issues to include: colitis, having his gallbladder removed and two separate liver transplants. When John was in his 40s, he was sent to the hospital with an infection related to colitis. Two years after he was released, John's skinned turned yellow and he experienced jaundice. The doctors determined that his bile was backing up into his gallbladder. They removed it and created ducts which go directly to the liver. Ten years later, John began to experience jaundice again and was informed that he had sclerosis of the liver. He was placed on the organ transplant list and received a new liver two years later. However, after the….
Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants:
The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the argument of all opponents to the proposition. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, human beings are created equal and given the un-separable rights to life, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. While in the pursuit of these rights, the American society has learnt that the end does not always justify the means and as such, necessary legislation has been instituted to help protect minorities from majorities, the poor from the wealthy, and the weak from the strong. A society in which people could buy and sell organs for transplant would further ruin the pursuit for equality and frustrate the liberty of generosity needed for living a happy life.
Opposing the proposition does not mean that one believes society bears no duty to preserve….
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (n.d.). Kidneys for Sale. Retrieved from Santa Clara University -- The Jesuit University in Silicon Valley website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n2/kidneys.html
Mayes, G. (2003.) Buying and Selling Organs for Transplantation in the U.S.: National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) Bans Buying and Selling. Medscape Education, 4(2). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/465200_2
"Statistics." (n.d.). Donate Life America. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from http://donatelife.net/understanding-donation/statistics/
Kidney Transplantation ProcedureKidney disease is one of the major public health issues in the United States as the number of people suffering from this condition has tripled in the last two decades. Given the increase in the number of people suffering from kidney disease, the treatment of this condition has become critical in improving the quality of life for end-stage patients. According to Barry (2016), kidney transplantation is the most suitable treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESD). It is the most commonly performed solid organ transplant process and has developed to include the process of continued quality improvement. Over the past few years, kidney transplantation has evolved to include a systematic team approach with a focus on improving patients quality of life. This paper examines the preoperative and postoperative procedures in kidney transplantation based on anatomy and physiology.Preoperative ProceduresKidney transplantation procedure begins by selecting a donor from two….
ReferencesAscher, N.L., Chandran, S. & DiPaola, M.E. (2015). Kidney transplant. Retrieved from University of California San Francisco website: https://transplantsurgery.ucsf.edu/conditions--procedures/kidney-transplant.aspx Barry, J.M. (2016). Renal transplantation. Indian Journal of Urology, 32(3), 175-177.Hameed, A.M., Yao, J., Allen, R., Hawthorne, W.J., Pleass, H.C. & Lau, H. (2018). The evolution of kidney transplantation surgery into the robotic era and its prospects for obese recipients. Transplantation, 102(10), 1650 – 1665. Luo, E.K. (2018). Kidney transplant. Retrieved May 14, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/kidney-transplant
Sports - Drugs
In theory, such evaluations could be useful, but as is, they are fairly useless. Plus, the validity and necessity of evaluations are up for debate themselves, besides the actual…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Ethical Considerations Behind Organ Transplants The idea of organ transplants has suffered several criticisms over the years from the civil society, to the various religious groups and even philosophers. It…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
In the U.S. For instance, Abuona (2003) indicated that the very first criterion is the donor's geographic location as compared to that of the recipient followed by the…Read Full Paper ❯
Organ Transplantation Denying Mrs. Burgone the organ transplant could be ethically justified under certain conditions and circumstances. However, denying her organ transplantation surgery under these circumstances is not one of…Read Full Paper ❯
Transplant Medicine The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) contains over 128 functional genes. This is the densest part of the human genome and is responsible for most autoimmune diseases. This region…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Organ Donation Why Organ Donating is a Social esponsibility Life is a sentence. It begins with a capital letter, has something in between, and then a punctuation mark at the end.…Read Full Paper ❯
Organ Donation A new State of Wisconsin Senate bill asks voters to decide upon a program to compensate living organ donors who choose to donate one or more of their…Read Full Paper ❯
Argumentative essay for organ transplantation Organ transplantation is the donating of one’s organ to another human being for replacing his or her damaged organ (County 2). This procedure has been…Read Full Paper ❯
Many of the arguments advanced by those in support of organ sales are actually valid: the choice is substantially indistinguishable from other choices permitted for different reasons; and any…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Organ Transplantation Who owns donated organs according to the author? Why is it important to clarify ownership of donated organs? With reference to the American context, cadaveric organs are not actually…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Salt Lake City Utah, Dr. William DeVries operated on arney Clark, a dentist from Seattle, to replace his failing heart with a mechanical one. Clark suffered multiple complications,…Read Full Paper ❯
elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive…Read Full Paper ❯
Health Assessment Perform a health history on an older adult. John is 74 years old. He runs his own business with his wife Pam. They have three children i.e. Susan, Debbie…Read Full Paper ❯
Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants: The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the argument…Read Full Paper ❯
Medical - Treatment
Kidney Transplantation ProcedureKidney disease is one of the major public health issues in the United States as the number of people suffering from this condition has tripled in the…Read Full Paper ❯