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In theory, such evaluations could be useful, but as is, they are fairly useless. Plus, the validity and necessity of evaluations are up for debate themselves, besides the actual results from the evaluations being up for debate. Thus, the bioethical dilemma in those who abuse their bodies before and after receiving organ transplants lies not necessarily just with the recipients, but also with society, and with the medical field with respect to the issue as well.
Taking an Ethical Stand:
This is not a simple issue and ethics are very much a part of the stance on takes in this matter. It is, to a degree, unfair for people who abuse their bodies to receive organ transplants. As aforementioned, there are a number of instances that lead to the necessity of an organ transplant in the first place -- some of which are entirely avoidable and under an individual's control,…
Allmon, Allison, Shaw, Kari, Martens, Jessica, Yamada, Torricia, Lohnberg, Jessica, Schultz, Jessica, Tallman, Benjamin & Altmaier, PhD, Elizabeth. "Organ Transplantation: Issues in Assessment and Treatment." National Register of Health Service Psychologists, Web, Available from: http://www.e-psychologist.org/index.iml?mdl=exam/show_article.mdl&Material_ID=103, 2013.
Anderson, PhD, Rebecca Cogwell. "Measuring both sides of the transplant equation: Psychological tests help evaluate organ recipients and donors." Bridging the Gap, Web, Available from: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/NR/rdonlyres/69DCA659-1B93-432F-B2FD-7154EEDA5E42/4755/_BTG_March08p2.pdf , 2008.
Minelli, Erin & Liang, Bryan a. "Transplant Candidates and Substance Use: Adopting Rational Health Policy for Resource Allocation." University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, Vol. 44, No. 3, 667 -- 699.
Olbrisch, Mary Ellen, Benedict, Sharon M., Ashe, K., & Levenson, James L. "Psychological Assessment of Care of Organ Transplant Patients." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 70, No. 3, 771 -- 783.
Ethical Considerations Behind Organ Transplants
The idea of organ transplants has suffered several criticisms over the years from the civil society, to the various religious groups and even philosophers. It is challenging to have one perspective on the idea of transplants and apply it universally since not everyone will share the religious view, or the philosophical view. In the context of this memorandum, the utilitarian philosophy will be the baseline for the justification.
Inline with the utilitarian approach that Joh Mill Stuart proposes, that which is useful is that which is right. In his argument, he insists on the virtue of each individual to act in restraint and this is what is right and useful. His perspective of the utilitarian philosophy is important in allowing free will and individual decision making and self nurtured good behavior. He does not believe in people being forced to do good by the state,…
John Stuart Mill, (1863). Utilitarianism. Retrieved April 4, 2015 from https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mill-john-stuart/1863/utility/ch01.htm
In the U.S. For instance, Abuona (2003) indicated that the very first criterion is the donor's geographic location as compared to that of the recipient followed by the histocompatibility matching and blood group compatibility. The third criterion is a point system that each of the waiting-list patients accumulate in regard to the following variables; waiting time, medical urgency, as well as the age of the patient. This allocation technique is highly flawed. This is because in case of kidney as well as other organs that have to be transported to the place where the recipient is located, the long hours of transportation may cause a lot of damage to the organs as a consequence of the ischemic reperfusion injury that occurs as a result of long hours of organ transportation. At the same time, should the organ arrive to the intended destination but from a marginal donor, then it might…
Abuona, GM (2003).Ethical Issues in Organ Transplantation. Med Princ Pract 2003;12:54 -- 69
Arthur L. Caplan, AL., Coelho, DH (Eds.). (1998). The Ethics of Organ Transplants: The Current Debate
Center for Bioethics (2004). Ethics of Organ Transplantation
Denying Mrs. Burgone the organ transplant could be ethically justified under certain conditions and circumstances. However, denying her organ transplantation surgery under these circumstances is not one of those instances and cannot be ethically justified. The decision is arbitrary and serves no purpose for any stakeholders in the outcome of the issue. Moreover, the ethical justification purported to be at the heart of the decision is logically flawed and ethically untenable.
Consistency with the Notion of Equal Access to Medical Care
The notion of equal access to healthcare justifies many types of decisions that may, unfortunately, lead to undesirable outcomes in individual cases (Tong, 2007). Typical examples of that notion in relation to organ transplantation cases would include decisions to conserve public financial resources by cutting off eligibility as a function of objective criteria, such as the statistical likelihood of surgical success and post-surgical survival. Likewise, it would…
Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 6th
Edition. Oxford University Press.
Helwege, A. "Preventive vs. Curative Medicine: A Policy Exercise for the Classroom." The Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 27, No. 1. (Winter, 1996):
59-71. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from:
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) contains over 128 functional genes. This is the densest part of the human genome and is responsible for most autoimmune diseases. This region also determines vaccine responsiveness, adverse drug reactions, disease progression and transplant rejection. The MHC genes are multigenic with a high degree of allelic polymorphism. There are over 7,500 different alleles and over 5,458 expressed MHC antigens currently known. (DeFranco, Locksley & obertson, 2007). Genomic evolution and HLA screening have been extremely profitable to Transplant Medicine.
A brief analysis of MHC variability reveals two classes of antigens belonging to this complex; class I (A, B, and C) and II (D, DQ, and DP). Both classes of molecules are expressed in a co-dominant fashion. These molecules are designed to recognize antigens that are foreign to the body and present them to the T cells. (Janeway, Travers & Walport, 2001)
The co-dominant mode…
Appel J.Z., Hartwig M.G., Cantu E., Palmer S.M., Reinsmoen N.L., Davis R.D. (2006). Role of flow cytometry to define unacceptable HLA antigens in lung transplant recipients with HLA-specific antibodies.Transplantation 81(7),1049-1057.
Badders J.L., Houp J.A., Sholander J.T., Leffell M.S., Zachary A.A. (2010). Considerations in interpreting solid phase antibody data. Hum Immunol 71(1),S18.
DeFranco, A.L., Locksley, R.M., & Robertson, M. (2007). Immunity: The immune response in infectious and inflammatory disease. (1st ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/nsp-mhcpolymorphism.pdf
Janeway, C.J., Travers, P., & Walport, M. (2001).Immunobiology: The immune system in health and disease.. (5th ed.). New York: Garland Science. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27163/
Why Organ Donating is a Social esponsibility
Life is a sentence. It begins with a capital letter, has something in between, and then a punctuation mark at the end. Organ donation allows part of our physical body to be of use to someone else for short time after we have passed. It is a beautiful gift to be able to make someone else's life a little longer. This gives them more time to love, more time to laugh, and more time to heal spiritually from the pain that this life sometimes brings. Organ donation is the last gesture of love that we can make on earth. This essay will explore the organ donation as a social and humanitarian responsibility.
Currently, there are approximately 113,984 people who will die soon if they do not receive a donor organ before their time is up if (Organdonor.gov). Every ten minutes a…
Directgov.UK. Organ and body donation. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Governmentcitizensandrights/Death/WhatToDoAfterADeath/DG_066800 Accessed April 19, 2012.
Donatelifeny.org. Organs and Tissues. 2010. http://www.donatelifeny.org/about-donation/what-can-be-donated / Accessed April 19, 2012.
Organdonor.gov. "The Need is Real." http://www.organdonor.gov/about/data.html Accessed April 19, 2012.
Organtransplants.org. Religion and Organ and Tissue Donation. The Gift of a Lifetime. Reprinted from SEOPF/UNOS, Organ and Tissue Donation: A Reference Guide for Clergy, 4th ed., 2000. Cooper ML, Taylor GJ, eds. Richmond, VA. http://www.organtransplants.org/understanding/religion / Accessed April 19, 2012. Five
A new State of Wisconsin Senate bill asks voters to decide upon a program to compensate living organ donors who choose to donate one or more of their organs. The bill which would provide a fully refundable tax credit of $20,000 for donations is an add-on to the existing legislation passed in 2004 "which allows living donors in Wisconsin to receive an income tax deduction to recoup donation expenses like travel costs and lost wages" (University of Minnesots.edu. February 2004). The bill is not a unique one as other states have introduced legislation to provide some measure of financial support to living organ donors. An example is the recent "Pennsylvania gift giving program, awarding money to a living donor or to the family of a deceased donor that can be used for reimbursement of food and lodging expenses incurred during the donation process" (ABC News.go.com. June 16, 2002).…
Interestingly, this position is also aligned with the financial realities of health care financing, as the "cost of keeping a patient on kidney dialysis is so expensive-around $65,000- $70,000 a year- that it would be in the government interest to pay for a transplant as well as an incentive; the transplant pays for itself vs. dialysis after 18 months" (Rettner, R. August 10, 2009).
For many however, the mere thought of financial compensation for living organ
Argumentative essay for organ transplantation
Organ transplantation is the donating of one’s organ to another human being for replacing his or her damaged organ (County 2). This procedure has been proven to be successful in children and young adults and the elderly with comorbidities (Grinyó 1). This can prove to be life-saving for patients with terminal organ failures and painful therapies for survival (Grinyó 1). Over the last 60 years, the organ transplantation process has been growing with numerous cases, while the introduction of cyclosporine, thirty years before, improved the transplantation procedure (Grinyó 2). It was identified that the heart, kidneys, lungs, uterus, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus, can be transplanted successfully (Grinyó 2). The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) established by the US congress in 1984 focuses on the policies and legal frameworks of organ transplantation. At the same time, the Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) are the non-profit…
Many of the arguments advanced by those in support of organ sales are actually valid: the choice is substantially indistinguishable from other choices permitted for different reasons; and any addition on donor organs to the very tight "market" of available donor organs would likely mean that one additional organ would become available to other potential recipients. However, the principal argument against the permissibility of selling donor organs is not the denial of those admitted benefits. ather, it is a function of the inevitable consequences of wealth disparity and the traditional economic principles of supply and demand. Moreover, the fact that organ sales are permissible in other countries provides an opportunity to observe the actual consequences of that permissibility.
Precisely because donor organs for transplant are in such critically short supply, they would command a high price that only the wealthy could afford to pay. Since selling an organ is a…
Beauchamp, T.L., and Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics 6th
Edition. Oxford University Press: UK.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues 12th Edition.
McGraw Hill: Dubuque, Iowa.
Who owns donated organs according to the author? Why is it important to clarify ownership of donated organs?
With reference to the American context, cadaveric organs are not actually owned by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). UNOS is granted custody as well as control of organs, depending on the conditions placed on the organs by their donors. He obtains an analogy with charity trustees and claims that they are required to address and deal with the trust resources according to the terms of the trust as drafted by the settler. They are naturally a conditional gift for which the transplanters are legally considered as 'trustees' or 'custodians' (Cronin & Price, 2008). Even though this matches well with the concept of a 'gift of an organ' by the deceased individual, there is, however, significant negativity that surrounds the notion of body ownership, majorly as a function of…
Bramstedt, K.A., Florman, S. & Miller, C.M. (2005). Ethical challenges in live organ donation. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation 10 (4), 340-344.
CHILDRESS, J.F. (2001). Putting Patients First in Organ Allocation: An Ethical Analysis of the U.S. Debate. CAMBRIDGE QUARTERLY OF HEALTHCARE ETHICS 10(4):365-76. DOI: 10.1017/S0963180101004054
Cronin, A. J., & Price, D. (2008). Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner? Clinical Ethics, 3(3), 127-31. doi. 10.1258/ce.2008.008018
Hilhorst, M. (2005). Directed altruistic living organ donation: partial but not unfair. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 8, 197-215.
Salt Lake City Utah, Dr. William DeVries operated on arney Clark, a dentist from Seattle, to replace his failing heart with a mechanical one. Clark suffered multiple complications, both involving his own body and the functionality of the Jarvik-7 mechanical heart, and after 112 days of extraordinary efforts to keep Clark alive, his heart was turned off on March 23, 1983, and he died. When he died, the Jarvik-7 heart had beaten 12,912,499 times (Pence, DATE).
This medical event raised a number of medical, legal and ethical issues involving The ability of Clark to continue to make his own medical decisions, the NIH decision to allow DeVries to use the heart on a human, whether the state of Clark's health following his surgeries justified the extreme measures taken to try to extend his life, and possible conflicts of interest regarding Dr. DeVries.
Shortly after World War II, two members of…
Academy of Achievement. "Willem J. Kollf, M.D., Interview."
Ehrenman, Gayle. 2003. "A Whole New Heart." Mechanical Engineering 5:8, pp. 51-54, Aug.
Pence, Gregory E. "Artificial Hearts: Barney Clark" in Classic Cases in Medical Ethics, 2nd Ed.
Simmons, Paul D. 2001. "The Artificial Heart: How Close Are We, and Do We Want to Get There." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, pp. 401+.
elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue
elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.
Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to…
Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.
Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.
Borna, S (1987) Morality and Marketing Human Organs, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 37-44.
Perform a health history on an older adult.
John is 74 years old. He runs his own business with his wife Pam. They have three children i.e. Susan, Debbie and Henry. In the last thirty years, John has been dealing with major health issues to include: colitis, having his gallbladder removed and two separate liver transplants. When John was in his 40s, he was sent to the hospital with an infection related to colitis. Two years after he was released, John's skinned turned yellow and he experienced jaundice. The doctors determined that his bile was backing up into his gallbladder. They removed it and created ducts which go directly to the liver. Ten years later, John began to experience jaundice again and was informed that he had sclerosis of the liver. He was placed on the organ transplant list and received a new liver two years later. However,…
Nutrition and Healthy Eating. (2014). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/healthy-weight - pyramid/art-20045416
Juall, L. (2006). Handbook of Nursing Diagnosis. Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott.
Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants:
The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the argument of all opponents to the proposition. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, human beings are created equal and given the un-separable rights to life, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. While in the pursuit of these rights, the American society has learnt that the end does not always justify the means and as such, necessary legislation has been instituted to help protect minorities from majorities, the poor from the wealthy, and the weak from the strong. A society in which people could buy and sell organs for transplant would further ruin the pursuit for equality and frustrate the liberty of generosity needed for living a happy life.
Opposing the proposition does not mean that one believes society bears no duty…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (n.d.). Kidneys for Sale. Retrieved from Santa Clara University -- The Jesuit University in Silicon Valley website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n2/kidneys.html
Mayes, G. (2003.) Buying and Selling Organs for Transplantation in the U.S.: National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) Bans Buying and Selling. Medscape Education, 4(2). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/465200_2
"Statistics." (n.d.). Donate Life America. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from http://donatelife.net/understanding-donation/statistics/
Quality of Life Measures
Quality of life is measured using a variety of surveys. The most common of these surveys is the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), which measures several categories of physical functioning, as well as containing a Mental Health Component (MCS). Another commonly used quality of life measure is the Dutch AND-36. Masala, etl al (2012) used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study as well as the SF-36. The van Ginneken et al. (2010) study employed the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68), Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in addition to the AND-36.
Physical Activities Measures
Physical activity is measured with a number of self-assessment and objective tools including peak oxygen uptake during cycle ergometry, walking distance in a timed exercise, "isokinetic muscle strength of knee extensors, body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness," and…
Krasnoff, J.B., et al. (2006). A randomized trial of exercise and dietary counseling after liver transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2006(6): 1896-1905.
Masala, D. et al. (2012). Quality of life and physical activity in liver transplantation patients. Transplant Proceedings 44(2012): 1346-1350.
Roi, G.S. et al. (2014). Physical activity in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 46, 2345-2349.
Rongies, W., et al. (2011). Physical activity long-term after liver transplantation yields better quality of life. Ann Transplant 16(3): 126-131.
Organ transplant recipients are more susceptible to cancer due to oncogenic viral infections and immunosuppression. What is the overall pattern of cancer following an organ transplantation?
Cancer is a major adverse outcome of solid organ transplantation.2 Previous studies have demonstrated an overall 2- to 4-fold elevated risk of cancer.3- 11 Excess risk is largely due to immunosuppression, with a spectrum of cancer resembling that seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, another immunosuppressing condition.11 isks are especially high for malignancies caused by viral infections, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (both due to Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]), Kaposi sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8), anogenital cancers (human papillomavirus), and liver cancer (hepatitis C and B viruses). Certain other malignancies such as cancers of the lung, kidney, skin, and thyroid also are increased in transplant recipients. Linkage of population-based transplant and cancer registries from the same geographic region can allow for systematic ascertainment of…
Engels, E.A., Pfeiffer, R.M., Fraumeni, J.F., Kasiske, B.L., Israni, A.K., & Snyder, J.J. (2011). Spectrum of Cancer Risk among U.S. Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. JAMA, 306(17), 1891-1901. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1592
Saaristo, T., Moilanen, L., Korpi-Hyovalti, E., Vanhala, M., Saltevo, J., Niskanen, L. . . . Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2010). Lifestyle intervention for prevention of type 2 diabetes in primary health care: one-year follow-up of the Finnish national diabetes prevention program (FIND2D). Diabetes Care, 33(10), 2146-2151. Doi:10.2337/dc10-0410
Sperling, R.A., Aisen, P.S., Beckett, L.A., Bennett, D.A., Craft, S., Fagan, A.M., . . . Phelps, C.H. (2011). Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia,7(3), 280 -- 292. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.003
The objective of this study is to discuss and compare two legal transplants with reference to at least one African or Asian legal system. For the purpose of this work, Turkey and legal transplants will be examined.
The work of Orucu (2008) states that Chiba (1986) relates the "concept of legal pluralism…as an effective attack on the common sense of orthodox jurisprudence by rejecting the 'oneness of state law as law or university of western law." (p.1) Chiba is reported to proffer a model of official law "as always intersecting with unofficial law and legal postulates, and never existing in isolation." (Orucu, 2008, p.1) It is the expectation that the state laws will in cohesion with "society and its normative orders, and religion and worldviews…work together to achieve a balanced and sustainable legal order." (Orucu, 2008, p.1-2) However, according to Orucu "legal centralism reflects the ambition of the…
Dai, J. (2009) On Several Problems in Legal Transplantation. Journal of Politics and Law, Sept. 2009. Vol. 2, No. 3.
Gunderson, JL and Waelde, TW (1994) Legislative Reform In Transition Economies: Western Transplants -- a Short-Cut to Social Market Economy Status? ICQL 1994, 43(2), 347-378.
Oguz, A. (2005) The Role of Comparative Law in the Development of Turkish Civil Law. Pace International Law Review. 1 Sept 2005. Article 9. Vol. 17, Issue 2. Fall 2008.
Orucu, E. (2008) Judicial Navigation As Official Law Meets Culture in Turkey. Int J.L.C. 2008, 4(1), 35-61.
When it comes to the sale of organs from one party to another, there are usually two "camps" that people fall within. Those camps are inclusive of people that rae entirely against the practice in any form and then there are those that feel that some level of person-to-person sales should be allowed for so long as the parties involved face certain rules. Even with the concerns about organs going to the highest bidder, there are diametrically opposed concerns and assertions including the right of an owner of a kidney being able to sell to who he or she wants and the fact that the proceeds from such a transaction can be life-changing in nature. While it may be controversial and problematic to some, there is a middle ground to be had between allowing organ sales between people with no limitation and never doing so under any circumstances.…
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Women without functioning uteruses now have a real chance of making their motherhood dreams come true with a radical new surgical procedure that involves a uterus transplant. Mats Brannstrom, the Swedish doctor who was the first in the world to deliver babies from transplanted uteruses, has successfully delivered about half a dozen babies from transplanted uteruses so far (“First baby from a uterus transplant in the U.S. born in Dallas,” 1). In the United States, the first baby was born from a transplanted uterus in December of 2017, in Dallas. As promising as it is, a uterus transplant birth is a relatively risky medical procedure, though, and one that has raised some questions about the efficacy and ethics of this remarkable intervention. However, as long as full disclosure is made to patients, who make their decisions autonomously and with informed consent, transplanted uterine deliveries should certainly be an option…
S. (Levine, 2008).
One of the paradoxes of modern medical science and technology is the blurring of the line between life and death, something that was never an issue before modern medicine (Griniezakis, 2007; Levine, 2008). That was the case even before the most recent revelations in 2009 that many patients previously diagnosed as being in long-term persistent vegetative states actually remained conscious throughout their ordeal and that several patients considered to be brain dead according to accepted criteria eventually recovered consciousness (Halpern, az, Kohn, et al., 2010). The obvious concern is that inaccurate diagnoses of persistent vegetative states and the premature declaration of death could result in the procurement of organs for transplant from patients who could still recover from their medical predicament. That issue, unlike religious objections to scientific research remains a valid bioethics concern.
The other principal ethical issue in relation to organ transplantation is in connection…
Griniezakis AM. "Legal and ethical issues associated with brain death." Issues in Law & Medicine (September 22, 2007).
Harrison TR, Morgan, SE, and Di Corcia MJ. "Effects of information, education, and communication training about organ donation for gatekeepers: clerks at the Department of Motor Vehicles and organ donor registries" Progress in Transplantation (December 1, 2008).
Halpern SD, Raz a, Kohn R, Rey M. Asch DA, and Reese P. "Regulated Payments for Living Kidney Donation: An Empirical Assessment of the Ethical Concerns"
Annals of Internal Medicine (March 16, 2010).
The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.
Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).
From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…
Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group
Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.
Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association
Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
While no one ought to begrudge Mickey Mantle (or anyone) a much-needed liver transplant, it remains hard to believe, given the speed at which Mickey Mantle received a liver and an operation that he was indeed placed on a list and then waited his turn like everyone else.
Further, according to Koch (March 1996)Normative and prescriptive criteria: The efficacy of organ transplantation allocation protocols (March 1996):
well publicized cases have raised questions in North America about the efficacy of [donated organ] allocation procedures. An analysis of those cases, and the relevant technical literature, suggest consistent structural deficits exist in the organ allocation process as it is applied by many individual transplantation centres. These irregularities are based upon both the failure of rank waiting as a method to guarantee just treatment and a general failure to recognize the extent to which prescriptive criteria -- social values -- are commonly used to…
Koch, T. (March 1996). Normative and prescriptive criteria: The efficacy of organ transplantation allocation protocols. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Historical Archive),17(1). SpringerLink. 75-93. Retrieved July 31, 2005, at http://www.springerlink.com/app/home/contribution.asp?wasp=d059577 aa86c4a37b56a37e250fa9bdf&referrer=parent&backto=issue,7,8;journal,4,55;linkingpublicationresults,1:403004,1.html.
Man gets liver after using billboards, Net. (August 13, 2004). MSNBC.com.
Retrieved July 31, 2005, at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5685485/html .
ethics regarding organ donation by brain-damaged people. The writer explores how a brain-damaged person is defined, and whether or not the donation of organs from that person is ethical. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.
The field of medicine has advanced mankind to arenas never before thought possible. Today doctors can take entire organ systems out of one person and place them in another and the recipient can live for many years with transplanted organs. Hearts, lungs, kidneys, livers, eyes and many combinations of them are just a few of the organs that are transplanted worldwide today. As the medical community continues to advance age and quality of life the need for more organs has reached the critical stage. One of the most argued and passionate debates in the medical community today is whether or not it is ethical to remove organs in the case of a…
BROOKER Michelle, The gift of life after death., The Press (Canterbury, New Zealand), 08-10-2002, pp 3.
CAROL ANN CAMPBELL, Staff Writer, TV SHOW ANGERS ORGAN DONOR GROUPS., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 11-13-1996, pp a09.
Author not available, [Thoughts of The Times] An Explanation of Brain Death., The Korea Times (Seoul, S. Korea), 02-09-2000.
Author not available, Pre-transplant brain-death test done on man in his 20s., Kyodo World News Service, 06-13-1999.
2306 Kant. Consider situation: You ill life support. You a transplant organs continue living. Your parents decided biological child specifically organ transplant child / matures a level (assume part organ child survive)
Kant's assumption on the present matter is reflected in the well-known maxim and law, "act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law." (Stanford, 2004) Most often this "law" is interpreted as being a set of questions one must ask himself before undergoing a certain action. More precisely, the first step in determining whether the course of action one is about to take is morally correct or not is to actually formulate that action and provide a reasoning for it. Secondly, it is important to consider that action and that reasoning multiplied at a universal level, thought of this action as being a universal law…
Kerstein, S. (2009) Treating Others Merely as Means in "Utilitas" Vol. 21, No. 2, June, University of Cambridge, available online at http://faculty.philosophy.umd.edu/SKerstein/Kersteinmeremeans.pdf
New York University. (n.d) Means and ends. Available at http://philosophy.fas.nyu.edu/docs/IO/1881/scanlon.pdf
Stanford Enciclopedia of Phylosophy. (2004) Kant's Moral Philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/ #ForUniLawNat' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
innings" account and the "prudential lifespan" account support the age-based prioritization in organ allocation by suggesting that there is a certain amount of time that people should live: for example, if a young man of 25 dies, it is viewed as a tragedy because he was so young -- he died before his time. But if an old man of 85 dies, it is viewed differently -- then it is his time. Williams says this is a biased kind of thinking that does not consider quality of life but rather quantity of years. The man of 25 could have a far worse quality of life than the man of 85 -- but that is not taken into consideration by many people. Thus, if a person was asked who should receive an organ for an organ transplant, most would answer that the young man of 25 should receive it because he…
Veatch, Robert M. "The Definition of Death: Problems for Public Policy." (CIB, 432-
Definition and Criteria of Death. Retrieved from https://faculty.unlv.edu/rwilburn/BARRY%20CHAP%201%20DEFINITION%20AND%20CRITERIA%20OF%20DEATH.pdf
Philosophical Debates About the Defnition of Death: Who Cares? Retrieved from http://neurosurgery.uthscsa.edu/ncc/docs/education/brain_death_and_coma/philopshy_of_defining_death.pdf
Hospital Case Study
If the first requirement of any successful case study is a detailed and analytical examination of the situation, the emotional component of so called "high stakes" issues can make this requirement difficult, indeed. The simple fact, however, is in order to find good solutions and policies regarding the problem presented in the case study, one must apply the three main questions of "situation," "remedy/s," and "method/s." Although this may seem difficult in some situations, the emotional component must not be considered.
A good example of this fact occurs in the examination of an unfortunate case involving the botched heart/lung transplant of a 16-year-old girl, much like the recent incident at Duke Hospital. In this case, a young girl died as a result of receiving miss-matched organs. Unfortunately, in this case, all of the supposed safeguards of the system, imposed to assure that proper blood typing of both…
Chibbaro, Lou. (2004) Victory Claimed in HIV Suits. Washington Blade. Web site. Retrieved on August 8, 2004, at http://www.washblade.com/print.cfm?content_id=2771
Colorado State University Writing Center. "Case Studies." Retrieved from Web site on August 2, 2004 http://writing.colostate.edu/references/research/casestudy/com2a1.cfm
CTDN. California Donors Network. (2004) Facts about organ and tissue donation. Web site. Retrieved on August 8, 2004, at http://www.ctdn.org/resources/faqs.php?id=3&NoHeader=1
Duke University. (2004). UNOS and DUH Safeguards for Organ Transplant Safety. Duke Medical News. Retrieved on August 7, 2004, at http://dukemednews.org/filebank/2003/06/28/UNOS%20and%20DUH%20Safeguards%20for%20Organ%20Transplant%20Safety.doc
Transforming Scheduled Death Into Renewed Life
One of the harsh realities of living in an otherwise-free society is the fact that the United States incarcerates far more of its citizens than other leading industrialized nations, and it one of the few countries in the world that retains the death penalty on its books. hen capital offenders are executed, there exists the opportunity to turn this scheduled death into renewed through organ donations. At present, while an individual has the right to say whether their organs should be donated, death-row inmates are considered wards of the state and it is the position of this study that the state should have the corresponding right to harvest their organs as a means of execution in order to save and improve the quality of the lives of others. To determine whether the potential exists for such an approach, this study examines the relevant peer-reviewed…
"Abolish the death penalty." (2011). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.
Beard, T. Randolph, David L. Kaserman and Richard P. Saba. (2006). "Inefficiency in cadaveric organ procurement." Southern Economic Journal, 73(1): 13-14.
Ben-David, Orit F. Organ Donation and Transplantation: Body Organs as an Exchangeable
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…
Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients
With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu .
Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease
Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m 0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.
It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…
Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/125649.php
As many forms of live donation do not cause harm to others, and as we allow the donation of blood for payment, we violate the categorical imperative by banning the sale of human organs.
It has been argued by some that banning organ donation is within the bounds of Kantian ethics because we have collectively agreed to the conviction that "such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity" (Cohen, 2002). Yet, we do not prohibit the donation of blood or of bone marrow. Indeed, most among us would agree that such donations are necessary and beneficial. Lives are saved. There is nothing morally wrong about saving lives -- indeed live donations today are conducted voluntarily and without any moral consequence.
Allowing live organ donations is ethically consistent with our established principles regarding blood donation and voluntary, unpaid live organ donation. It will increase the supply of…
Holcberg, David. (2008). Allow the Sale of Human Organs. Chicago Sun-Times. April 18, 2008.
Cohen, Cynthia B. (2002). Public Policy and the Sale of Human Organs. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Vol. 12, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 47-64.
Mullen, Shannon. (2009). Sale of Human Organs in New Jersey a Worldwide Scandal. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.app.com/article/20090726/NEWS/907260350/1004/NEWS01
MacDonald, Nikki. (2005). Live Donors the Key to Organ Shortage. Give Life NZ. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.givelife.org.nz/latest_news_and_press_cuttings/live_donors_the_key_to_organ_shortage.cfm
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Discussion about Brain Death and Cerebral Definitions
It has been researched that the human brain collapses at prior to the cessation of the human organs; the collapse of the human brain is attributed to the elimination of the large numbers of redundant neurons, and the aging process i.e. The gradual loss of sensory capacities. It has been reported that the visual acuity decline on linear basis between the age limit of 20-60, and soon after sixty the declination of the visual acuity is exponential. By the age of 45, the depth perception is reported declination in accelerated manner, and the speech comprehension is expected to get affect after the age of 80 due to the quarter loss of the extensive neurons in the superior temporal gyrus of the auditory cortex. The research has observed that significant decrease in the neuron density is expected, as a result of the aging process.…
Robert H. Blank. Technology and Death Policy: Redefining Death. Department of Government, Brunel University. 2001.
Peter Monaghan. The Unsettled Question of Brain Death. The Chronicle of Higher Education Vol. 48, Issue, 24. 2002.
Exploitation and Hardship in Harvest
The gap in living standards between those in the developed and developing spheres is substantial. And in the context of a global recession, this gap has only grown wider. Globalization has given us over to a concentrated form of socioeconomic exploitation within which wealthy estern nations strip poor Third orld nations of their most precious resources. In this way, the global economy has come to be driven by the systematic deprivation of the Third orld's critical commodities. This arrangement doesn't simply lower living standards and opportunities for those in the poorest parts of the world but also reinforces the notion that the wealthy are simply more entitled to these commodities and resources than are the poor. This arrangement is taken to its most absurd and disturbing ends in the 1997 play Harvest by Manjula Padmanabhan. Centering on the experience of Om, his wife Jaya,…
Gilbert, H. (2001). Postcolonial Plays: An Anthology. Psychology Press.
Gonio, B. (2006). 'Harvest' by Manjula Padmanabhan. TPS Online.
Padmanabhan, M. (2003). Harvest. Aurora Metro Press.
Health Care Market
In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of the entire health care industry, along with each of the goods and services that are produced and exchanged within this market. From organ transplant operations and blood donation to therapeutic massages and nursing home activity programs, the span of health care goods and services is both vast and varied. Further, in viewing today's uncertain economy, the market for health care goods and services is one that brings with it many different questions that must be addressed in order for a stakeholder to fully comprehend what decisions need to made in order to turn a profit.
Scarcity of esources
Scarcity of resources within this market significantly influences the decisions that stakeholders are forced to make. With scarcity of resources comes limited action…
Case, K. And Fair, R. (2007). Principles of economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Fullerton, D. (2008). How economists see the environment. Nature, 385(6701), p. 433.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate secto, ensuing that a gowing majoity of people, especially in the ichest counties, and paticulaly in the United States, must pay -- often consideably -- fo health cae. Finally, gowing inteest in cosmetic sugey, involving such elective pocedues as hinoplasty, liposuction, beast enhancement o eduction, LASIK eye sugey and so on, o moe simply the emoval of tattoos, have ceated new demands. Vaious foms of dental sugey, especially cosmetic dental sugey, ae not coveed by insuance in counties like the UK and Austalia; hence dental touism has become paticulaly common. In Asia these tends ae 'the unlikely child of new global ealities: the fallout of teoism, the Asian economic downtun, intenet access to pice infomation, and the globalisation of health sevices'…
references because the family vetoes it, in part because they were never made known. For a grieving and bereft family, a request for organ donation is difficult to agree to because they can only guess at the wishes of the deceased and if there were any doubt at all, would not the natural answer be a rejection? If relatives had severe objections, they should be taken into account for to do otherwise raises the spectre of the swastika, but the point remains that by changing the default position of organ donation it is a veto clearly against the deceased's wishes, which would be rather more unlikely to take place than the current veto due to a simple lack of information. It is not that the PC system is ethically unsound (Hatfield and Walker 1998).
It can be argued that presumed consent is superior to the opt-in system because it truly ensures autonomy by giving effect to choices each person makes. It gives legal effect to individual autonomy and it ensures truly informed consent when accompanied by public education and information, instead of intuitive responses to organ donation. But one has to question how comfortable the deceased family will be when they come to realise that their relatives' kidney is being placed into someone who is HIV positive. This is likely to be an ethical and morale matter rather than a discriminatory one (Williams, 1999).
Nonetheless, some problems with presumed consent have been pointed out. Patient autonomy lies at the very heart of modern medicine and medical research. This is partly a reaction against medical paternalism and an increasing awareness of the integrity of the individual. It may be argued that a presumed consent (PC) system is paternalistic - but it concomitantly reinforces individual autonomy and preserves the dignity and integrity of the individual especially in comparison to, for example, an organs market. (Brooks).
McLean points out that underpinning the system of organ donation is the fundamental view that organ transplantation should be a gift relationship and should not be based on the type of disease a person has. This underlines that HIV sufferers are just as entitled to a kidney transplant as those who are looking for a heart transplant. John Morris doubts that proposals to change legislation to allow presumed consent to be introduced are likely to be publicly accepted. However, why is presumed consent any less a gift? It does not mean widespread harvesting of major organs. It means greater public awareness and individual choice that is made concrete.
In today's modern, the reality is that HIV / AIDS is at a crossroads where the economic and political niches of the contemporary modern condition provide both the possibility to raise scientific research in order to create a means of effective pandemic or the new religion of globalize capital may only serve as to extend HIV / AIDS to become the biggest social issue of all history. There is a huge issue with regards to donor transplantation and especially kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, some patients with Human Immunodeficiency Disease are denied equal access to kidney transplantation and the same priorities of other people who are suffering from other serious diseases. Therefore, in this research, evidence will be provided to proof HIV patients have the same rights as others to get a kidney transplant regardless if they appear completely diseased.
Such experiments demonstrated that only seven of the thirty five within the test actually experienced vascular rejection, whereas all of the sheep receiving hearts from unmodified pigs exhibited vascular rejection.
The near-term implications of Berchorner's work could have a profound influence on organ transplants and the future of patient treatments. Researchers will inject human liver cells into fetal pigs; these pigs will be bred with a "suicide gene" that will be triggered to destroy their own livers. His hope is that human cells will then take the initiative to repopulate the pig liver, thus creating a synthesis of the two within the liver. This current study could lead to breeding pigs specifically for the purpose of human liver transplants. Even now, the use of pig livers are being used as a mechanism to help patients survive a few hours longer while waiting for human liver transplants. Berchorner's research may eventually…
Jonietz, Erika. A donor Named Wilbur. 25 Jan. 2007 http://www.islet.org / forum020/messages/18140.htm>.
Beschorner, William E. Heart Xenograft Survival With Chimeric Pig Donors and Modest Immune Suppression. 25 Jan. 2007
Corneal Donation within Hospitals and Medical Communities: Issues Surrounding Post Mortem Donations of Tissue
The purpose of this study is to identify barriers to corneal donation within hospitals and medical communities. A large body of research has focused on issues surrounding the post mortem donations of tissue. This research will take a different approach, examining what barriers exist within hospital and medical communities in an attempt to determine how these barriers may be overcome.
The number of potential corneal donors far surpasses the number of people available for traditional organ donations and in some states consent of the medical examiner alone is enough to allow use of corneal donations (family consent not required) (Lewin, 2000).
Traditionally the most significant barrier to organ donation and transplantation has been acquisition of organs and tissues (Murray et. al, 2002). The need for cornea tissue is rising. The average wait time for…
Gortmaker SL, Beasley CL, Brigham LE, Franz HG, Garrison RN, Lucas BA, Patterson RH, Sobol AM, Grenvik NA, Evanisko MJ. Organ donor potential and performance: size and nature of the organ donor shortfall. Crit Care Med 1996; 24(3):432-9.
Halloran, P.F. (2003). "Transmission of Donor Melanoma to Multiple Organ Transplant Recipients." American Journal of Transplantation, Vol. 4 Issue
Hawkins, B.R. (1993). "The HLA System and Transplantation Matching in the 1990s." Journal of the Hong Kong Medical Association, 45 (2): 77-86
Jensen, T.R. (2000). "Organ Procurement: Various Systems and Their Effectiveness." Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 22, Issue 3.
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…
Music and Pain
The use of music in relation to relaxation and pain control is universal in application. Many cultures use music, tones, chanting, drums, or other forms of biofeedback to treat patients in acute pain, women in labor, recovery, and now, most recently, in pre- and post-operative care. In fact, the therapeutic value of music has been recognized as vital and powerful since Ancient Times; archaeological evidence shows flutes carved from bone in pictures of physicians healing patients, Greek physicians used music and vibration to heal, aid in digestion and induce sleep; the Early Egyptians used musical incantations to help with the healing process; and certainly, numerous native tribes use singing and chanting as part of their healing rituals (Nilsson, 2008).
Further, most postoperative patients have pain, despite the use of analgesia. Nurses are constantly trying to be more effective in delivering pain medication. One study showed that patients…
Ghetti, C. (2011). Active music engagement with emotional-approach coping to improve well being in liver and kidney translplant recipients. Journal of Music Therapy. 48 (4): 463-85.
Good, M., et.al. (2010). Supplementing Relaxation and Music for Pain After Surgery. Nursing Research. 59 (4): 259-69.
Goodwin C.J. (2010). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. New York: John
omen's Health -- Focused on prevention and care for breast health, mammography, etc.
Transplant Programs - Swedish is one of seven kidney transplant centers and one of just four liver transplant centers serving the entire Pacific Northwest. The Organ Transplant Program at Swedish is at the forefront of new advances in transplantation surgery, including pancreas transplants and transplants between unrelated living organ donors and recipients (Swedish Medical Center, 2011).
Service design, operational activities, strategic decisions- Swedish is nothing but on the move -- strategically and tactically. In October, 2011, Swedish opened a new full-care facility with a 550,000 square foot campus in the city of Issaquah, southeast of Seattle city proper. This new facility was designed to be an entirely new hospital experience. Some of the operational innovations include a new Childbirth Center with eight new Labor/Delivery/Recovery rooms that include sleeping areas for partners, iPod access and a hotel room…
Arnold, E. (2007). Service-Dominant Logic and Resource Theory. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 36(1), 21-24.
Crosby, J. (2011, November). Human Resource - Swedish Hospital.
Institute of Medicine. (2000). To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
King, D. (2008). Designing the Digital Experience: How to Use Experience Design. Medford, NJ: Information Today Press.
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
reputed "health crisis" currently facing Americans. The author explores several aspects of the health care crisis and analyzes the validity of those claims. The author presents an argument that there really is not a health care crisis and it is a fallacy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Why do People Believe the Crisis is eal?
What Evidence is There That it is Not eal?
What are some of the things giving the appearance it is...shortage of students etc.
What are some of the ideas that can help the problem?
For several years now Americans have been inundated with information about the health care crisis. News channels cover the crisis and pipe it into living rooms. Magazines publish articles about the causes and history of the health care crisis and politicians use the health care crisis to sell their platform and garner votes. It seems that everywhere…
There. (U.S. health care crisis and crime problem)
St. Louis Journalism Review; May 1, 1994; Blumenthal, H.T.
Health Care Crisis Is Not a Misnomer
Newsday; November 30, 2002; Robert Reno
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…
Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.
Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.
Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…
Cognitive and Psychomotor Disturbance:
This is the other long-term psychological effect of surgery on children particularly those who undergo heart transplant surgical operations. Similar to the post-hospital distress, cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is usually as a result of extra medical treatments and longer stays in hospital. According to research, patients who undergo complex pediatric surgical operations are likely to exhibit signs of cognitive or psychomotor disturbance (Todaro et al., n.d.). The cognitive and psychomotor disturbance is also as a result of the surgical procedures that a child goes through in the inpatient surgical operations.
However, the effect of cognitive and psychomotor disturbances are not limited to patient who undergo inpatient surgical operations since those who undergo day case surgery are also likely to experience these effects. Nonetheless, as compared to the inpatient surgical operations, the likelihood of these effects are less in day case surgical operations. Poor school attendance and…
Cadena, C. (2007, May 11). The Psychological Impact of Organ Transplants in Children.
Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/238567/the_psychological_impact_of_organ_transplants.html?cat=25
Campbell, I.R, Scaife, J.M & Johnstone, J.M. (n.d.). Psychological Effects of Day Case Surgery
Compared with Inpatient Surgery. Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information -- U.S. National Library of Medicine website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1778819/pdf/archdisch00687-0077.pdf
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
active and passive euthanasia. Why does James achels think there is no moral difference between them?
Active euthanasia is the "mercy killing" of a life to prevent further suffering; passive euthanasia is deliberately allowing that life to die of "natural" causes. James achels believes there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia for a few reasons. First, in many cases where passive euthanasia is allowed (meaning it has already been decided that the life is not worth saving) but active euthanasia is against the law, the patient suffers more, longer, and needlessly by being allowed to die on their own. Therefore, since active euthanasia in these cases would prevent that suffering, active euthanasia is clearly less immoral than passively standing by. Still, achels' argument for moral equality between the two is that in each case it has been decided that the life at stake is not worth saving:…
Foot, P. (2002). Moral Dilemmas and Other Topics in Moral Philosophy: Killing and Letting Die. Oxford, England: Clarendon.
Hardwig, J. (1997). Is There A Duty to Die? The Hastings Center Report, 34+.
Harris, J. (1975). The Survival Lottery. Philosophy, 81-87.
Rachels, J. (1975). Active and Passive Euthanasia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 78-80.
Health Care & Faith Diversity
It is quite obvious how different religions hold different philosophical views on various aspects and even when it comes to healing. Each religion highly upholds their spiritual values hence the need for health practitioners to be cautious while handling varied clientele whether they hold the same religious sentiments or not. In this research we will major on the views held by the Sikh, Buddhist and Judaist religions in comparison to the Christian belief on healing.
The Sikh hold the belief that when one is sick it is the will of God and that He is merciful to heal; however one has to consider medical treatment in order to get well. During illness: Sikh patients engage in prayers to seek God for help, seek to obtain peace by remembering Gods name, recite sacred hymns (Gurbani) which are words from the holy scriptures (Guru Granth…
Dharma Haven, (2005).Tools for Healing Relaxing and Awakening. Retrieved March 30,
2012 from http://www.dharma-haven.org/tibetan/healing.htm
Manitoba, (2006). Core Competencies for Spiritual health care Practitioners. Retrieved March 30, 2012 from http://ahpcc.org.uk/pdf/compaudittool.pdf
Marinell & James (2009). Jewish Views of Illness and Healing. Retrieved March 30, 2012
Moral and Medical Dilemma
As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a…
Petersen, J. (2003, June 19). "Designer baby born to uk couple." Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3002610.stm
More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian approach, organ donation does provide good for others; and, when managed appropriated, can provide a greater good for society at large. However, utilizing a population for organ harvesting, or changing the model so that organ donation is seen as a profit-center as opposed to a humanitarian endeavor, certainly muddies the waters a bit.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. etrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/EICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&EICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNT 2-eteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. etrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. eligion and Globalization. The eview of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. Retrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNTR 2-Reteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202R%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. Religion and Globalization. The Review of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Nilsen, D., Kowske, B., Anthony, K. Managing a Diverse, Global Environment is Critical. HR Magazine Review. 50 (8): 41-9. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Publications / hrmagazine/EditorialContent/Pages/0805tools.aspx
Government Created a Committee
An electronic health record is a digital record of a patient's health information generated from every medical visit a patient makes. This information includes the patient's medical history, demographics, known drug allergies, progress notes, follow up visits, medications, vital signs, immunizations, laboratory data and radiological reports. The EH automates and streamlines a clinician's workflow. (Himss, 2009)
Due to the multiple advantages of an EH, health care agencies have been aiming to push up this technology. In 2004, the FDA approved of an implantable EH microchip into patients. Each microchip has a specific code which is identified through sensors. The device is implanted under the skin, in the back of the arm, requiring a twenty minute procedure, without needing the use of sutures. ("Fda approves computer," 2004)
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, deaths due to preventable medical errors rank as the fifth most…
CDC. (2011, October 24). Deaths and mortality. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm
Fda approves computer chip for humans. (2004, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6237364/ns/health-health_care/t/fda-approves-computer-chip-humans/
Himss. (2009, September 2). Implanet using ibm software to protect patients in the event of medical device recalls. Retrieved from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/press-release/implanet-using-ibm-software-protect-patients-event-medical-device-recalls
Prutchi, D. (2011, December 30). Verimed's human-implantable verichip patient rfid. Retrieved from http://www.implantable-device.com/2011/12/30/verimeds-human-implantable-verichip-patient-rfid/
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…
Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56
Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist
Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist
TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
economic value of human life. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey through several methods used to calculate that value as well as other theories about calculating that value. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Worldwide it has been said that people are becoming more materialistic than ever before. It seems that everything now has a tangible value that can be computed in dollars and cents. Insurance companies want a dollar value placed on the most sentimental items one owns, while things once belonging to celebrities command a high fee at auctions and promotions. In addition to individual items being assessed individual values, abstract ideas are also assigned values through dollars. Consultants, writers, and others are paid for their ideas and their intellectual property in the same way that someone purchases a new couch for the living room. Throughout history people have placed value on…
Medical science has worked to extend human life and today people are living longer than ever before and with that ability comes many quality of life issues. Whether or not to invest millions of dollars to maintain someone's life, regardless of the quality of life that person will have is constantly under argument (Determining the Economic Value of Human Life Worth of Life (http://www.behan.ws/lifevalue.htm?Num=3).Those who want organ transplants have to currently convince committees that their lives will be worth the money it takes to do it. Those who are on death row asking to be able to donate their organs are being bombarded with media coverage debating whether or not their organs are worth the saving of a human life. The medical community is constantly charged with providing some tangible dollar value to human life for purposes of medical procedures, research and other areas.
Another area of importance given the economic value of human life is litigation. The nation is filled with more wrongful death suits than in the past. Part of this may be because of medical science being willing to attempt more and sometimes failing, because the population has expanded and there are more accidents etc., or the nation has become more sue happy. It is most likely a combination of many factors. The courts are currently being charged with placing a dollar value on the lives of those who are gone and their loved ones have sued for damages. The courts are currently not in a position to have a tangible dollar value so they are left trying to guess at the worth of the person in question. The judgments are ranging from thousands, to hundreds of millions of dollars and the size of the judgment often times is dependent on jury sitting in the box, more than any concrete calculation. For these and other public policy reasons it is important to evaluate the economic value of human life from a business standpoint.
The economic value of human life involves the length of life, and the net economic contribution that a person could be expected to make during his or her lifetime. Both of these areas involve issues that can be established through expert testimony. Total net economic value involves the life expectancy, the value of the person's earnings and other economic
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).
Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…
"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
Beyond Separation of Powers
As high school students we all learned about the Constitutional separation of powers. With each of the three branches of government -- the judicial, executive, and legislative -- having the power to limit the power of the others, no one aspect of government could hold the American people hostage. This was the structure that the Framers put into effect to ensure that Americans would have an efficient, but humane, system of government. It was also, from its inception, an idealistic one. Indeed, perhaps too idealistic, for while it is good for democracy to have power divided among many rather than only a few, it is in human nature to want to concentrate power within oneself.
Thus over the over two-and-a-quarter- centuries of our nation's history, people have devised various extra-Constitutional methods for accumulating power. This paper examines three different ways in which individuals and political and…
deHaven-Smith, L & Van Horn, C. (2005). Subgovernment conflict in public policy. Policy studies journal 12(4): 627-642.
Frank, T. ( 24 June 2009). Obama and 'regulatory capture'.
Jones, M. & Jenkins-Smith, H. (2009). Trans-subsystem dynamics: Policy topography, mass opinion, and policy change. The policy studies journal 37(1).
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .