Organ Transplant Essays Examples

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Transplant Medicine the Major Histocompatibility Complex MHC

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90177750

Transplant Medicine

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) contains over 128 functional genes. This is the densest part of the human genome and is responsible for most autoimmune diseases. This region also determines vaccine responsiveness, adverse drug reactions, disease progression and transplant rejection. The MHC genes are multigenic with a high degree of allelic polymorphism. There are over 7,500 different alleles and over 5,458 expressed MHC antigens currently known. (DeFranco, Locksley & Robertson, 2007). Genomic evolution and HLA screening have been extremely profitable to Transplant Medicine.

A brief analysis of MHC variability reveals two classes of antigens belonging to this complex; class I (A, B, and C) and II (DR, DQ, and DP). Both classes of molecules are expressed in a co-dominant fashion. These molecules are designed to recognize antigens that are foreign to the body and present them to the T cells. (Janeway, Travers & Walport, 2001)

The co-dominant mode of inheritance of MHC genes assures that each individual will have a distinct antigen on their cell surface. This forms the basis of graft rejection. Once a foreign antigen enters the human body, activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes into effector cells continues until the foreign antigen is eliminated, after…… [Read More]

DeFranco, A.L., Locksley, R.M., & Robertson, M. (2007). Immunity: The immune response in infectious and inflammatory disease. (1st ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from

Janeway, C.J., Travers, P., & Walport, M. (2001).Immunobiology: The immune system in health and disease.. (5th ed.). New York: Garland Science. Retrieved from 

Reinsmoen, N., Lai, C., Vo, A., & Jordan, S.C. (2012, October 5). Evolving paradigms for desensitization in managing broadly hla sensitized transplant candidates. Retrieved from
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Organ Donating

Words: 1821 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88393715

Organ Donation

Why Organ Donating is a Social Responsibility

Life is a sentence. It begins with a capital letter, has something in between, and then a punctuation mark at the end. Organ donation allows part of our physical body to be of use to someone else for short time after we have passed. It is a beautiful gift to be able to make someone else's life a little longer. This gives them more time to love, more time to laugh, and more time to heal spiritually from the pain that this life sometimes brings. Organ donation is the last gesture of love that we can make on earth. This essay will explore the organ donation as a social and humanitarian responsibility.

Currently, there are approximately 113,984 people who will die soon if they do not receive a donor organ before their time is up if ( Every ten minutes a new person is added to the waiting list. An average of 18 people die each day waiting for the gift of life ( These numbers represent more than statistics, they represent real people. They represent people with families, who once had jobs and who come from all walks of life.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Directgov.UK. Organ and body donation. Accessed April 19, 2012. Organs and Tissues. 2010. / Accessed April 19, 2012.
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Organ Donation in Contemporary UK

Words: 2693 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73123965

2009). The susceptibility is highest is the first month of the transplantation and decreases afterwards. it, however, remains high even after 12 following. Susceptibility is highest among kidney recipients who are more likely to develop the infection 12 months after the transplantation. They have a lower mortality rate than liver transplant recipients. The study also reflected a trend in increasing antimicrobial resistance among these susceptible recipients. The E-coli strain was shown to be the most common organism, which caused the gram-negative bloodstream infection after an organ transplant. The organism was also shown to be found most frequently in the urinary tract, which is the main source of bacteremia (Al_Hasan et al.).

Developing Tolerance to Transplants

Progress in transplant immunology in the past half of a century has been slower than expected (Lechler et al. 2005). Tolerance towards a foreign organ has been intentionally induced through non-myeloablative mixed chimerism induction in a few patients. There have been much information on immunology and new available tools to understand human allograft responses. But a single drug for tolerance is unlikely. A multifaceted approach, instead, will be a better approach in studying mechanisms in rat models, non-human primates and humans. Tolerance may develop in…… [Read More]

available at

University of Bath 2008, 'Opt Out System Could Solve Donor Organ Shortage,' Science

Daily, Science Daily LLC, (online), available at
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Organ Donation Gift of Life

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89313464

Concern also focused on the imbalance of the trade because the market is for only those who can afford, therefore only gives chance for the well-off. The black market has been referred to as the transplant trade outside of the United States. Legalization of the international organ trade would lead to increased supply, lowering prices. Therefore the poor might be able to afford such organs as well.

Bioethics is also concerned in issues of exploitation of the donor. Exploitation arguments generally come from two main areas, physical and financial exploitation. Physical exploitation argues that the operations are risky and they take place in third-world countries or what they say "black alleys" which adds to the risk. Although operations can be made safe, still there remains some threat and risk for the donor. Financial exploitation on the other hand says that donors are not paid enough, especially those from the Indian subcontinent and Africa. This argument assumes that there exists some financial amount that does indeed constitute what is enough and the high prices and profits may be partly attributed to the black-market status of the transaction. 1

Certain criterions in bioethics must be fulfilled in order for an organ donation…… [Read More]


2. Richard Perez-Pena. "Turning the Grief-Stricken Toward Organ Donation." NY Times (the Metro Section) pg B1. Jan 16, 2007
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Organ Donor Pamphlet

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95362868

Organ Donation

A new State of Wisconsin Senate bill asks voters to decide upon a program to compensate living organ donors who choose to donate one or more of their organs. The bill which would provide a fully refundable tax credit of $20,000 for donations is an add-on to the existing legislation passed in 2004 "which allows living donors in Wisconsin to receive an income tax deduction to recoup donation expenses like travel costs and lost wages" (University of February 2004). The bill is not a unique one as other states have introduced legislation to provide some measure of financial support to living organ donors. An example is the recent "Pennsylvania gift giving program, awarding money to a living donor or to the family of a deceased donor that can be used for reimbursement of food and lodging expenses incurred during the donation process" (ABC June 16, 2002).

At issue though with these and other programs is the moral and ethical dilemma associated with direct financial compensation for donation of an organ. With over 101,000 individuals waiting for an organ transplant according to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) (Rettner, R. August 10, 2009), the consideration of…… [Read More]

Interestingly, this position is also aligned with the financial realities of health care financing, as the "cost of keeping a patient on kidney dialysis is so expensive-around $65,000- $70,000 a year- that it would be in the government interest to pay for a transplant as well as an incentive; the transplant pays for itself vs. dialysis after 18 months" (Rettner, R. August 10, 2009).


For many however, the mere thought of financial compensation for living organ
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Organ Sale -- Opposition Argument

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38798953

Many of the arguments advanced by those in support of organ sales are actually valid: the choice is substantially indistinguishable from other choices permitted for different reasons; and any addition on donor organs to the very tight "market" of available donor organs would likely mean that one additional organ would become available to other potential recipients. However, the principal argument against the permissibility of selling donor organs is not the denial of those admitted benefits. Rather, it is a function of the inevitable consequences of wealth disparity and the traditional economic principles of supply and demand. Moreover, the fact that organ sales are permissible in other countries provides an opportunity to observe the actual consequences of that permissibility.

Precisely because donor organs for transplant are in such critically short supply, they would command a high price that only the wealthy could afford to pay. Since selling an organ is a considerably desperate means of earning income, only the relatively poor would choose to do so. This sets up a social and economic dynamic that exposes the poor to exploitation by the wealthy. This is precisely the situation that has already occurred in countries where organ sales are legal: in many…… [Read More]

Beauchamp, T.L., and Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics 6th

Edition. Oxford University Press: UK.
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Argument Against the Proposition That Sales of Organs Should Not Be Compensated

Words: 1300 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37869287

Selling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue

Selling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. Some see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.

Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to donate their organs, resulting in the proposal that non-vital organs be sold in order to make up for the deficiency.

The following essay argues the ethical issues of this contention.

Advocates of human organ-selling

Advocates maintain that we have a moral obligation to save lives and to reduce suffering. Thousands…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.

Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.
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Liver Transplants

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68927477

Health Assessment

Perform a health history on an older adult.

John is 74 years old. He runs his own business with his wife Pam. They have three children i.e. Susan, Debbie and Henry. In the last thirty years, John has been dealing with major health issues to include: colitis, having his gallbladder removed and two separate liver transplants. When John was in his 40s, he was sent to the hospital with an infection related to colitis. Two years after he was released, John's skinned turned yellow and he experienced jaundice. The doctors determined that his bile was backing up into his gallbladder. They removed it and created ducts which go directly to the liver. Ten years later, John began to experience jaundice again and was informed that he had sclerosis of the liver. He was placed on the organ transplant list and received a new liver two years later. However, after the surgery he was still experiencing complications and had his new liver failed within five years. John spent the next two years going back and forth onto the transplant list and waiting for a new liver. Nearly, 10 years after receiving his first liver, he was given a second…… [Read More]

Nutrition and Healthy Eating. (2014). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: pyramid/art-20045416

Juall, L. (2006). Handbook of Nursing Diagnosis. Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott.
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Bioethics Transplant Case Study Thorough Examination of

Words: 3170 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3407300

Bioethics: Transplant Case Study thorough examination of any "real life" ethical question involves the examination of all of the issues at hand. It is no different for issues of problematic bioethics. Thus, in consideration of the famous "botched heart transplant story," one must ask the salient questions, "what went wrong," "what should have been done," and "what can one do to insure that this issue will be less likely to occur in the future."

In the unfortunate case of the deceased 16-year-old female, the operating physicians failed to ensure that the patient's blood type matched that of the organ donor. Although it is possible for some organ transplants to utilize non-matching organs as a time-buying device until a match becomes available, this event was neither intentional, nor viable in the case of heart/lung transplant requirements. Although there was clearly an error, as well as a lapse in communication between the state donor services and the operating physicians, it cannot be denied that the physician and physician's team are the ultimate "final authority" and responsible party for ensuring that the organ is appropriate for the patient. However, placing fault is not the main ethical issue under consideration before the ethics committee.…… [Read More]

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Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants The

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81248945

Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants:

The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the argument of all opponents to the proposition. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, human beings are created equal and given the un-separable rights to life, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. While in the pursuit of these rights, the American society has learnt that the end does not always justify the means and as such, necessary legislation has been instituted to help protect minorities from majorities, the poor from the wealthy, and the weak from the strong. A society in which people could buy and sell organs for transplant would further ruin the pursuit for equality and frustrate the liberty of generosity needed for living a happy life.

Opposing the proposition does not mean that one believes society bears no duty to preserve life and relieve human suffering, rather it is a stand on the principle that longer life cannot be pursued by any means whatsoever. According to statistics, more than 100,000 individuals find themselves in need of life-saving organ transplants on an annual basis (Andre & Velasquez, n.d.). While biomedical…… [Read More]

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (n.d.). Kidneys for Sale. Retrieved from Santa Clara University -- The Jesuit University in Silicon Valley website:

Mayes, G. (2003.) Buying and Selling Organs for Transplantation in the U.S.: National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) Bans Buying and Selling. Medscape Education, 4(2). Retrieved from
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Articles That Are Related to Physical Activity After Transplant

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28121296

Quality of Life Measures

Quality of life is measured using a variety of surveys. The most common of these surveys is the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), which measures several categories of physical functioning, as well as containing a Mental Health Component (MCS). Another commonly used quality of life measure is the Dutch RAND-36. Masala, etl al (2012) used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study as well as the SF-36. The van Ginneken et al. (2010) study employed the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68), Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in addition to the RAND-36.

Physical Activities Measures

Physical activity is measured with a number of self-assessment and objective tools including peak oxygen uptake during cycle ergometry, walking distance in a timed exercise, "isokinetic muscle strength of knee extensors, body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness," and severity of fatigue (van Ginneken, et al., 2007, p. 345). Masala et al. (2012) used the Metabolic Equivalent (MET), which measures amount of time spent in physical activity, expressed in minutes per week. Van den Berg-Emons (2006) relied on additional measures such as the Activity Monitor (AM), and the Fatigue…… [Read More]

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Health Care Administration

Words: 820 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3347041

Organ transplant recipients are more susceptible to cancer due to oncogenic viral infections and immunosuppression. What is the overall pattern of cancer following an organ transplantation?

Cancer is a major adverse outcome of solid organ transplantation.2 Previous studies have demonstrated an overall 2- to 4-fold elevated risk of cancer.3- 11 Excess risk is largely due to immunosuppression, with a spectrum of cancer resembling that seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, another immunosuppressing condition.11 Risks are especially high for malignancies caused by viral infections, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (both due to Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]), Kaposi sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8), anogenital cancers (human papillomavirus), and liver cancer (hepatitis C and B viruses). Certain other malignancies such as cancers of the lung, kidney, skin, and thyroid also are increased in transplant recipients. Linkage of population-based transplant and cancer registries from the same geographic region can allow for systematic ascertainment of cancer outcomes in a large representative population of recipients. Except for a recent study from the United Kingdom with 37-616 transplant recipients,4 prior linkage studies of cancer following transplantation included 2000 to 11-000 recipients,3,5- 9 which is not large enough to accurately estimate risk for less common cancers. Also, these…… [Read More]

Engels, E.A., Pfeiffer, R.M., Fraumeni, J.F., Kasiske, B.L., Israni, A.K., & Snyder, J.J. (2011). Spectrum of Cancer Risk among U.S. Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. JAMA, 306(17), 1891-1901. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1592

Saaristo, T., Moilanen, L., Korpi-Hyovalti, E., Vanhala, M., Saltevo, J., Niskanen, L. . . . Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2010). Lifestyle intervention for prevention of type 2 diabetes in primary health care: one-year follow-up of the Finnish national diabetes prevention program (FIND2D). Diabetes Care, 33(10), 2146-2151. Doi:10.2337/dc10-0410
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Legal Transplants the Objective of This Study

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76998708

Legal Transplants

The objective of this study is to discuss and compare two legal transplants with reference to at least one African or Asian legal system. For the purpose of this work, Turkey and legal transplants will be examined.

The work of Orucu (2008) states that Chiba (1986) relates the "concept of legal pluralism…as an effective attack on the common sense of orthodox jurisprudence by rejecting the 'oneness of state law as law or university of western law." (p.1) Chiba is reported to proffer a model of official law "as always intersecting with unofficial law and legal postulates, and never existing in isolation." (Orucu, 2008, p.1) It is the expectation that the state laws will in cohesion with "society and its normative orders, and religion and worldviews…work together to achieve a balanced and sustainable legal order." (Orucu, 2008, p.1-2) However, according to Orucu "legal centralism reflects the ambition of the modern nation state for total legal control and by definition rejects polycentric law." (2008, p.2)

The work of Dai (2009) entitled "On Several Problems in Legal Transplantation" states that legal transplantation that exists between nations and national districts "usually means the digestive and absorptive process happened in legal article, legal…… [Read More]

Dai, J. (2009) On Several Problems in Legal Transplantation. Journal of Politics and Law, Sept. 2009. Vol. 2, No. 3.

Gunderson, JL and Waelde, TW (1994) Legislative Reform In Transition Economies: Western Transplants -- a Short-Cut to Social Market Economy Status? ICQL 1994, 43(2), 347-378.
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Heart Transplant Asthma & Pulmonary

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74860934

Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%

in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#


Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from;col1

Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from

Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. Baker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac

Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,

March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from;col1

Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary

Angiography in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension: 10-Year Single-Center

Experience. 183 (3). American Journal of Roentgenology: American Roentgen Ray

Society, September 21, 2004. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from

Richardson, William S., et al. Gallstone Disease in Heart Transplant Recipients. 237 (2)

Annals of Surgery: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, February…… [Read More]

Tobacco Smoke: Insights from a Meta-Regression. Environmental Health

Perspectives: Medscape, October 25, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from

Yawn, Barbara and Mary Knudtson. Treating Asthma and Comorbid Allergic Rhinitis in Pregnancy: a Review of the Current Guidelines. Journal of American Board of Family Medicine: American Bord of Family Medicine, June 26, 2007
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Ethical Values and Issues in

Words: 1195 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17530085

S. (Levine, 2008).

One of the paradoxes of modern medical science and technology is the blurring of the line between life and death, something that was never an issue before modern medicine (Griniezakis, 2007; Levine, 2008). That was the case even before the most recent revelations in 2009 that many patients previously diagnosed as being in long-term persistent vegetative states actually remained conscious throughout their ordeal and that several patients considered to be brain dead according to accepted criteria eventually recovered consciousness (Halpern, Raz, Kohn, et al., 2010). The obvious concern is that inaccurate diagnoses of persistent vegetative states and the premature declaration of death could result in the procurement of organs for transplant from patients who could still recover from their medical predicament. That issue, unlike religious objections to scientific research remains a valid bioethics concern.

The other principal ethical issue in relation to organ transplantation is in connection with the sale of transplant organs. In countries where such sales have been permitted by law, trends have emerged whereby the poor have been exploited in this manner for the benefit of the wealthy (Levine, 2008). On the other hand, there is good reason to believe that the legalized sale…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Griniezakis AM. "Legal and ethical issues associated with brain death." Issues in Law & Medicine (September 22, 2007).

Harrison TR, Morgan, SE, and Di Corcia MJ. "Effects of information, education, and communication training about organ donation for gatekeepers: clerks at the Department of Motor Vehicles and organ donor registries" Progress in Transplantation (December 1, 2008).
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Distributive Justice Should Todd Krampitz

Words: 916 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93880967

While no one ought to begrudge Mickey Mantle (or anyone) a much-needed liver transplant, it remains hard to believe, given the speed at which Mickey Mantle received a liver and an operation that he was indeed placed on a list and then waited his turn like everyone else.

Further, according to Koch (March 1996)Normative and prescriptive criteria: The efficacy of organ transplantation allocation protocols (March 1996):

well publicized cases have raised questions in North America about the efficacy of [donated organ] allocation procedures. An analysis of those cases, and the relevant technical literature, suggest consistent structural deficits exist in the organ allocation process as it is applied by many individual transplantation centres. These irregularities are based upon both the failure of rank waiting as a method to guarantee just treatment and a general failure to recognize the extent to which prescriptive criteria -- social values -- are commonly used to screen potential organ transplant candidates. Resulting idiosyncratic determinations, and a devaluation of rank waiting as a criterion, raise fundamental questions regarding justice, fairness, and equability in the application procedure at large.

In an ideal world (which ours, unfortunately, is very far from being), it might well seem unethical, immoral, and…… [Read More]

Koch, T. (March 1996). Normative and prescriptive criteria: The efficacy of organ transplantation allocation protocols. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

Historical Archive),17(1). SpringerLink. 75-93. Retrieved July 31, 2005, at aa86c4a37b56a37e250fa9bdf&referrer=parent&backto=issue,7,8;journal,4,55;linkingpublicationresults,1:403004,1.html.
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Health Care and Ethics

Words: 2007 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19718322

ethics regarding organ donation by brain-damaged people. The writer explores how a brain-damaged person is defined, and whether or not the donation of organs from that person is ethical. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.

The field of medicine has advanced mankind to arenas never before thought possible. Today doctors can take entire organ systems out of one person and place them in another and the recipient can live for many years with transplanted organs. Hearts, lungs, kidneys, livers, eyes and many combinations of them are just a few of the organs that are transplanted worldwide today. As the medical community continues to advance age and quality of life the need for more organs has reached the critical stage. One of the most argued and passionate debates in the medical community today is whether or not it is ethical to remove organs in the case of a brain dead person. It is a debate that is heated on both sides of the topic and one that will not easily be resolved. Those who believe it is ethical point to the lives that are saved because of the donated organs while those who are not for it believe…… [Read More]

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Morality From a Philosophical Perspective

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84656946

2306 Kant. Consider situation: You ill life support. You a transplant organs continue living. Your parents decided biological child specifically organ transplant child / matures a level (assume part organ child survive)

Kant's assumption on the present matter is reflected in the well-known maxim and law, "act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law." (Stanford, 2004) Most often this "law" is interpreted as being a set of questions one must ask himself before undergoing a certain action. More precisely, the first step in determining whether the course of action one is about to take is morally correct or not is to actually formulate that action and provide a reasoning for it. Secondly, it is important to consider that action and that reasoning multiplied at a universal level, thought of this action as being a universal law and one the world would need to follow. Thirdly, after consideration of the universe transformed by that maxim or action, one must see whether his own action would be possible in such a world where that action has become a law of nature. Finally, if the previous question yields a…… [Read More]

Kerstein, S. (2009) Treating Others Merely as Means in "Utilitas" Vol. 21, No. 2, June, University of Cambridge, available online at 

New York University. (n.d) Means and ends. Available at
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What Is the Definition of Death Pulse and Brain Definitions

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59287270

innings" account and the "prudential lifespan" account support the age-based prioritization in organ allocation by suggesting that there is a certain amount of time that people should live: for example, if a young man of 25 dies, it is viewed as a tragedy because he was so young -- he died before his time. But if an old man of 85 dies, it is viewed differently -- then it is his time. Williams says this is a biased kind of thinking that does not consider quality of life but rather quantity of years. The man of 25 could have a far worse quality of life than the man of 85 -- but that is not taken into consideration by many people. Thus, if a person was asked who should receive an organ for an organ transplant, most would answer that the young man of 25 should receive it because he still has many more years to go to live whereas the man of 85 has had a good run, but he should not be given an organ when he is so old and there is a young man who could make better use of it. This is how the theory…… [Read More]

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Transforming Scheduled Death Into Renewed Life One

Words: 4525 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66878778

Transforming Scheduled Death Into Renewed Life

One of the harsh realities of living in an otherwise-free society is the fact that the United States incarcerates far more of its citizens than other leading industrialized nations, and it one of the few countries in the world that retains the death penalty on its books. When capital offenders are executed, there exists the opportunity to turn this scheduled death into renewed through organ donations. At present, while an individual has the right to say whether their organs should be donated, death-row inmates are considered wards of the state and it is the position of this study that the state should have the corresponding right to harvest their organs as a means of execution in order to save and improve the quality of the lives of others. To determine whether the potential exists for such an approach, this study examines the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning organ donations in general and what steps would have to be taken to harvest organs from executed capital offenders including the legal and economic implications. An examination of potential exploitations and abuses of such an approach is followed by a discussion of potential offsetting remedies, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
"Abolish the death penalty." (2011). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.
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Kidneys and How They Function

Words: 2771 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33287328

However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."

In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus ( explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is also used to treat people who have been weakened by chemotherapy. Epoetin Alfa is "usually injected one to three times weekly" subcutaneously in patients who have a lower than normal number of red blood cells (i.e., anemia), albeit it does not "cure anemia" and it frequently takes from two to…… [Read More]

Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients

With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at
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Nursing Kidney Nursing Perceptions and

Words: 2121 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89660948

(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.

Subjects and Sampling Technique:

The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive surveys to account for all members of a nursing staff. Respondents will receive a survey and self-addressed stamped envelope with which to submit the survey to the researchers.

Data Collection and Analysis:

The survey instrument would use a Likert Scale in order to measure the level of approval or disapproval…… [Read More]

Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.

Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
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Public Information on Kidney Donation

Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80584463

This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.

It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for options that might keep them alive. The research provided by MNT indicates as much, and simultaneously illuminates a non-traditional approach to organ-donation courtship that should be exploited. According to its research, "if one accepts that, as the waiting list grows, more and more patients will consider the public solicitation of…… [Read More]

Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.

Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
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International Management Ethics & Values

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85262135

As many forms of live donation do not cause harm to others, and as we allow the donation of blood for payment, we violate the categorical imperative by banning the sale of human organs.

It has been argued by some that banning organ donation is within the bounds of Kantian ethics because we have collectively agreed to the conviction that "such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity" (Cohen, 2002). Yet, we do not prohibit the donation of blood or of bone marrow. Indeed, most among us would agree that such donations are necessary and beneficial. Lives are saved. There is nothing morally wrong about saving lives -- indeed live donations today are conducted voluntarily and without any moral consequence.

Allowing live organ donations is ethically consistent with our established principles regarding blood donation and voluntary, unpaid live organ donation. It will increase the supply of organs, allowing thousands to survive who otherwise would not. Live organ donation is consistent with the American concept of individual rights -- we all have the right to sell an organ the same as we have the right to sell our blood. Moreover, because thousands die each year for lack…… [Read More]

Holcberg, David. (2008). Allow the Sale of Human Organs. Chicago Sun-Times. April 18, 2008.

Cohen, Cynthia B. (2002). Public Policy and the Sale of Human Organs. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Vol. 12, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 47-64.
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and more difficult for the body's immune system to respond against it. The period when the virus enters the body is the acute phase and it is characterized by rapid replication of the virus leading to an abundance of the virus in the patient's blood. Though the disease does not cause…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
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Technology and Death Policy Redefining

Words: 2007 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46510951

Discussion about Brain Death and Cerebral Definitions

It has been researched that the human brain collapses at prior to the cessation of the human organs; the collapse of the human brain is attributed to the elimination of the large numbers of redundant neurons, and the aging process i.e. The gradual loss of sensory capacities. It has been reported that the visual acuity decline on linear basis between the age limit of 20-60, and soon after sixty the declination of the visual acuity is exponential. By the age of 45, the depth perception is reported declination in accelerated manner, and the speech comprehension is expected to get affect after the age of 80 due to the quarter loss of the extensive neurons in the superior temporal gyrus of the auditory cortex. The research has observed that significant decrease in the neuron density is expected, as a result of the aging process. The loss of the neuron density is evident in different brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, the sub-cortical brain regions, and the cerebellum. The mass of the human brain is reported to shrink by 5-10% after every decade. Furthermore the human brain is vulnerable to 'gradual process of brain cell death…… [Read More]

Robert H. Blank. Technology and Death Policy: Redefining Death. Department of Government, Brunel University. 2001.

Peter Monaghan. The Unsettled Question of Brain Death. The Chronicle of Higher Education Vol. 48, Issue, 24. 2002.
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Harvest Exploitation and Hardship in Harvest the

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43518161


Exploitation and Hardship in Harvest

The gap in living standards between those in the developed and developing spheres is substantial. And in the context of a global recession, this gap has only grown wider. Globalization has given us over to a concentrated form of socioeconomic exploitation within which wealthy Western nations strip poor Third World nations of their most precious resources. In this way, the global economy has come to be driven by the systematic deprivation of the Third World's critical commodities. This arrangement doesn't simply lower living standards and opportunities for those in the poorest parts of the world but also reinforces the notion that the wealthy are simply more entitled to these commodities and resources than are the poor. This arrangement is taken to its most absurd and disturbing ends in the 1997 play Harvest by Manjula Padmanabhan. Centering on the experience of Om, his wife Jaya, and his brother Jeeta, Harvest describes a frightening future world (now several years prior to the actual present date) where the poor citizens of the developing world can sell their organs to wealthy westerners for much needed cash. This terrible opportunity is what drives the action of Harvest, inducing a…… [Read More]

Gilbert, H. (2001). Postcolonial Plays: An Anthology. Psychology Press.

Gonio, B. (2006). 'Harvest' by Manjula Padmanabhan. TPS Online.
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Health Care Market in Discussing the Market

Words: 818 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14654930

Health Care Market

In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of the entire health care industry, along with each of the goods and services that are produced and exchanged within this market. From organ transplant operations and blood donation to therapeutic massages and nursing home activity programs, the span of health care goods and services is both vast and varied. Further, in viewing today's uncertain economy, the market for health care goods and services is one that brings with it many different questions that must be addressed in order for a stakeholder to fully comprehend what decisions need to made in order to turn a profit.

Scarcity of Resources

Scarcity of resources within this market significantly influences the decisions that stakeholders are forced to make. With scarcity of resources comes limited action and availability for certain goods and services to be offered with the health care field. In looking at the national economy as a whole, scarcity comes into play immediately. Even if the preference of the country is to spend more on health care, scarcity in funding limits how much of…… [Read More]

Case, K. And Fair, R. (2007). Principles of economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Education, Inc.
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Government Policies and Market Issues

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86218355

Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.

Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.

In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls. The issue of donor organ availability began to move towards a quasi-natural scarcity in the 70s and 80s as medical advances resulted in the willingness of more hospitals and doctors to deliver transplantation services.

In the 1960s, Dr. Thomas Starzl performed the first human liver transplant and Dr. Christiaan N.…… [Read More]

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Poor Socio-Economic Background and Conditions

Words: 3403 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17295052

Above all it has followed the deliberate marketing of health care (in association with tourism) as medical care has gradually moved away from the public sector to the private sector, ensuring that a growing majority of people, especially in the richest countries, and particularly in the United States, must pay -- often considerably -- for health care. Finally, growing interest in cosmetic surgery, involving such elective procedures as rhinoplasty, liposuction, breast enhancement or reduction, LASIK eye surgery and so on, or more simply the removal of tattoos, have created new demands. Various forms of dental surgery, especially cosmetic dental surgery, are not covered by insurance in countries like the UK and Australia; hence dental tourism has become particularly common. In Asia these trends are 'the unlikely child of new global realities: the fallout of terrorism, the Asian economic downturn, internet access to price information, and the globalisation of health services' (Levett, 2005, p. 27). (Medical tourism: Sea, sun, sand and y surgery)

The added problem to this of course, is that patients on dialysis are no longer able to work, and therefore cannot pay taxes. This results on a double blow on the economy. People, it is a fact, that…… [Read More]

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Health Insurance Costs Perhaps it Is Simply

Words: 3597 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45308216

Health Insurance Costs

Perhaps it is simply that we all need a few good villains in our life, and with the Cold War firmly over we must look closer to home to find our bad guys. Or perhaps it is simply that there is a great deal of villainy in society, that in fact society is nothing more than an evolutionary process of ever-more sophisticated forms of villainy.

Either explanation might do to explain the rise of the health maintenance organization as a pervasive element of American society as a primary reason that the quality of health care continues to decline even as health care costs continue to rise in this country. This paper examines the relationship between HMOs and other forms of health insurance and the rising cost of American healthcare, using the area of organ donation as a means of illustrating the complexities of the issue and the ways in which both patient and doctors (but especially patients) are harmed by the current system.

With an eye always on the bottom line, HMOs are often seen as the villain by both patients, who may find themselves severely limited in their choice of physician as well as stymied in…… [Read More]

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History of Surgery

Words: 6608 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18946792

History of Surgery had been started from the prehistoric time with its appropriate technique and tools applicable during the age. There was no sophisticated care of hygiene and anatomic knowledge in the early days; the basic research was started using trial and error on every case and it had set a very strong basic which still makes sense and counts into modern practice.

The following summary of history of surgery is compiled from various sources based on the timeline set in dr. Schell's lecture: The History of Surgery.

The Ancient Medicine (Prehistoric Time)

People had strong magic beliefs and connection to multiple gods during the prehistoric time, so that any cases of illness were also believed as the punishments from angry gods for community's or one's moral failure. Some common cases recorded were respiratory and digestive problems, infections, and gynecologic disorders. Life expectancy low, then 28-35 years was a successful range of survival. Cancer and degenerative diseases were not relevant at that time.

The early surgery practice in Europe was trepanation, drilling a hole in the head. Evidences found skulls with holes from the Neolithic European ages, about 7000 years ago. Since supernatural beliefs was very strong, the cranial drilling…… [Read More]

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Thousands of Patients Waiting on

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21034853

Such experiments demonstrated that only seven of the thirty five within the test actually experienced vascular rejection, whereas all of the sheep receiving hearts from unmodified pigs exhibited vascular rejection.

The near-term implications of Berchorner's work could have a profound influence on organ transplants and the future of patient treatments. Researchers will inject human liver cells into fetal pigs; these pigs will be bred with a "suicide gene" that will be triggered to destroy their own livers. His hope is that human cells will then take the initiative to repopulate the pig liver, thus creating a synthesis of the two within the liver. This current study could lead to breeding pigs specifically for the purpose of human liver transplants. Even now, the use of pig livers are being used as a mechanism to help patients survive a few hours longer while waiting for human liver transplants. Berchorner's research may eventually lead to the design of hybrid livers, which also could be used in research on human liver diseases. He argues that the next step is to use the same technique on baboons, which are much closer to humans than sheep. If this step is successful, then within the next five…… [Read More]

Jonietz, Erika. A donor Named Wilbur. 25 Jan. 2007 / forum020/messages/18140.htm>.

Beschorner, William E. Heart Xenograft Survival With Chimeric Pig Donors and Modest Immune Suppression. 25 Jan. 2007
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Barriers to Corneal Donation

Words: 1244 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89881049

Corneal Donation within Hospitals and Medical Communities: Issues Surrounding Post Mortem Donations of Tissue

Qualitative Study

The purpose of this study is to identify barriers to corneal donation within hospitals and medical communities. A large body of research has focused on issues surrounding the post mortem donations of tissue. This research will take a different approach, examining what barriers exist within hospital and medical communities in an attempt to determine how these barriers may be overcome.

The number of potential corneal donors far surpasses the number of people available for traditional organ donations and in some states consent of the medical examiner alone is enough to allow use of corneal donations (family consent not required) (Lewin, 2000).

Traditionally the most significant barrier to organ donation and transplantation has been acquisition of organs and tissues (Murray et. al, 2002). The need for cornea tissue is rising. The average wait time for a corneal transplant is two or more years (Murray et. al, 2002). Typically patients with pain resulting from corneal disease and blindness in both eyes are considered priority patients (Murray, et. al, 2002). Thought there have been more corneas available, the wait time and list still remains long.

Significance of…… [Read More]

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Human Genome Project May Be

Words: 2793 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46892228

Since the antigens are closely linked to race and ethnicity, it is much easier to find a biological match among people with similar ethnic and racial backgrounds than it is among any two randomly selected individuals. On the basis of tissue matching, organs from blacks will almost always go to blacks and organs from whites will almost always go to whites. Blacks, however, have a much higher incidence of kidney failure than whites. But since whites significantly outnumber blacks in the American population, there are still large numbers of whites waiting for organs. There are so many, in fact, that nearly every white donor is matched to a white recipient. Blacks and other minorities must rely on a much smaller pool of kidneys. The situation for potential black kidney transplant recipients is made even worse by the fact that blacks have a lower rate of cadaver organ donation than do whites. So there is a disproportionately small share of black cadaver kidneys available for a disproportionately large group of blacks in need of kidney transplants. By deciding to use biology in the name of efficiency and, it must be added, fairness, whites wind up with a much larger number of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Andrew, Lori. "Public Choices and Private Choices: Legal Regulation of Genetic Testing."

Justice and the Human Genome Project. Ed. Timothy Murphy and Marc Lappe. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994, 46-75.
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Stem Cell Cience Must Be

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86882230

Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.

The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious freedom in the U.S. protects their right to hold those religious beliefs whether or not they make sense scientifically and logically. However, religious freedom also protects the rights of everybody else who may not share those religious definitions of what human life is or when it "begins."

Because the Bush…… [Read More]

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Supplementing Relaxation and Music for Pain After Surgery

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40615112

Music and Pain

The use of music in relation to relaxation and pain control is universal in application. Many cultures use music, tones, chanting, drums, or other forms of biofeedback to treat patients in acute pain, women in labor, recovery, and now, most recently, in pre- and post-operative care. In fact, the therapeutic value of music has been recognized as vital and powerful since Ancient Times; archaeological evidence shows flutes carved from bone in pictures of physicians healing patients, Greek physicians used music and vibration to heal, aid in digestion and induce sleep; the Early Egyptians used musical incantations to help with the healing process; and certainly, numerous native tribes use singing and chanting as part of their healing rituals (Nilsson, 2008).

Further, most postoperative patients have pain, despite the use of analgesia. Nurses are constantly trying to be more effective in delivering pain medication. One study showed that patients who were randomized showed increased pain decrease when music was applied. However, ethically there were patients who did not receive music therapy and, therefore, may have experienced more pain than the group receiving music therapy (Good,, 2010). Additionally, and in relation to the previous article, one of the growing…… [Read More]

Scientific Control Group. (2008). Retrieved from:

Torphy, J., (2011). Kidney Transplantation. Journal of the American Medical Association. 305 (6): 634-49.

Wiley and Sons.
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Swedish Medical Center Case Study

Words: 3071 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34419998

Women's Health -- Focused on prevention and care for breast health, mammography, etc.

Transplant Programs - Swedish is one of seven kidney transplant centers and one of just four liver transplant centers serving the entire Pacific Northwest. The Organ Transplant Program at Swedish is at the forefront of new advances in transplantation surgery, including pancreas transplants and transplants between unrelated living organ donors and recipients (Swedish Medical Center, 2011).

Service design, operational activities, strategic decisions- Swedish is nothing but on the move -- strategically and tactically. In October, 2011, Swedish opened a new full-care facility with a 550,000 square foot campus in the city of Issaquah, southeast of Seattle city proper. This new facility was designed to be an entirely new hospital experience. Some of the operational innovations include a new Childbirth Center with eight new Labor/Delivery/Recovery rooms that include sleeping areas for partners, iPod access and a hotel room service-style dining program; a new surgical inpatient unit that have pull out couches to accommodate families; and new inpatient care units that are designed to feel like a hotel/resort. In addition, the hospital was designed to meet energy-efficient strategies and sustainability with heat-recovery options, green roofs, and energy saving utilities,…… [Read More]

Arnold, E. (2007). Service-Dominant Logic and Resource Theory. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 36(1), 21-24.

Crosby, J. (2011, November). Human Resource - Swedish Hospital.
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Political Influence Over Stem Cell

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14376102

Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).

Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal experiments and substantial technical obstacles remain before anybody reputable would consider human experimentation of this nature for that reason alone (Levine, 2008; Tong, 2007).

Objective Ethical Analysis:

The principle reasons that doctrinal objection to stem cell research is inappropriate are (1) it is logically flawed and (2) it contradicts the…… [Read More]

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little

Brown & Co.
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Use of Embryonic Stem Cells to Cure Disease

Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9213871

Embryonic Stem Cells to Cure Disease

Embryonic Stem Cell

Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Generation of Cardiomyocytes from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Purified Population of Cardiomyocytes

Use of Transgenes in Differentiated Cardiomyocytes

Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Heart Conditions

Neurological Disorders and Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Parkinson's Disease


Huntington's disease

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Human Embryonic Stem Cells for the Generation of Functional Hepatic Cells

Ethical Considerations of Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Social Oppression

Value of the Embryo

Pluripotent stem cell cultures were isolated in 1981 by Evans and Kaufman from mouse blastocysts. It was found that these cells were capable of self-renewal having a long-term capacity to remain undifferentiated in certain provided culture conditions. Studies have highlighted the basic difference between stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into three germ layers. These cells have an additional capacity to proliferate in culture conditions in an undifferentiated state plus these cells usually disappear after differentiating into germ layers. For clinical purposes, origin of human embryonic stem cell is pre-implantation embryo. The stem cell lines have been derived from inner cell mass of human blastocysts that are produced…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Barberi, T., Willis, M.L., Socci, D.N., and Studer, L. (2006). Derivation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Precursors from Human Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS Med 2(6): p. 0554-0560.

Bhattacharya, B., Miura, T., Brandenberger, R., Mejido, J., Luo, Y., Yang, X.A., Joshi, H.B., Ginis, I., Thies, S.R., Amit, M., Lyons, I., Condie, G.B., Itskovitz-Eldor, J., Rao, S.M.,and Puri, K.R. (2004). Gene expression in human embryonic stem cell lines: unique molecular signature. Blood 103: 2956-2964.
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Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

Words: 5907 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 434586

Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery.

The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs at the cellular and molecular levels of human development and use this information to identify certain molecular pathways that contribute to a variety of conditions. Furthermore, using these stem cells could also allow scientists to discover the genes that are triggered in response to certain cellular conditions that cause rapid, unchecked cell growth or irregular cellular patterns. Additionally, using stem cells to discover certain genetic conditions will lend immense amount of information to the scientists and afford researchers the opportunity to enhance their understanding of various disorders caused by genetics. However, despite this growing potential there are obstacles associated with the utilization of these cell lines in the pursuit of medical advancement. The use of stem cells comes attached with a variety of legal, ethical, moral and philosophical issues. The…… [Read More]

Bellomo, M. (2006). The Stem Cell Divide: The Facts, the Fiction, and the Fear Driving the Greatest Scientific, Political, and Religious Debate of Our Time. New York: Amacom.

Bevington, Linda K., Ray G. Bohlin, Gary P. Stewart, John F. Kilner, and C. Christopher Hook. Basic Questions on Genetics, Stem Cell Research and Cloning: Are These Technologies Okay to Use? Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2002.
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Health Care Crisis Fact or Fiction

Words: 5227 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23538485

reputed "health crisis" currently facing Americans. The author explores several aspects of the health care crisis and analyzes the validity of those claims. The author presents an argument that there really is not a health care crisis and it is a fallacy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

Why do People Believe the Crisis is Real?

What Evidence is There That it is Not Real?

What are some of the things giving the appearance it is...shortage of students etc.

What are some of the ideas that can help the problem?

For several years now Americans have been inundated with information about the health care crisis. News channels cover the crisis and pipe it into living rooms. Magazines publish articles about the causes and history of the health care crisis and politicians use the health care crisis to sell their platform and garner votes. It seems that everywhere one turns one can hear, see or read information about the health care crisis in America. It has become such a part of the fabric of American life that it is accepted as fact. There are several schools of thought about how it started and what keeps it going. Many…… [Read More]

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Umbilical Cords Blood Stem Cell

Words: 4604 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68647678

Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.

Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. While it is a difficult task, scientists are pursuing it with great excitement because it is widely believed that cultured embryonic stem calls can be induced to generate all the mature cell types in the body. These cells could possibly be used to replace damaged or sick cells in patients with injuries or degenerative diseases.…… [Read More]

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Fault An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based

Words: 30263 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86754711

Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales

The United Kingdom

statistics regarding claims
























Works Cited



At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual rise in cases, an examination of the consideration of a proposed no-fault alternative to the current system is underway. We will explore the basis of the current system, the impetus for change, and the characteristics of no-fault reform as experienced by other countries and its pros and cons. The principal…… [Read More]