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To be more precise, the authors explain that there is a procedure that has been created as an aspect of the theoretical model of Structural Adaptation to Regain Fit (SARFIT) (Donaldson). This model asserts that when an organization in fit experiences improved performance that results it results in excess resources and leads to growth in size, geographic expansion, innovation or diversification. This in turn increases the number of contingency variables. This results in a "misfit with the existing structure. Themisfit lowers performance, eventually leading to a performance crisis and adaptive structural change into fit (Donaldson)."
There is also a specific process associated with organizational design. This process has different stages associated with the varying levels in the organization. As a result of this process the appropriate interventions take place to alter the processes, behavior values of both groups and individuals. There are a total of eight stages in the…
Aken, J E.V. (2007) Design Science and Organization Development Interventions: Aligning Business and Humanistic Values. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 43(1); pg. 67-88
Donaldson. Lex the Contengency theory of Organizational Design: Challenges and opportunities. Retrieved January 2010 from; http://www.springerlink.com/content/r53245822h482782/fulltext.pdfKikulis, LISA M . TREVOR SLACK,
Hustings C.R. (1995) Sector-Specific Patterns of Organizational Design Change. Journal of Management Studies 32:1
"Organizational Theory: Determinants of Structure." Retrieved January 2010 from; http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/orgtheory.htm
It was not necessarily that Coca Cola wanted to invest in China, as it actually saw the opportunity to access a large consumer society and tried to get involved in exploiting this chance as fast as it possibly could. "The theme of the public's responses could be seen in many caricatures and cartoons on China's Internet. The Graphic from China's Economics eb and also spotted on all Street Journal blog shows Coca Cola trying to swallow Huiyan" (Scotton & Hachten, 156).
The Chinese Ministry of Commerce virtually recognized Coca Cola's hostile competition nature and concentrated on preventing the company from removing other products from the market. The recent years saw the company experience graduate success in China as a result of using strategies that it should have used from the beginning. It appears that the Chinese public appreciates the fact that Coca Cola is no longer aggressive and is unhesitant…
1. Crothers, Lane, "Globalization and American Popular Culture," (Rowman & Littlefield, 13.07.2012)
2. Ferrell, O.C., Fraederich, John, and Ferrell, Linda, "Business Ethics 2009: Ethical Decision Making and Cases," (Cengage Learning, 27.04.2009)
3. Haig, Matt, "Brand Failures: The Truth About the 100 Biggest Branding Mistakes of All Time," (Kogan Page Publishers, 03.05.2011)
4. Mills, Albert J., Helm Mills, Jean C., Bratton, John, and Forshaw, Carolyn, "Organizational Behaviour in a Global Context," (University of Toronto Press, 30.09.2006)
Part 3 -- We sometimes forget that the world has not always been organized under the structure of technology and manufacturing. Particularly at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, modern capitalism changed the way labor and management interacted. A number of people began to think about labor, about efficiency, and about the manner in which the two interacted so that manufacturing needs for modern developing societies could improve. One of these philosophical tenets, Taylorism, is also known as scientific management. This is a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized the process of workflow with the objective to improve both labor and economic productivity. In general, scientific management requires a high level of managerial control over employees and their work practices. Of course this means a higher ratio of managers to workers than previous methods. The importance of this approach was that management should conform…
Hax, a., Majluf, N. (1981). Organizational Design: A Survey and an Approach. Operations Research. 29 (3): 417-47.
Lannon, R. (2008, January). 12 Rules of Delegation. The ProjectManagementHut. Retrieved from: http://www.pmhut.com/12-rules-of-delegation
Locke, E. (1982). The Ideas of Frederick W. Taylor: An Evaluation. The Academy of Management Review. 7 (1): 14-24. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org / discover/10.2307/257244?uid=3739960&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21101862561573
Sullivan, J. (2010). Four Basic Elements of Organizational Structure and Key Elements of Organizational Structure. Chron Small Business Demand Media. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/four-basic-elements-organizational-structure-288.html
A health care agency or hospital design is very important as it portrays the beliefs and values of that health care. Designs should be designs that care not only for the physicians, trustees, administrators but also for the patients. Thus seeking architectural advice for the construction of a health care is imperative.
There are several architectural design phases such as Schematic design (SD), design development (DD and construction documents (CD). Designs are important to ensure that original intents are not comprised in terms of internal readiness and processes improvement plans.
The design of my healthcare organization, the Legacy Home Health Care in Texas, is such that all types of processes have been mapped beginning from admitting, discharge, billing, and medication requirements. This simplifies the work thus eliminating inefficiencies and focusing mainly on improving patient care.
In addition, the design is such that all the staff is familiar with…
Health design (2011).Clinic Design. Retrieved September 23, 2011 from http://www.healthdesign.org/clinic-design/design-process
Legacy Home Health Care, (2011). Health Care Has Come Home. Retrieved September 24,
2011 from http://www.legacymedhealth.com/
Meghan S. McGowan, BSN (2011) Behavior, Health, and the Reduction of Costs: Promotion of Personal Accountability Retrieved September 23, 2011 from http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/Personal_Accountability.htm
In addition to being referred to as position management, organizational design incorporates the analysis of individual position and their arrangement in the entire organization. Therefore, an efficient organizational design supports clear lines of authority, responsibilities of the authorities, cooperation and trust, effective communication, smooth and timely work flows, cost efficiency, and flexibility to changing situations.
Clues of Problems in the Design of an Organization:
Organizational design has various functions in an organization including the determination of the extent of focus, product/service range, target market initiatives, and the number of targeted niches. The structures of individual positions and organizational design have a direct effect on cost-efficiency and effectiveness of achievement of organizational goals ("Organizational Design," n.d.). In case of problems with the design of an organization, some of the major clues a manager may have include:
Slow Decision Making:
Slow decision making occurs when the design is not optimized…
Acevedo, L. (n.d.). Signs of Poor Organizational Structure. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/list_5958602_signs-poor-organizational-structure.html
"Organizational Design -- Planning Before BRAC Happens." (n.d.). Defense Civilian Personnel
Advisory Service. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from http://www.cpms.osd.mil/ASSETS/2C81C845614B4356B5E3DE57A325CF72/Organizational%20Design%20for%20Managers%20and%20Supervisors.pdf
Ultimately, this explains why organizations that are motivation oriented succeed while those that are non-motivation oriented fail. It is because when employees are motivated, they yield maximum positive results leading to the success of the organization. Therefore, motivation is goal oriented thus it cannot be placed outside the precincts of any business whether non-profit, profit or private (Dessler, 2006).
Because we have recognized the employees' needs, the ultimate success of an organization depends on the ability of the organization to develop sufficient values to compensate employees. Workers should be looked at, from a perspective of non-economic, economic and personal satisfaction. The current business environment is increasingly becoming competitive because employers are pressured to meet the needs of employees. Failure to this, organizations and employers are poised to lose creative and talented experts. This is because these professionals will leave the organization for those organizations that are willing and ready to…
Dessler, G. (2006). Organization and management: A contingency Approach. Englewood Cliffs,
Hax, a. & Majluf, N. (2001). Organizational design: a survey and an approach. Operation Research, vol. 29(3): 417-447
The supply manager, Jack Toole, must determine whether to give Nuclear Vessels or Atomic Products the Oceanics, Inc. contract.
Oceanics, Inc. needs to purchase one pressure vessel that meets their specifications. The two top companies were carefully screened and visits to both plants were made to determine which one was better qualified.
What specific areas and activities should the Oceanics group have investigated on its two visits? While a number of issues were investigated, the team should have investigated at least two additional areas: supply chain management and inventory/logistics. Both of these issues are germane in terms of being able to deliver appropriate levels and specifications as needed. The issue with supply chain management is quite important since it relates to the actual manufacturing of the product in a timely fashion, and whether or not the companies involved had the infrastructure appropriate for the process. Indeed, this also…
Watson, G. (2007). Strategic Benchmarking Reloaded with Six Sigma. New York: John Wiley.
The relatively small degree of economic displacement during this recession has prompted the rise of the Tea Party and (to those who are not a member of this movement) incomprehensible fury against the federal government. (By noting that the economic pain now is "relatively small" I do not in any way to mean to suggest that many people have been not been devastated by the recession, merely to make the factual statement that the economic conditions in Argentina in the early 1980s were much worse.)
The junta in Argentina in 1982, led for the previous year and a half by General Leopoldo Galtieri, had no possible tools to use to make real changes in the country: They did not have the economic resources to distract the nation's people with domestic "bread and circuses" (Makin, 1983b). So they tried another, historically proven strategy: Tamp down a domestic crisis (in fact, a…
P. Beck. (1988). The Falkland Islands as an international problem. London: Rutledge, Chapman and Hall.
Corum, J. (2002). Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War. Air & space power journal.
Freedman, L. (1988). Britain and the Falklands War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gustafson, L. (1988). The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Organizational design model
Organizational design article analysis: The future of organizational design
Theories of organizational design predate the Internet revolution. However, the article "The future of organizational design: forecasting study" suggests that theories of organizational design have undergone major changes in the Internet age. Organizations have shifted away from functional and processed-based models of firm design to other, new design models (Yildiz 2012). The main reason for this is technology. "Depending on its own value chain, an organization can hand over operations that do not require direct control and that do not create a different value; to their business associates. Nowadays, information networks allowing fast and cheap communication with business associates can be created over the internet" (Yildiz 2012). Organizations can become highly specialized and delegate more and more of their functions to outside entities. In contrast to previous eras, they do not have to have face-to-face contacts with these…
After defining the new organizational models, the article concludes that specialized division by labor will increase -- however, rather than this segmentation leading to division, the organizational models will actually facilitate greater cooperation. Older models defined by rigid hierarchies and enclosed processes are not sustainable and employees that can deliver unique value yet who are also flexible enough to work in a cross-disciplinary fashion are required for organizations to thrive in the new millennium.
Yildiz, M. (2012). The future of organizational design: A forecasting study. METU Studies in Development, 39(2), 259-282.
Examples of these start-ups include the literally hundreds of process outsourcing companies throughout the BIC nations that have specialized in Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) compliance initiatives. These start-ups are taking a very process-centric view to innovation. Their ability to tailor financial systems in companies to be in compliance to government requirements is their greatest strength. The resources necessary to accomplish this require a centralized workforce of well-educated solution architectures and process improvement expertise, most often with Six Sigma quality management experience. This type of skill set is prevalent in the manufacturing-centric regions of China and India, albeit expensive compared to the typical wage levels in these nations. Because of the value of process-centric knowledge, start-ups who concentrate on process-centric innovation often build practices or teams of experts with deep expertise, and often create career paths for junior associates that put them onsite at customers. An example of this would be the growth…
Bessant, J. And Tidd, J. (2007), Innovation and Entrepreneurship, John Wiley & Sons.
Dushnitsky, G., & Shapira, Z.. (2010). Entrepreneurial finance meets organizational reality: comparing investment practices and performance of corporate and independent venture capitalists. Strategic Management Journal, 31(9), 990.
Joseph P. Eshun Jr. (2009). Business incubation as strategy. Business Strategy Series, 10(3), 156-166.
Chien-Huang Lin, Ching-Huai Peng, & Danny T. Kao. (2008). The innovativeness effect of market orientation and learning orientation on business performance. International Journal of Manpower, 29(8), 752-772.
My most recent organization has a structure that is mechanistic in nature. This is, however, conducive with the organization's business and its goals. The organization's competitive advantage lies with efficiency and economies of scale. The ability to perform routine tasks is critical to the success of this organization. The mechanistic structure allows management to determine the optimal means of performance of these tasks, and then transfer that information to each employee. This structure relies heavily on management's abilities in work design, so that all jobs are done, and there are people in place to perform each task, even under unusual circumstances should they arise. The company's goals are of course market share and profit, but these are achieved through performing the routine tasks better than the competitors perform them.
The mechanistic structure relies on the abilities of management, and the training of the workforce to ensure that they…
This is generically possible as the types of services and products offered could be combined to constitute complementarities. For instance, the Sale-Buy Insurance Company could offer car insurance for the final buyers - this would however require the collaboration of Delux Machine Tool's partners. Also, the programmers at MicroAge Software could collaborate with the esearch and Development Team at Delux Machine Tools and create more innovative products and technologies.
The three companies would become sister organizations, under the same patronage, ruled by the same principles and norms, and following the same goal. This strategy would lead to the creation of a conglomerate company - one possessing various smaller companies, activating in different industries. This would then mean that the organizations would generate a combined profit, which could be better allocated to support their development. Say for instance that MicroAge Software registers a good year, but Sale-Buy Insurance Company does not.…
FedEx is a logistics company focused on the overnight courier business, but with brand extensions into ground courier, office supplies, and customs-related business lines. Based in Memphis, the company operates a highly centralized system where most key operating decisions are made at headquarters, and the different national and regional subsidiaries are to carry out the instructions. There are two reasons for this structure. One is that the entire company must be virtue of its business operate in a tightly coordinated manner, such that the different elements cannot simply do their own thing or packages will not be delivered on time. The other is that the founder, Fred Smith, is a former Marine and brought a lot of military influence to the company's culture and structure. This paper will examine the organizational design at FedEx, and perhaps make recommendations for the transformation of some aspects of it.
Strategic Planning is alive and well; we need it to plan for effective growth
Our plan needs to be global in nature to make the most of all opportunities
Global Strategic Planning gives us the best chances for growth and change
Global Strategic Planning will keep us ahead of our competition
Thank you for your time and attention!
branch of organizational design that I am going to investigate is participative management, which was an idea developed by Likert in the 1960s based on his observations of changes in the management techniques at the time.
Participative management was explained by enis Likert. At the University of Michigan, he started Michigan Survey esearch Center. In 1961 he published his New Patterns of Management that described participative management. He would elaborate on this theory quite a bit in later books, especially in 1966 and 1967. He had noticed that there was a new style of management that had arisen that was different from the old, authoritative style. Likert would then outlined four different types of participative management -- exploitive authoritative, benevolent authoritative, consultative, and participative group systems.
At the time, Likert's work was received well. He was successful in explaining a phenomenon that existed in the business world, so while…
Kim, S. (2002). Participative management and job satisfaction: Lessons for management-leadership. Public Administration Review. Vol. 62 (2) 231-341.
Koppes, L. (2007) Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Psychology Press: New York.
Marchant, M. (1971). Participative management as related to personnel development. Library Trends. July 1971, 48-59.
Culture must not simply be inclusive to an organization. Organizational internal culture must shift with the larger national cultural context in light of the needs posed by globalization.
Chapter 12: Strategic Competency and Organizational Design
IBM, showed a constructive ability to engage in organizational learning. Despite facing political obstacles such as 9-11 and prejudice against technology companies after the dot-com bust it has remained a huge, complex technological powerhouse. IBM's longer-term outlook is bright today, despite the obstacles it has faced, because the infrastructure within the organization allows growth. It has sound decision making chain of command that has stood it well over the years. Firms need to adjust to their environments and contexts as well as to influence them, and IBM has shown itself capable of doing so in terms of the firm's environment, size and…
Organizational Theory #2
What core competences give an organization competitive advantage? What are examples of an organization's functional-level strategies?
Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Typically, core competencies can be identified by certain common characteristics -- offering a benefit to the customer, difficult to imitate, uniquely identify the organization and easily leveraged to create many products or operate in many markets (Kern, 2010). The organization that is best able to use its resources to create value is in an ideal position to outperform the competition, thus creating advantage (Jones, 2010). Core competencies tend to change in response to changes in the environment. They are flexible, evolve over time and enable the company to enter apparently different markets with a clear and distinctive brand proposition. Examples of core competencies include manufacturing, research and development, new technology or organizational design…
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Terry, L.D., & Hoefer, R.A. (1995). Making politics and power respectable. Public Administration Review, 55(3), 298.
Organizational Theory #1
Create a code of ethics for an organization of your choice. For each point in the code of ethics, describe an ethical dilemma that would be resolved using the code of ethics.
All employees will conduct business honestly and ethically. We will constantly improve the quality of our services, products and operations and create a reputation for honesty, fairness, respect, responsibility, integrity, trust and sound business judgment. (Provides a clearly stated, over-arching business philosophy for honesty and fair dealings that every employee can follow).
No illegal or unethical conduct on the part of company employees or affiliates is in the company's best interest. All are expected to adhere to high standards of personal integrity -- not allowing their personal interests to conflict with the interests of the company, its clients or affiliates. We will not compromise our principles for short-term advantage. (Encourages all employees to seek the…
Beauchamp, L., & O'Connor, A. (2012). America's most admired companies: A descriptive analysis of CEO corporate social responsibility statements. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 494-497. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.03.006
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Analysing Organisation: Using relevant theoretical perspectives frameworks, critically analyse organisation choice.
Analyzing organization is the process of assessing the organizations systems, functionality and capacity so as to increase the organizations performance, efficiency and overall output. This is done by using various theories and models whose aim is to understand the structure of the organization, technology and behavioral relationships Bate, Khan, & Pye, 2000.
This should be a periodic and detailed activity that assists the organizations management to identify any inefficiency or problems that may have risen and have not been dealt with the management will then come up with strategies to deal with them.
Compulyzed Telecommunications is a telecommunications company dealing with telephone, cabling, and internet provision services for both home and corporate clients. Compulyzed Telecommunications had an increase of 1.7% operating profit in the fiscal year 2011 as compared to the previous year this was…
Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for Competitive Advantage. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), 9(4), 49-61.
Bate, P., Khan, R., & Pye, A. (2000). Towards a Culturally Sensitive Approach to Organization Structuring: Where Organization Design Meets Organization Development. Organization Science, 11(2), 197-211.
Becker, I., & Flaxer, E. (2008). Analysing the Hierarchical Organization of Text by Using Biologically-Inspired Statistical Methods. [Article]. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 15(4), 318-339. doi: 10.1080/09296170802326657
Bloodgood, J.M., & Bauerschmidt, A. (2002). Competitive Analysis: Do Managers Accurately Compare Their Firms To Competitors? Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(4), 418-434.
organizational structure type from chapter 6 of the class text. The author is also asked to select an organization that uses such a structure. It is to be explained why the structure works, why it does not work and what can be done to improve the structure. The traits of the selected department including the population protected and the resources it has will also be looked at. The New York City police department is very massive and has a huge amount of resources available to it but they must be vigilant and prudent in how they manage those resources.
As noted in the introduction, the selected agency being looked at today is the New York City police department. Also as intimated by the introduction, they enjoy a regimented line structure that is based on chain of command and structure. This department protects the city of New York City,…
Boundless. (2013, November 8). Line Structure. Boundless. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from https://www.boundless.com/business/organizational-structure/models-of-organization-structure/line-structure/
NYCLU. (2013, November 8). Stop and Frisk Practices. New York Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.nyclu.org/issues/racial-justice/stop-and-frisk-practiceshome.shtml
NYPD. (2013, November 8). NYPD - Official New York City Police Department Web Site. NYPD - Official New York City Police Department Web Site. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/home/home.shtml
Smith provided the appropriate managerial direction which struck the right balance between creativity, performance and productivity. His farsightedness which encompassed a wide vision was long-term, ambitious and the same time entirely practical and feasible. (Section 7: Leadership and Management, p. 243)
Having earlier steered a floundering company towards a successful path, Smith's work was uphill. He had to drastically change the organizational culture and structure while reducing conflict within the very talented set of employees and provide them with a collective direction. He was also expected to reduce the atmosphere of uncertainty prevailing in the organization and use the "countercultures" of the earlier two companies to foster innovation and creativity and thus get a competitive advantage for the new organization. (Section 2: Organizations & Culture, p. 64)
d. Organizational goals, vision, mission, objectives and values
Organizational mission defines the very reason for its existence. It basically refers to a general…
Banerjee, M., 1995. Organization behaviour. Allied Publishers Limited.
Bryan, Lowell. L; Joyce, Claudia I., 2007. Better strategy through organizational design. McKinsey Quarterly, no. 2, pp: 22-29.
De Laurentis, Giacomo., 2004. Strategy and organization of corporate banking. Springer.
Gitman, Lawrence J; McDaniel, Carl. 2009., The Future of Business: The Essentials. South Western Cengage Learning.
What is an Organizational Theory?
In the organizational sciences (e.g., organizational behavior, organizational psychology), one of the more misunderstood terms is organizational theory. To some, organizational theory is a field of study; to others, it is the process of using metaphorical language to describe organizational processes (e.g., McKenna & Wright, 1992; Morgan, 1986), or it represents an attempt to determine the best way to organize work organizations. The term is used to indicate all of these things, but an organizational theory is really just a way of organizing purposeful human action. Given the diversity of purposeful human endeavors, there are numerous ways to organize them, and, hence, a great many organizational theories.
Major Organizational Theories
Having provided a brief overview of the field of organizational theory, we now move on to a consideration of the major organizational theories themselves. Organizational theories simply represent ideas or models of the form…
McKenna, D.D., & Wright, P.M. (1992). Alternative metaphors for organizational design. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 901 -- 960). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Taylor, F.W. (1911). Principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.
Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.) New York: Free Press.
They do this by supporting the different functions and subgeographic groups such as those outlined in Exhibit C. Exhibit B. illustrates the role that each of the different functions plays - they are on a par with Ground Operations in the structure, but perform a staff function.
c. The organizational design at FedEx best serves the company's needs. Despite the company having operations around the world, there is little need for matrix structure. There are several reasons for this. One is that the company's core Express operation requires close coordination globally. The company presents a face to the consumer that is united globally, a function of the global nature of the service. Therefore, it is logical that each operating company be run from one head office, with operations managed at the regional level, because all areas must be working closely together within a given operating company.
Another reason is that…
Some corporate information from Reuters. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=FDX.N
2008 FedEx Annual Report. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/FDX/491475030x0x223284/b51e2e11-6edc-44a3-bcad-e5379c70a765/FedEx08ar.pdf
A second change that has occurred and will continue to transform is that, regardless of the motivation, many employers have begun to experiment with flextime, telecommuting, and voluntary reduced-load work arrangements to give employees more discretion and personal flexibility in how they integrate work demands with other life roles such as family, community, and leisure. This increase in flexible work arrangements has further blurred the boundaries between work and home for many employees. Effectively switching and managing multiple work and non-work roles has never been more complex. Findings from individual, family, and organizational perspectives are mixed in terms of the success and social acceptance of alternative work arrangements (Kossek & Lambert, 2005, p. 6)
Though the criminal justice system is known for what they do and have been around for centuries, it is important to note that every organization has a plan, a vision, and successful mixed with failures. This…
Kossek, E.E. & Lambert, S.J. (Eds.). (2005). Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Miner, J.B. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sims, R.R. (1994). Ethics and Organizational Decision Making: A Call for Renewal. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…
Agguire D., et.al (2013). Culture's Role in Enabling Organizational ChangeSurvey Ties
Transformation Success to Deft Handling of Cultural Issues. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.booz.com/global/home/what-we-think/reports-white-papers/article-display/cultures-role-organizational-change
Beakey, D. (2007). Organizational Design and Implementation. Graziadio Business Review:
Graziadio School of Business and Management, Pepperdine University. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/organizational-design-and-implementation/
For the most part, I would probably not want to work at Cisco. The convoluted structure devalues individual responsibility, which to my mind removes incentive for individual excellence. A manager's output is dependent on others, but there does not appear to be a mechanism to hold underperforming managers responsible. hen the team is entirely comprised of internally motivated individuals, Cisco's system will work brilliantly. However, the system encourages managers to be passengers, allowing the best managers to carry the teams to everybody's benefit. The result of this is that over time managers will be encouraged to be passengers and elite managers will leave for organizations where their compensation is more directly tied to their own abilities.
hile the textbook description of Cisco's culture does not explicitly outline a problem to be solved, Cisco has to consider the long-term impacts of its current organizational culture and structure. The collaborative approach has…
Organizational Behavior, 9th Edition, Chapter 3. In possession of the author.
Cisco. (2010). Corporate overview. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/ekits/Public_Corporate_Overview_FY11Q2_NewBackground.pdf
Cisco.com (2011). Corporate overview. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/corpinfo/corporate_overview.html
Organizational Issues and Criminology
Introduction- When we think of the criminal justice system in the United States, we are referring to a broad collection of federal, state, and local agencies that are focused on crime prevention and upholding the law. In general, these agencies uphold the law at various levels, investigate crime, process the accused, compile evidence, work with the district attorney, and develop profiles and crime prevention techniques. The process of the criminal justice organization is designed to work in conjunction with the three branches of the U.S. government, and to uphold the Constitution. Organizationally, because there are so many agencies, personalities, interpretations and goals, there tends to be either a crime control model or a due process model. Many scholars see that this is one of the downfalls of the organization, because the tension and competition between the two viewpoints tends to cause negative issues within the system…
National Strategy for Homeland Security. (2002, November). Retrieved from ncs.gov: http://www.ncs.gov/library/policy_docs/nat_strat_hls.pdf
Aman, T. (2008). Decentralization: Pros and Cons. Fdle.state.fl.us. Retrieved from: http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/9da64f08-58b2-4d8c-96ac-e3b2a9ef8265/Aman-Tommy-paper-pdf.aspx
Autry, R.H., (1996). What is Organization Design? Innovus.com. Retrieved from: http://www.inovus.com/organiza.htm
Clark, D. (2008). Leadership and Organizational Behavior. Nwlink.com. Retrieved from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
organizational dynamics of Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, Singapore with a reference to the relevant theories. The strengths and weakness are highlighted and then recommendations made on how to improve the daily running of the franchise.
Overview of the company
Organizational culture at Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf
Overview of the company
Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf Singapore is part of a larger organization (a franchise) that deals in coffee and tea as their specialty. The company is headquartered in Los Angeles California and is owned as well as operated by International Coffee & Tea, LLC (Hoovers,2011).
In Singapore, the company it operates under the business name Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf (S) Pte. Ltd. It operates both tea and coffee stores in the country (Singapore). In its stores it offers coffee bean brews, lunch, breakfast, tea as well as cakes. The company is…
Jay Galbraith's model of an organizational structure still remains to be the most influential design framework and has a lot of under laying messages. Galbraith (2005) posits that there is no single successful design for any organization hence the need to be dynamic. Any organization should strive to implement only the features that support it's strategy and hat will enhance it's growth and development and change all those that are nit in tandem with the organization's goals and objectives (Mohrman 2007).
Coffee Bean and tea Leaf is a successful organization whose management can be improved by making a few changes to its organizational structure.It is important for the workers to be given more autonomy for the franchise to achieve success.
The Alignment of Organizational Components, Mission and Strategy at Kraft Foods
Key Strategic Controls
Primary Human esource Concerns
Alignment of Organizational Components, Mission, and Strategy
Kraft Foods are a major North American Food manufacturer. The firm has a duel mission, to be the best food and beverage firm in North America selling products that people love and becoming the best investment in the industry. To achieve these goals and overcome, the challenges of the past, the firm has developed a new divisional structure based on products to increase the focus on the individual brands. The culture values the employees, and one of the main areas of focus is the &D, with more than 500 staff employed in 2 &D centers. The past culture of Kraft saw innovation associated with failure, this has now been turned around using an approach referred to "positive discontent',…
Buchanan, D; Huczynski, A, (2010) Organizational Behavior, Harlow, FT/Prentice Hall
CSI Market (2014), Kraft, accessed at http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT
Forbes, (2013, March 22), How Kraft Changed the "Change" Perception, Forbes, accessed at http://www.forbes.com/sites/johnkotter/2013/03/22/3822/
Kraft Foods, (2014), accessed at http://ir.kraftfoodsgroup.com/
Mechanistic structured individuals will often oppose alteration more than an organic structure. These people often feel doubt and lack of confidence when the alteration is being put into place. It is important to implement change at a gradual rate that will allow the people time to regulate to the alteration without feeling snowed under. Selective awareness is also often high amid these people since they are not incorporated in the over all picture of things (Organic Structure vs. Mechanistic Structure, 2007).
Depending on what structure is put into place it is hard to say what opposition an organization will have. If the structure is organic, then alteration will not be so difficult on the company. Nevertheless, if the structure is mechanistic, it may be more opposed to alteration. Alteration influences a company as a whole including the groups and people. It is very significant throughout any alteration that the entire…
CHAPTER 4. Diagnosing the Performance of Your Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5,
2011, from Web site: http://www.idrc.ca/geh/ev-28256-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
Kohl, Priscilla. (2008). Marrying Two Business Cultures-What to Consider When Merging
Companies. Retrieved January 5, 2011, from hrtools Web site:
Organizational Human Resources Awards Program
The objective of this study is to respond to the following scenario: The writer of this work is charged with the role of the director of Human Resources in a fictitious company. The vice president of the Human Resource department has requested that you develop an organizational reward program for your company. All departments will adhere to the program. Included in the issues to be addressed are the type of rewards, reward criteria, the reason each criteria is necessary, distribution criteria, desired outcome, pay for performance and risk and benefits of the program.
The development of an organizational award program involves seeking support and commitment from the appointing authority and using input from employers for program development. The organizational mission and values are incorporated for the purpose of determining what accomplishments and behaviors will be rewarded and a motivation survey utilized for the determination of…
Guide to Motivating Employees (nd) University of Boulder Colorado, Department of Human Resources. Retrieved from: http://hr.colorado.edu/es/recognition/Documents/Motivation%20Guide.pdf
Schusteer, M. And Kisler, G. (nd) Aligning Rewards Systems in Organizational Design: How to Activate the Orphan Star Point. Retrieved from: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.hrps.org/resource/resmgr/knowledgecenter_home/hrps_ps34-4_schusterkesler.pdf
Total Rewards Model (2011) Work at Work. Retrieved from: http://www.worldatwork.org/waw/adimLink?id=28330
organization? (reading outline - summary of the reading)
Do you have a well-designed organization?
arely the result of planning
When things go wrong very difficult to change
Better to start with a good organizational design
A practical framework is needed for organizational design and redesign
Nine separate tests
Good design tests
Does it fit your marketing strategy and segmentation approach?
Also must support key sources of market advantages
Parenting advantage: Does it help add value to the parent organization and stem from core competencies?
People: Does it reflect the strengths (and weaknesses) and motivations of the organization's people?
Look at key players
Look at key job descriptions
D. Feasibility: What external and internal constraints could affect the organizational design?
Interests of shareholders
State of information systems
4. Corporate culture
III. efining the design tests
A. Specialist cultures: If the organization…
Goold, M & Campbell, A. (2002). Do you have a well-designed organization? HBR.
Product Life Cycles
How product design is applied in decision-making of that organization?
Design decision making at (organization name) involves generating a series of product alternatives using very clear criteria. The goal is evaluate which solutions maximize value and function, but minimize costs. This approach is based on a need to shorten product development cycles to get new products to market faster. The market can be very intense and competitive. Therefore, the company is always eager to gain a competitive advantage by reaching consumers with the best product possible before others in the industry. This means that front-end strategic planning is a must have when design decisions are being made. Poor decisions during product development can lead to products that no one wants to buy or that are so expensive they cannot be manufactured in sufficient quantity (Cao & Folan, 2012). Thus, (organization name) has come to understand that design…
Cao, H., & Folan, P. (2012). Product life cycle: the evolution of a paradigm and literature review from 1950 -- 2009. Production Planning & Control, 23(8), 641-662. doi:10.1080/09537287.2011.577460.
Sy, M., & Mascle, C. (2011). Product design analysis based on life cycle features. Journal of Engineering Design, 22(6), 387-406. doi:10.1080/09544820903409899.
Management of Organizations
Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success
Organic vs. Mechanistic Organization
Process of Formulating Corporate Strategy
Meaning of Organizational Culture
Management of Organizations
Organizational management is one of the most crucial components for organizational success and productivity. This is primarily because the process entails handling various aspects that are geared towards achieving the organization's overall objectives. Some of the most important issues in organizational management include effective decision making and conflict resolution. These important aspects are usually handled by the organization's top management, which play a vital role in ensuring organizational success. For managers, the process also entails formulating corporate strategy and creating a suitable organizational culture that helps in realization of the overall goals and objectives.
Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success
As previously mentioned, organizational managers play an important role in the success of an organization, especially in relation to decision making. Actually, organizational…
Cohen, S., Eimicke, W. & Heikkila, T 2008, The effective public manager: achieving success in a changing government, Jossey-Bass, New Jersey.
Gitman, L & McDaniel, C 2007, The future of business: the essentials, Thomson Higher
Education, Mason: Ohio.
Hill, C & Jones, G 2012, Strategic management theory: an integrated approach, Cengage
According to Cummings and Worley (2014), the relevance of organizational diagnostic models cannot be overstated when it comes to the identification of the appropriate data required to highlight the deficiencies as well as strengths of a company, and the existing opportunities to improve operations and processes. For this discussion, the following organizational diagnostic models will be highlighted; the 7S model, the congruence model, the Burke-Litwin model, Leavitt’s model, force field analysis, and the Weisbord’s six-box model.
The 7S Model
This model seeks to highlight the organizational design of an entity by focusing of seven primary internal elements. The said elements include; strategy, structure, skills, style, staff, systems, and shared values (Falletta, 2005). In essence, the goal in this case is to determine whether these elements are aligned in a way that permits an entity to effectively pursue its objectives. It is important to note that as per the 7S model,…
Organizational Theory and esistance to Change
In this hospital case, the new manager came with rules that he hoped would change the way things were done. He came with a mindset that through strict administration, he would manage to keep the employees focused. His coming in was to replace a retired predecessor who had served there for thirty years. With such many years, the new manager thought the slackening performance at the rural hospital was due to the predecessor's inability to control the staff. This situation has cast his actions into doubt what he had in mind. The scenario shows the weaknesses of intolerant leadership.
The new manager sought to apply change theory to address the issues that he thought were negatively affecting the hospital. Under the change theory, he thought that by having an overhaul of the whole system, he would bring positive progress. It backfired on…
Browning, B. W. (2007). Leadership in Desperate Times: An Analysis of Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage through the Lens of Leadership Theory. Advances in Developing Human Resources vol. 9 no. 2 183-198
Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational Theory: Text and Cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rogers, R. E. (2012). Organizational Theory. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
IKEA Organizational Culture
Strong and Weak Sides of Organizational Culture
Impact of Internal and External Factors
Leadership and Organizational Culture
Employees and Organizational Structure
IKEA Organizational Culture
Every organization has a unique culture that dictates how things are done -- it defines the organization's social and psychological behavior. Though there is no universally agreed definition, organizational culture essentially refers to the values, beliefs, attitudes, assumptions, principles, habits, and customs shared by members of a given organization (Schein, 2010). These behavioral aspects constitute the distinctiveness of the organization (Jain, 2005). Indeed, organizational culture can be an important source of competitive advantage for an organization as it determines its strategic orientation, personnel management approaches, and other aspects of organizational behavior (Schein, 2010; Mullins & Christy, 2010). One organization that has built a distinctive organizational culture is IKEA, a Swedish multinational firm involved in the designing and marketing…
Browaeys, M., & Price, R. (2008). Understanding Cross-cultural Management. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Clarke, L. (n.d.). Corporate culture of the heart. Retrieved from: https://inside.6q.io/ikea - corporate-culture-of-the-heart/
Geert-hofstede.com (n.d.). Country comparison. Retrieved from: https://geert- hofstede.com/sweden.html
Grol, P., & Schoch, C. (2010). IKEA: Culture as competitive advantage. CPA, Paris Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.efbl.org/upload/7730963-Strategijski- menadzment-Studija-slucaja-IKEA-2010-12-16.pdf
Organizational Structure Analysis
Why Flattening Hierarchies and Empowering Teams Is a Strategy
Flattening, also called delayering, simply refers to the removal of layers in the organizational hierarchy of a company, and the expansion of the manager's span of power. The supposed benefits of flattening run basically from pushing decisions down to improving client and market responsiveness to enhancing drive as well as responsibility. This is a strategy because the basis of flattening seems positive: to stay competitive in the face of more competition, for example, companies should pursue a streamlined, effective organization, which could respond to clients more rapidly (Wulf, 2012).
An empowered worker has the power and responsibility of making decisions, instead of the need to get instructions or consent from the manager. In an empowered team, every teammate has a say in group discussions. The team might make alterations to their product or project at will. An organization…
Boundless. (2015, July 21). Divisional Structure. Retrieved from Boundless Management. Boundless: https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-structure-2/common-organizational-structures-25/divisional-structure-147-3977/
Corcoran, C. K. (2000). The Intersection of Technology and Organizational Culture. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.studentaffairs.com/ejournal/Fall_2000/corcoran.htm
Harris, S. (2015, December 9). Global expansion -- the essential enabling technologies. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Orange Business: http://www.orange-business.com/en/blogs/connecting-technology/emerging-markets/global-expansion-the-essential-enabling-technologies
Marzec, E. (2016). What Is Team Empowerment? Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Small Business: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/team-empowerment-12716.html
organization familiar present items relate organization: • Describe organizational structure selected organization. Compare contrast structure organizational structures. • Evaluate organizational functions ( marketing, finance, human resources, operations) influence determine organizational structure selected organization.
My company choice is Microsoft, mainly because it best reflects one of the newest and most used organizational approaches in the 20th and 21st century. There are several interesting considerations worth pointing out in the case of Microsoft.
Microsoft uses a team-based organization, often combined or embedded on a project-based approach. The idea of a team-based organizational structure is to synergize individual skills and competencies into a larger, more overarching framework (Thareja, 2007). In the case of Microsoft and, in fact, of many other software producers, the team-based organizational structure is also determine by the necessities that arrive in software development and the particularities of the different phases in this process that require employees with particular skills…
1. Thareja P. 2008. Total Quality Organization Thru' People,(Part 16), Each one is Capable, FOUNDRY, Vol. XX, No. 4, July/Aug 2008
Organizational Environment Starbucks
In-depth Analysis of Organizational Environment - Starbucks
Starbucks Organizational Culture and Environment
Global Perspectives of Starbucks
Social esponsibility embraced by Starbucks
Starbucks Planning Process
Decision Making Process of Starbucks
Starbucks Corporate Strategy
Organizational Structure of Starbucks
Starbucks uses a mechanistic structure as a contemporary design
Starbucks Organizational Culture and Environment
Starbucks Corporation is considered as one of the leading coffee house chains that offer best quality coffee to its customers. This retail corporation is based in the United States, initiated in the early years of the decade of 1970. Due to its popularity, the company rapidly expanded to various locations around the globe. The vision, goals and strategies designed clearly indicated the fact that the owners did not believe in having growth that can abate the corporate culture, therefore, the corporate culture was considered to be one of the integral aspects for the company. The mission statement…
Anthony, W.P., Gales, L.M., & Hodge, B.J. (2003). Organization Theory: A Strategic Approach. 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
BCG. (2012). Howard Schultz on Global Reach and Local Relevance at Starbucks - An Interview with the CEO. bcg.perspectives. Retrieved from: https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/videos/leadership_management_two_speed_economy_howard_schultz_global_reach_and_local_relevance/
Behar, H. (2007). It's Not About the Coffee: Leadership Principles from a Life at Starbucks. USA: Portfolio.
SeaZone. (2012). Successful Application of Organizational Behavior: Starbucks - Achieving Success the Starbucks Way. Yahoo Voices. Retrieved from: http://voices.yahoo.com/successful-application-organizational-behavior-2435551.html?cat=3
This report focuses on the study of organizational behaviour in the hotel industry and most especially in the food and beverage department. Focusing on the organization I am attached to, the aspect of groups and group dynamics is widely explored. The paper first introduces with an introduction in which a brief explanation of the discussion is established. Part of the factors addressed in this section includes the aim and scope of the study. Additionally, the methodology of the research, the assumption, the limitations within the organization and the background of the problem are explored within the discussion. The paper then goes ahead to focus on the literature review. Here, definitions of organizational values and individuals values are provided. Also demonstrated is the manner in which organizational and individual values intersect. Further, the relationship between individual values and organizational structure is established. The report goes further to demonstrate how…
Bilsky, W & Jenh, K (1998) Organizational Culture and Individual Values: Evidence for a Common Structure, Personal Communication
Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed For Strategic Success, London UK
Dean, KW (2011) Value-Based Leadership. How Our Personal Values Impact the Works Place, the Journal of Value-Based Leadership, Valaparaiso University College of Business Management
Kimbro, M, (2012) Organizational Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry, Retrieved From: http://voices.yahoo.com/organizational-behavior-hospitality-industry-13137.html
An organization's structure affects many aspects of the organization. Kanter (1999) notes that people within an organization tend to operate in line with the messages that they are receiving, so structural elements do affect culture and vice versa. An organizational structure reflects how the people at the top of the organization view how the organization works. So if you have, for example, few new products, you might just work with a geographic structure, and that would encourage people in the company to adopt a transactional mindset, building stability within a tightly defined context. However, if products are the basis of the organizational culture, this might have people working on a specific product become more oriented towards growing that product. The orientation of the company is different so the way that people within the company see themselves and their roles is also going to be different. Buhler (2011) also…
Buhler, P. (2011). Changing organizational structures and their impact on managers. Supervision. Vol. 72 (2) 24.
Kurtzman, J. (1999). An interview with Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Strategy & Business. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/19494?gko=df950
Strategic Management of Human esources
Human resource is considered as the most precious asset for business organizations. The financial performance and growth in the industry heavily depends upon the way an organization's employees perform at the workplace (Edwards 2003). A dedicated and committed workforce contributes towards a high level of operational excellence and market competitiveness. Therefore, it should be among the top priorities for an organization to manage its human resource in an effective and efficient way (ose 2004).
Strategic Human esource Management deals with formulating policies and procedures for getting the best work from employees, implementing different techniques to motivate them, and assessing the future human resource requirements at the workplace (Saxena 2009). This paper explains the strategic human resource management policies of one of the World's Top software companies -- Adobe Systems Incorporated. These policies are required to meet the current human resource requirements of the…
Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 54-63
Adobe, 2012, Adobe Fast Facts 2011, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Commitment to Employees, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Professional Development, Available from [Accessed January 24th, 2012]
The Walt Disney
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
An organization is any social entity that has a well-designed structure to coordinate its functions, and the organization has to have a specific goal. Most organizations hardly work internally alone, but rather involve the external environments. Some organizations are profit oriented, like the business organizations, while others are non-profit making (Daft et al. 2010). In this context, a contemporary focus is overlooked towards the Walt Disney Company, a profound firm dealing with mass media and affiliated industrial operations.
Brief Company Profile
Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923, and has always kept the reputation in providing quality and extremely creative products, which consumers have loved ever since. The organization specializes in providing quality entertainment, services of media communication, broadcasting, television programs and live performances. The company, which is located in California (United States), exemplifies exponential characteristics that…
Barry, L. (2009) Think Like an Iconoclast: The Principles Of Walt Disney's Success: Rotman Magazine, Pg 108-110.
Daft, R.L., Murphy, J. & Willmott, H. (2010) organization Theory and Design: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Forester, M. (2002) Table-Talk Perspective: Chain Store Age, 10870601, Vol.78, Issue 11.
Gershon, R.A. (1996) The Transnational Media Corporation: Global Messages and Free market Competition: New York, Routledge.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
Organizational Case Study -- Nutri Systems
Company Background - Nutrisystem is an American company that provides weightloss products and services. Originally, the company's sales and marketing model focused on Brick and Mortar stores, in-person counseling and exercise sessions, and the sale of prepackaged supplements and food products retail. In 1999, however, largely due to the number of diets on the market and exhaustive competiton, Nutrisystem began selling online with support through 800#s and email. The company expanded to QVC in 2001 and Costco since 2009 (www.nutrisystem.com).
The foundation of the organization is portion-control and a diet that has a low glycemic index. Separate plans are offered for men and women that support a 1-2#/week loss. All plans have love sugar, cholesterol and sodium and cost from $280-400/week. Users must also purchase additional fresh items locally, but 2009 clinical trials showed that persons with Type-2 diabetes consistently lost more weight and…
Organizational and Diagnostic Models. (2008). Retrieved December 2011, from Leadersphere.com: http://www.leadersphere.com/img/OrgmodelsR2009.pdf
NutriSystem Investment Guide. (2011, December 17). Retrieved from Wikiinvest: http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/NutriSystem_ (NTRI)
Liu, Y., & Yang, R. (2008). Competing Loyalty Programs: Impact of Market Saturation. Journal of Marketing, 73(2), 93-100.
Lowman, R. (2005). Importance of Diagnosis in Organization Assessment. Manager Journal, 8(1), 17-28.
Guidelines on oral and written communication with job applicants
One important guideline is that the human resources department is solely responsible for setting the policies and procedures regarding staffing and management of all aspects of the staffing process. herefore any written or oral communication to job applicants should come from the human resources department except where the management team may need to reply to an item that they are formally delegated for.
he second guideline is that all oral and written communication with job applicants should be clearly stated and in a conspicuous manner in the appropriate document. his is in order to prevent any misunderstandings or misinformation that comes from the job applicant not receiving or comprehending the message. he members of the organization should require the job applicants to acknowledge receipt or the message being passed and they should be given an opportunity to ask for clarification where…
The best way to conduct the criterion-related validity test is to seal the results then review them after a period of between 3 to 6 months after the new hires have been with the company. This way, the staffing manager will be able to assess the work performance of the new hires and correlate the results of the general ability test to their work performance. The general ability test becomes the predictor while the work performance becomes the criterion.
As in the study conducted by Ispas, Iliescu, Ilie, and Johnson (2010)
Job performance can be measured using supervisor ratings of the employees which can be collected as a part of the employees' annual or monthly performance evaluations. The performance appraisal can be based on a 5-point scale with four dimensions being evaluated. The four dimensions to be evaluated are quality of work, professional
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
Human esource Management Practices
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
HUMAN ESOUCE Management
Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).
With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…
Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.
Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.
Professionalism on the part of employees is also facilitated by management's demanding high standards of employees, in line with the stress of the necessity of improving world health care and helping students. Yet management is always committed to recognizing impressive employee performances with generous bonuses, providing a comprehensive benefits package for all workers, and showing respect for employee health and welfare, as well as customer health and welfare. Also, the tuition assistance program shows how the company respects the importance of education for workers as well as for customers
Globalization spawned the founding of this organization. Globalization continues to impact its structure and mission. As health care bureaucracies around the world grow more complex, and the policies regarding foreign nationals studying in the U.S. change in response to international political events, the ECFMG must remain flexible and abreast of world affairs.
Organizational Changes in Telefonica
In this paper, we will assess the recent organizational changes made in the telecom firm Telefonica. Our analysis will be based on the 5w's and one how. Let's first overview the changes in general, the whole organizational structure of the firm is revamped targeting the medium and long-term future in terms of proper growth, more participation in technological world and acquiring more opportunities based on the firm's global presence and alliances.
Changes in detail
Let's first analyze by the "How" part in the 5w's and see how the changes were made and the reasons for their application. The whole organizational structure focused on three modules namely the commitment, growth and competitiveness alongside the midterm objectives as well as a proper series of "waves" of achievements which each lasts a year. Here, the top level management is supposed to get together by the end of the year…
Read, William. (1996). Telecom Strategy for Economic Development. Connecticut: Praeger.
Jussawalla, Meheroo. (1993). Global Telecom Policies. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Mclarty, TM 1998, 'Liberalized Telecommunications Trade in the WTO', Federal Communications Law Journal, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1.
Gold, MA 1994, 'Telecommunications and Cost Savings in Health Care Services', Southern Economic Journal, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 343.
Organizational Motivation and Leadership in the Workplace
A globally well-known chain of the burger and rapid food dining establishments called McDonald's Company (NYSE: MCD) serves around 58 million consumers on a day-to-day basis. McDonald's Company likewise runs some well-known little chains of dining establishments like Pret A Manger, which was closed in 2008. This company was among the investors in Chipotle Mexican Grill up until the year 2006. Boston Market was led by MacDonald's up until the year 2007 (Kukreja, 2011).
Certain personnel management aspects are likewise added in this report. The significant ones are variety, training, advancement, discovering, and retention. No question these aspects are actually essential in the modern-day business world of 21st century however a fascinating analysis is that McDonald's has actually not connected these elements with sustainability (Kukreja, 2011).
There are differing ideas about sustainability technique within McDonald's. When seen from the viewpoint of…
Bartol, K., Martin, D., Tein, M., Matthews, G. (2001). Management: A Pacific Rim Focus," 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, Australia.
CPDL. (2004). Organisation & Management" Manual; 2004, University of Mauritius.
CPDL. (2005). Organisational Behaviour" Manual; 2005, University of Mauritius.
Kukreja, P. (2011). Employee Retention of McDonald's. Taken from: http://www.managementparadise.com/forums/human-resources-management-h-r/219372-employee-retention-mcdonald-s.html
People esourcing and Development -- Case Study eport
People esourcing and Development
People esourcing and Development -- Case Study eport
Organizations need to implement effective H policies at their workplace in order to manage their human capital in an effective an efficient fashion. These policies are designed in the light of local laws and regulations on different industrial relation issues like anti-discrimination and equality, cultural diversity management, recruitment of right individuals at the right positions within the workplace, and others. This paper presents a case study report on the human resource management policies of EasyGlaze Ltd. -- a growing organization that intends to hire individuals and managers at different organizational levels in order to meet the increased need of human capital for its expanded business operations. The paper is divided into four major sections. The first part describes the anti-discrimination and equality legislation that EasyGlaze will have to…
Gennard, J. & Judge, G. 2006, Employee Relations, 3rd Edition. U.S.: CIPD passim
Koontz, H. & Weihrich, H. 2010, Essentials of Management: an international perspective, 7th Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill
Saxena, P. 2009, Principles of Management: A Modern Approach, 1st Edition. India: Global India Publications
Tripathi, P.C. & Reddy, P.N. 2006, Principles of Management, 3rd Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill
An employer of any number of employees must consider it a basic duty to provide a stress free workplace for all his employees. It is a well-known fact that stress at a workplace induces animosity among the employees and creates problems that would not have been present under ordinary circumstances. Stress at the workplace also reduces the productivity of the workers therein and creates tension for the management, which finds itself under a lot of pressure. In a medical sense stress at the workplace actually affects the powers of the brain in such areas as concentration, learning and being able to memorize details that are an important function of the brain. In a legal sense, stress is a factor that leads to a whole lot of litigation when the employees sue the company for bad stress management in the workplace. This in turn results in bad publicity and…
Bennett, Rebecca J; Robinson, Sandra L. "Organizational Deviance" Retrieved at http://www.businessfaculty.utoledo.edu/rbennett/devchapter-final.doc. Accessed on 23 September, 2004
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Crosby, James R. "Strategic Planning Cycle" Mana 4330, Team Management. Retrieved at http://management.uta.edu/Crosby/4330/Strategic%20Planning%20Cycle.doc. Accessed on 23 September, 2004
Dexter, Hansen. (2004) Performance Appraisal Tips Help Page. Retrieved at http://iso9k1.home.att.net/pa/performance_appraisal.html. Accessed on 23 September, 2004
Managing Change Organization. Provide a significant change place a major organization, compare contrast established change management models/frameworks implementation phase common lessons learned.
Managing change in the organization: est uy
One of the most recent successful changes to be implemented at a major organization is that of the technology company est uy's shift to a results-only workplace (ROWE). In the ROWE model, workers are judged solely on their output, not on how many hours they log at the company headquarters. This is a complete shift from the previous organizational culture and the way of valuing employees at est uy before ROWE was implemented. efore, workers were encouraged to pride themselves about how early they came in to the office and how late they stayed. Today, measurable output alone is how workers are valued. "Employee productivity has increased an average of 35% in departments covered by the program," and the…
Brandon, John. 2007. Rethinking the time clock. CNN. Available:
http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2007/03/01/8401022/index.htm [27 Jun 2012]
Major change frameworks and models. (n.d.). DePaul University. Accessed:
http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/nsutcliffe/450-00Current/450Frameworks-Models.htm [27 Jun 2012]
Organizational Transformation and Intervention at the U.S. Army
Army, like many organizations whose cultures are design to resist and reject change to ensure consistency of structure and clarity of mission, is in need of a transformation and intervention. The vision, mission and objectives of the U.S. Army require a more agile, flexible and modular organizational structure that promotes transformational leadership over transactional management. The cultural constraints however are exceptionally rigid in this organization and transformational leadership the exception rather than the rule. The key constructs of the Burke-Litwin Model however illustrate that transactional leadership is more complex to manage and maintain over the significantly more streamlined transformational leadership structures the researchers have defined (Burke, Litwin, 1992). The intent of this analysis is to show how an intervention plan for the U.S. Army would make the organization more capable of achieving its vision, mission and objectives. The rationale for the intervention…
Bititci, U.S., Mendibil, K., Nudurupati, S., Garengo, P., & Turner, T. (2006). Dynamics of performance measurement and organisational culture. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(12), 1325-1350.
Burke, W.W., & Litwin, G.H. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-523.
Johnson, D.M. (2004). Adaptation of organizational change models to the implementation of quality standard requirements. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 21(2), 154-174.
Organizational Change and Development in Public Sector
Additional points are in red per
Rewrite Edition April 6, 2012
Organizational Change and Development in the Public Sector
One of the most challenging aspects of organizational change is defining a compelling enough vision for associates and employees to concentrate on so they see the value of changing how they work and why. Empirically-based studies indicate that transformational leaders are the most effective at clearly defining and executing a compelling vision that leads to long-term change in an organization (Pardo-del-Val, artinez-Fuentes, Roig-Dobon, 2012). The following proposal for a capstone project focuses on the qualitative factors that contribute the most to successful change management strategies that lead to long-term, permanent change occurring throughout an enterprise. Transformational leadership is essential for the development of an organizational culture that values long-term learning, which is the foundation of long-term productivity gains in an enterprise (Pardo-del-Val, artinez-Fuentes, Roig-Dobon,…
Change management is inherently qualitative in nature as it is often an internalized aspect of behavior in organizations (September, McCarrey, Baranowsky, et. al., 2001). Translating these inherently qualitative aspects of organizational behavior into quantitative measures of performance requires a research method that captures the quantitative, external perceptions and actions of respondents throughout an organization. The research method is therefore predicated on attitudinal measures of perception and performance. The research method therefore includes the research design based on random sampling and Likert scaling to quantify attitudinal
Organizational Diagnosis of Palm
Palm Computing had reinvented the hand held computer market overnight with the line of PalmPilot and similar devices geared to the mobile gadget industry. According to Clancy (1999), "Palm Computing ultimately sold faster than the videocassette recorder, the color TV, the cell phone, even the personal computer that was its great-grandfather. Introduced in April 1996, within 18 months Palm Computing had shipped more than 1 million units of the handheld and some estimate there were 2 million Palm devices shipped in 1998 alone." (Clancy, 1999)
Such incredible demand for Palm Computing's products were a function of the brilliant and innovative management and design team that launched and built the company. The two prominent executives of the company, responsible for developing product and marketing, and product releases, were Jeff Hawkins and Donna Dubinsky.
According to Clancy (1999), "In Hawkins, Silicon Valley has one of its most independent,…
Enderle R. (2010) "HP and Palm: The Explosion that Will Rock the Computer Industry"
Leadersphere (2008) "HR Intelligence Report -- Organizational Diagnostic Models -- A Review & Synthesis"
Niccolai J., Gohring N. (2010) "A Brief History of Palm" http://www.pcworld.com/article/195199/a_brief_history_of_palm.html
The advantage on the other hand is of the retrieval of relevant and solid findings based on which the adequate strategies can be implemented.
4. The congruence model
According to the Mind Tools website, the "congruence model is based on the principle that an organization's performance is derived from four elements: tasks, people, structure, and culture. The higher the congruence, or compatibility, amongst these elements, the greater the performance" (Mind Tools, 2010). The advantage of the model is that of simplifying the issues promoted by the previous models and revealing an analysis structure constructed onto four elements alone. This implies lower task complexities and leads to more efficiently retrieved results. However, it could also lead to sometimes irrelevant findings as it does not take into consideration elements outside the organization, such as the socio-economic climate. In other words, this model is highly applicable when conducting an internal audit, but its…
Burton, R.M., Obel, B., 2004, Strategic organizational diagnosis and design: the dynamics of fit, 3rd edition, Springer, ISBN 1402076843
Patel, N., 2010, HP and Palm: what happens next, Engadget, http://www.engadget.com/2010/04/29/hp-and-palm-what-happens-next / last accessed on July 29, 2010
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Organizational diagnosis, The College of St. Scholastica, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffaculty.css.edu%2Fdswenson%2Fweb%2FPowerpoints%2FOrganizationalDiagnosis.ppt&ei=uYdRTKSkMYqUOMy-4cME&usg=AFQjCNGTL9ElrN8D8QlJeGZvTwHnunMKeA last accessed on July 29, 2010
Political leaders in charge of this decision will not take into consideration only the effects that a possible bailout might have on the automakers. They will take into consideration the macroeconomic effects and challenges that are expected to emerge in case the bailout is approved.
The symbolic frame probably has the least importance regarding this subject. In case the bailout will not be approved, the cultural or symbolic aspects related to the big automakers affected by this situation will not have the strength to clarify the situation.
2. The important lesson provided by the organizational behavior consists in improving organizational effectiveness. This lesson should be important for all the managers or aspiring managers and it should always be taken into consideration when deciding upon important aspects that affect the organization in case.
Effectiveness and efficiency must characterize all types of organizations, private, profits oriented ones, but non-profit and governmental organizations…
1. U.S. Automakers Bailout - a Bridge to Bankruptcy or a Road to Salvation. Saving to Invest. Retrieved December 12, 2008 at http://www.savingtoinvest.com/2008/11/us-automakers-bailout-bridge-to.html .