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Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement and Organizational Culture
It has been stated by Vance (2006) that personnel committed to the company and absorbed in their jobs offer corporations critical competitive advantages; these include decreased workforce turnover and increased productivity. Commitment and engagement are clearly able to potentially bring about valuable business outcomes for a firm. But what does the term engagement imply? Personnel engagement implies that company workers are proud of their company and satisfied with the role they have been accorded in it. Personnel satisfaction or engagement may further refer to how far individuals believe in, and enjoy, their jobs, as well as how far they feel the management of their firm values their contribution and efforts. With increase in engagement of employees, their likelihood to make special efforts for the company's benefit and deliver superior job performance will increase. Moreover, an engaged workforce tends to remain with…
Management Sciences for Health. (2012). Designing and Implementing Training Programs. Retrieved February 5, 2016, from World Health Organization: www.apps.who.int/medicinedocs/
Vance, R. J. (2006). Employee Engagement and Committment. Virginia: Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM).
External and Internal ecruitment Procedures/Methods
To operate effectively, and thus remain in business, an organization must have in place an able, motivated, and competent staff. Indeed, it has been stated in some quarters that human resources are the most valuable organizational assets. I wouldn't agree more. To ensure that they have the right staff to advance their agenda and achieve their objectives, organizations routinely seek to bring on board the most capable employees. This they do by engaging in an often complex and lengthy recruitment process. Essentially, recruitment could be categorized into two, i.e. internal recruitment and external recruitment. Both approaches to recruitment have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. In brief, external recruitment, according to Schermerhorn (2010, p. 293) "seeks job applicants from outside the organization," while internal recruitment, as the author further points out, "seeks job applicants from inside the organization."
It is important to note that today,…
Ferreirra, E.J., Erasmus, A.W. & Groenewals, D. (2010). Administrative Management (2nd ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Juta and Company.
Griffin, R. & Moorhead, G. (2009). Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hubbard, E. (2004). The Managers Guide to Diversity Management. Amherst, Massachusetts: Human Resource Development Press, Inc.
Leviticus, J. (2014). Why is Diversity in the Workplace Important to Employees? Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/diversity-workplace-important-employees-25453.html
Environment Affects Organizational Effectiveness
To achieve an ethical institution, individuals must concentrate as much on institutional culture as on individual behavior. When individuals focus on these two, they will find that culture is created by two processed the establishment of institutional values and the implementation of those values. This study focuses on the role of the environment in shaping the organizational culture.
A number of ethical issues derive from vice, error and weakness. However, most of these stem from an institutional culture that promotes prudently or internal values at the expense of the ethical ones. In such a culture, good managers will make right decisions that are sometimes ethically problematic. This implies that they will make knowledgeable decisions, with strength of virtue and character, but those decisions will be unethical.
The environment in which an institution operates also shapes the cultural values, goals, norms and institutional beliefs. Therefore, because of…
Green, S. (2011). The would-be pioneer. Harvard Business Review. 89(4), 124-126. This article can be found in EBSCO.
Scarborough, J. (2011). The origins of cultural differences and their impact on management. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Usunier, J.-C. (2008). International and cross-cultural management research. London: SAGE.
Some people also call this kind of leadership servant leadership, because of the way the leader makes himself more equal with the followers. Transactional leadership is more about giving orders that are expected to be followed, where transformational leadership is more about discussing ideas and finding ways that the organization can be changed for the better (ass & Avolio, 1994). There are times when transactional leadership is better, of course, depending on the type of organization. For most organizations, though, transformational leadership is the right way to go.
Another thing that ass and Avolio (1994) point out is that leaders who focus on transformational leadership keep their followers for a much longer period of time. They are in the game for the long-term, and because of that they are committed to changing the organization for the better overall. There may be some growing pains, but the level of trust that…
Bass, B.M. And Avolio, B.J. (1994) Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bennis, W. (2003). On Becoming a Leader. Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing.
Organizational Effectiveness & Strategy in Darden Restaurant Group
Darden Restaurant group is the world's largest company-owned and managed full-service restaurant company which includes Red Lobster, Olive Garden, Bahama Breeze, LongHorn Steakhouse, Seasons 52, and The Capital Grille. Since 1995, Darden Restaurant Incorporation has been in operation, and the name Darden came from illiam Darden when he found and opened their first Red Lobster, which is a seafood restaurant, in Lakeland Florida 43 years ago. After being acquired by General Mills for many years, Darden decided to be a separate publicly held company, and the company went from six restaurants in 1970 to approximately 680 restaurants in North America by the end of 2008 (Richmond, 2008, pp. 1-57). Furthermore, in order to stay aggressive and on top in the food industry, Darden uses operational effectiveness and strategies in order to be a strong contender as they are.
Darden (2010), Supplier diversity. Available from http://www.darden.com/diversity/supplier.asp [Accessed: July 24, 2011].
Lockyer, S. (2007), Darden could become franchisor via buyout. Restaurant news. Available from http://www.nrn.com/article/darden-could-become-frachisor-buyout [Accessed: July 23, 2011].
Macleod, D.S. (2010). "North america's biggest buyer of lobster looks to grow their own," Maine Observer, July 14, p.1. Available from http://thehaul.maineobserver.net/2010/07/14/north-americas-biggest-buyer-of-lobster-looks-to-grow-their-own/
Richmond, B. (2008), Darden restaurants inc: Form 10-k. Edgar Online. Available from: http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/DRI/0x0x270699/fl5f373d-3786-4c56-a11f-d0f5c36cbfdd/DRI_2008-10-K.pdf [Accessed: July 23, 2011].
Human esources -- Performance Management and Organizational Effectiveness
The LAMP framework developed by John W. Boudreau is ideal for the development, implementation and evaluation of a performance management system in a China-based U.S.-China joint venture whose employees are predominantly Chinese nationals. Focusing on impact, effectiveness and efficiency, the LAMP method of "decision science" uses the tools of Logic, Analytics, Measures and Process to gauge talentship, and focuses on the most effective OI. In conjunction with this method, special leadership and feedback would be necessary in establishing this American-Chinese venture due to marked differences between Western and Chinese culture.
Body: Critical issues that need to be addressed in developing, implementing, and evaluating a performance management system in a China-based U.S.-China joint venture whose employees are predominantly Chinese nationals.
Development, implementation and evaluation of a performance management system in a China-based U.S.-China joint venture whose employees are predominantly Chinese nationals would greatly…
Anonymous. (2011, January 10). Minimum wage law was only the first stage. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/822883424
Boudreau, J.W. (2006). Talentship and HR measurement analysis: From ROI to strategic organizational change. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/224361363
Brocato, R. (2003). Coaching for improvement: An essential role for team leaders and managers. Journal for Quality and Participation, 26(1), 17-22.
Magana, S., & Stai, B. (2011). Chinese compensation systems. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/876966554
Human esources -- Performance Management and Organizational Effectiveness
Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the performance management system in your organization.
Starbucks Corporation, founded in 1971 in Seattle, Washington (Shahi, Omar, Aufschlager, Schmerling, & Gassner, 2007, p. 3), prides itself in its exemplary performance management system. The prototypical performance management system focuses on two functions: decision-making, in the form of "pay increases, promotions, transfers, assignments, reductions in force or other administrative H actions" (Pulakos, 2004, p. 3); and employee development, through guiding the "training, job experiences, mentoring and other developmental activities that employees will engage in to develop their capabilities" (Pulakos, 2004, p. 3). Using 360 Feedback Performance Appraisal provided by direct reports, employees (here called "partners"), coworkers, managers and customers (Starbucks Corporation, 2013; Lepsinger & Lucia, 1997), Starbucks' performance management system has many strengths but is also burdened with a few pronounced weaknesses.
In the decision-making function, Starbucks is…
Evans, E.M., & Hansen, A.K. (2010). Starbucks: Continual training - A needs-based analysis of training borrowed and transfer partners. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from www.akhansen.com Web site: http://www.akhansen.com/docs/StarbucksContTraining.pdf
Hammers, M. (2011, September 7). Starbucks is pleasing employees and pouring profits. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from www.workforce.com Web site: http://www.workforce.com/articles/starbucks-is-pleasing-employees-and-pouring-profits
Indeed. (2013). Starbucks. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from www.indeed.com Web site: http://www.indeed.com/cmp/Starbucks/reviews?start=20&lang=en
Indeed. (2013). Starbucks. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from www.indeed.com: http://www.indeed.com/cmp/Starbucks/reviews?start=80&lang=en
Leadership on Organization Effectiveness
MedShare is an organization engaged in the provision of health care services. ecently, the company gave me an appointment as the Chief Financial Officer to manage the organization's financial operations and lead it to a successful path. MedShare is the parent company of the subsidiary On-site Healthcare Facility that also owns www.onsite.com Domain. It is a global corporation with strong representation in leading markets throughout the United States. This is a Texas corporation with international headquarters in Texas. The business was organized in 2008. It has demonstrated itself as a top competitor in the healthcare industry since its inception. It made an initial public offering in 2009 and has proven to be a profitable business venture (Bass & Avolio, 2010). For this reason, investors were fast at purchasing stock and trusted the organization with their investments. MedShare services portfolio includes:
II. Cardiothoracic Services
Bass, B.M., & Avolio, B.J. (2010). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Borkowski, N. (2009). Organizational behavior, theory, and design in health care. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ginter, P.M., Duncan, W.J., & Swayne, L.E. (2013). Strategic management of health care organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Krause, T.R., & Hidley, J.H. (2009). Taking the lead in patient safety: How healthcare leaders influence behavior and create culture. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Political leaders in charge of this decision will not take into consideration only the effects that a possible bailout might have on the automakers. They will take into consideration the macroeconomic effects and challenges that are expected to emerge in case the bailout is approved.
The symbolic frame probably has the least importance regarding this subject. In case the bailout will not be approved, the cultural or symbolic aspects related to the big automakers affected by this situation will not have the strength to clarify the situation.
2. The important lesson provided by the organizational behavior consists in improving organizational effectiveness. This lesson should be important for all the managers or aspiring managers and it should always be taken into consideration when deciding upon important aspects that affect the organization in case.
Effectiveness and efficiency must characterize all types of organizations, private, profits oriented ones, but non-profit and governmental organizations…
1. U.S. Automakers Bailout - a Bridge to Bankruptcy or a Road to Salvation. Saving to Invest. Retrieved December 12, 2008 at http://www.savingtoinvest.com/2008/11/us-automakers-bailout-bridge-to.html .
A second change that has occurred and will continue to transform is that, regardless of the motivation, many employers have begun to experiment with flextime, telecommuting, and voluntary reduced-load work arrangements to give employees more discretion and personal flexibility in how they integrate work demands with other life roles such as family, community, and leisure. This increase in flexible work arrangements has further blurred the boundaries between work and home for many employees. Effectively switching and managing multiple work and non-work roles has never been more complex. Findings from individual, family, and organizational perspectives are mixed in terms of the success and social acceptance of alternative work arrangements (Kossek & Lambert, 2005, p. 6)
Though the criminal justice system is known for what they do and have been around for centuries, it is important to note that every organization has a plan, a vision, and successful mixed with failures. This…
Kossek, E.E. & Lambert, S.J. (Eds.). (2005). Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Miner, J.B. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sims, R.R. (1994). Ethics and Organizational Decision Making: A Call for Renewal. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Terminology and Concepts
American companies have suffered in recent years. In their efforts to reduce cost, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost every organization either directly or indirectly. These attempts to 'right the ship' so to speak will cause problems for these organizations in the terms of their ability to perform in the long-term. Organizational behavior has been cast aside in too many areas which entails that these companies have shown poor leadership by trying to capitalize on technological breakthroughs as opposed to building the human resource aspects of their businesses. This paper is a summary of some organizational behavior concepts and terminologies that are affected by the quest for profits. Through readings, articles, and my personal experiences, I have summarized what I feel can be construed as organizational behavior, culture, diversity, communication, effectiveness, efficiency and learning. I have been blessed by the fact that I hold a…
Organizational Theory #2
What core competences give an organization competitive advantage? What are examples of an organization's functional-level strategies?
Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Typically, core competencies can be identified by certain common characteristics -- offering a benefit to the customer, difficult to imitate, uniquely identify the organization and easily leveraged to create many products or operate in many markets (Kern, 2010). The organization that is best able to use its resources to create value is in an ideal position to outperform the competition, thus creating advantage (Jones, 2010). Core competencies tend to change in response to changes in the environment. They are flexible, evolve over time and enable the company to enter apparently different markets with a clear and distinctive brand proposition. Examples of core competencies include manufacturing, research and development, new technology or organizational design…
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Terry, L.D., & Hoefer, R.A. (1995). Making politics and power respectable. Public Administration Review, 55(3), 298.
Organizational Theory #1
Create a code of ethics for an organization of your choice. For each point in the code of ethics, describe an ethical dilemma that would be resolved using the code of ethics.
All employees will conduct business honestly and ethically. We will constantly improve the quality of our services, products and operations and create a reputation for honesty, fairness, respect, responsibility, integrity, trust and sound business judgment. (Provides a clearly stated, over-arching business philosophy for honesty and fair dealings that every employee can follow).
No illegal or unethical conduct on the part of company employees or affiliates is in the company's best interest. All are expected to adhere to high standards of personal integrity -- not allowing their personal interests to conflict with the interests of the company, its clients or affiliates. We will not compromise our principles for short-term advantage. (Encourages all employees to seek the…
Beauchamp, L., & O'Connor, A. (2012). America's most admired companies: A descriptive analysis of CEO corporate social responsibility statements. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 494-497. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.03.006
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Organizational Diagnosis of Palm
Palm Computing had reinvented the hand held computer market overnight with the line of PalmPilot and similar devices geared to the mobile gadget industry. According to Clancy (1999), "Palm Computing ultimately sold faster than the videocassette recorder, the color TV, the cell phone, even the personal computer that was its great-grandfather. Introduced in April 1996, within 18 months Palm Computing had shipped more than 1 million units of the handheld and some estimate there were 2 million Palm devices shipped in 1998 alone." (Clancy, 1999)
Such incredible demand for Palm Computing's products were a function of the brilliant and innovative management and design team that launched and built the company. The two prominent executives of the company, responsible for developing product and marketing, and product releases, were Jeff Hawkins and Donna Dubinsky.
According to Clancy (1999), "In Hawkins, Silicon Valley has one of its most independent,…
Enderle R. (2010) "HP and Palm: The Explosion that Will Rock the Computer Industry"
Leadersphere (2008) "HR Intelligence Report -- Organizational Diagnostic Models -- A Review & Synthesis"
Niccolai J., Gohring N. (2010) "A Brief History of Palm" http://www.pcworld.com/article/195199/a_brief_history_of_palm.html
The personnel performance and human motivation components of the study of organizational behavior also date back to the late 19th and early 20th century work of theorists like Max Weber and to the 20th century works of Douglass McGregor and Abraham Maslow (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010). Weber outlined the most productive breakdown of organizational hierarchies, elements of working groups, and the relationship between individual employees and their supervisors. McGregor and Maslow contributed psychological theories that identified specific factors that determine levels of personal commitment and satisfaction of individual employees within organizations (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010).
The Importance of Organizational Behavior to Modern Business Management
Understanding organizational behavior in all of its applications is an essential requirement in modern business management (NAU, 2010; obbins & Judge, 2009). Naturally, the specific aspects of organizational behavior that are most important to individual business managers depend on the responsibilities of…
George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
National American University. (2008). Organizational Behavior Instructional Materials
This will allow for collaboration, additional suggestions for the action plans to come, corrections and so forth.
Action planning: At this point, a plan can be developed to remedy the situation being studied; the plans become something that delivers results.
Implementation: The adopted Action Plan is put in place.
Follow up: Lastly, the implementation, as well as the Action Plan itself, is reviewed in order to see if positive results have occurred. If not, the process may need to be repeated or modified.
It is important to note that the way that the Action esearch Process is enacted will vary by organization, the expected outcomes, the stakeholders involved, etc. (Cunningham, 1999).
Stress and Its Consequences
The drive for organizations to constantly improve can, and does, lead to stress for the workers (Buunk & Verhoeven, 1991). This stress can have many consequences, such as increases in employee turnover, absenteeism, lower productivity,…
Buunk, B.P., & Verhoeven, K. (1991). Companionship and Support at Work: a Microanalysis of the Stress-Reducing Features of Social Interaction. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 12(3), 243-258.
Cunningham, J.B. (1993). Action Research and Organizational Development. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Gilley, J.W., & Maycunich, a. (2000). Organizational Learning, Performance, and Change: An Introduction to Strategic Human Resource Development. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Greenberg, J. (Ed.). (2003). Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Smith provided the appropriate managerial direction which struck the right balance between creativity, performance and productivity. His farsightedness which encompassed a wide vision was long-term, ambitious and the same time entirely practical and feasible. (Section 7: Leadership and Management, p. 243)
Having earlier steered a floundering company towards a successful path, Smith's work was uphill. He had to drastically change the organizational culture and structure while reducing conflict within the very talented set of employees and provide them with a collective direction. He was also expected to reduce the atmosphere of uncertainty prevailing in the organization and use the "countercultures" of the earlier two companies to foster innovation and creativity and thus get a competitive advantage for the new organization. (Section 2: Organizations & Culture, p. 64)
d. Organizational goals, vision, mission, objectives and values
Organizational mission defines the very reason for its existence. It basically refers to a general…
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Gitman, Lawrence J; McDaniel, Carl. 2009., The Future of Business: The Essentials. South Western Cengage Learning.
In terms of the organizational development style to be used throughout the change process, this should best be the pathfinder style. Despite the complexity of this approach, fact remains that it combines the benefits of other styles, while reducing their limitations. The pathfinder style virtually focuses on both high levels of organizational effectiveness, as well as high levels of member satisfaction (Harvey and Brown, 2001). This means that the approach will focus on improving senior-junior communications, for the satisfaction of the employees, as well as the increase in the performances of the overall entity.
Given that the process of change cannot be structured onto a strict plan, but that the plan has to be tailored to the unique features of the Mobile Mine Assembly Group, the levels of formalization at this stage are reduced. Nevertheless, throughout the actual implementation, or the time in which the change strategy comes into direct…
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Organizational Assessment as Impetus for Change at a Vet Center
Organizational Assessment as an Impetus for Change at a Vet Center
Organizational Context. Every type of organization has, or should have, as a major goal, the need to optimize the productivity of its human resources (Farr, Schuler & Smith, 1993). One organization that has recently assumed critical importance in the U.S. is the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Today, the VA is responsible for administering an enormous healthcare and benefits network for its active duty and retired service members and their families at U.S. taxpayer expense.
Among the most prominent of such government-administered programs is the healthcare systems comprised of VA medical centers (VAMCs), outpatient clinics (VAOPCs), community and outreach clinics, and numerous Vet Centers. In fact, taken together, almost one-third of the American population (around 70 million persons who are veterans, dependents and survivors of deceased veterans) are eligible…
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Coopman, S.J. (2001). Democracy, performance and outcomes in interdisciplinary health care teams. The Journal of Business Communication, 38(3), 261.
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Chester county hospital organization culture
Chester county hospital is an organization within the public sector. This organization strives to be the best place to work for any of its employees or potential employees. This organization is among Chester County's largest and most well respected employers and this success is attributed to the dedicated employees who are committed to maintaining an atmosphere of excellence. The members of staff are a representation of the development of the hospital patient satisfaction performance standards that are based on the mission, vision and values of the organization. The organization puts the needs of its patients who are their customers first. They strive to ensure that the patients get the appropriate care they need whenever they visit the hospital .The organization recognizes the importance of employees balancing their professional and personal life. Therefore the organization offers numerous opportunities for their advancement, flexible scheduling, a…
Christensen, T.,Laegreid P, Roness, P & Rovik, K.(2009). Organization
Theory and the Public Sector Instrument, Culture and Myth. Retrieved May 19,2014 from http://www.europe-solidarity.eu/documents/ES_ORGANIZAT_THEORY_2007.pdf
McGraw-Hill Higher Education, (2004). Organizational Culture Theory. Retrieved May 19, 2014 from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0767430344/student_view0/chapter16/
Chester County Hospital, (2014). Organizational Culture, Diversity and Equal Opportunity. Retrieved May 19, 2014 from http://www.chestercountyhospital.org/cchpage.asp?p=115&m=182
Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…
Agguire D., et.al (2013). Culture's Role in Enabling Organizational ChangeSurvey Ties
Transformation Success to Deft Handling of Cultural Issues. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.booz.com/global/home/what-we-think/reports-white-papers/article-display/cultures-role-organizational-change
Beakey, D. (2007). Organizational Design and Implementation. Graziadio Business Review:
Graziadio School of Business and Management, Pepperdine University. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/organizational-design-and-implementation/
Advise management concerning personnel, managerial, and marketing policies and practices and their potential effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Analyze data, using statistical methods and applications, to evaluate the outcomes and effectiveness of workplace programs.
Assess employee performance.
Observe and interview workers to obtain information about the physical, mental, and educational requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects such as job satisfaction.
Write reports on research findings and implications to contribute to general knowledge and to suggest potential changes in organizational functioning.
Facilitate organizational development and change.
Identify training and development needs.
Normal work activities for an Industrial Organizational psychologist might include: getting information, providing consultation and advice to others, interpreting the meaning of information to others, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, making decisions and solving problems.
In addition to those, an I/O psychologist would analyze data, organize, plan and prioritize work, interact with computers, judge…
Industrial psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from a2zpsychology.com: http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ARTICLES/industrial.htm
McCarthy, P. (2002). Brief outline of the history of I/O psychology. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Middle Tennessee State University: http://frank.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm
Morris, L. (2000). Careers in industrial organizational psychology. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Westchester university department of education: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Industrial/Career06.htm
O-net. (2008). Summary report for industrial organizational psychologists. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from o-net online: http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/19-3032.00
, 1999). Generally speaking, the results of this study showed that increased levels of diversity within the top leadership team had a negative impact on their ability to reach strategic consensus because of both direct and indirect effects (Knight et al., 1999).
These findings are not that surprising, of course, given that it is intuitive that as diversity within a top leadership team increases, so too will the range of views that will be brought to the management table for consideration. Despite these constraints to consensus building, there are some highly desirable outcomes that can be achieved using the strategic diversity management approach that make it worthy of consideration by organizations that are "stuck in a diversity rut."
Strategic diversity management can improve organizational effectiveness by facilitating communication between superiors, peers and subordinates. Although many organizations have recognized the importance and value of a diversified workforce, some have failed to…
Arnold, V.D. & Krapels, A.H. (1996, May/June). 'Motivation: a Reincarnation of Ideas.'
Industrial Management, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 8-10.
Davidson, M.J. & Fielden, S.L. (2003). Individual Diversity and Psychology in Organizations.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
How might researchers study the effectiveness of inclusive leadership with regard to overall organizational effectiveness and competitiveness? Why is this effective methodology?
Researchers may achieve this by combining longitudinal and cross-sectional technique. The sample for the research will be chosen from the whole economic sector or from maximum possible industries such as banks, telecommunication, the public sector, construction and building, hospitality, agriculture, and so forth. This way, generalization of extended and replicated study outcomes may be achieved more confidently for a bigger group of individuals. Respondents will be administered the following Likert scales: Inclusive Leadership, Personnel Creativity, Personnel Work Engagement, and Affective Company Commitment (Choi, Tran & Park, 2015). Also to be identified is company leaders' leadership approach, preferably making sure every approach is taken into account. This will help compare inclusive leadership with other approaches in terms of its competitiveness and efficacy.
Longitudinal as well as cross-sectional researches are…
The Structure of the British Army Compared to a Civilian Business Organization
Military life, especially during combat situations, is difficult for the individual who has always been a civilian to imagine. The structure of the organization is rigid, strict control is maintained of all personnel, the management style is historically largely authoritarian, and conditions can be harsh. However, there are always people who volunteer for this service for many reasons. The individual lacks responsibility and wishes to gain it, there is a scarcity of sustainable employment, the promise of adventure awaits the soldier. Other reasons exist, every soldier or sailor has one, but whatever the reason when a person joins the military they soon understand the organization. There is no mystery regarding large goals or minor objectives. The British Army has a unique history and purpose that can be useful to companies that want to survive and remain successful…
Andrzejewski, S., 1954. Military organization and society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
British Army., 2010. British army: An introduction. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/2010_ARMY_Brochure_9.0_ (2).pdf
Caniglia, R.R., 2001. Leadership: U.S. And British approaches to force protection. Military Review, 81(4), pp. 72-81
Cassidy, R.M., 2005. The British army and counterinsurgency: The salience of military culture. Military Review, 85(3), pp. 53-64.
ver the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people (Stein, 1985) and that leadership styles are an integral part of the culture of an organization. A culture-specific perspective reflects the view that the occurrence and the effectiveness of certain leadership behaviors (as well as constructs) is likely to be unique to a given culture.
In contrast, leaders in the culture-universal position contend that certain leadership constructs are comparable across cultures and that many universal leadership behaviors do exist. nly recently, based on the review by Bass (House, 1998), has the leadership research community begun to realize that universal and culture-specific leadership behaviors and constructs are not mutually exclusive categories, but can rather coexist in a single culture at the…
On the other hand, transactional leaders work with the existing rules, norms and procedures of the organization's culture, and reward followers for positive work, and also work to maintain the existing culture (Bass, 1985). The transactional leaders base their decision-making and actions on existing norms, values, and procedures (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders, on the other hand, can deter organizational success and leadership effectiveness (Bass, 1985).
Leadership style has received a great deal of attention from human resource development researchers (HRD) in the past years (Woodwall, 2000). Some studies will be focused on building a HRD knowledge base in countries where this is low or inexistent (Kuchinke, 1999), whereas others try to identify the compatibility between different leadership styles and the national cultural characteristics. Ardichvili and Kuchinke (2002) used Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the extensive theory developed by Bass and Avolio to determine the leadership styles that are more likely to be correlated to different cultural characteristics in former USSR countries, Germany and the United States.
The results suggested that leadership development based on national dimensions as described by Hofstede should be considered with caution because countries with similar cultural features and geographical proximity may display different leadership styles. Further
Organizational Structure Analysis
Why Flattening Hierarchies and Empowering Teams Is a Strategy
Flattening, also called delayering, simply refers to the removal of layers in the organizational hierarchy of a company, and the expansion of the manager's span of power. The supposed benefits of flattening run basically from pushing decisions down to improving client and market responsiveness to enhancing drive as well as responsibility. This is a strategy because the basis of flattening seems positive: to stay competitive in the face of more competition, for example, companies should pursue a streamlined, effective organization, which could respond to clients more rapidly (Wulf, 2012).
An empowered worker has the power and responsibility of making decisions, instead of the need to get instructions or consent from the manager. In an empowered team, every teammate has a say in group discussions. The team might make alterations to their product or project at will. An organization…
Boundless. (2015, July 21). Divisional Structure. Retrieved from Boundless Management. Boundless: https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-structure-2/common-organizational-structures-25/divisional-structure-147-3977/
Corcoran, C. K. (2000). The Intersection of Technology and Organizational Culture. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.studentaffairs.com/ejournal/Fall_2000/corcoran.htm
Harris, S. (2015, December 9). Global expansion -- the essential enabling technologies. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Orange Business: http://www.orange-business.com/en/blogs/connecting-technology/emerging-markets/global-expansion-the-essential-enabling-technologies
Marzec, E. (2016). What Is Team Empowerment? Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Small Business: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/team-empowerment-12716.html
Organizational culture theory and the role and impact of both formal and informal groups on the functioning of modern day organizations.
Organizational culture is the way organizations conducts its business transactions. It also refers to the different perspectives that a company sees things. An organization builds its own organizational culture through structure, history and the traditions of the company (Shafritz 2005). Theories of organizational culture suggest that culture gives an organization a sense of identity and defines what the company stands for. It also tells us what the company is. Culture also gives details to the principles of the company. Organizational culture in broader terms is the collective behavior of humans and the meaning of the actions that people do.
It involves the vision, norms, systems, beliefs and the organization values. Organizational culture contains values accepted by the employees of an organization. There are four main categories of organizational culture.…
Men and women perform different tasks in the society. There are tasks that women cannot do whereas the men are competent. Other tasks are hard for men to perform while the same tasks are easy for the women. The changing world enables women to work in the fields that many people regarded as belonging to the men. Women are now working in construction companies as a form of employment. The tasks affect positively in a bureaucratic performance since women incorporate their skills with that of men to work towards the achievement of an organization's goal. Strong and good working relationships between the employees in a bureau are beneficial (Gormley 2008). The strong relationships ensure that there is competence and effectiveness in performance of the employees.
Political support is crucial for any bureaucracy to thrive. Political stability and support are the main determinant factor that will enable a bureaucracy to thrive in its activities. Political support enables the bureaucracy to work without any hurdles. This ensures that the bureaucracy works with ease. Political support enables the bureaucracy to receive help and assistance from politicians (Gormley 2008). Political interference is the main factor that leads to the collapse of bureaucracy. Negative working relations between a bureau and politicians are a negative factor that will make the bureau not to function accordingly.
Good leadership helps bureaus to work effectively. Good leadership ensures that there are no corruption cases in many bureaus (Gormley 2008). Bad leadership results in the misappropriation of funds and corruption in the bureaus. Good leadership is a motivator to the junior staffs who look up to the leaders and follow the examples set up by the leaders. This enables the employees in the bureau to perform excellently in all sectors. Good governance and leadership by the officials enable the organization to get funding from the government that helps it in carrying outs its tasks.
Organizational behavior refers to the psychological and sociological habits and patterns evident in specific groups of people. It is often defined formally as "the study of individuals and groups in organizations," ("Organizational Behavior Today," p.2). The study of organizational behavior includes elements such as leadership traits and behaviors; the use or abuse of power, and the politics that characterize people's behavior within the organization. Because each organization functions according to different goals and missions, organizational behavior varies widely from sector to sector. Organizations which have as their primary aim to make profit will for instance behave differently than non-profit organizations; the individuals that comprise those organizations will demonstrate certain character traits that make them valuable to the organization as a whole. On the other hand, all organizations will demonstrate certain similar characteristics that are essential for the smooth functioning of any group of people. For example, the leaders in most…
Clark, Donald. "Leadership: Organizational Behavior." Big Dog's Leadership Page. .
'Organizational Behavior Today."
Wertheim, Edward G. "Historical Background of Organizational Behavior." .
The relevance of understanding group behavior as well as group properties cannot be overstated. This is more so the case for those keen on becoming effective managers and/or members of various groups. Managers who happen to be familiar with group behavior within organizations are more likely to fast track the accomplishment of the various goals and objectives of their respective organizations by amongst other things using groups more effectively.
Nature of Groups and Group Behavior within Organizations
A group according to Griffin and Moorhead (2011, p.240) "is two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person." It is however important to note that apart from this definition, several other definitions of a group have been proposed by various authors.
Types of Groups
In basic terms, groups can be divided into two. On one hand…
Griffin, R.W. And Moorhead, G. 2011. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hellriegel, D. And Slocum, J.W. 2007. Organizational Behavior. 11th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Martin, J. 2005. Organizational Behavior and Management. 3rd ed. Bedford Row, London: Thomson Learning.
Flexibility, adaptability, and a global mindset cause my organization to behave in a responsive rather than hierarchical fashion. These organizational values conspire to create an organizational culture that respects education, values protocol and is detail-oriented, yet is not such a slave to the rules that it loses sight of human beings. After all, if the rules were absolute, there would not be different government laws and bylaws, depending on the country one is sealing with. The services I perform require communication is with diverse doctors from an ever-increasingly wide range of nations, including South Africa, India, British Columbia, Iran, Iraq, China, Cuba, and Segal. Each one of these governments, organizations, and educational systems differs from the United States' own, yet all nations and national must be respected so that the place I work for realizes its goals of improving health care and education across borders.
Organizational learning for Credentials Specialists…
Strategic Management of Human esources
Human resource is considered as the most precious asset for business organizations. The financial performance and growth in the industry heavily depends upon the way an organization's employees perform at the workplace (Edwards 2003). A dedicated and committed workforce contributes towards a high level of operational excellence and market competitiveness. Therefore, it should be among the top priorities for an organization to manage its human resource in an effective and efficient way (ose 2004).
Strategic Human esource Management deals with formulating policies and procedures for getting the best work from employees, implementing different techniques to motivate them, and assessing the future human resource requirements at the workplace (Saxena 2009). This paper explains the strategic human resource management policies of one of the World's Top software companies -- Adobe Systems Incorporated. These policies are required to meet the current human resource requirements of the…
Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 54-63
Adobe, 2012, Adobe Fast Facts 2011, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Commitment to Employees, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Professional Development, Available from [Accessed January 24th, 2012]
Analysing Organisation: Using relevant theoretical perspectives frameworks, critically analyse organisation choice.
Analyzing organization is the process of assessing the organizations systems, functionality and capacity so as to increase the organizations performance, efficiency and overall output. This is done by using various theories and models whose aim is to understand the structure of the organization, technology and behavioral relationships Bate, Khan, & Pye, 2000.
This should be a periodic and detailed activity that assists the organizations management to identify any inefficiency or problems that may have risen and have not been dealt with the management will then come up with strategies to deal with them.
Compulyzed Telecommunications is a telecommunications company dealing with telephone, cabling, and internet provision services for both home and corporate clients. Compulyzed Telecommunications had an increase of 1.7% operating profit in the fiscal year 2011 as compared to the previous year this was…
Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for Competitive Advantage. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), 9(4), 49-61.
Bate, P., Khan, R., & Pye, A. (2000). Towards a Culturally Sensitive Approach to Organization Structuring: Where Organization Design Meets Organization Development. Organization Science, 11(2), 197-211.
Becker, I., & Flaxer, E. (2008). Analysing the Hierarchical Organization of Text by Using Biologically-Inspired Statistical Methods. [Article]. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 15(4), 318-339. doi: 10.1080/09296170802326657
Bloodgood, J.M., & Bauerschmidt, A. (2002). Competitive Analysis: Do Managers Accurately Compare Their Firms To Competitors? Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(4), 418-434.
The Walt Disney
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
An organization is any social entity that has a well-designed structure to coordinate its functions, and the organization has to have a specific goal. Most organizations hardly work internally alone, but rather involve the external environments. Some organizations are profit oriented, like the business organizations, while others are non-profit making (Daft et al. 2010). In this context, a contemporary focus is overlooked towards the Walt Disney Company, a profound firm dealing with mass media and affiliated industrial operations.
Brief Company Profile
Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923, and has always kept the reputation in providing quality and extremely creative products, which consumers have loved ever since. The organization specializes in providing quality entertainment, services of media communication, broadcasting, television programs and live performances. The company, which is located in California (United States), exemplifies exponential characteristics that…
Barry, L. (2009) Think Like an Iconoclast: The Principles Of Walt Disney's Success: Rotman Magazine, Pg 108-110.
Daft, R.L., Murphy, J. & Willmott, H. (2010) organization Theory and Design: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Forester, M. (2002) Table-Talk Perspective: Chain Store Age, 10870601, Vol.78, Issue 11.
Gershon, R.A. (1996) The Transnational Media Corporation: Global Messages and Free market Competition: New York, Routledge.
Organizational Cultures: Annotated Bibliography and Summary
Aronson, Z. And Patanakul, P. 2012. "Managing a group of multiple projects: do culture and leader's competencies matter?" Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 3(2): pp.
Web. etrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 21 May
This article focuses significantly on how team culture within an organization is a pivotal factor that contributes to a team being able to successfully complete a project. A focus is made on the role of the project manager to not only introduce a team to a project, but hone the group's culture in terms of knowledge, communication, and teamwork in order to maximize the team's effectiveness, which is a method that can be utilized in any working environment.
Heeroma, D., Melissen, F., Stierand, M. 2012. "The problem of addressing culture in workplace strategies. Facilities, 30(7-8): pp. 269-277. Web. etrieved from:
LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 21 May
Tatum, M. 2012. "What is corporate culture." Wise Geek. Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-corporate-culture.htm . [Accessed on 21 May
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
The seven variables that have been termed as "levers" by the authors all start with the letter 'S'.
Following are the things included in the seven variables:
-Shared values and -Style.
Structure is explained as the skeleton of the organizational chart or an organization. Strategy has been identified by the authors as the path or plan of action that is taken in order to achieve some goals and target over a period of time. Systems are defined as the routine process and procedures that are carried out within the firms. Staff is further divided into the personal categories within the firms (e.g., engineers). The skills refer to the capabilities possessed by the staff that is working within an organization. Style is defined as the way in which the managers behave or act in order to achieve the organizational goals. Shared value variable basically comprises of…
Burke & Litwin. (1992). A Causal Model of Organization Performance and Change', Journal of Management, Vol 18, No 3, pp 523 -- 545.
Katz, D. & Kahn, R.L. (1978). The Social psychology of organizations. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
McLindon, D, McDaniel, K., Smiley, J., Anderson. T. And Moorman, R., (2012). Whole Foods Market Case Study. Retrieved from: http://www.slideserve.com/arleen/whole-foods-market-case-study on May 15, 2013.
Pascale, R.T. & Athos, a.G. (1981). The art of Japanese management: Applications for American executives. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
This report focuses on the study of organizational behaviour in the hotel industry and most especially in the food and beverage department. Focusing on the organization I am attached to, the aspect of groups and group dynamics is widely explored. The paper first introduces with an introduction in which a brief explanation of the discussion is established. Part of the factors addressed in this section includes the aim and scope of the study. Additionally, the methodology of the research, the assumption, the limitations within the organization and the background of the problem are explored within the discussion. The paper then goes ahead to focus on the literature review. Here, definitions of organizational values and individuals values are provided. Also demonstrated is the manner in which organizational and individual values intersect. Further, the relationship between individual values and organizational structure is established. The report goes further to demonstrate how…
Bilsky, W & Jenh, K (1998) Organizational Culture and Individual Values: Evidence for a Common Structure, Personal Communication
Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed For Strategic Success, London UK
Dean, KW (2011) Value-Based Leadership. How Our Personal Values Impact the Works Place, the Journal of Value-Based Leadership, Valaparaiso University College of Business Management
Kimbro, M, (2012) Organizational Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry, Retrieved From: http://voices.yahoo.com/organizational-behavior-hospitality-industry-13137.html
Organizational eframing Program
Four Frames of Organizational eframing
Human esource: -
Structural Contingency Theory
Structural Contingency Theory in Human esource Management:-
Social Network Analysis
Impact of reframing plan and ethical issue's
Impact on the department being reframed:-
Impact of reframing on other departments:-
The study shows an organizational plan of a department. The aim of the study is to emphasize on how the theory of organizational life is applicable with the help of utilization of the action research process.
eframing means to redirect or change the way of thinking and look at things with a complete different mindset. In simple terms reframing is change of plans or basic details of an idea. Looking at events from a complete different mindset helps you to avoid individual biases. It also emphasizes the importance of adjustments and flexibility in the organization. The process of reframing suggests finding out…
Hatch, M.J. (2006), "Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives." 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press
Kanigel, R. (1997). The One Best Way, Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. London: Brown and Co
Robbins, Stephen P. (2004) Organizational Behavior - Concepts, Controversies, Applications. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall
Fredric M. Jablin, Linda Putnam (2000). The new handbook of organizational communication: advances in theory. p.146
Organizational Motivation Leadership
Effective and positive leadership is a basic foundation for any administrative institution to yield good results and therefore cause a great impact.
In this study we base our focus on a critical organization which is the infant daycare.
Infant daycare organization
Infant daycare centers are organizations that focus on the welfare of the child by providing care while the parent goes to work or gets engaged in other activities that may not allow the mother of father to be around the child during the day. The state requires that such organizations meet certain standards of safety, health and that the staff should have proper training. These institutions are normally equipped with fun toys and learning materials with the qualified caregivers trying as much as they can to make the life of infants as comfortable as possible. With the many challenges that infants face including having to master…
Bob Whipple, (2012). Leaders Creating Meaning. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://leadergrow.com/articles/105-leaders-create-meaning
CEO Flow, (2008). CEO Flow, (2008). The Four Rewards of Intrinsic Motivation. Retrieved April 4, 2012 http://www.ceoflow.com/2008/08/the-four-rewards-of-intrinsic-motivation/
David McCelland, (2012). Human Relations Contributors. Retrieved April 4, 2012
Organizational Diagnosis and ecommendations
Imagine studying an organization in more depth in order to determine what needs changed. This is not an easy task because it could take days or months to achieve success. Businesses also have to stay up with current technology, and this means staying present with various leadership theories in order to make the business better. Systems thinking is used as a means in which to fully understand what needs monitored. Through using transactional leadership theory, one is able to grasp what one can do as a means of making recommendation for improvement.
One needs to perform a preliminary review to ensure that he or she obtains information related to organizational leadership, culture, effectiveness and productivity. "Synergy Technical Solutions Corp. (Syntechs) is a leading national technical service solutions provider with over 1,500 highly skilled professionals" (Syntechs, 2011). Many of these individuals work on "desktop and notebook computers…
Aronson, D. (2011). Targetted innovation: Using systems thinking to increase the benefits of innovation efforts. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from Thinking: http://www.thinking.net/Systems_Thinking/st_innovation_990401.pdf.
Changing-Minds. (2011). Transactional leadership. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from Changing-Minds: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm .
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Mattke, J. (2011, May 20). Syntechs Employee. (E. Mattke, Interviewer)
In other words, the emphasis is on effective leadership and increased revenue for the company as a whole, which ultimately benefit individual managers as well.
Like cross-functional teams, self-managed teams also need specific models to ensure success, not least because of the collective leadership these teams display. The potential for conflict and misunderstanding could result in ineffective group work. To mitigate this, Silverman and Propst (n.d.) proposes a specific model according to which such teams can function optimally. There are various roles inherent in the model that is suggested. These roles include: 1) upholding organizational and personal values and principles; 2) accomplishing the work assigned to the team; 3) organizing the work environment; 4) managing work processes; 5) participating in organization-wide systems; 6) participating in organization-wide strategies; and 7) managing team processes.
The model therefore indicates that some leadership and management are essential in helping the team to achieve its…
Armstrong, R.V. (2005). Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from: http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Merritt, E.A. And Reynolds, D.E. (n.d.) The Effect of Self-Managing Teams on Manager Commitment and Organizational Tenure in Private Clubs. Retrieved from:
Myshko, D. (2006, Sep.) Cross-Functional Teams: Models of Success. PharmaVoice. Retrieved from: http://www.skila.com/Downloads/Cross%20Functional%20Teams.pdf
Pragmatic Marketing (2011). Enabling Cross-Functional Teams: A Leadership Role for Product Managers. Retrieved from: http://www.pragmaticmarketing.com/publications/topics/09/enabling-cross-functional-teams-a-leadership-role-for-product-managers
" (Simon, 188) the fundamental perspective here is that leadership and the ability to apply actions based on culturally driven decisions are central to helping members of the organization learn in a concrete manner how best to accord with the reigning culture.
In order for this to occur though, there must be a certain initial scrutiny and selectiveness where leadership and personnel are concerned, endorsing an organization-wide emphasis on the quality of personnel. This implicitly brings us to consideration of the application phase in terms of learning organizational culture, which is inevitably associated to all actionable aspects of an organization's structure and operations. The correlation between recruitment, personnel makeup and leadership personalities is perhaps threaded by the common string of day-to-day responsibility within an organizational culture. And quite certainly, we see the stamp of organizational culture on so many of the most important applicable indicators. Schein, to this end, points…
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Bowditch, J.L. & Buono, a.F. (1994). A primer on organizational behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
Effective diversity management, on the other hand, provides a means more than just the elimination of potential sources of revenue loss; it means actually increasing revenue through customer satisfaction that is known to generate increased patronage and brand loyalty (ussell-Whalling, 2008), especially in the restaurant services industry.
Organizational Dynamics and the ole of Managers in the etail Services Industry
The highly competitive nature of modern retail restaurant services makes traditional supervisory and management practices comparatively ineffective, especially in areas outside of direct operational dynamics. Traditional supervisor-subordinate relationships are sufficient to provide training in mechanical procedures and operations; they are comparatively ineffective at cultivating a commitment to becoming part of an organizational culture (George & Jones, 2008).
Especially with respect to inexperienced, part-time, non-career, and seasonal employees, it is preferable for organizational leaders (Bennis, 2009) and managers (Lencioni, 2009) to develop a more personal connection to their staff members. In fact,…
Armenakis a, Field H, and Harris S. "Making Change Permanent: A Model for Institutionalizing Change Interventions." Research in Organizational Change and Development. Vol. 12, (1999). Stanford: JAI Press.
Bennis W. "Acting the Part of a Leader." Business Week; September 14, 2009.
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Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.
The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…
It might be acknowledged that politics are good at times, but for the company, it is more important to create a sound system of management that would be more in touch with the needs and requirements of employees. The short-term goal would therefore be to determine these needs and goals by means of a number of interviews. Employees will be encouraged to voice their concerns and needs, as well as to provide input for the improvement of the company as a whole. In both the short- and long-term, the most important factor to install would be a sound basis of communication among employers, employees, and everybody in the company. Only by communicating effectively within its internal environment can the company begin to prioritize and reach its goals effectively.
Shuceta's motivation for taking the job might be explained by the incentive theory of motivation (Cherry, 2012), which holds that a person…
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2011). Management and organization behavior. (1 ed.). Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
McNabb, D.E. (2007). Knowledge management in the public sector. Armonk, New York: M.E.Sharpe.
Miner, J.B. (2005). Organizational behavior one, essential theories of motivation and leadership. New York: ME Sharpe Inc.
(January 9, 2012 Monday ). MARCHING WITH MOTIVATION. Heal India, Retrieved from http://www.lexisnexis.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/hottopics/lnacademic
Organizational Development and Change at FunTime Snacks
Summarize the major problem(s) at FunTime. Choose the most appropriate diagnostic model for this particular case (organization, group, individual job as illustrated in the text) and apply it to this situation.
FunTime is going through a very disruptive time in their business model as larger, more well-financed competitors are challenging them at a local and regional level, undercutting the FunTime differentiated approach of using local, high quality suppliers and selling. The diagnostic model that best fits the FunTime case study is the organization. Bill Richardson, CEO and founder had been able to keep the entire organization focused on customer satisfaction and the pursuit of high quality snacks when the company had not been challenged by stronger, more focused competitors at the regional levels. Yet as the case study continues it's clear the distribution and pricing strength of competitors is beginning to force each…
Dynatronics Corporation (formerly Dynatronics Laser Corporation) was started in 1979 with the initial intent of developing laser technology for use in medical procedures. Unable to acquire the necessary FDA approval required to market the technology the company turned to other areas within the medical rehabilitation market. Seeing an opening in the market for ultrasound electrotherapy technology the company soon found a distribution channel that could support the new product offerings. Subsequent years led to the company developing additional products that have been used to treat chronic pain, test physical ability with computer software and to provide other forms of therapy. In addition, the company has ventured into the aesthetic market and has patented and distributed microdermabrasion technology for use by both aestheticians and plastic surgeons. Dynatronics has made several acquisitions over the years that have met with mixed results. The purchase of a rehabilitation…
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There are also lessons on geography, history, and botany. Physical activities such as dancing, cheerleading, skydiving, and parasailing are offered as well. This holistic personal development program is consistent with O'Connell Consolidated's objective of providing education to the youth, regardless of their socio-economic level and financial capability to provide for their education.
The Community Education program is just one example of how the high school fuses education with its Catholic principles and tradition. Education is considered not only as attaining knowledge, but to apply this knowledge into good works and actions. A student who excels in a particular subject is encouraged not just to remain consistent with his/her performance, but also to help out his/her classmates who may be experiencing difficulty in the said course. This way, the student learns to develop a personality that not only derived from his/her academic performance, but on character development as well. Learning, in…
Kreitner, R. And A. Kinicki. (1995). Organizational Behavior. (3rd ed.). Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
O'Connell Consolidated High School web site: http://www.ochsgalv.com.
These organizations tend to embrace change, but because of a quick flow of persons in and out of the organization, the organizational change plan may not be as thoroughly instated, because employees are impatient to see results and may leave before the benefits of change are realized. A club culture, where the most important requirement for employees in the culture is to fit into the group, when employees start at the bottom and stay with the organization like military and some law firms is likely to be as resistant to change as an academy culture, and may have the added drawback that even higher-ups of the organization lack the confidence in the concept of change to provide effective leadership over the course of a change plan. Finally, a fortress culture where employees have timely, specialized skills like large car companies or volatile financial institutions, are more likely to embrace change…
McNamara, Carter. (1999) "Organizational Culture." Management help. Retrieved Jul 11, 2006 at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm
Organizational ehavior: Shift From Individual to Team ehavior
Traditionally, organizational behavior has been defined as understanding human behavior and the means of influencing individuals, singularly and in work groups. Hierarchical control and hierarchical referral have been common practice. More contemporary visions of organizational behavior have de-emphasized the role of the individual and hierarchical management in favor of team work and decentralization. When considering the merits of these two organizational behavior approaches, the real answer is that the old needs to be melded with the new. Teams still require strong leadership to prevent conflict that can cause the same degree of inefficiency as centralized hierarchies. However, the role of leader is vastly different from that of a hierarchical manager.
There are many reasons that companies are transitioning to team management. In complex operations with diverse business units, it's difficult for one person to manage everything.
Also, hierarchical management implies that a…
Brady, D. (2000, August 28).
An executive whose time has gone: Increasing corporate complexity and the shift to team management are killing the chief operating officer.
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This suggests that people act fairly in part because of what they think may be the result of other people's reaction to the self-serving behavior. People appreciate distributive equity that further supports their personal circumstances. On the other hand, more recently, social scientists, such as Miller (1999) have argued that people do care about justice and behave with justice-seeking behavior instead of this more selfish self-interest. In other words, there is no overall behavior that is common to all people.
As noted in ischer et al. (2007), what motivates employees has normally been studied in laboratory settings, which is an artificial approach. or, the better alternative, studies have asked employees about their thoughts concerning the company's allocation policies. As noted, it is important to know what employees actually perceive instead of what decision makers intend to do. Thus, ischer's research focused on employees' perceptions of the allocation decisions made by…
Fischer, R., Smith, PB., Richey, B et al. 2007 "How Do Organizations Allocate Rewards?"
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The advantage on the other hand is of the retrieval of relevant and solid findings based on which the adequate strategies can be implemented.
4. The congruence model
According to the Mind Tools website, the "congruence model is based on the principle that an organization's performance is derived from four elements: tasks, people, structure, and culture. The higher the congruence, or compatibility, amongst these elements, the greater the performance" (Mind Tools, 2010). The advantage of the model is that of simplifying the issues promoted by the previous models and revealing an analysis structure constructed onto four elements alone. This implies lower task complexities and leads to more efficiently retrieved results. However, it could also lead to sometimes irrelevant findings as it does not take into consideration elements outside the organization, such as the socio-economic climate. In other words, this model is highly applicable when conducting an internal audit, but its…
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The Group Behavior Model is a framework for conceptualizing how various aspects of the external and internal environments of a work group influence the group's performance of its task(s) and the group members' level of satisfaction with the experience of group work. External conditions include an organization's authority structure, rules and regulations, corporate culture, resources, setting, and market competition. Internal factors include the individual skills, talents, and experiences each member brings to the work group; the nature of the group's structure; and the dynamics of the group's work processes. The model helps one understand how the interplay of these four components -- external conditions, group member resources, group structure, and group processes -- determine how the group performs its task and how much satisfaction the members of the group derive from the experience of doing performing the task and the outcome of their efforts (Henderson, n. d.).
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Organizational Case Study -- Nutri Systems
Company Background - Nutrisystem is an American company that provides weightloss products and services. Originally, the company's sales and marketing model focused on Brick and Mortar stores, in-person counseling and exercise sessions, and the sale of prepackaged supplements and food products retail. In 1999, however, largely due to the number of diets on the market and exhaustive competiton, Nutrisystem began selling online with support through 800#s and email. The company expanded to QVC in 2001 and Costco since 2009 (www.nutrisystem.com).
The foundation of the organization is portion-control and a diet that has a low glycemic index. Separate plans are offered for men and women that support a 1-2#/week loss. All plans have love sugar, cholesterol and sodium and cost from $280-400/week. Users must also purchase additional fresh items locally, but 2009 clinical trials showed that persons with Type-2 diabetes consistently lost more weight and…
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NutriSystem Investment Guide. (2011, December 17). Retrieved from Wikiinvest: http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/NutriSystem_ (NTRI)
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However, according to this model, what can be termed as the best way is defined by how the decision made marries with the content and context of the matter at hand. The contingency model establishes that a decision that is made for a particular context may not be applicable in another, even though the contexts may be similar. It also establishes that a unified role is played by the managers who have the decision making capacity. When faced with a particular issue, the managers must find the best way to deal with the situation and they have to create an effective decision process which minimizes conflict. Whatever the situation, the management has the obligation to analyze it and evaluate the assumption that need to be drawn to align the organization with the changed environment. The conclusion must be evaluated on the basis of the effectiveness, efficiency and the solution it…
Employees handle a large amount of private documentation and must uphold the law of confidentiality legally and ethically.
Despite the stress on confidentiality of client information, communication flow is still important to the organization's ability to get work done. / Thus confidentiality in the service of customers, not in the service of secrecy is the organizational mantra. Additionally, communication is not simply fostered in the organizational culture's common professional dress. Because communication skills are so integral to the organization's work, when dealing with other nations over the phone, creating better communication styles in its employees' dealings with one another has become an integral part of the organization's standard operating procedures and mission statement. There are regular updates regarding company policy for employees and weekly staff meetings to foster a healthy and open communication flow between staff and management. No one need ever feel out of the loop. The organizational flow…
Organization Decision Making
Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…
Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/Docs/manage/decisions.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
Therefore, there is a room for future research (Swaminathan & Jawahar, 2013). The results of this study indicated a possibility of other factors that influence job satisfaction. From this fact, it is important to recommend further research for the purpose of revealing the factors and improving job performance through the use of the results (Mohamed & Anisa, 2012). esearchers should perform the investigation by using many and few participants and compare the results in order to devise the best samples. This is because this research relied on a sample of 65 participants. if, a bigger number than the one stated on this research is used, there is a possibility of a considerable difference being evident (Mohamed & Anisa, 2012).
Swaminathan, S., & Jawahar, P. (2013). job satisfaction as a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior: an empirical study. Global Journal of Business esearch (GJB),
Mohamed, M., & Anisa,…
Swaminathan, S., & Jawahar, P. (2013). job satisfaction as a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior: an empirical study. Global Journal of Business Research (GJBR),
Mohamed, M., & Anisa, H.H. (2012). Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11(3), 7-
International Development and Strategic Management at Proctor & Gamble
International Development and Strategic Management at Procter & Gamble
Every organization wishes to keep its operations on a continuous growing pace in its industry (Barnes, Blake, & Pinder 2009). As a part of its business expansion strategies, it can also aim to target international markets if it possesses the core competencies and financial resources to meet the requirements of this expansion (Bamford & Forrester 2010). International development strategies require business organizations to strategize their policies and procedures in such a way that they not only enable them to compete with the top level competitors, but also ensure a high sales volume and profitability (Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans, & Armstrong 2010).
To do business in an international market successfully, an organization needs to analysis that market from all the environmental perspectives (yals 2008). A situational analysis can be…
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Barnes, C., Blake, H., & Pinder, D., 2009. Creating & delivering your value proposition: managing customer experience for profit. Philadelphia: Kogan Page
Hill, C., & Jones, G., 2007. Strategic management: an integrated approach. U.S. Cengage Learning
Kotler, P., Brown, L., Burton, S., Deans, K., & Armstrong, G., 2010. Marketing. 8th Edition. U.S.: Prentice-Hall