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Organizational performance can be measured in terms of financial, output metrics, or market share performance. An organization is considered to achieve high performance if it is able to demonstrate growth in its all aspects of organizational performance metrics. The three key criteria to measure organizational performances in all industries are as follows:
Financial performance (profits, return on assets)
Product and market performances (sales, market share)
Shareholder returns (total shareholder return, economic value added)
An organization is generally able to claim a healthy financial performance if its annual net profits continuously increase or if the company reaches its own internal financial targets. Product and market performances are measured when organizations can claim a significant share of the total volume of sales in the market. It is generally thought that with the production of high quality goods or services, organizations will be able to achieve their desired market performances (Richard 2009). For…
Organizational Performance Management
Emergency Medical Services & Pharmacies Long-Term Health Care Physicians' Offices Hospitals This paper written organizations. • Discuss influence regulatory accreditation standards performance-management systems.
Organizational performance management
The main purpose for the health care industry is to serve patients in the most effective, safe, and efficient manner. Each organization in this industry functions differently. However, there are some functions and regulations that the organizations will share. These regulations provide the organizations with a path that they are supposed to follow. egulatory requirements mandate the organization to compliance, and provide a standard performance level that creates the need for the organization to have specialized accreditation and monitoring in order to have quality improvements at various levels Sciences, 2006.
The key component for ensuring that an organization maintains its course in meeting the standards, compliance, maintaining the organization's mission and vision, and meeting regulatory requirements is communication. isk management will…
Briner, M., Kessler, O., Pfeiffer, Y., Wehner, T., & Manser, T. (2010). Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument. [Article]. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 337-347. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-337
Bryan, K. (2009). Communication in Healthcare. New York, NY 10006: Peter Lang.
Carroll, R., & Management, A.S.H.R. (2010). Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations: Student Edition. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774: Wiley.
Coleman, L.A., Kottke, T.E., Rank, B., Reding, D.J., Selna, M., Isham, G.J., . . . Greenlee, R.T. (2008/12//). Partnering Care Delivery and Research to Optimize Health.
Organization Performance Assessment
Organizational performance assessment can be defined as a process of evaluating the performance of an organization against some well defined goals and targets. It lays much emphasis on the accomplishments of an organization in relation to its mission and the stated objectives. In the situation of a government department, the assessment would check the major mandates, ambitions, priority and the performance schedules and evaluates the advancements that have been made towards the accomplishment of these ambitions. In short, refers to the practice whereby an organization institutes the stricture in which programs, acquisitions and investments reaches the preferred results. The process of measuring performance always requires the employment of statistical evidence to find out the progress toward the defined objectives of the organization. The basic aim of any assessment is usually to provide a response that is relative to the goals of the organization, which increases its chances…
Behn, R.D. (2003) Why measure Performance? Different Purposes Require Different Measures.
Edwin, A.L. And Gary, P. L (1984). Goal setting for individuals, groups, and organizations
Science Research Associates, Chicago IL
Kotelnikov, V. (2001). Performance Measurement System
According to Auteri, "The ratio of managers to specialists was extremely high. This situation was due in part to the former practice of rewarding employees by moving them to a higher level in the hierarchy, regardless of organizational requirements" (1994, p. 108), a human resource policy that has since been discontinued. Of particular interest were Auteri's observations concerning how Fiat's organizational culture, like all large organizations, requires time to change. In this regard, Auteri emphasizes that, "We've learned that corporate change doesn't happen quickly, either. Even under an unstable economic market, it takes time to forge change" (1994, p. 108).
Like other major organizations, the corporate culture at Fiat begins at the top with the company's chief executive officer, Sergio Marchionne, and his executive leadership team, but the culture at Fiat is in reality sustained by everyone in the organization, including the owner and his family. For instance, according to…
Auteri, E. (1994, May). 'Fiat Revs Up the Engines of Change.' Personnel Journal, vol. 73, no. 5,
Badrtalei, J. & Bates, D.L. (2007). 'Effect of Organizational Cultures on Mergers and Acquisitions: the Case of Daimlerchrysler.' International Journal of Management, vol.
24, no. 2, pp. 303-305.
This lack of absorption of the HRD into the whole of the organization is clearly evident and poses severe impediments for the HR staff in their implemental role, leave alone any strategic contribution. Faced with an organizational climate that shows compartmentalization, '"Personnel do personnel work and training people do training work," HRD professionals find managing the professional boundaries a grave problem. (McCracken and Wallace, (2000))
In assessment, the summary of information gathered from the companies in the survey seems to indicate a strong leaning towards the Garavan (1991) characteristics, which indicates that basic training programs and not strategic HRD, is in place in these organizations. Again, there was hardly any evidence for the presence of characteristics suggested by McCracken and Wallace, (2000) which exclude any strategic HRD role in these organizations. Most organizations studied in the survey lacked a mature approach to personnel management and training. While there was not…
1) Louma Mikko, 2000, 'Investigating the Link Between Strategy and HRD',
Personnel Review, Vol. 29 No. 6, 2000, pp. 769-790. MCB University Press,
2) Tammy L. McIntyre, (2004) 'A Model of Levels of Involvement and Strategic Roles of Human Resource Development (HRD) Professionals as Facilitators of Due Diligence and the Integration Process', Human Resource Development Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, 173-182
3) SYED AKHTA R, DANIEL Z. DING, and GLORIA L. GE, 'Strategic HRM Practices and their Impact on Company performance in Chinese Enterprises', Human Resource Management, Spring 2008, Vol. 47, No. 1, Pp. 15 -- 32
integrated HRM approach organizational performance
Human Resource Management
HRM consists of managing people in a company, it's all about managing the employees. For the sake of simplicity, we can conclude that it's managing humans / people. HRM is purely a managerial operation in which a company tries to meet the company's goal by skill set of its workforce. Human Resource Management addresses the management of employees within a company. It assists the employees in syncing with the company and their work, rewarding their work and resolving issues as well (Naeem, 2011).
Growing Importance of HRM
An organization basically thrives from skill set of the employees; know how, abilities, knowledge and capabilities of its employees. This pool of talented reservoir entails the core competencies of a company (pooled reserve of knowledge an organization possesses which sets it apart from its rivals and gives value to its clientele). HRM plays a pivotal…
Alain, P., 2012. patrickalain.com. [Online] Available at: http://www.patrickalain.com/effective-management/performance-management / [Accessed 30 August 2014].
Anon., 2011. Boundless. [Online] Available at: https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/human-resource-management-7/purpose-of-human-resource-management-56/human-resource-planning-281-8373 / [Accessed 30 August 2014].
Anon., 2011. Defining Career Management, U.S.: Public Service Commission.
Anon., 2011. hrinz.com. [Online] Available at: http://www.hrinz.org.nz/Site/Resources/Knowledge_Base/Q-Z/Recruitment_and_Selection.aspx [Accessed 30 August 2014].
Models of organizational performance
Organizational performance relates to how successfully an organized group of people with a particular purpose perform a function. It comprises an actual output of an organization measured against its intended outputs. It encompasses three areas of firm outcomes which include; financial performance, product market performance and shareholder return (Charles, Hill and Jones, 2004). There are various models of organizational performance which include strategic Triangle Model, SWOT model, rational model, Natural System Model, Cognitive model and many others. However, in this case, only two models of organizational performance will be discussed as well as, comparing and contrasting them by evaluating their differences and similarities. The two models to be discussed include strategic Triangle model and SWOT model.
The differences between Triangle model and SWOT model is that, Strategic Triangle Model relies on three major key calculations to determine the efficiency along with the effectiveness of…
Barr, A. (2013, July 14). Analysis: New e-commerce strategies threaten UPS, FedEx. Reuters. Retrieved October 19, 2014, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/14/net-us-ups-FedEx-ecommerce-analysis-idUSBRE96D04R20130714
Charles W.L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones,(2004). Strategic Management Theory, Sixth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 2004.
Rhonda, L. (2006). The produce-process matrix revisited: integrating supply chain trade-offs.. The produce-process matrix revisited: integrating supply chain trade-offs.. Retrieved October 19, 2014, from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/SAM-Advanced-Management-Journal/147667954.html
Organizational Performance Management
Performance Data Scorecard:
(HIV Testing and Diagnosis)
% of patients diagnosed on site
% of patients diagnosed in other medical facilities
% of patients diagnosed via home-based test
% of patients diagnosed in mobile testing unit
% of couples whose partners have been HIV tested and are aware of results
Performance (Linkage to Care)
Median days from HIV diagnosis to referral for AT or pre-AT care
% of patients AT ineligible at baseline who receive a follow-up CD4 count in 6?months
Median days from clinic enrollment to AT eligibility
% of patients who are enrolled in HIV clinic, received CD4 count & results within 3?months of HIV diagnosis
% of patients with CD4 count?
200 cells/uL, &?
350 cells/uL at presentation
etention in Care
% adults & children known to be on treatment 12 months after AT initiation
% of adults &…
Ahonkhai, A. A., Bassett, I. V., Ferris, T. G., & Freedberg, K. A. (2012). Improving HIV
outcomes in resource-limited countries: the importance of quality indicators. BMC, 12(242).
Baird, K. (2014, January 9). Engaged, Empowered and Enthused: The Link Between Employee
Engagement and the Patient Experience. Retrieved from Becker's Hospital Review: http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/engaged-empowered-and-enthused-the-link-between-employee-engagement-and-the-patient-experience.html
Corporate Governance on Organizational Performance
Corporate governance implies to decisions made by the management in organizations, which influence the overall performance of the firm. Corporate governance focuses on organization's governance and the performance of duties within firms. Management of firms develops specific strategies or set of mechanisms that influence their decision-making. These decisions are crucial in firms where there is a clear difference in ownership and control. Some of the strategies the management team might use are employing the participation of the board of directors in decision-making, encouraging shareholders in the management of organizations or decisions made on market operations (Aguilera, Filatotchev, Gospel & Jackson, 2008). Decisions instituted by members of these teams directly influence the performance of the firm. Moreover, decisions tasks undertaken by the management and the shareholders contradict, but are very crucial to the overall performance of the organization.
Corporate governance is a highly powerful aspect to…
Richardson, D.F., Larcker, S.A., & Tuna, I. (2007). Corporate governance, accounting outcomes, and organizational performance. The Accounting Review, 82(4), 963-1008.
Aoki, M., Jackson, G., & Miyajima, H. (2008). Corporate governance in Japan: Institutional change and organizational diversity. Oxford University Press.
Aguilera, R.V., Gospel, H., & Jackson, Filatotchev, IG. (2008). An organizational approach to comparative corporate governance: Costs, contingencies, and complementarities. Organization Science, 19(3), 475-492.
Adams, R.B., Almeida, H., & Ferreira, D. (2005). Powerful CEOs and their impact on corporate performance. Review of Financial Studies, 18(4), 1403-1432.
Diversity at this level may help expand market share by making minorities more visible to customers and by enhancing the firm's collective understanding of the market. Perceived diversity at this level correlated to communication problems and negative impacted decision-making time and task completion time. As for the findings regarding the second hypothesis, the authors suggest that diversity at the middle management level might contribute to the perception of tokenism a company and negatively affect employee morale, identification with the firm, and perceptions of performance (Allen et al., 2008).
The authors acknowledge the limitations of their study. Qualitative research cannot show causality. Convenience sampling is not as robust as random sampling. Moreover, the sample was overwhelming composed of Caucasians and management level employees. Geographical and cultural limitations reduce the generalizability of the study's findings. Since they interviewed only 3 workers per firm on average, they did not plumb very deeply into…
Allen, R.S., Dawson, G., Wheatley, K., & White, C.S. (2008). Perceived diversity and organizational performance. Employee Relations, 30(1), 20-33.
Bierema, L.L. (2010). Resisting HRD's resistance to diversity. Journal of European Industrial
Training, 34(6), 565-576.
Carson, C.M., Mosley, D.C., & Boyar, S.L. (2004). Performance gains through diverse top management teams. Team Performance Management, 10 (5/6),121-126.
Improving Organizational Performance Simulation Summary
Improving organizational performance
One of the challenges that organizations are faced with is performance improvement. For the organization to grow and survive it would need to depend on the commitment and passion of its employees. Airdevils is a professional stunts company based in Salt Lake City. The company was founded by Celsey Evans who was later joined by four of her colleagues. The company soon expanded and currently has 115 employees. The company's daring and dramatic stunts have won it many awards and loyal customers. ecently, some of the loyal customers have been expressing dissatisfaction in regards to the stunts, and some key employees have resigned. The employees have been expressing their dissatisfaction on an internet blog.
The first phase of the simulation was problem identification. This involved researching why the job satisfaction was too low within the organization. After analyzing the blogs, comments, and…
Bernstein, D.A., Penner, L.A., Clarke-Stewart, A., & Roy, E.J. (2007). Psychology. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Mynatt, C.R., & Doherty, M.E. (2001). Understanding Human Behavior. Columbus, Ohio: Allyn and Bacon.
Nijstad, B.A. (2009). Group Performance. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis.
Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
I believe that knowledge from both these areas complements each other significantly. In order to be the most effective practitioner in one's field one needs to acquire the scholarly knowledge related to it. This can help one to gain some much-needed insight into the theories and methods related to one's practice. Likewise if one endeavors to become the most well informed expert in one's field one needs to acquire experience from working in it. This can help one to apply whatever was learned in one's scholarly pursuits to the test.
Currently my research focuses on the working alliances in home healthcare. Working alliances can be studied in many areas of healthcare, including medicinal therapy, social services, long-term care, etc. My hope is that whatever information I gain through conducting my research will enhance the outcome between practitioner and patient. I wish to be someone in the field who is capable…
The Importance of Organizational Performance Assessments
Financial management is a key issue for all organizations. For commercial organizations the primary purpose of the firm is usually to create profit for the shareholders; most businesses were set up with the aim of making money rather than altruistic purposes. Therefore, financial assessments of the firm are a primary measure of its performance, and can give great insights into the efficiency and effectiveness of the firm, especially when compared to other organizations in the same sector. Even non-profit making organizations, such as charities and government departments, require some type of financial assessments take place in order to determine whether or not they are reaching the goals, and assess the way resources are utilized. The aim of this paper is to consider how and why organizational performance assessments are important, and consider how they may be utilized, focusing on financial assessments, but also…
Cook Sarah, (2008), The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction, Kogan Page Publishers
Elliott B, Elliott J, (2011), Financial Accounting and Reporting, London, Prentice Hall.
Revsine, Lawrence; Collins, Daniel; Johnson, Bruce; Mittelstaedt, Fred, (2011), Financial Reporting and Analysis, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
elationship of Information Technology to Organizational Performance
Enterprises have continually invested in information technologies (IT) to gain competitive advantages by improving their business processes, integrating and aggregating diverse databases, and then transforming the data into a competitive advantage. The paradox of how to invest in IT for an optimal return however has been elusive (Brynjolfsson, Hitt, 1998). Traditional measures of eturn on investment (OI), metrics and key performance Indicators (KPIs) have failed to scale from the operational sides of a business to the data- and knowledge-based processes and functions (Ko, Osei-bryson, 2008). Analysis of information technology investments and their contributions to a firm's financial performance illustrate that the selective use of IT to supplement strategies, not its en masse adoption, is a critical success factor (Osei-Bryson, Ko, 2004). Studies have shown that in a market duopoly characterized by slow to moderate growth, the automating of processes and strategies has the…
Barrett, J.. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
Brynjolfsson, Erik, & Hitt, Lorin. (1996). Paradox lost? Firm-level evidence on the returns to information systems spending. Management Science, 42(4), 541.
Erik Brynjolfsson, & Lorin M. Hitt. (1998). Beyond the productivity paradox. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 41(8), 49-55.
Sanjeev Dewan, & Chung-ki Min. (1997). The substitution of information technology for other factors of production: A firm level analysis. Management Science, 43(12), 1660-1675.
Sustainable Talent Management in an Organization
Performance Management Process in Measuring Employee Talent
Employee engagement and retention occur as an essential performance management process used to measure employee talent. The technique engages the energy and commitment utilized by employees in the working environment. Methods used to achieve this include the initiation of focus groups and surveys targeting identification of factors that motivate. It also acts as a vital indicator of employee dedication and involvement in the organization. Engaged employees contribute towards the realization of organizational goals and objectives. Through this, managers can measure employee talent based on the productivity and contributions to the organizations. Attributes of loyalty and dedication emanate with the proper involvement of employees in organizational goals and objectives. Undeniably, employees that feel disengaged and disconnected with the organization may quit seeking opportunities elsewhere (Vaiman & Vance, 2010). Further, such group of employees may depict reduced productivity.
Ariss A. (2014). Global Talent Management: Challenges, Strategies, and Opportunities. New York: Springer Science & Business
Chun E. & Evans A. (2013). The New Talent Acquisition Frontier: Integrating HR and Diversity Strategy in the Private and Public Sectors and Higher Education. Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC
Scott J. & Reynolds D. (2010). Handbook of Workplace Assessment. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons
Scullion H. & Collings D.G. (2011). Global Talent Management. New York: Taylor & Francis
Measuring Up: The Promises and Pitfalls of Performance Indicators in Higher Education by Gaither, G. Nedwek, B.P. And Neal, J.E. Today, postsecondary institutions must compete for students, and faculty often must take on additional responsibilities besides teaching, and so, measures of accountability differ in each institution.
Connecting individual and organizational performance is not always an easy task, as this article clearly indicates. The article states that since the 1980s, accountability and assessment have grown in importance in postsecondary education. In fact, by 1990, 40 out of the 50 states were "actively promoting assessment" in higher education. People were worried about the quality of undergraduate education, and all 50 states began working on ways to improve undergraduate education in their schools, and sometimes, funding shifted from outright educational funding, to funding tuned to "outcomes," "results," and "performance" (Gaither, et. al.). As accountability increased, many states copied each other's educational…
Gaither, Gerald, and others. "Measuring Up: The Promises and Pitfalls of Performance Indicators in Higher Education." ERIC Digest. June 1995.
The readings of this week in relation to the previous assignment have offered the insights on improving my group-coaching program significantly. Working with the women in the life insurance sales and financial planning requires significant knowledge and experience related to providing services meeting their varied needs. The reading has provided further information on the ways in which the foundation for the group coaching can be started under minimal costs. For instance, it has shown me that the success of the coaching program depends on the use of multiple marketing strategies such as the online and physical marketing approaches. In addition, the reading has shown that I should have adequate skills for facilitating the learning of women under coaching. As such, it is important that I participate in activities that will contribute to building of my personal and professional abilities as a group coach. Similarly, interacting with other group…
Chapter 2. Focus from Passion and Vision. Source attached.
Analysing Organisation: Using relevant theoretical perspectives frameworks, critically analyse organisation choice.
Analyzing organization is the process of assessing the organizations systems, functionality and capacity so as to increase the organizations performance, efficiency and overall output. This is done by using various theories and models whose aim is to understand the structure of the organization, technology and behavioral relationships Bate, Khan, & Pye, 2000.
This should be a periodic and detailed activity that assists the organizations management to identify any inefficiency or problems that may have risen and have not been dealt with the management will then come up with strategies to deal with them.
Compulyzed Telecommunications is a telecommunications company dealing with telephone, cabling, and internet provision services for both home and corporate clients. Compulyzed Telecommunications had an increase of 1.7% operating profit in the fiscal year 2011 as compared to the previous year this was…
Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for Competitive Advantage. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), 9(4), 49-61.
Bate, P., Khan, R., & Pye, A. (2000). Towards a Culturally Sensitive Approach to Organization Structuring: Where Organization Design Meets Organization Development. Organization Science, 11(2), 197-211.
Becker, I., & Flaxer, E. (2008). Analysing the Hierarchical Organization of Text by Using Biologically-Inspired Statistical Methods. [Article]. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 15(4), 318-339. doi: 10.1080/09296170802326657
Bloodgood, J.M., & Bauerschmidt, A. (2002). Competitive Analysis: Do Managers Accurately Compare Their Firms To Competitors? Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(4), 418-434.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
Together these metrics will help the firm understand where the project stands and how has it really impacted the performance of both the firm as a whole and the employees as part of its system. The firm is a major manufacturer of cosmetic products. It can measure its brand equity by comparing it with other brands in the same category. Higher sales on their own are important but when compared to rival's growth, they make more sense and can be explained more easily to senior management.
The impact of this performance improvement project
The impact can be assessed from the benefits that would accrue to the firm. Greater impact will be felt in employee efficiency and productivity. More coordinated research will bring about better results in all areas including marketing and sales.
Strategies and approaches could be used to "sell" the project to Management
The management may not understand the…
Senge, Peter, The Fifth Discipline NY: Currency/Doubleday, 1990
Kofman, Fred and Peter M. Senge "Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations." Organization Dynamics.
Daniel Aronson, Introduction to Systems Thinking, http://www.thinking.net/Systems_Thinking/Intro_to_ST/intro_to_st.html[Accessed 14th September 2005]
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
Human esource Management Practices
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
HUMAN ESOUCE Management
Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).
With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…
Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.
Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.
This report focuses on the study of organizational behaviour in the hotel industry and most especially in the food and beverage department. Focusing on the organization I am attached to, the aspect of groups and group dynamics is widely explored. The paper first introduces with an introduction in which a brief explanation of the discussion is established. Part of the factors addressed in this section includes the aim and scope of the study. Additionally, the methodology of the research, the assumption, the limitations within the organization and the background of the problem are explored within the discussion. The paper then goes ahead to focus on the literature review. Here, definitions of organizational values and individuals values are provided. Also demonstrated is the manner in which organizational and individual values intersect. Further, the relationship between individual values and organizational structure is established. The report goes further to demonstrate how…
Bilsky, W & Jenh, K (1998) Organizational Culture and Individual Values: Evidence for a Common Structure, Personal Communication
Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed For Strategic Success, London UK
Dean, KW (2011) Value-Based Leadership. How Our Personal Values Impact the Works Place, the Journal of Value-Based Leadership, Valaparaiso University College of Business Management
Kimbro, M, (2012) Organizational Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry, Retrieved From: http://voices.yahoo.com/organizational-behavior-hospitality-industry-13137.html
ABC Aviation has managed to capture the attention of international organizations and NATO members due to the high quality of their helicopters. However, to be able to complete the signed contract, the organization must first resolve their internal disputes and must implement a strong organizational culture which embraces and promotes cultural diversity.
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, ., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. etrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16.…
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, R., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
The Walt Disney
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
An organization is any social entity that has a well-designed structure to coordinate its functions, and the organization has to have a specific goal. Most organizations hardly work internally alone, but rather involve the external environments. Some organizations are profit oriented, like the business organizations, while others are non-profit making (Daft et al. 2010). In this context, a contemporary focus is overlooked towards the Walt Disney Company, a profound firm dealing with mass media and affiliated industrial operations.
Brief Company Profile
Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923, and has always kept the reputation in providing quality and extremely creative products, which consumers have loved ever since. The organization specializes in providing quality entertainment, services of media communication, broadcasting, television programs and live performances. The company, which is located in California (United States), exemplifies exponential characteristics that…
Barry, L. (2009) Think Like an Iconoclast: The Principles Of Walt Disney's Success: Rotman Magazine, Pg 108-110.
Daft, R.L., Murphy, J. & Willmott, H. (2010) organization Theory and Design: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Forester, M. (2002) Table-Talk Perspective: Chain Store Age, 10870601, Vol.78, Issue 11.
Gershon, R.A. (1996) The Transnational Media Corporation: Global Messages and Free market Competition: New York, Routledge.
The seven variables that have been termed as "levers" by the authors all start with the letter 'S'.
Following are the things included in the seven variables:
-Shared values and -Style.
Structure is explained as the skeleton of the organizational chart or an organization. Strategy has been identified by the authors as the path or plan of action that is taken in order to achieve some goals and target over a period of time. Systems are defined as the routine process and procedures that are carried out within the firms. Staff is further divided into the personal categories within the firms (e.g., engineers). The skills refer to the capabilities possessed by the staff that is working within an organization. Style is defined as the way in which the managers behave or act in order to achieve the organizational goals. Shared value variable basically comprises of…
Burke & Litwin. (1992). A Causal Model of Organization Performance and Change', Journal of Management, Vol 18, No 3, pp 523 -- 545.
Katz, D. & Kahn, R.L. (1978). The Social psychology of organizations. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
McLindon, D, McDaniel, K., Smiley, J., Anderson. T. And Moorman, R., (2012). Whole Foods Market Case Study. Retrieved from: http://www.slideserve.com/arleen/whole-foods-market-case-study on May 15, 2013.
Pascale, R.T. & Athos, a.G. (1981). The art of Japanese management: Applications for American executives. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Joe Salatino (evision)
Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study
Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.
Attribution and Perception
Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…
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Performance reviews, even from the organization's point-of-view, allow the organization to engage in some soul-searching as to what areas of employee performance are valued. They may even help the organization identify star performers that may not shine and glitter, but have made a measurable contribution to the organization by helping it meet its benchmarks. It can be an education and a valuable form of self-scrutiny for the organization as well as for the employee. Sadly, in today's litigious climate, performance reviews may also be a necessity simply from the point-of-view of demonstrating to a court of law, if the employer lets go a particular individual, that the employee was performing below 'par' on a consistent basis, review after review. It also helps the organization, if the appraisals are oral, gain feedback from both good and bad employees about what makes them perform at an optimal or sub-optimal level.
By the nature of their work, they have access to a lot of valuable information that can be used to provide measures in performance assessment systems. Additionally, management accountants are already oriented towards many actions that focus on improving efficient, productivity and profitability. Management accountants therefore have the expertise needed to understand what measures are best aligned with the company's objectives. If they are involved in the development of assessment systems, the systems will be stronger.
For the most part, the measures in performance assessment systems are reliable and accurate. The emphasis that these systems has on quantitative analysis means that most measure are not subject to much subjectivity. The systems are, however, only as good as the quality of the measurement processes. If there are faults in the measurement process then there will also be faults in the data, and ultimately in the interpretation of that data. It is…
Gjerde, K. & Hughes, S. (2007). Tracking performance: When less is more. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_1_9/ai_n31141879/?tag=co%20ntent;col1
Mudde, P. & Sopariwala, P. (2008). Examining Southwest Airlines' strategic execution: A strategic variance analysis. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_4_9/ai_n31151644/pg_2/?tag=content;col1
Organizational Assessment as Impetus for Change at a Vet Center
Organizational Assessment as an Impetus for Change at a Vet Center
Organizational Context. Every type of organization has, or should have, as a major goal, the need to optimize the productivity of its human resources (Farr, Schuler & Smith, 1993). One organization that has recently assumed critical importance in the U.S. is the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Today, the VA is responsible for administering an enormous healthcare and benefits network for its active duty and retired service members and their families at U.S. taxpayer expense.
Among the most prominent of such government-administered programs is the healthcare systems comprised of VA medical centers (VAMCs), outpatient clinics (VAOPCs), community and outreach clinics, and numerous Vet Centers. In fact, taken together, almost one-third of the American population (around 70 million persons who are veterans, dependents and survivors of deceased veterans) are eligible…
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The advantage on the other hand is of the retrieval of relevant and solid findings based on which the adequate strategies can be implemented.
4. The congruence model
According to the Mind Tools website, the "congruence model is based on the principle that an organization's performance is derived from four elements: tasks, people, structure, and culture. The higher the congruence, or compatibility, amongst these elements, the greater the performance" (Mind Tools, 2010). The advantage of the model is that of simplifying the issues promoted by the previous models and revealing an analysis structure constructed onto four elements alone. This implies lower task complexities and leads to more efficiently retrieved results. However, it could also lead to sometimes irrelevant findings as it does not take into consideration elements outside the organization, such as the socio-economic climate. In other words, this model is highly applicable when conducting an internal audit, but its…
Burton, R.M., Obel, B., 2004, Strategic organizational diagnosis and design: the dynamics of fit, 3rd edition, Springer, ISBN 1402076843
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Organizational diagnosis, The College of St. Scholastica, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffaculty.css.edu%2Fdswenson%2Fweb%2FPowerpoints%2FOrganizationalDiagnosis.ppt&ei=uYdRTKSkMYqUOMy-4cME&usg=AFQjCNGTL9ElrN8D8QlJeGZvTwHnunMKeA last accessed on July 29, 2010
The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.
The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…
Organizational Transformation and Intervention at the U.S. Army
Army, like many organizations whose cultures are design to resist and reject change to ensure consistency of structure and clarity of mission, is in need of a transformation and intervention. The vision, mission and objectives of the U.S. Army require a more agile, flexible and modular organizational structure that promotes transformational leadership over transactional management. The cultural constraints however are exceptionally rigid in this organization and transformational leadership the exception rather than the rule. The key constructs of the Burke-Litwin Model however illustrate that transactional leadership is more complex to manage and maintain over the significantly more streamlined transformational leadership structures the researchers have defined (Burke, Litwin, 1992). The intent of this analysis is to show how an intervention plan for the U.S. Army would make the organization more capable of achieving its vision, mission and objectives. The rationale for the intervention…
Bititci, U.S., Mendibil, K., Nudurupati, S., Garengo, P., & Turner, T. (2006). Dynamics of performance measurement and organisational culture. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(12), 1325-1350.
Burke, W.W., & Litwin, G.H. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-523.
Johnson, D.M. (2004). Adaptation of organizational change models to the implementation of quality standard requirements. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 21(2), 154-174.
In terms of the organizational development style to be used throughout the change process, this should best be the pathfinder style. Despite the complexity of this approach, fact remains that it combines the benefits of other styles, while reducing their limitations. The pathfinder style virtually focuses on both high levels of organizational effectiveness, as well as high levels of member satisfaction (Harvey and Brown, 2001). This means that the approach will focus on improving senior-junior communications, for the satisfaction of the employees, as well as the increase in the performances of the overall entity.
Given that the process of change cannot be structured onto a strict plan, but that the plan has to be tailored to the unique features of the Mobile Mine Assembly Group, the levels of formalization at this stage are reduced. Nevertheless, throughout the actual implementation, or the time in which the change strategy comes into direct…
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The change that outsourcing and SAs bring into organizations is, or should be, planned. It is the result of specific efforts by a change agent (individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns), in this case managers. Planned change processes are a direct response to someone's perception of a discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs (performance gap). Performance gaps are at the same time problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored through outsourcing and SAs.
All in all, outsourcing and strategic alliances are both concepts that will be found on the corporate strategic agenda for the years to come. The market dynamics and increasing pressures toward efficiency impose the need for organizational change. The benefits of the two strategic directions discussed are real, and through careful planning and implementation, organizations can gain a competitive advantage.
Berrio A.A. 2003, An…
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Gottfredson M., Puryear R., Phillips S., Strategic Sourcing: From Periphery to the Core, Harvard Business Review, February 2005 Issue
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Organizational Case Study -- Nutri Systems
Company Background - Nutrisystem is an American company that provides weightloss products and services. Originally, the company's sales and marketing model focused on Brick and Mortar stores, in-person counseling and exercise sessions, and the sale of prepackaged supplements and food products retail. In 1999, however, largely due to the number of diets on the market and exhaustive competiton, Nutrisystem began selling online with support through 800#s and email. The company expanded to QVC in 2001 and Costco since 2009 (www.nutrisystem.com).
The foundation of the organization is portion-control and a diet that has a low glycemic index. Separate plans are offered for men and women that support a 1-2#/week loss. All plans have love sugar, cholesterol and sodium and cost from $280-400/week. Users must also purchase additional fresh items locally, but 2009 clinical trials showed that persons with Type-2 diabetes consistently lost more weight and…
Organizational and Diagnostic Models. (2008). Retrieved December 2011, from Leadersphere.com: http://www.leadersphere.com/img/OrgmodelsR2009.pdf
NutriSystem Investment Guide. (2011, December 17). Retrieved from Wikiinvest: http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/NutriSystem_ (NTRI)
Liu, Y., & Yang, R. (2008). Competing Loyalty Programs: Impact of Market Saturation. Journal of Marketing, 73(2), 93-100.
Lowman, R. (2005). Importance of Diagnosis in Organization Assessment. Manager Journal, 8(1), 17-28.
There are interactions within the organization that have consequences which may be healthy or unhealthy to the process of the organization and should be addressed accordingly (Armstrong, 2001). In addition, the assessment of the well-being of the employees can be done through audits which look at the physical, mental, and social wellness of the employees. This is vital because the well-being of the employees directly affects the performance of the organization and this demonstrates how important organizational health is to the organization since without performance the organization is as good as dead.
For purposes of illustrations let us consider an organization which has the following features as a result of its organizational health: clearly stated and widely accepted objectives and goals; reliable flow of information within the organization; proper utilization of inputs; employees feel secure and satisfied; the organization surpasses its targets; and the organization is able to perceive and…
Armstrong, M. (2001). Performance management: Key strategies and practical guidelines.(2nd
ed). London: Kogan Page.
Britton, B. Organizational learning and organizational health. Retrieved February 2012, from http://www.framework.org.uk/files/framework/Organisational%20Learning%20and%20Organisational%20Health.pdf
Dive, B (2004). The healthy organization. (2nd ed) London: Kogan Page.
Performance Gap Policing
A performance gap exists when the police department's performance does not meet organizational expectations or citizens expectations. Management is a critical success factor for managing a performance gap when it exists. Many police administrators are contemplating community policing projects due to performance gaps. In order to solve the problem of a performance gap, police agencies must look internally and externally for solutions. They must develop an action plan that includes organizational goals and community goals in order to narrow the gap and foster a collaborative and successful work environment.
Many view community policing as an answer, as a means of "developing communication with the public and interest groups" and encouraging active participation from community members and police agents to further the best interests of the community as a whole (Fielding, 1995). Community policing strategies are being widely adopted in many police agencies as a means of improving…
Bouckaert, G. & Halachmi, A. "Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector: Toward service, effort and accomplishment reporting." Westport: Quorum: 1996.
De Vries, M.S. & Van Der Zijl, V.DH "The implications of community policing for police-citizen relationships." International Journal of Public Administration 26(8-9), 2003:1017.
Fielding, N.C. "Community Policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press:1995
Reiner, R. The Politics of the Police; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000
An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…
Sims, R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kreiner, J. (2000). Examining the human Body. The Washington Times. March 18.
Prasad, S., Tata, J., & Thorn, R. (1999). The Influence of Organizational Structure on the Effectiveness of TQM Programs. Journal of Managerial Issue. Vol. 11.
" In other words, the conclusion is that women have a negative impact on all five organizational performance criteria -- personal achievements, accountability, team building, morale and customer service. A similar view is shared by Elton Mayo, who argues that women tend to talk too much among themselves, fail to become subordinate and as such distract the attention of the whole group, negatively impacting power of concentration, and consequently, performances and the rest of the criteria.
The inferiority of the female gender comparative to the male gender is also sustained by sources quoted by Montgomery Van Wart in his Changing Public Sector Values (1998). He presents the subject in the context of discriminations against certain groups, but argues that the gender criterion is the least important one as more dramatic discriminations occurred based on race or social status. Nevertheless, the pillar of these discriminations was the belief in elite systems,…
Fry, B.R., 1989, Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, ISBN 093454056X
Stivers, C., 2002, Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State, 2nd Edition, SAGE, ISBN 0761921745
Van Wart, M., 1998, Changing Public Sector Values, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0815320728
The larger social implications of successful human resources development practices and perspectives have not been lost on researchers in the area, either. Altering human resource management practices to better address labor issues faced by non-management employees both ithin the organization and in their lives at large creates both a more satisfied and a more productive orkforce and can also lead to reduced levels of underemployment and improve the general quality of life of orkers (Worrall et al. 2010). Thus increasing profitability through human resource development also creates benefits for society at large.
The ide array of different approaches, both theoretical and methodological, that have been brought to bear on an understanding of human resource development and its role in overall organizational development and adaptability provide both specific instances of mechanisms and practices that can be utilized for such development, as ell as a general understanding of the role of human…
works cited, could also bear some solidification. As knowledge becomes more certain through repeated observation, recommendations and understandings will also become more concrete. It is hoped that this review provides one step towards this goal of more comprehensive and concrete understandings.
Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (2009). "Framing Change." OD practitioner 41(1), pp. 25-31.
Curran, C. (2009). "Taking an Organization to the Next Level." OD practitioner 41(4), pp. 12-7.
Haslinda, a. (2009). "Outcomes of Human Resource Development Interventions. Journal of social sciences 5(1), pp. 25-32.
The way that this will impact an agency's effectiveness is to influence individual views about the department, command structures and policies / procedures. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
Group Dynamics: Group dynamics is focusing on how well various individuals and teams are interacting with each other. This will have an impact on the behavior of police officers by affecting communication. As a result, the ability to work together will modify an agency's capabilities in investigating criminal activity and prosecuting those who are responsible. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
Quality of Work Life: The quality of work life will affect the levels of job satisfaction inside a law enforcement agency. This will influence everyone's behavior by impacting their ability to perform various tasks. The way that this will control a department's effectiveness is to manipulate opinions and the levels of motivation for addressing different problems. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
These elements can challenge…
Crotty, S. (2004). Public Management and Organizational Performance. Journal of Public Administration Management Theory, 14 (1), 1 -- 18.
Herbert, S. (1998). Police Subculture. Criminology, 36 (2), 343 -- 370.
Wilson, J. (1979). Varieties of Police Behavior. New York, NY: Antheum.
Student Inserts Grade Course Here
CUSTOME ELATIONSHIP Management -- INTODUCTION
A customer is the most prestigious stakeholder of any business organization. The success or failure of its business is totally dependent on the consumption behavior and loyalty of its customers (Campbell, 2003). Therefore, making a long-term and strategic relationship with the customers must be among the top priorities of business organizations (Mithas, Krishnan, & Fornell, 2005). This relationship is managed through a process called as the Customer elationship Management -- a multi-faceted phenomenon and a business strategy used by organizations to manage their interactions with customers in an effective and well-organized way (Homburg, Wieseke, Bornemann, 2009).
It is essential for a business organization to have good relationships with its customers as they are the sole source of earning profits (Krasnikov, Jayachandran, & Kumar, 2009). Customer elationship Management involves managerial level efforts to attract new customers as well as…
Boulding, W., Staelin, R., Ehret, M., Johnston, W., J., 2005, A Customer Relationship Management Roadmap: What Is Known, Potential Pitfalls, and Where to Go? Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, Issue 4, pp. 155-166
Campbell, A., J., 2003, creating customer knowledge competence: managing customer relationship management programs strategically, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 32, Issue 5, pp. 375-383
Gill, A., Flaschner, A., B., Shah, C., Bhutani, I., 2010, The Relations of Transformational Leadership and Empowerment with Employee Job Satisfaction: A Study among Indian Restaurant Employees, Business and Economics Journal, Vol. 2010, pp. 1-10.
Gustafsson, A., Johnson, M., D., Roos, I., 2005, The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Commitment Dimensions, and Triggers on Customer Retention, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, issue 4, pp. 210-218.
Who better to identify and resolve company problems than the people who work in the organization and know the company best? Delaney and Huselid agree: "Job or work structures have also been argued to enhance firm performance by allowing skilled and motivated employees to become more involved in determining what work is to be done and how it is to be performed." (Delaney, Huselid, 1996)
The situation of the organization determines what and to what degree changes need to be made. To be effective, a change may be small or minor. On the other hand, sweeping, systematic changes may be necessary for the improvements necessary. Bowen and Lawley III force the point: "Quality improvement may require changes in mission structure, job design, management practices, and every other facet of the [H] organization." (Bowen, Lawler III, 1992) Another necessary effective change is the attitude that change is welcomed. If an organization…
Bowen, D.E., & Lawler III, E.E. (Spring 1992). "Total Quality-Oriented Human Resource Management." Center for Effective Organizations. Los Angeles, CA. 92 -1(204) [HIDDEN]
Delaney, J.T., & Huseld, M.A. (August 1996) "The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Perceptions of Organizational Performance." Academy of Management Journal. New Brunswick, NJ. 39(4). 949 -- 970.
Evans, J.R., & Lindsay, W.M. (2011) Managing for Quality and Performance Excellence, 8th Ed. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Patterson, M.G., West, M.A., Lawthorn, R., & Nickell, S. (1997). "Impact of People Management Practices on Business Performance." Institute of Work Psychology of the Institute of Personnel Development. London, GB. vii -- 28.
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…
Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
Organizational Politics and Its Impact on Leadership
Vigoda (2000) defines organizational politics as a behavior that strategically maximizes one's self-interests at the expense of the interests of others, and the needs of the greater organization. This view portrays organizational politics as something negative; something detrimental to the well-being of the organization. Gull and Zaidi (2012), however, hold a slightly different view. They define organizational politics as "an activity that permits people in an organization to accomplish goals without going through proper channels;" however, they also emphasize that whether or not politicking harms an organization depends solely on the degree of alignment between the goals of the individual, and those of the organization (p. 156). The wide array of definitions "suggests that the concept is in transition and under continuous debate" (Drory & Vigoda-Gadot, 2010, p. 195). This text takes on the latter perspective, with the author regarding organizational politics as…
Drory, A. & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2010). Organizational Politics and Human Resource Management: A Typology and the Israeli Experience. Human Resource Management Review, 20(3), 194-202.
Gull, S. & Zaidi, A.A. (2012). Impact of Organizational Politics on Employees' Job Satisfaction in the Health Sector of Lahore, Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(2), 156-170.
Ogungbamila, B. (2013). Perception of Organizational Politics and Job-Related Negative Emotions as Predictors of Workplace Incivility among Employees of Distressed Banks. European Scientific Journal, 9(5), 125-138.
Sonaike, K. (2013). Revisiting the Good and Bad Sides of Organizational Politics. Journal of Business and Economic Research, 11(4), 197-202.
The governance of a corporation is the role of the board of directors and the management has the duty of running the firm on a day to day basis. The board, therefore, oversees the management and ensures the interests of the various shareholders are upheld. The executive department is made up of the top level managers and they are required to work as a team so as to deliver on the company goals. According to Wash (2002), management can only be successful in their work if they have clearly defined work description. CEO or company president is a vital position towards the success of any firm as they must take up the leadership mantle, work closely with the top-management, and ensure clear organizational mission, vision, and operational goals.
As a result of clarity in work description and the responsibilities of members of the board, the Innovations Theater has…
Organizations must tread a careful balance between not demanding that employees perform tasks that go above and beyond their job description yet still encourage employees to take a vital and interested role in giving back to the organization. They must also tread a delicate balance between striving to micro-manage employees to ensure ethical compliance and showing that they trust employees to follow ethical guidelines using their own discretion. As noted by Singh, Pathardikar, and Bandyopadhyay (2012) most organizations trust employees in a manner that is not “readily monitored or enforced” (p.26). The authors call this model that of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) which is an important component of enhancing organizational performance but which is still at the discretion of the individual employee. Employees are encouraged to become good organizational citizens or “good soldiers” that go above and beyond their personal needs and tasks in a manner that adds to organizational…
organizational dynamics of Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, Singapore with a reference to the relevant theories. The strengths and weakness are highlighted and then recommendations made on how to improve the daily running of the franchise.
Overview of the company
Organizational culture at Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf
Overview of the company
Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf Singapore is part of a larger organization (a franchise) that deals in coffee and tea as their specialty. The company is headquartered in Los Angeles California and is owned as well as operated by International Coffee & Tea, LLC (Hoovers,2011).
In Singapore, the company it operates under the business name Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf (S) Pte. Ltd. It operates both tea and coffee stores in the country (Singapore). In its stores it offers coffee bean brews, lunch, breakfast, tea as well as cakes. The company is…
Jay Galbraith's model of an organizational structure still remains to be the most influential design framework and has a lot of under laying messages. Galbraith (2005) posits that there is no single successful design for any organization hence the need to be dynamic. Any organization should strive to implement only the features that support it's strategy and hat will enhance it's growth and development and change all those that are nit in tandem with the organization's goals and objectives (Mohrman 2007).
Coffee Bean and tea Leaf is a successful organization whose management can be improved by making a few changes to its organizational structure.It is important for the workers to be given more autonomy for the franchise to achieve success.
organizational change by using Tesco plc as our organization of choice. The concept of change is explored from definition to effects that it has on an organization. Change resistance and the resulting conflict are also discussed. Finally, a recommendation of how to effect change is provided.,
Organization culture, a term that which refers to a collection of policies, values, beliefs as well as attitudes (Mullins,2010) is a very critical element of any organization. This term is roughly used to denote the rather universal as well as general context for all the things that we think and perform within a given organization. In this paper, I discuss the implications of culture change in Tesco plc in order to exemplify the concept of organization culture as the effects that it might have on the operations of the company. Ways of managing organization culture are also presented. The company is famous for its…
Armstrong, M. (2009) A handbook of human resource management practice.
London: Kogan Page.
Bass, B.M. (1985) Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectation. New York: The Free
, 1999). Generally speaking, the results of this study showed that increased levels of diversity within the top leadership team had a negative impact on their ability to reach strategic consensus because of both direct and indirect effects (Knight et al., 1999).
These findings are not that surprising, of course, given that it is intuitive that as diversity within a top leadership team increases, so too will the range of views that will be brought to the management table for consideration. Despite these constraints to consensus building, there are some highly desirable outcomes that can be achieved using the strategic diversity management approach that make it worthy of consideration by organizations that are "stuck in a diversity rut."
Strategic diversity management can improve organizational effectiveness by facilitating communication between superiors, peers and subordinates. Although many organizations have recognized the importance and value of a diversified workforce, some have failed to…
Arnold, V.D. & Krapels, A.H. (1996, May/June). 'Motivation: a Reincarnation of Ideas.'
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Davidson, M.J. & Fielden, S.L. (2003). Individual Diversity and Psychology in Organizations.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
organizations customer markets fundamental business models • In a 3- 5-page paper, apply framework -market analysis (external labor markets, internal labor markets, capital markets, customer markets) conduct a compensation strategy analysis competitive landscape organizations • In addition, organization, highly influential, large population job organization apply question, "What economic difference organization performance job, poor, mediocre outstanding?" Post a multiple market analysis.
Competitive Landscape Analysis on Three Companies
Coca Cola Competitive Landscape Analysis
External Labor markets
Coca Cola is one of the most well-known companies on international level. The company is an established brand with high popularity. Coca Cola has built in time significant emotional attachment to this brand from customers, employees, and business partners. Therefore, it is expected that numerous individuals want to work for the company. Coca Cola has developed a recruitment and selection process oriented towards external sources of recruitment especially regarding entry level and mid level positions. This…
1. Russell, K. (2012). Internal Recruitment: Right or Wrong? HR Magazine. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/hro/news/1073667/internal-recruitment-wrong .
1. Describe one tactical and one strategic intervention that you believe to be critical to managing the implementation of organizational or systemic change. Why are these interventions important to consider when implementing change?
Leadership application: Pucko and Cater (2010) claim that although a well-designed strategy, human resources, and an effective and sound competency pool, are highly vital to the success of a strategy, ineffective leadership forms a key barrier to effective implementation. The executive board and Chief Executive should concentrate on the numerous organizational interfaces. One of the main challenges to effective execution of organizational strategy is guaranteeing workforce buy-in as well as channelling their business understanding and capabilities towards corporate change. Thus, effective leadership is the most important factor of all. A second viewpoint claims that ineffective leadership gives rise to contradictory priorities which will, in turn, give rise to weak coordination, as the workforce suspects that…
However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible. In addition, there is also the question about whether a truly accurate (when negative) appraisal is the best course of action due to the possible negative consequences.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Sudarsan (2009) surmises that, in the past, researchers have concluded that there are primarily three approaches to performance appraisals. The first approach -- the results focused approach -- is centered on determining whether a specific job has been performed or not. If these performance targets are met or exceeded, the employee is rewarded. The second approach -- the behavioral approach -- focuses on employee behavior. The actual output of the employee is ignored, but instead the methods the employee is using is evaluated. This approach has the benefit of being…
Addison, J. & Belfield, C. (Sept 2008). The determinants of performance appraisal systems. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Addison and Belfield compare the findings of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey with their findings in Britain, using the Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Of particular interest for this paper was the conclusion from both studies that tenured employees are not strongly motivated by performance appraisals. This shows the ineffectiveness of appraisals, no matter what system is used, for those employees with tenure.
Banu, C. & Umamaheswari, P. (Jul 2009). A study on 360 degree performance appraisal systems in Reliance Life Insurance, Udumalpet. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 8(7). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Banu and Umamaheswari research the use of the 360-degree performance appraisal system on a life insurance company. It was found that this appraisal system was helpful in identifying training needs, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It was also found to be useful in determining rewards and incentives, as well as promotions. However, the authors failed to acknowledge the challenges inherent in this system, as found be other researchers.
In a contemporary business environment, organizational culture is one of the strategic methods that an organization employs to achieve competitive advantages. Culture is a technique that organizations employ to differentiate among one another. Each organization has its own unique culture that guides the conduct of the employee. Organizational culture consists of the organizational personality and it is the value, norm and behavior of the member of an organization.
The objective of this paper is to explore the concept of organizational culture and how the concept is translated into the organizational acts.
High Performance Culture
In the present competitive environment, each organization is searching for the method to achieve market competitive advantages and differentiate its products and services from the markets. In the contemporary business environment, culture of innovation is a method a high performing organization employs to differentiate itself from other organizations. The success of an organization depends…
Apple (2010). Culture of Innovation and Creativity. Apple Inc.
Apple (2011).Apple Reports Fourth Quarter Results. Apple Inc.
Apple (2011).Annual report . Apple Inc.
Rogers, R.W. & Ferketish. B.J. (2010). Creating a Value Driven Change Process through High-Involvement Culture. Development Dimensions International, Inc.
Contrary to popular belief, improved performance by employees in a particular organization is not always linked to incentives; in today's dynamic business environment, it is crucial for human resource managers to balance the needs of individuals with those of the organization. One critical component that leads to good individual as well as organizational performance is the application of an effective performance management process. In fact, companies that invest in good performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not measure and manage their performance (Leeuw and Berg, 2010). According to Cardy and Leonard (2011), performance management can be defined as the integrated and strategic approach used by human resource managers to deliver successful results by improving the performance of all the individuals in the organization. It ensures that the goals of an organization are achieved in an efficient and effective manner, while at the same time maintaining good…
Cardy, R & Leonard, B. (2011). Performance Management: Concepts, Skills and Exercises. (2nd Ed.) New York, NY: Routledge
Leeuw, S & Berg, J.P. (2010) Improving operational performance by influencing shopfloor behavior via performance management practices. Journal of Operations Management Vol. (29)1 224-335. Retrieved 9 April 2015 from http://www.isihome.ir/freearticle/ISIHome.ir-21006.pdf
Riccio, S. (2014) Hudson College Scenario C: Performance Management. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved 10 April 2015 FOM https://www.shrm.org/Education/hreducation/Documents/Riccio_Hudson%20College_Scenario%20C_Student%20Workbook_FINAL.pdf
Stone, R.N. (2009) Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. (48)5 37-44. Retrieved 10 April 2015 from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/4155FCBF55844623PQ/1?accountid=39364
The Importance of Motivation as a Company Strategy
The literature abounds with evidence supporting the efficacy of employee motivation as a means of stimulating innovation, productivity, and organizational performance. For example, a survey of over 300 employees in one major organization found that employee empowerment in their respective roles was positively correlated with organizational agility, with empowerment being defined in terms of knowledge access, trust, motivation, and communication. Research on the relationship between employee motivation and organizational outcomes therefore begins with operationalization of the definitions of motivation and empowerment, as well as defining the terms of organizational success. Empowerment and motivation will manifest differently for different people, just as different organizations will define their success or outcome objectives differently depending on overall mission and vision.
Communication as a Component in Employee Motivation
If motivation is defined in terms of empowerment via access to pathways of knowledge and information, then employee…
ver the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people (Stein, 1985) and that leadership styles are an integral part of the culture of an organization. A culture-specific perspective reflects the view that the occurrence and the effectiveness of certain leadership behaviors (as well as constructs) is likely to be unique to a given culture.
In contrast, leaders in the culture-universal position contend that certain leadership constructs are comparable across cultures and that many universal leadership behaviors do exist. nly recently, based on the review by Bass (House, 1998), has the leadership research community begun to realize that universal and culture-specific leadership behaviors and constructs are not mutually exclusive categories, but can rather coexist in a single culture at the…
On the other hand, transactional leaders work with the existing rules, norms and procedures of the organization's culture, and reward followers for positive work, and also work to maintain the existing culture (Bass, 1985). The transactional leaders base their decision-making and actions on existing norms, values, and procedures (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders, on the other hand, can deter organizational success and leadership effectiveness (Bass, 1985).
Leadership style has received a great deal of attention from human resource development researchers (HRD) in the past years (Woodwall, 2000). Some studies will be focused on building a HRD knowledge base in countries where this is low or inexistent (Kuchinke, 1999), whereas others try to identify the compatibility between different leadership styles and the national cultural characteristics. Ardichvili and Kuchinke (2002) used Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the extensive theory developed by Bass and Avolio to determine the leadership styles that are more likely to be correlated to different cultural characteristics in former USSR countries, Germany and the United States.
The results suggested that leadership development based on national dimensions as described by Hofstede should be considered with caution because countries with similar cultural features and geographical proximity may display different leadership styles. Further
A service philosophy is defined as the values and priorities on which the company places importance when dealing with customers (Meiers, 2009). There are many different approaches to service, so it is important that the company has just one philosophy, that it supports its people in implementing that philosophy, and that the customer expectations it creates are aligned with the service philosophy that the organization has. My last organization saw service as a critical component of competitive advantage. While it did not explicitly state anything called a "service philosophy," the notion that service staff should give extraordinary service to all customers was embedded in the corporate lore. When you go through training, you were told anecdotes about superior customer service, where people in the company went far and beyond out of their way to solve complex customer problems. This became embedded in the way that everybody in the…
Kaplan, S. (2013). 6 ways to create a culture of innovation. Fast Company. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://www.fastcodesign.com/1672718/6-ways-to-create-a-culture-of-innovation
Lee, S. & Yu, K. (2004). Corporate culture and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology. Vol. 19 (4) 340-359.
Llopis, G. (2011). Why most corporate diversity programs are wrong-headed. Forbes. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/glennllopis/2011/02/21/why-most-corporate-diversity-programs-are-wrong-headed/
Meiers, N. (2009). What's your service philosophy? Essential Hospitality. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://hospitalityleadership.wordpress.com/2009/06/01/what%E2%80%99s-your-service-philosophy/
front line of defense and the first line of offense of American might, the United States military plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the nation's interests at home and abroad. In sharp contrast to the highly motivated and professional armed forces that are in place today, though, the U.S. military struggled to overcome the legacy of its conscription-based approach to maintaining adequate manpower during the Vietnam War where relatively short enlistment periods and high attrition rates resulted in diminished combat readiness and dangerously low levels of troop morale. This paper examines how the U.S. armed forces overcame this legacy to emerge as the preeminent military power in the world today. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Organizational Behavior in Today's Military
Over the past half century, the United States armed forces have experienced a number of changes to their…
Gates, R.M. (2008, September 29). National Defense University. U.S. Department of Defense
Greenberg, J. (2003). Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Performance management refers to the accomplishment of performance targets through the strategic management of people and the workplace environment. Thorough performance management needs to be able to resonate strongly throughout the entire organization as a core aspect of the business rather than a separate part of the business process: it is fundamental and integral and needs to be activated wherever targets are set and where resources are allocated in terms of their achievement. Performance management needs to be seen as both a strategic issue and a tactical issue (thecqi.org). The most strategic aspect of performance management is that it focuses on the setting of achievable goals for a specific organization and in the development of the competence and capabilities in accomplishing such goals: if the goals set are not realistic or if they are beyond the organization's capability, no amount of trying or encouraging of employees will ever assist in…
Hamlett, C. (2013). Examples of Performance Management Goals. Retrieved from chron.com: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-performance-management-goals-11829.html
Microsoft. (2008, August). The Role of Performance Management in Organizations. Retrieved from Microsoft.com: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc811594(v=office.12).aspx thecqi.org. (2013). What is performance management? Retrieved from thecqi.org: http://www.thecqi.org/Knowledge-Hub/Knowledge-portal/Interactions-of-organisations-and-people/Performance-management/
uw.edu. (2014). Manager's Guide to Performance Management. Retrieved from uw.edu: http://www.washington.edu/admin/hr/roles/mgr/ee-performance/perfmgmt/