"a man of genius makes no mistakes; his errors are volitional and are the portals of discovery."
Genius is based on many elements, human and circumstantial. Nothing enables genius to evolve from some internal inchoate spark into a staggering, illuminating flare as the capacity to be external to social norms. The public expects artists to move well beyond the quotidian in artistic form. The funny lines in a play would be burlesque, if they were not also insightful. The plot of a novel would be banal if it lacked symbolism. The reach of literary metaphor is based on a primal idiosyncratic resonance with each member of an audience. But the level of tolerance expressed by this same public for artists' lifestyles that ride the edge does not match their appreciation of the products of genius. The public adored Oscar Wilde -- for as long as he…… [Read More]
" (Eksteins, 1994)
Eksteins writes that Britain had "in the last century...damned her great poets and writers, Byron had been chased out of the country, Shelley forbidden to raise his children, and Oscar Wilde sent to prison." (1994) Pearce (2003) states that Wilde "was a major symbol of the sexual anarchy that threatened the purposive and reproductive modes of the bourgeois family. Algy mocks the utilitarian nature of modern marriage thus: The amount of women in London who flirt with their own husbands is perfectly scandalous. It looks so bad. It is simply washing one's clean linen in public." (Shoewalter, 1992; in Pearce, 2003)
The narratives of this period were realist in nature and such that centered around "marriage and inheritance were giving way to fantastic 'finde siecle' tales about split personalities. (Showalter, 1992: in Pearce, 2003) Many of Wilde's plays were a "critique of the naturalization of bourgeois relations"…… [Read More]
This forces us to think that even though we may try to fool others and ourselves, the truth of who we are is never far from what we are trying to show.
Sincere -- or earnest -- is, it appears, the worst thing that one can be in Victorian England. Being sincere means that one has to be true to who they are and must not try to deceive anyone. That is to say that being sincere could perhaps mean being boring, smug, or solemn. These are precisely the qualities that Wilde saw as the distinguishing elements of the Victorian character. Oscar Wilde's story about double lives in trying to conform to ideals of a culture have of course been attributed to his own dealings with being homosexual in Victorian society (Woods 1999). It can be surmised that Wilde himself knew much about having to keep up false pretenses in…… [Read More]
A Critique of Wilde's the Importance of Being Earnest
First performed in 1895, Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest satirized manners and social customs of late Victorian England. Focusing on a pair of young men who live "double lives," the comedy brings to light an element of English society that was ripe for exposure. Wilde was a master satirist. With this play, he shows how cynical attitudes creep into one and before long lead to all sorts of problems. For Jack and Algernon, maintaining a phony second identity is the only way to lead a satisfying life. However, as the story unfolds, the two realize that true fulfillment can only be obtained through honest living. This paper will critique Wilde's Importance of Being Earnest and show the plot, themes, characters and title all work to give an "important" message to the audience.
Otto einert (1956)…… [Read More]
In a related sense, Wilde also distinguishes between the superiority of the 'lower' sentient creatures who are more attuned to life compared to higher 'rational' beings who, apparently, the more rational they are the further detached they are from true existence. The student is submerged in the dicta and data of his college education that reduces realness and beauty to mathematical figures and facts. The Oak Tree understood the Nightingale but the Student "could not understand what the Nightingale was saying to him, for he only knew the things that are written down in books."
The princess is even worse. Taken up by the mendacities of her court status and socialization, she is so distanced from her emotional self as to regard the Student as signifier of a lower rank and the rose as to be insubstantial compared to that of 'real jewels': "everybody knows that jewels cost far more…… [Read More]
Lady Bracknell "The Importance Being Earnest" Oscar Wilde title ' make laugh make mad?"
Oscar Wilde wrote an amazing piece of satire of Victorian times, placing his characters at the intersection between social normality and personal normality. As some of the most important characters of "The Importance of Being Earnest" have a double life, he goes deep into societal norms and presents a world where individuals take the freedom to be themselves.
The play rotates around the issue of marriage and the fact that in Victorian times, for the upper class, these were made in the ways of interest. The important issues were not love, matching or personal chemistry, but nobility -- coming from origins and parents, and money.
The action starts when Algernon Moncrieff receives the visit of his good friend Ernest Worthing, coming there to propose into marriage Algernon's cousin, Gwendolen. As a condition of acceptance, Algernon wants…… [Read More]
Dominican Fantasies, ritten and Unwritten:
The use of science fiction in the Brief ondrous Life of Oscar ao
Juan Diaz's novel The Brief ondrous Life of Oscar ao details the life of an overweight Dominican boy who has aspirations of being a romantic hero that are continually thwarted by his great size and unattractive physical appearance. However, one of the dominant themes of the book is that appearances can deceive. Despite the fact that he is ugly on the outside, Oscar has a beautiful soul. His inner life is at odds with his outer life. One way in which Oscar deals with this is by escaping into a world of fantasy novels and characters. Diaz's coming-of-age novel is thus very much a book 'about' other books, just as much as it is a book about a man's life. Its postmodern nature is clear in the sense that the novels and…… [Read More]
Role of Memory in Shaping Morality
Oscar Wilde once wrote that, "The man with a clear conscience probably has a poor memory." The role of memory and remembering in shaping moral decisions is a concept that is central to sections of Hannah Arendt's Responsibility and Judgment and Friedrich Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals as both texts wrestle with how one knows that an action is morally wrong. It is a question that goes back to the earliest days of philosophical inquiry under Socrates: Does the understanding of morality come inherently from something within man or is it merely inculcated by society and thereby remembered. Drawing from her own experiences as a German Jewish refugee and after World War II as a reported at the Nuremberg Trials, Arendt argues that morality must exist beyond the scale of the individual as there is too much variability within humanity's perspective on moral…… [Read More]
picture Dorian Grey" ilde. Then, refer poem "One a Chamber --
The Picture of Dorian Grey: The conflict between the interior and exterior
The Picture of Dorian Grey is a tale of concealment. The titular protagonist Dorian begins the novel a beautiful and innocent young man. The portrait that the painter Basil Hallward creates of Dorian and Dorian's real image is the same in the first chapter of the work. However, author Oscar ide suggests that through the power of art, the created image is so lifelike it takes on the real, physical burdens of aging. As Dorian grows dissipated and cruel, he does not physically change, although the painting changes. The painting becomes a kind of secret, true self for Dorian, hidden in the recesses of his home. No one is allowed to see it, except Dorian. The painting is a living, realistic depiction of Dorian's inner life, versus…… [Read More]
" (4) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under…… [Read More]
Queer Theory and Oscar Wilde
Analysis of "Queer Theory" by Annamarie Jagose in relation to Dorian Gray's character in "The picture of Dorian Gray" by Oscar Wilde
In her discussion of "Queer theory," author Annamarie Jagose provides a distinction between the concepts 'queer' and the dichotomous relationship between 'lesbian' and 'gay.' Jagose argued in her discussion of this theory that queer was a concept that had politically evolved through the years in relation to the proliferation of gay and lesbian studies.
What makes the queer concept vital to the study of gays and lesbians, as well as issues of homosexuality and heterosexuality is that it provides a 'gray area' in which no distinctions between male and female and gay and lesbian are found. Queer appeals to the 20th century philosophers and social scientists simply because it offers an avenue through which gender and sex can be discussed without the political…… [Read More]
And yet, the clockwork puppet, certainly but a shadow of a living woman, can only try to sing, try to move out from the shadows, out from the stereotype crushing her. The horrible marionette, in contrast, rather than singing, smoked its cigarette and tried to pretend it was alive. Finally, the utter hopelessness of the dark side of Victorian society comes out with the phrase, "The dead are dancing with the dead, the dust is whirling with the dust," evoking the funeral speak of "ashes to ashes, dust to dust," and the dead -- the underside of society, those with whom the proper Victorian had little use, pass from love to lust, from light to dark, tire of the game as they do the synthetic waltz, their shadows morphing into nothing as they continue to wheel and whirl, finally weary of it all.
The literary images of this poem, coupled…… [Read More]
She does not believe that she has a reputation worthy enough of being allowed entry into the upper echelons of Victorian society. Her perception of Cecily, and her prospects for marrying her nephew -- change dramatically, however, when Lady Bracknell ascertains how much money the young woman stands to inherit. The following quotation suitably demonstrates this point.
A hundred and thirty thousand pounds! And in the Funds! Miss Cardew seems to me a most attractive young lady, now that I look at her. Few girls of the present day have any really solid qualities, any of the qualities that last, and improve with time. We live, I regret to say, in an age of surfaces (Act III).
Once Bracknell finds out how much money Cecily is worth, the latter becomes "attractive." The true irony in this quotation is the fact that Lady Bracknell's sudden change in attitude about Cecily as…… [Read More]
Jack proceeds to let the audience know "…the vital importance of Being Earnest."
Distortion, Moral Conduct, and Restoration Comedy
Of course, deception and frivolity are part of a farce, and the way that ilde has written the play characters switch identities as a way for the theme to be deliberately distorted. So this bothers critic Mary McCarthy, who complained that the play has the character of a "…ferocious idyll" and insists that the only moral alternatives offered by ilde are "selfishness and servility" (Parker, 1974). By "deliberately distorting actuality" ilde is actually expressing what most people can see is a "comic version of the human condition," Parker writes in the Modern Literature Quarterly. Parker explains that though McCarthy is using standards that don't really fit with a farcical play (particularly in that era), she may be onto something with her assertion that the play is about selfishness because indeed the…… [Read More]
records court transcripts from "The Trials of Oscar ilde," when the opposing council at the trial asks the defendant, Oscar ilde, if he kissed one of the boys whom ilde was supposed to have engaged in homosexual practices, ilde appears unfazed. hen asked if he kissed the boy, ilde, with customary wit, responded that he did not, because "he was a very ugly boy." This kind of exchange forces the reader to ask the question not so much why ilde was found guilty of gross indecency, but why ilde ever believed he could be found innocent of the love that "dare not speak its name." (Longman Anthology 2125)
Throughout both of his trials, ilde adopts a kind of insouciant, provocative pose that seems, to the modern eyes, to be a 'typical' portrait of a flamboyant male homosexual. Because Oscar ilde's artistic medium has become synonymous with such a posture it…… [Read More]
Is this 'good' or natural one might ask, if Basil is one of the moral characters of the book and defying nature and wishing for eternal youth is immoral? Henry's counsel to Dorian that Dorian yield to his every natural temptation and not bow down to societal morality could be seen as an endorsement of the natural, but Henry also celebrates youth to an unnatural, unchanging degree and he too falls in love with Dorian's image before Dorian. Also, Henry, like Basil, is clearly amoral and self-interested himself, as seen in his disapproval that Dorian's impulses do not conform to Henry's own when Dorian is attracted to a pretty young actress.
Henry is a tempting figure, like Mephistopheles, but Dorian easily outdoes him in 'evil' or transgressions and unnaturalness. Dorian's love of youth, spawned by Henry, takes on a life of its own, just like Faustus' taunting of nature and…… [Read More]
What we can do for another is the test of powers, what we can suffer for another is the test of love."
This I believe is the underlying theme, the thesis, if you will, that lingers in the mind long after reading Oscar Wilde's An Ideal Husband and Robert Lewis Stevenson's The Beach of Falesa. They are literary masterpieces that play on human emotions, that build on human relationships, that pull at the heartstrings of the reader, urging him to believe that in this day and age of greed, immorality and social hypocrisy, unselfish love and true devotion can still reign supreme negating the ill effects of evil.
Wilde's ideal husband, Lord Chiltren has been fashioned by a woman's love- Lady Chiltren's faith, trust and devotion for her husband, Lord Chiltren. He was her creation, from their first meeting, and throughout the early years of their marriage when…… [Read More]
Hamlet does not just put practice his deception on those he views in an adversarial manner, however, but also on his former friends osencrantz and Guildenstern. When they attempt to question him as to what is wrong with him, he seems to be giving them an honest answer when he says "I have of late -- but wherefore I know not -- lost all my mirth" (Shakespeare, 1599). The reader/audience knows that this is a lie; Hamlet has already voiced his suspicions regarding Claudius, but he is unwilling to share them with osencrantz and Guildenstern because he does not trust their feelings towards him. Just the same, Jack deos not trust Gwendolyn's feelings towards him, and so will not reveal that his name is not Ernest. He asks her directly, "But you don't really mean to say that you couldn't love me if my name wasn't Ernest?," which starts an…… [Read More]
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…… [Read More]
Kudler Fine Foods
Kudler Fine Foods has made significant progress within a few short years. The small business was able to open two new locations to expand their gourmet food retail outlets. ith the expansion of a catering division in the horizon as well, it has come time for Kudler Fine Foods to reevaluate their marketing strategies. The company will use the 4P method as the basis for their marketing foundation -- product, place, price, and promotion. Using a well thought out marketing strategy is a key component to support the company's desired expansions. Kudler must conduct research to ensure that they are differentiated enough to find their own niche while also positioning themselves at the right place in the market. This analysis will cover some of the items that should be included in Kudler's strategic marketing plan. Recommendations will be made as to how Kudler's can craft…… [Read More]
It was also during this time that he started keeping a diary. The entry for that day is very relevant as to our attempt to understand what drove Orton to join the theater in hopes of an acting career. During the time he spent with the amateur theater company, Orton decided that he wanted to pursue a career in acting, and that his first step towards achieving this goal was to go to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art: "Last night sitting in the empty theatre watching the electricians flashing lights on and off, the empty stage waiting for rehearsal to begin, I suddenly knew that my ambition is, and always has been, to act." (Diary entry, April 13th, 1949: Joe Orton Online)
He quit the amateur acting company after his first role because he was not offered any other substantial roles. Although he got accepted into the Royal Academy…… [Read More]
This literary parallel also underlined in the final description of the portrait of what Dorian Gray has become at the end of the book, Chapter 20: "The thing was still loathsome -- more loathsome, if possible, than before -- and the scarlet dew that spotted the hand seemed brighter, and more like blood newly spilled. Then he trembled. Had it been merely vanity that had made him do his one good deed? Or the desire for a new sensation, as Lord Henry had hinted, with his mocking laugh?"
Again, there is scarlet, but this is the scarlet of blood letting, not an innocent blush of the young Dorian's lips. Once again, at the words of Lord Henry, even the older and more jaded Dorian is moved to tremble. He blanches at the sight of the picture, but for a different reason, because he can see the monster he has become,…… [Read More]
In this novel, class has more to do with breeding and background than it does with simple wealth. Class is a complex concept, and this has made it very difficult to negotiate shifts and changes in one's class status. The Great Gatsby illustrates that class is capable of producing deep-seated prejudices that cannot simply be altered by external factors like money.
Another very famous novel that affirms these class divisions and the barriers to class mobility is Jane Austen's Emma. The main character thinks of herself as a very good matchmaker, and one of the many conflicts in the novel involves Emma trying to match her friend Harriet up with Mr. Collins, and dissuading her from her romantic feelings for the farmer Mr. Martin. Emma foolishly believes, simply because she likes Harriet as a friend, that Harriet will be accepted into the upper reaches of the eighteenth century British class…… [Read More]
The conversation in the Irish castle about the war lends to a greater understanding of the quiet life he lead around his friends; they, too, were in the dark when it came to the person lying inside the heart of their tragic, literary friend.
If there were a war between Great Britain and the United States, Mr. James, where would your loyalty lie?" Webster asked him during a lull in the conversation after dinner.
My loyalty would lie in making peace between them."
And what if that should fail?" Webster asked him.
A happen to know the answer," Lady Wolseley interrupted. "Mr. James would find out which side France was on and join that side." (30-31)
As the conversation continued, it was made clear that the actual encounter James had had with the Civil War in is reality was unknown to even those close friends, who had taken him in…… [Read More]
American and European Literature
Suggesting that there is a fundamental difference between American and European literature means much more than acknowledging that the culture produced by geographically distinct regions is similarly distinct, because it suggests that there are much deeper underlying symbols and tropes which mark these cultural productions as distinctly American or European regardless of the wide variety of genres and themes present in the literature of either region. hile the claim of an identifiable distinction between American and European literature feels accurate due to the clear differences between American and European culture, this claim requires critical examination because of the potential for stereotype and condescension inherent in it. Examining some of the more important factors which might produce a recognizable difference between these two canons, as well as the processes responsible for the formation of literary canons in the first place, reveals that the differences between American and…… [Read More]
role of religion in the history of European society is a tumultuous one. Christianity, from its obscure beginnings in the classical age, eventually took the reins as the centerpiece of philosophical, literary, and scientific thought. It is true that religion, often, tends to justify actions that might objectively be perceived as incongruous to the established faith. It has historically been the case that when traditional forms of worship become threatened, morally questionable methods are undertaken to strengthen the order. This is certainly the case with Christianity. Since the birth of the Catholic Church in the Roman Empire, Church officials have actively attempted to make their privileged positions in society impervious to assault -- this process has progressed for centuries and, indeed, tens of centuries. For many years this single faith dominated nearly every aspect of European society and was a strong force in maintaining the status quo. However, the many…… [Read More]
He has tried to live a life of pure pleasure with no concern for others, but he cannot escape his own fear, because he knows all the wrongs he has done. The ultimate sin was killing the only person who ever saw true beauty in him.
For its time, this book was extremely well done, and the writing cannot be faulted in the light of Victorian English literature. The story, in fact, is still a good tale, but the long passages of exposition, even in the guise of conversation, makes it difficult for today's audience to read. It is so full of discussions of philosophy and morality that I have to suspect that it was intentionally done to point out the excessive moralizing in much Victorian literature. Nearly every rule of political correctness is broken by one or more of the characters. Yet the story underlying the whole is compelling.…… [Read More]
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…… [Read More]
(In his master's voice)
But, since this is totally a novel regarding memory and return, the narrative keeps recoiling, as if going after James's thought processes, into the vital episodes of his bygone life. In this astute manner we are able to inch into James's strange family life which gives an account of his father's horrendous pursuit of spiritual perfection, his mother's shielding care of her writer son, the ailment and demise of his scathing, talented, neurotic handicapped sister Alice, his disagreement with his haughty elder brother William. Henry's avoidance of the American Civil War radically was at divergence with his brother Wilkie's injuries; his love for his alluring and destined young cousin Minnie Temple; his proximal, jittery friendship with the novelist Constance Fenimore Woolson, her suicide in Venice and James's vacating of her belongings. However, they are assorted with the scenes which Toibin has made-up or drawn up from…… [Read More]
Claude Rawson is best known as a scholar of Jonathan Swift and the eighteenth century, but Rawson's has also used the savage irony of Swift's modest proposal for a series of essays which consider Swift's invocation of cannibalism in light of a longer tradition (in Anglo-Irish relations) of imputing cannibalism literally to the native Irish as a way of demonizing their "savagery" or else to implying a metaphorical cannibalism to describe the British Imperial exploitation of those native Irish. Rawson reapproaches these Swiftian subjects in a more recent essay entitled "Killing the Poor: An Anglo-Irish Theme" which examines what Rawson calls the "velleities of extermination" in a text like Swift's "Modest Proposal" (Rawson, 300). Rawson examines how Swift's ironic solution of what to do with the poor of Ireland (eat them as food) undergoes, in various later iterations by Anglo-Irish writers including Shaw and ilde, transformation into a…… [Read More]
Religion was an important preoccupation for 18th century poets, and Christian symbolism, imagery, diction, and themes make their way into the poetry of this era. In many situations, the references to religion are as overt as a painting of Christ. Many poems dealing with religious imagery, themes, and iconography also deal with existential issues and in particular, death and mortality. For example, in "The Dying Christian to his Soul," Alexander Pope writes from the perspective of a dying man who begs God for release: "Vital spark of heav'nly flame! / Quit, O quite this mortal frame," (lines 1-2). This poem speaks to the Christian view on death being the gateway to the afterlife. In Isaac Watts' "Day of Judgment," the poet specifically mentions the "Lofty Judge," and his "flood of vengeance," referring to the Old Testament God (Stanza 6). The speaker in Watts' poem later urges the sinful to "arise…… [Read More]
"When I think of religion at all, I feel as if I would like to found an order for those who cannot believe: the Confraternity of the Faithless, one might call it, where on an altar, on which no taper burned, a priest, in whose heart peace had no dwelling, might celebrate with unblessed bread and a chalice empty of wine. Everything to be true must become a religion. And agnosticism should have its ritual no less than faith." Oscar Wilde (Critchley).
Wiesel compelled to write Night, saying his "duty is to bear witness for the dead and for the living." "(Wiesel)
Night is a powerful, thought provoking narration of unforgettable and horrific experiences that Elie Wiesel lived through, during the last year of the Second World War. The story invites the reader to relive the life and death of the prisoners in the concentration camps run by the…… [Read More]
discloses to the reader something of what happened during the era under discussion. But it also reveals at least as much about the era in which the history was written. What is considered significant enough to mention, what events are seen as causative rather than incidental, who are the true villains - all of these things may change from one generation's historical account to that of the next, and not because new facts have come to light.
The authors under consideration here ask us to reconsider the nature of history in general as well as to reexamine the particular places and times that they are writing about. They seek to use substitute key theoretical concepts for the traditional chronological structure of history, asking us to consider not what came after what but who had power over whom, and how these social relationships are the causative elements of (each) history.
Central…… [Read More]
British Lit. Romanticism to Present
Following the liberating Age of Reason, the Enlightenment, the age when humanity was triumphing through literature and Rousseau's philosophy was inspiring revolutions, the age of Romanticism saw the birth of some genius writers of its own. Among them, Lord Byron, a man who lived his thirty-six years with the intensity of one who wants to know it all and do it all, was a prolific writer whose works were the expression of his time.
Lord Byron was the restless soul who burnt every resource he had in his inquiries about the meaning of life. He traveled extensively and, like most of his fellow artists, was enchanted with the exotic of the East. Byron was both blessed and haunted by his genius. His image on the seashore, watching the fire lit to burn Shelly's body at Via Reggio, in Italy, is one of those images most…… [Read More]
What can be done to correct the challenge?
Partnering with an experienced inmate represents one means of 'learning the ropes'. Seasoned inmate's, already have served longer time in prison, know the ways of prison life and can guide the new inmate on what to do, what not to do, and especially how to survive. Man and Cronan (2001) describe a warden in Texas simplified the best way a new inmate can survive as "go along with the program." If you witness a crime occurring in your cell, leave and do not get involved if you want to make it out of prison alive and hopefully without being raped. Heroes and squealers usually wind up dead or severely wounded.
Another solution to overcoming almost all the different challenges prison life can cause, is to get involved in educational courses, get on a work detail, go to religious courses, and spent all…… [Read More]
Then I ferret for poetry on the specific subject that boosts me. Generally, I love Tennyson and Emily Dickinson; perhaps I go, as I do in literature, for the relevant and inspiring.
Poems that have had the greatest impact on me include Joaquin Miller's Columbus: particularly the stanza:
What shall I say, brave Admiral, say,
If we sight naught but seas at dawn?"
"Why, you shall say at break of day, 'ail on! sail on! sail on! And on!'"(Derek, 2002, p.134)
Philosophers of literature argue regarding the impact literature may or may not have on the ethical psyche. Tolstoy's 'What is Art?" For instance, maintains that literature has a strong impact and, therefore, one should choose one's readings carefully. Plato asseverated, likewise, recommending literature as part of the diet of the Philosopher king. Ruskin, too, maintained that literature should be employed for the betterment of society, whilst in Confucian thought,…… [Read More]
(a.D.A.M., 2008) Neurosyphilis has been speculated as the cause for eccentricites among well-known figures such as Henry VIII, Vincent Van Gogh, Adolf Hitler, Oscar Wilde, and Friedrich Nietzsche (McMyne, 2008). Oddly, some dementia caused by syphilis is preceded by a phase of mania and euphoria in which patients feel excitable and "high," often with relaxed inhibitions (Hayden, 2003).
In the United States today, syphilis rarely progresses beyond the first or second stage since treatment is widely available. Upon diagnosis, antibiotics such as penicillin or tetracycline are administered; follow-up tests must be performed at three, six, and twelve month intervals to ensure complete removal of the infection. Syphilis is always contagious, particularly in the first and second stages, so all sexual partners should be notified and treated as well. If treated during the primary stage, syphilis is completely curable with no risk of permanent health damage. Unfortunately, initial symptoms may be…… [Read More]
James does imply in the prologue of the Turn of the Screw that there is a deeper meaning to the governess' narrative than merely a straightforward ghost story. So it is unlikely that, as some critics claim, it was merely meant to be a simple ghost story with no deeper meaning or symbolism. However interpretation of the tale has sometimes been taken to the opposite extreme as well, with critics reading far too much in certain dialogue, passages and references than the author likely ever intended. Ultimately, Sigmund Freud would probably have a field day interpreting the sexual repression of the critics who have analyzed this novella so intently.
Cefalu, Paul a. "Rethinking the Discourse of Colonialism in Economic Terms: Shakespeare's the Tempest, Captain John Smith's Virginia Narratives, and the English Response to Vagrancy." Shakespeare Studies. 28 (2000): 85-119.
James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw: And Other…… [Read More]
The Ghost of Canterville Hall adapts Oscar Wilde's fairy tale and plays upon the middle school fascination with English ghosts and haunting: it depicts a ghost who has grown tired of haunting a family who needs the help of a young girl to be free of a curse.
The Magic Garden by Irene Corey is designed for theatre-goers between ages 5-9 and unfolds a nutritional tale: the battle of vegetables vs. sweets.
A Midsummer Night's Dream adapted by Aurand Harris uses William Shakespeare in a humorous fashion to introduce children to the Bard in this tale of mistaken identity, love, and mischievous fairies.
Dramatists Play Service
Dragonwings by Lawrence Yep is the story of a Chinese boy who comes to America and his struggles adjusting to life in his new country.
The Children's Crusade by Paul Thompson tells the tale of the failed idealism of young children in the 13th…… [Read More]
Thus, the fact that illa Cather employs flowers in her story does not necessarily suggest that Paul is different, and for symbolic value to emphasize the contrast between difference and similarity in the story. Paul's desire for flowers certainly emphasize his difference as he wears them when it seems less than appropriate, and their presence as a symbol is emphasized by the fact hat they accompany his major steps in the story (going to the suspension hearing, his meetings with Charley, his trip to New York, and his death), as well as the way they are used to contrast similarity or "everyday things" (Cather 19).
In addition to flowers, Paul's interest in dress and his dress itself can easily be seen as a sign of his homosexuality. Like the flowers, however, it can also quite easily be explained as a characteristic and symbol of his difference. In contrast to the…… [Read More]
For me, that afternoon was like a raid siren in the dead of the night as I could see Allen Ginsberg's poetry come to life in front of my eyes; also, I am positive that afternoon changed my perception not only of poetry, but of art in general. I became interested in the life of the artist, and the period of time a particular piece of art was created.
I can now look back and attempt to accurately evaluate the impact of Ginsberg's work on my life. Nonetheless, I am not sure how objective I can be in this assessment. Since Ginsberg has become an integrated part of my system of thought and belief, it is quite difficult to separate myself from what I believe in, and evaluate my own mind. What I can say though is that thanks to his poetry, I was able to get a more profound…… [Read More]
Such evidence as there is can be taken up at a later time. But of one thing we can be sure. If Virginia was the prototype of Eleonora she was not the model for Morella or Berenice or Ligeia."(Quinn, 255)
These feelings can also be inferred from Poe's letters to Mrs. Clemm, Virginia's mother:
I am blinded with tears while writing this letter-- I have no wish to live another hour. Amid sorrow, and the deepest anxiety your letter reached -- and you well know how little I am able to bear up under the pressure of grief -- My bitterest enemy would pity me could he now read my heart -- My last my only hold on life is cruelly torn away -- I have no desire to live and will not but let my duty be done. I love, you know I love Virginia passionately devotedly. I cannot…… [Read More]
Linde: Come, come-
Nora: - that I have gone through nothing in this world of cares.
Mrs. Linde: But my dear Nora, you have just told me all your troubles.
Nora: Pooh! -- those were trifles (lowering her voice) I have not told you the important thing (20).
We see Torvald's side of the deception in Act Three after he learns of Nora's forgery and Krogstad's ability to expose her. The conversations Thorvald has had during the previous two Acts show us that he is really only attracted to Nora because of her beauty and the social status that will glean him in society. He notes, "From now on, forget happiness. Now it's just about saving the remains, the wreckage, the appearance," showing us that all he really cares about it he own social status and reputation, naught for Nora. Essentially, Nora's forgery is the epitome of their disenfranchised and…… [Read More]
evil" paradigm. However, unlike in earlier gothic works, there is no allusion to priests or monks as players on the side of "evil." In fact, the absence of religion and religious restraints appears to be an element of Stevenson's theme: Jekyll, acting on the doctrine of Rousseau, which is to follow one's "nature," unmoors himself from the restraints traditionally made available by religious conviction. Jekyll, being a man of science, rather than of theology, puts to test the doctrine that divorced the old world from the new, and what he finds is that the doctrine is not good. hile the earlier works of gothic horror (like The Monk) pointed out corruption within the clergy, Stevenson's gothic work appears to do the opposite: it points out the corruption in Naturalism: "I not only recognised my natural body from the mere aura and effulgence of certain of the powers that made up…… [Read More]
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…… [Read More]
manager." The introduction describe " -development important a manager mix a bit coaching theories ( I a coaching I techniques Kolb' learning cycle techniques fuore managers improve ), I a part body essay real life examples managers coaching techniques -development successful ( describe techniques ).
The importance of self-development in becoming a manager
Self-development is defined first and foremost as an overall holistic desire to find one's freedom and the desire to connect with one's self and own sense of worth, integrity and happiness so as to enjoy abundant happiness both at home and at work. Self-development in simpler terms is that amazing quest / journey that a person embarks on; a point of realization when all the pieces of a person's life fall together and they finally remove their own self limitations and inhibitions that hinder or stop any person more so a manager from achieving greatness. This definition…… [Read More]
Lady in the ater, the 2006 major motion picture by writer/director/actor Manoj Nelliyattu Shyamalan that make it a quintessential allegory. The names of the major characters in the film (such as Story and Healer) obviously represent the ideas, as well as the virtues, that they are named after. Further contributing to this theme in the film is the fact that this movie is based upon a children's story. An immense body of literature exists that demonstrates that several children's stories, and several elements in such tales, are allegorical and representative of ideas that may be too advanced for an author to directly address in literature for young people (Luthra 2009. As such, the two principle rhetorical devices that Shyamalan employs to deliver his own messages in Lady in the ater is symbolism and the unique role he gives to each of his characters, who represent various symbolic concepts. Collectively, the…… [Read More]
Fabianism and Social Democracy
Fabianism and social justice
Fabianism was an early form of socialism that was espoused by many 19th century intellectuals, including George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde. The 19th century was an era of tremendous social injustice. Capitalism was virtually unregulated, and it was not unusual for men and women to work ten hour days or more. Child labor was widespread. It was accepted that there would be a chasm between the haves and have-nots, in terms of income, rights, and quality of life. One response to this state of injustice was Marxism or a vision of a classless society after a violent overthrow of the ruling classes. In contrast, the Fabian brand of socialism was a gradualist vision, which viewed reform from within as the best method of realizing social justice. Fabians believed that by agitating for the rights of the working classes, women, and oppressed…… [Read More]
American Popular Music (Lady Gaga)
The question of originality in popular music is a vexed one. To choose a convenient and current example, when Justin Bieber sings about his "baby," listeners are not meant to hear any kind of deliberate allusion to the Supremes' "Baby Love" or any other previous songs which include "Baby" as part of their lyrical hook: Bieber's charming faux-naivete cannot be mistaken for anything other than a rhetorical willingness to utilize the regular tropes and language of a standard love song. But with some performers, the matter of originality -- together with the question of influence -- is one that must be addressed. I would like to look, in this context, at the work of Stefani Germanotta, the twenty-four-year-old singer and composer better known by her stage name "Lady Gaga." I would like to examine Lady Gaga's oeuvre with three separate areas of inquiry kept in…… [Read More]
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]
Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes"
My fascination with Perotin's "Viderunt Omnes" -- the aspect of the piece which intrigued me enough to select it for this exercise -- begins and ends with one name -- not that of Perotinus Magnus (as you might suspect) but that of contemporary composer Steve Reich.[footnoteRef:0] My own interest in musical analysis very often involves the question of what composers are doing now. If we approach the aesthetics of music from a perspective that is informed by Harold Bloom's approach to the aesthetics of literature, a critical approach that has been exemplified by (for example) John Fallas suggesting that the creation of Schoenberg's Serial Technique was a sort of Modernist revolutionary break with past aesthetics[footnoteRef:1], on the order of Bloom's description of the invention of "Romanticism" in literature, whereby we analyze any composer by means of his sense of "the burden of the past" and his own…… [Read More]
Visual Imagery and Qualitative Dimensions of Life & Consciousness in Visual Art
Throughout history all cultures have produced works of art. The impulse to create as a means of personal expression and to stimulate the imagination of viewers is universal and perpetual. In their various manifestations, the arts play an important role in defining culture by presenting intelligent viewpoints of our present state of being, and by serving as a record of our past. The visual arts are a repository of those qualitative dimensions of life, which enhance our consciousness through the use of visual imagery.
The most exquisite expression of the self is through art, be it literature, history theatre, painting, sculptor and so on. From the wondrous Egyptian pyramids to the majestic statue of liberty, from eloquent Greek writer Homer - who produced masterpieces like the Odyssey - to 20th century literati like Palestinian journalist Edward Said -…… [Read More]
Restoration Drama: the Rake as a Symbol of Social Disorder
One of the distinctive features of Restoration comedy is the figure of the rake as romantic hero. The image of the rake-hero is of a witty, cynical, calculating, and self-serving man who pursues his own pleasure above all other considerations. Antagonistic to established rules and mores, the rake rejects conventional ideas of virtue, integrity, fidelity, restraint; above all he adopts a rhetorical position of opposition to the institution of marriage. However, it is significant that in most plays which feature a rake-hero in a prominent role, he becomes reconciled to the concept of marriage and ends up either actually married or firmly committed to marriage. It is the contention of this paper that first, it is overly simplistic to see the rake as irredeemably opposed to marriage, and that the relationship between such figures and the institution of wedlock is…… [Read More]
The adolescent perspective as depicted in the short stories of Joyce, Faulkner, and Cather
The search for higher social status as a form of personal fulfillment and self-definition all mark the coming-of-age stories of James Joyce, illiam, Faulkner, and illa Cather, despite the distinct differences between the three male protagonists created by the authors in their seminal short stories "Araby," "Barn Burning," and "Paul's Case." All three short stories feature a young protagonist whose illusions of finery and higher class status are shattered. Because these aspirations are also often connected to sexual desires, this fall from grace is particularly difficult for the young men to tolerate.
In "Araby," the young male protagonist becomes enamored with a young woman who seems innocent, above his own class, and charming. hen she professes to wish to go to the Araby bazaar but cannot because she must go on a retreat with her…… [Read More]
Sexuality and Stigma in Cinema: Gay and Transgender Representation
According to the sociological theorist Erving Goffman, to bear a 'stigma' is to viewed by society as abnormal. "Stigmatized people are those that do not have full social acceptance and are constantly striving to adjust their social identities: physically deformed people, mental patients, drug addicts, prostitutes, etc." (Crossman 1). Until relatively recently, people in estern society who possessed same-sex desire were stigmatized as 'homosexuals' and deemed to be deviant. The films Maurice and the Naked Civil Servant show two different responses to stigmatization: in Maurice, the hero appears to do all he can to avoid living under such a stigmatized status while in Naked Civil Servant, the hero Quentin Crisp quite blatantly and proudly uses his stigmatized identity as a badge of honor. However, both men ultimately strive to reconfigure society's stigmatized attitude into something more positive and it may be…… [Read More]
Later Works and Themes
Kathleen Mansfield Murry, commonly known by her penname Katherine Mansfield, was born in the late nineteenth century and only lived to be thirty-four years of age. Her early death was due to the effects of tuberculosis on her body. During her lifespan however, she was able to write a variety of short fiction stories in the modernist genre. Her works gave her a great deal of notoriety during her life and her first published stores appeared in a publication known as the High School eporter. From 1910 publications in periodicals like the New Age through the five volumes of stories published before her death, Mansfield was recognized as innovative, accessible, and psychologically acute, one of the pioneers of the avant-garde in the creation of the short story (Poetry Foundation).
She had an interesting personal life and was born into a prominent family.…… [Read More]
The unlikelihood and seeming un-reality of each step in this situation is completely absurd, but it is this absurdism that drives the play.
This strain can also be seen in the opening scene, as part of the same champagne discussion. Algernon asks Lane why the servants always drink the wine in bachelor's households. Lane absurdly and dryly misinterprets the question, saying "I attribute it to the superior quality of the wine, sir. I have often observed that in married households the champagne is rarely of a first-rate brand." This itself devolves into an absurd discussion of marriage, the theme of…… [Read More]
How does one describe the nature of comedy? Comedy is both simple and complicated. How comedy works is simple, but what is funny is complicated. Comedy describes the nature of the universe in universal terms. Every culture has a sense of humor. Every culture across the global and across time values humor. There are figures in literature and culture such as "the fool," and "the jester." These kinds of figures in literature and history and culture are valuable. The voice of comedy is often one that is able to cross social boundaries/construction, class, institutions, etc. The Shakespearean fool gets to speak the truth when often many other characters cannot. As Shakespeare wrote in "Hamlet," "Much truth is said in jest." Comedy as a psychological expression or function is also very interesting. The ways people use comedy say a lot about who they are and what they think. Comedic…… [Read More]
Canada is one of the largest countries in Northern America, covering more than 9 million square metres. It has a population of over 31 million people. Even though the country is ethnically diverse, two main languages the people use are English and French. The Canadians use these two official languages. This makes it a bilingual country. People whose ancestry is British make the largest percentage of the people who live in Canada. Economically, Canada is one of the largest economies in the world, with an average per capita income of over twenty thousand dollars (Kalman & Bobbie, p. 4).
Values that the Canadians uphold
The Canadians uphold several values. These values include coexisting peacefully, equality and freedom, respecting the cultural differences that exist between them and keeping the law among other values. Keeping peace is one of the metiers that the Canadians cherish. Canada has been very active in…… [Read More]
Each author subsisted to two (2) different kinds of perspectives, which make up the second and third critical elements of the comparative analysis component of this paper.
Berger analyzed humor based on social and political perspectives. Usage of these perspectives was most useful in discussing the two typologies of humor he thoroughly discussed in the book: satire and folly. Satire as a type of humor drew upon important concept that makes up its core: "militant irony" (158-9). Folly, meanwhile, was best characterized through the concepts "absurd" and "reality in a looking glass" (176).
Satire gives humor a political aspect to it, as illustrated in the term "military irony," which Berger defined as "a term derived from war, it is an attitude of attack that is part of a campaign against someone or something." Interestingly, the author qualified that satire need not have the 'brutality' that comes with military irony; however,…… [Read More]