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How would you feel if someone came in your home, took over and kicked you out? Surely, no one would like that feeling. Worse than that, that certain someone found it morally acceptable to be doing such an act and everyone was supporting him. The aforementioned scenario is the simplest version of the state that Palestinians are in today. Their situation is present on a larger and much more gruesome and violent scale. The best solution to this conflict is that justice should be done with Palestine. The history, current problems and possible solution will be discussed below.
The British empire the controlled Palestine in the years from 1918 to 1947. They had worked to seize Palestine from the Turks subsequent to which they were ruling the area. At time, the Arab population significantly over numbered the Jews which clearly indicated that the Palestine land belonged to Arab Muslims.…
Cleary, Joe. Literature, Partition and the Nation-State: Culture and Conflict in Ireland, Israel and Palestine. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Unviersity Press, 2002. 5-6. Print.
Eran, Oded. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East.. By Avraham, Sela. 1st ed. New York: Continuum, 2002. Print.
Hallward, Maia. "Pursuing "Peace" in Israel/Palestine." Journal of Third World Studies 28.1 (2012): 186-188. Print.
Kedourie, Elie and Sylvia G.Haim . Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel. London: F.Cass, 1982. 52-55. Print.
he brilliance of this book lies in its sincere desire to bring real stories to life while staying objective. While it is one thing to read about these stories, it is totally different to live with brutality and violence on daily basis. he author puts so much life into these stories that you wonder why are people still willing to live. But that is the essence of human spirit. It doesn't die. he utter nightmare of life in Palestine is not easy for any reader to digest or live with. So most of them would want to forget the whole thing as soon as they put the book down. But while you may want to forget, the utter brutality of these naked images will continue to haunt you. Sacco explains how beneath the obvious such as -- "traffic, couples in love, falafel-to-go, tourists in jogging suits licking stamps for postcards"…
This is a conflict you can never truly understand as an outsider. It is grounded in years of severe hatred that almost seems irrational. But it is not- not at least to the people involved. The western media doesn't tell us the truth and while we see Palestinian youth throwing stones and hurling things at Israeli tankers but you may fail to understand why this is happening. It appears almost bizarre to a western eye but it makes absolute sense to the people living in these conflict-ridden region. Sacco has talked to people to find out how they feel about the conflict and is shocked at their naked hatred for the Israeli. The hatred is so obvious that they do not even try to mask it.
The brilliance of this book lies in its sincere desire to bring real stories to life while staying objective. While it is one thing to read about these stories, it is totally different to live with brutality and violence on daily basis. The author puts so much life into these stories that you wonder why are people still willing to live. But that is the essence of human spirit. It doesn't die. The utter nightmare of life in Palestine is not easy for any reader to digest or live with. So most of them would want to forget the whole thing as soon as they put the book down. But while you may want to forget, the utter brutality of these naked images will continue to haunt you. Sacco explains how beneath the obvious such as -- "traffic, couples in love, falafel-to-go, tourists in jogging suits licking stamps for postcards" --, the brutal truth is living a powerful life in the form of "people strapped to chairs, sleep deprivation, the smell of piss" all in the name of national security.
The irony of the situation can be gauged from the fact that when Sacco meets a young Palestinian man who has never been to prison, he is shocked. This is because it seems that every single person has at least once been to jail especially the young males. Sacco's approach to the conflict is moving and witty while at the same time objective as one could possibly remain amidst such horrifying pictures of the truth. Since the writing of this book, a few things have changed in Palestine. There has already been a second intifada and a Palestine Authority has been installed. Peace talks resumed too but while these changes may have taken place, they have only cosmetic value and no real substance. Thus we can say that the conflict is very much still in place and definitely as brutal as it had been in 1991-92.
However, a loophole from 1950's Korean Crisis resulted in a procedure called "uniting for peace" or UN Resolution 377. This states that "in cases where the Security Council fails in its duty to maintain world peace because of differences among the five permanent members, the matter at hand can be referred directly to the General Assembly."
In the current U.N. climate, a vote in the General Assembly would likely favor Palestine, similarly to the resolution granting Palestine observer status.
Part 3 -- Rebuttal -- in its most basic form, the State of Israel owes its existence to a group of Zionists who used the events of World War II to establish a religiously oriented homeland. This view overlooked the fact that Arab Muslims had occupied the land for centuries and used British imperialism as an excuse to reoccupy Arab lands. Once Israel formed its statehood, it became part of the…
Most people are aware of the conflicts between Palestinians and Israelis, and are aware that what the two sides are incompatible with each other. his incompatibility between what the two sides wants is what has made finding a permanent solution both sides could live with so difficult. However, not everyone is aware of the very long time line on these differences.
he tensions between Palestinians and Jews came to a head in 1947, when the very new United Nations decided to "partition" the land, so that both Palestinians and Israelis could have land in what was then Palestine. he United Nations was well aware that Hitler had tried to exterminate every Jew in Europe, killing over 6,000,000 Jews (and other people deemed "undesirable") during his reign of terror. he idea of Jewish homeland where Jews could live safe from persecution resonated.
But what the United Nations and many…
Those from Western countries do not always take as long a view of the history of the region as Palestinians and other Arabs sometimes do. The Arabs of the region remember, the way we remember the Civil War, that they were once one of the world's greatest civilizations. From the time of Islam's founding in the 7th century, the religion spread rapidly across most of Asia, parts of Africa and even parts of Spain (Ismael, 1999). They developed a governmental form that worked to accommodate at least to some extent the cultures the conquered.
However, by the time Islam had reached present-day Spain, a highly Christian and Catholic area, Europeans were alarmed by the spread of this culture and religion. Arab power had reached its peak by the 10th century. Westerners responded with the Crusades, which took place in the 11th and 12th centuries. The Crusades had both religious and economic goals. The Crusaders wanted to see the Holy Land under the control of Christians. At the same time, they were looking for a safer and more economical route to Asia, so they could trade for such things as spices and silk. During this time, while Europe was challenging Arab power from the West, Mongols were attacking from the East (Ismael, 1999). Except for Egypt, the area was racked by wave after wave of warfare (Ismael, 1999). Many Arabs see this sort of grabbing for their resources going on today over oil, and when Westerners attempt to broker peace, suspect that they want peace in the region only to assure the free flow of crude oil from the MIddle East (Ismael, 1999).
Because these events brought down a great civilization, the Crusades, little more than an intriguing chapter in Western history, was part of a cataclysmic series of events in Arab history that changed their course forever, events brought because outsiders wanted rights to their lands. So while Westerners interested in the Arab-Israeli conflict may look at issues starting in 1947, or perhaps when European Jews first started migrating to Palestine
Palestine, Joe Sacco mainly incorporates new journalism techniques and rejects objective reporting to ensure his work is more credible and flawless. My introductory thesis is whether the use of new journalism tendencies as opposed to objective reporting compromises the credibility of Sacco's book on the Israeli-Palestine war.
Sacco's use of New Journalism
New Journalism is literary reporting style used by most comic and mainstream journalists. It encompasses three major sub-braches; intensive reportage, dramatic literary techniques as well as reportage of acceptable subjectivity. These sub-branches of new journalism are integrated by Sacco in his comic and dramatic literature Palestine. New journalism writing technique encourages a journalist's or reporter's opinions, ideas as well as involvement to sneak into the story though the characters take a greater share in the story (Flippen).
This journalistic system requires mainstream reporters as well as journalists to carry out in-depth reportage while paying attention to the most…
Flippen, Charles C. Liberating Media: The New Journalism. Acropolis Books, 1974.
Hollowell, John. Fact & Fiction: The New Journalism and the Non-Fiction Novel. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977.
Mindich, David TZ. Just the Facts: How Objectivity came to Define American History. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Sacco, Joe. Palestine . Jonathan Cape, 2004.
zionist state-building efforts and political institutions with those of palestinian arabs for the period from the frist aliya to 1949 and why the zionist enterprise was ultimately more successful
The objective of this study is to conduct a comparison of Zionist state-building efforts and political institutions with those of Palestinian Arabs for the period from the first Aliya to 1949 and why the Zionist enterprise was ultimately more successful.
As this study will clearly show, the British Government was highly in support of Palestine being established as a homeland for the Zionist Jewish people. Lacquer and ubin (2008) relate in regards to British policy following the years of war that it "became gradually committed to the idea of the establishment of Jewish home in Palestine. After discussions on cabinet level and consultation with Jewish leaders, the decision was made known in the form of a letter by Lord Arthur James…
Lacquer, W. And Rubin, B. (2013) The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict. 7th Ed. Retrieved from: https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=WwS-bzVAj84C&pg=GBS.PT1
The radical Talibans came to power and provided sanctuary to Bin Laden, who had by now turned against the U.S. After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the Talibans refused to hand-over Osama, and the U.S. forces invaded Afghanistan and ousted the Talibans. Most of the devastated country is now ruled by war-lords and despite claims of democracy; the country has degenerated into a lawless narco-state.
Iraq was invaded by the U.S. In March 2003 on the pretext that it possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction and was a direct threat to the U.S. The real aim was the implementation of a Neo-con plan to spread American style democracy in the Middle East and secure Israeli interests in the region. Three years later, no WMDs have been found, a violent insurgency in Iraq has taken more than 1500 American soldiers' lives, and the neo-con dream of spreading democracy is an…
To my mind, the only possible solution to the problem in Palestine, Afghanistan and Iraq lies in a radical change in the U.S. foreign policy, i.e., in the 'Bush doctrine' of pre-emptive war, unilateralism, military pre-eminence of the United States and an active promotion of democracy in other parts of the world. Its policy of one-sided support of Israel also needs review. Withdrawal of unconditional support by the U.S. To Israel would encourage it to accept a possible solution of the Palestine problem based on a formula such as the Saudi Peace Plan of 2002, which offered peace and recognition of Israel, in return for full withdrawal by Israel from the occupied territories for a Palestinian state. Abandoning unilateralism, discarding the futile attempt to impose American-style democracy in Iraq and Afghanistan and adopting a less arrogant presence on the world stage could reduce anti-Americanism and the escalating Islamic terrorism directed the U.S.
Most of the Jewish population in the Palestinian territory consisted of recent immigrants who had immigrated to the area after the 1890s as a result of the Zionist movement.
The U.S., through the offices of Condoleezza ice has taken the mediator role and agreed to meet with the negotiators from both sides in order to prepare the final draft for the documents in the summit (BBC News, 2007). Therefore, all these points considered, it is obvious that political steps are being made which can eventually lead to the improvement of the security situation in the region and the resolution of the Israeli Palestinian conflict.
Al Jazeera. (2006). Abbas offers Israel peace talks. 26 November 2007 http://english.aljazeera.net/English/archive/archive?ArchiveId=21944
BBC News. (2007). Final push for Middle East talks. BBC website. 26 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7112457.stm
BC News. (2007). Olmert optimism on peace chances. BBC. 26 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7102945.stm
CNN. (2007). Abbas outlaws Hamas militia forces. CNN World. 26 November 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WOLD/meast/06/17/palestinian.cabinet/index.html
Farouky, Saeed Taji. (2007). Factional violence turns Gaza into 'hell on earth'. euters Foundation. 26 November 2007. http://www.alertnet.org/db/blogs/38847/2007/04/17-124922-1.htm
Quartet Statement. (2007)…
Al Jazeera. (2006). Abbas offers Israel peace talks. 26 November 2007 http://english.aljazeera.net/English/archive/archive?ArchiveId=21944
BBC News. (2007). Final push for Middle East talks. BBC website. 26 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7112457.stm
BC News. (2007). Olmert optimism on peace chances. BBC. 26 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7102945.stm
CNN. (2007). Abbas outlaws Hamas militia forces. CNN World. 26 November 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/06/17/palestinian.cabinet/index.html
They are incredibly important because they show how Jewish society went from a sacrificial pagan belief system to the modern Jewish religion. The Editors from the Jewish Museum note, "They represent the important transformation that occurred in Jewish worship from sacrifice to Bible study and prayer, the debates among Jewish groups of the Second Temple Period, and the indirect connections between the scrolls and early Christianity."
The scrolls are now touring the world so visitors can see them in various art museums, and some of them reside in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Even today, decades after their discovery, the Dead Sea Scrolls have not all been translated, but they are recognized as one of the most important finds in the area's history, and the initial discovery happened during the time of the British Mandate. This meant that British scholars were some of the first people to study and understand…
Biger, Gideon. The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840-1947. London: Routledge, 2004.
Editors. "Israel and the Palestinians: A History." The Guardian. 2009. 9 Feb 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0,720353,00.html
Editors. "The British Mandate: Overview." PalestineFacts.org. 2009. 9 Feb 2009. http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_overview.php.
Editors. "The Dead Sea Scrolls: Mysteries of the Ancient World." The Jewish Museum. 2009. 9 Feb. 2009. http://www.thejewishmuseum.org/exhibitions/DeadSeaScrolls .
Root of the Israel-Palestine Conflict
The Israel-Palestine conflict is rooted in a decades' long battle over land rights. Israel declared statehood in 1948, with only 500,000 settlers in the area, authority over which had previously been linked to a British mandate -- but that had ended. Following 2 and the "moral imperative" that the Holocaust supplied the Zionist movement, more Jews began to migrate to Israel (Tyler 17). Led by the military strategist, David Ben-Gurion, who, like many Zionists of the day, changed his name to emphasize a certain Hebrewness, the Zionist state of Israel took on a distinctive militarism that would characterize the nation's actions all the way till today. These actions are best understood as a chain of events with one, single goal: to seize surrounding territories for Israel, which claims a historic, God-given right to them. Palestinians and other peoples from surrounding states declare that…
Escobar, Pepe. "Western Plutocracy Goes Bear Hunting." AsiaTimes. 4 Aug
Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-
2001. NY: Vintage Books, 2001. Print.
That was a term that was used only later by historians and others that talked about that particular period of time in German history (Kolb, 2004). Those who were involved with the epublic called it the German eich (Peukert, 1993). From the point of creation of the epublic, Germany was launched into an experiment in modernity that did not turn out the way that they hoped it would.
Part of the reason for this was that the experiment did not take place under circumstances that would ensure the success of the Weimar epublic (Kolb, 2004). The idea behind the epublic was to create a democracy that Germany could then survive under, thus assuring freedom and peace for all of its citizens (Peukert, 1993). While this was an admirable goal, the reality of what was created and how well it actually worked was much different from the desired plan.
Baron, S.W. (1986). A Social and Religious History of the Jews. New York: Columbia University Press.
Berger, a. (1997). The genius of the Jewish joke. New York: Transaction Publishers.
Goffman, E. (1968). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kolb, Eberhard. 2004. The Weimar Republic. New York: Routledge.
Palestine under Occupation: Reaching the ‘Other’ through Bearing Witness and Citizen Journalism
The conflict in Palestine is largely portrayed in the mainstream media as a complex issue (Chomsky & Pappe, 2015). A theoretical reason for this portrayal of the conflict is rooted in what Robinson (2002) has described as the ‘CNN effect’—the special relationship that exists between the state and the media, which facilitates the construction of a narrative that supports the aims of the state, particularly when it comes to foreign intervention. Al-Ghazzi (2017) has described, for example, how CNN uses embedded reporting to foster a narrative supportive of the U.S.’s aims in the Middle East. With a particular focus on the Palestinian conflict, Western mainstream media and states partake in the CNN effect by framing the conflict as ‘complicated’. This complication, however, is not represented in the largesse unevenly distributed between the two sides of the conflict.…
A Documentary Filmmaking Experience
Aim and Accomplishment
Renov (1993) states that there are four fundamental purposes of a documentary: “1) to record, reveal, or preserve; 2) to persuade or promote; 3) to analyze or interrogate; and 4) to express” (p. 21). In my documentary, Palestine, her story, my aim was to observe—i.e., to record, reveal and preserve—the stories of the Palestinian women who served as the subject of my film. The film is therefore an observational documentary.
Looking back on my original proposal, I can say that I have completed at least a portion of my original project. The focus of my 20-minute film is on the three Palestinian women who live a successful life in London. Each woman is of a different generation and thus each one has a different experience to share, a different story to tell. Yet they also have one thing in common, which is Palestine.…
Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…
1. Slater, Jerome Can Zionism be Reconciled with Justice for the Palestinians Article Tikkun July 2003
2. Zuncs, Stephen Defending Zionism in a Time of Occupation and Oppression Article Tikkun p.54 April 2004
3. Starobin, Paul Rethinking Zionism Article National Journal p.1240 April 24, 2004
4. Hazony, Yoram the Zionism Idea and its Enemies Article Commentary may 96, Vol. 101, Issue 5 p.30
Immediately after Israel declared its independence, a coalition of Arab states invaded Israel, starting the first Arab-Israeli War. Israel prevailed, and conquered territories beyond those claimed in the original UNSCOP partition. Israel gained control of 77% of Palestinian territories and the remainder was divided between Jordan and Egypt (Beinin & Hajjar).
Thus, the UNSCOP proposal for a two-state solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict was dismissed and a Palestinian state was never created: leading to the subsequent decades of resentment and violence throughout the entire Middle East. Jewish residents of Arab countries throughout the region were persecuted violently and most fled to Israel. Palestinians were forced into refugee camps. Palestinians living in Israel are Israeli citizens but experience systematic discrimination (Beinin & Hajjar).
The conflict in the Middle East escalated further as Egyptian leader Gamal Abder Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and restricted Israeli movement through it. By also joining military…
Arab-Israeli Conflict." Retrieved dEc 15, 2008 at http://www.historyteacher.net/Arab-Israeli_Conflict.htm
The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Brief History." Guardian. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0,720353,00.html
Beinin, J. & Hajjar, L. "Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Primer." Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/intro-pal-isr-primer.html
Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories." BBC. 28 October 2008. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/803257.stm
Most Israelis do not desire assimilation into a common whole, given that they hold the other components of their identity equally dear as their Jewish heritage and their Israeli citizenship. A Russian Jew may have more in common with fellow Russians than an Ethiopian Jew and an Israeli may be an atheist yet a member of a religious state.
Does an Israel national identity still exist, asks Yehoshua? He does not ask this question of the Palestinian nationals, who clearly see themselves as apart from Israeli society, both legally and in terms of how they profess their own citizenship and nationhood. However, even for Jews, Israel proposes an interesting question of what constitutes a nation. Israel gives refuge and citizenship to every Jew, no matter where he or she may hail from, but the state of Israel also has civic institutions that are limited to professed nationals, some of whom…
The Al-Aqsa Intifadah (which began, I believe, in about 2000 when the Camp David talks were then stalling) was begun by PLO and still exists today (much less actively than from about 2000 to about 2004, roughly) under the PLO umbrella.
3) Democratic nations including Great Britain and the United States have long called for democratic elections in Palestine. Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States?
No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its 1987 outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such. Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem (and is). And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…
achieving peace in the Middle East. The writer explores the problems between Israel and Palestine and looks at possible solutions. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The dispute between Palestine and Israel is long standing and difficult. Each side believes that it is in the right and both sides accuse various nations including the United States of taking sides against them. "Palestinians want an independent state with its capital in East Jerusalem - but hardliner Sharon will accept only small Palestinian territories and no Israeli withdrawal from East Jerusalem."
The conflict began in 1917 at the time Britain conquered Palestine. It was during World War II. It was called the Jewish homeland. During the United Nations talks of 1947 a plan was designed that divided the land between the Jews and the Arabs. That plan called for the founding of the State of Israel about a year…
Special Report: After the war is over - Israel and Palestine; Israel and Palestine
Date: 04/13/2002; Publication: The Economist; Author:
Profile: Propaganda from Israel and Palestine
Date: 10/17/2000; Publication: All Things Considered (NPR); Author: NOAH ADAMS
Israel vs. Palestine Conflict
The author of this report has been asked to write an essay about the conflict between the Israeli people and the Palestinians as it has existed over time. Much of the conflict has actually extended over millennia when it comes to the stretch of land that is involved. However, this report will focus on the last century or so. The first question to be answered is simply a summary of the conflict that has existed between the two groups over the last century. The second question talks about sovereignty and nationalism in the context of the conflict that is being discussed. The conflict is then to be analyzed in terms of power and statecraft. Finally, there will be the prisoner's dilemma discussion from a realist and from a neo-liberal understanding.
Basically, the gist of the Palestinian gripe is that they have gone from controlling…
ERS. (2015). Comparatively Assess Neo-realism and Neo-liberalism. Whose Argument
do you Find the More Convincing and Why?. E-International Relations. Retrieved 11 May 2015, from http://www.e-ir.info/2007/12/21/comparatively-assess-neo-realism-and-neo-liberalism-whose-argument-do-you-find-the-more-convincing-and -
If Americans Knew. (2015). A Synopsis of the Israel/Palestine Conflict.
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab-Israeli conflict
The current Arab-Israeli conflict has a long standing history which goes back to the 1910s when the Ottoman Empire was still in place. During the WWI, the Germans sided with the Ottoman and the British sided with the Arabs in revolting against the Ottoman Empire. The British promised the Arabs self rule and to the Jews they promised them a homeland in Palestine (Kattan, et.al., 2009:Pp59). The Arabs took over the control of Syria and immediately after the war, the League of Nations gave the French the control over Syria and to the British they gave what are today Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jordan. In 1921 the British divided their large mandate into two; the East of Jordan became the emirates of Transjordan under Abdullah and the West of Jordan became the mandate of the Palestine (the Promised Land to the Jews)…
Bassiouni & Ben Ami, (2009). International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, Volume 29: A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897-2008. Martinus Nijhof: The Netherlands.
Harms G. & Todd M.F., (2008). Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (2nd Edition). Pluto Press: London.
Kattan, et.al., (2009). From Coexistence to Conquest: International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891-1949. Pluto Press.
Khatchadourian, (2000). Quest for Peace Between Israel and the Palestinians. Peter Lang Publishing: New York.
Both Palestine and Israel experienced serious losses as a result of the divergences between the two countries.
Chapter 13 focuses on a series of matters and particularly on media's influence on the world in regard to the Palestine-Israel conflict. The estern world stood indifferent as the two countries starting fighting for the territory and caused significant damage. In spite of the fact that society came to perceive Palestinians as terrorists as a result of their determination to recover their lost lands, their power grew in the recent years, most probably as a result of the fact that they developed a feeling of respect for their cause.
3. The Choirs of Kandahar is essentially a continuation of Chapter 2.
4. The Carpet-eavers begins with the United States' and Great Britain's successful overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. From there, it moves on to the events leading…
Fisk, Robert, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East
This makes it possible for the general public to comprehend that a community that seems to be strong can easily be divided by people's personal beliefs and by their backgrounds. It is very likely for individuals to express interest in detaching themselves from a group that they are associated with as a consequence of feeling that they do not actually belong to the respective community (Verdery, 232).
Jewish groups in Palestine considered that they were exposed to a series of threats as a result of the fact that they lived in mixed neighborhoods. They believe that they would be stronger if they had the opportunity to unite in a community that would no longer accept to be persecuted. Even with this, many Jews were hesitant about getting involved in a group that would act against Ottoman principles and feared that they would suffer if they adopted a nationalist attitude. The…
Baumgarten, Elias, "Zionism, Nationalism, and Morality," Retrieved December 19, 2011, from the Web Environment Website: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~elias/zionism.htm
Campos, Michelle U. "BETW EEN "BELOVED OTTOMANIA" AND
"THE LAND OF ISRAEL": THE STRUGGLE
OVER OTTOMANISM AND ZIONISM AMONG
This time Israel captured the Sinai peninsula and occupied some territories it had captured for some time (Jonah, 2002), including the Gaza Strip and the West Bank (anania, 2005). While Israel saw this as the rights of the victor, Arabs saw it as another land grab. Jewish settlements in these areas therefore became quite controversial. The Arabsl allied themselves once again in 1973, and once again, Israel defeated them. This made it clear that Palestinians would not regain what they viewed as their lands by force, even with the support of other Arab nations, and made negotiation a more important option for them (Ismael, 1999).
ATTEMPTS TO BRING PEACE
Meanwhile, Ahmad al-Shugayri became first chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, or PLO. his language was described as vitriolic (Jonah, 2002). Chairman Yasir Arafat, who followed, was seen as wearing Al-Shugayri's mantle, and it was decades before the PLO was recognized…
Hanania, Ray. 2005. "Peace plans work only if Palestinians get their land back." Daily Herald, Feb. 7.
Ismael, Tareq Y. 1999. "Globalization and the Arab World in Middle Est Politics: Regional Dynamics in Historical Perspective. Arab Studies Quarterly, June.
Jonah, James O.C. 2002. "The Middle East Conflict: The Palestinian Dimension. Global Governance, Vol. 8.
Conflicts are not regarded as the right way of solving disputes between nations or communities. As such, boundary conflicts have not been governing any chance to exist within the society. These conflicts reiterate the need for the United Nations to explore on the natural boundary existence between various nations (Tucker and Priscilla 152). Though boundary politics results in wars and conflicts, they are potent towards the existence and preservation of sovereignty between nations. Because of the recurrence of political boundary conflicts, many nations have resorted to signing treaties indicating a separation and boundaries relating to political movements.
There are a number of steps, which can be used to end political boundary wars in the world. Politics, being the higher agent of political boundary wars, should be subjected to scrutiny and study. This will help recover rightful ways of separating between politics and boundaries between nations and communities. Nations…
Fleishman, Rachel, Catherine Gerard, and Rosemary O'Leary. Pushing the Boundaries: New
Frontiers in Conflict Resolution and Collaboration. Bingley: JAI Press, 2008. Print.
Harvey, Brian P. An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues.
Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Print.
Cal Tech Engineering
The prospect of studying engineering is exciting to me because I have an unquenchable thirst to get to the bottom of things, and engineering provides the framework and tools to analyze and address the scientific issues that fascinate me. More importantly, it provides the ideal opportunity to apply my scientific and math-oriented skills in ways that will make a difference in the world.
For the last year, I have worked as a computer programmer in the IT branch of the Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem (ARIJ) contributing to the development of information technology in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Together with the rest of the programming team of the "GPS Palestine" program, I worked to develop a functional GPS system within the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The project began after the Israeli telecommunication companies launched an integrated GPS system functioning with various smart phones such as the iPhone 4.…
The Palestinians have never the Jewish version of history and desire to have all the land returned to them. This conflict is intractable and there is little hope of a resolution in the immediate future.
In applying Reinhold Niebuhr's Christian realism to the conflict summarized above it should be noted that Niebuhr was a Zionist who strongly supported the right of Israel to occupy the land and defend itself. His Christian realism combines there elements of realism, political realism, moral realism and theological realism (Moseley 23). Thus, the conflict must be understood firstly as a problem on sin in the lives of the inhabitants of the area. The groups involved will firstly need to understand their action as a product of a sinful experience (Inboden). They should be prepared to act in moral and right way toward their fellow men. The Jews should be prepared to live peacefully with the…
Hodges, Sam. "Niebuhr's 'Christian realism'." The Dallas Morning News Feb. 10, 2006. Web
Inboden, Will "Putting the 'Christian' back in 'Realism': A response to Steve Walt" Foreign
Policy December 21, 2009. Web
Moseley, Carys "Reinhold Niebuhr's Approach to the State of Israel: The Ethical Promise and Theological Limits of Christian Realism" Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations
Theological differences are the least important issue facing Jews and Muslims. The Palestinians rightfully believe that the British stole their homelands from them after the Second World War, and that both the United Kingdom and the Untied States unabashedly support Israel. The Israelis, on the other hand, point to the recurring incidences of terrorism that plague the country and prevent peace.
When both sides focus on the past instead of the future, the crisis will never disappear. Instead, political leaders need to focus on creating a multifaceted solution to the problem that most likely entails making Jerusalem an international zone. If a Palestinian state is created, it must be dedicated to the eradication of terrorism. Likewise, Israel must agree to cease treating Palestinians in Israel like second-class citizens and move toward a more egalitarian and free society.
Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and Zealots:
What was the problem(s) in first-century Palestine?
What or who was the cause of the problem?
What was the potential solution(s) to the problem?
How were they/did they participate in the solution?
If a Messiah was anticipated, what would/should be His priority?
In 1st Century Palestine, the people were divided; in fact the entire country was divided with no core of union. There was mongering and corruption. The people were divided internally, the Jews splintered into various sects of differing beliefs, and they were also divided externally with rebellion against insecure and corrupt rule. On an external level, the Jews too were occupied by the Romans and their various proctors and, therefore, reduced to foreign and interfering rule.
Three prominent groups represented the Homeland at this time: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and Zealots.
The Pharisees, strict in their observance of law (Luke 18:10-12)…
Abraham Path Initiative
The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time
One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…
Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business
School Working Paper. 10-049.
Chapter 10 of Jonathan . White's Terrorism and Homeland Security focuses exclusively on terrorism in Israel and Palestine. However, the author begins the chapter with the Six Day War to immediately discuss the rise of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Factionalism in Palestinian terrorism, the rise and function of Hezbollah and Hamas, Jewish fundamentalism, and the controversial counterterrorism policies in Israeli domestic and foreign policy comprise the bulk of this chapter. Especially given the paucity of space dedicated to this complex topic, White does a good job addressing both sides of the conflict and does so fairly, accurately, and with a minimum of bias.
One of the only faults with Chapter 10 is that the author does not have enough space with which to properly engage the reader in the multilayered complexity of the issue. The chapter begins as if in media res, with the 1967 war as…
Barhoum, K. (n.d.). The origin and history of the PLO. Trans-Arab Research Institute. 17 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://tari.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10:the-origin-and-history-of-the-plo&catid=1:fact-sheets&Itemid=10
"Hezbollah: History and Overview." Retrieved online: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/hizbollah.html
White, J.R. (2012). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Wadsworth Cengage.
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…
Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,
Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.
The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
The 11-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was formed. In the end, the majority of the members recommended that Palestine be divided into an Arab State and a Jewish State. Jerusalem would be awarded special international status.
On November 29th, 1947, the General Assembly adopted resolution 181 (III) the Plan of Partition with Economic Union, per the UNSCOP. This resolution included an attached four-part documented, which included the termination of the Mandate for Palestine, progressive withdrawal of ritish forces, and border creation between the Arab state, Jewish state and Jerusalem. The creation of Arab and Jewish states were to be done by October 1st, 1948. Palestine would be divided into eight parts. Three parts would be allocated to the Arab state; three would be allocated to the Jewish state. The seventh part would be the town of Jaffa, which would be an Arab enclave, within the Jewish state. The eight…
"The Balfour Declaration." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs . http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/the+Balfour+Declaration.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
BBC News (London), "Israel Confirms Settlement Growth," March 21, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4367787.stm (accessed November 22, 2010).
Berger, Robert. "Opposition Mounts to U.S. Plan for Israeli Settlement Freeze." Voice of America (Washington ), November 21, 2010. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/Opposition-Mounts-to-U.S.-Plan-for-Israeli-Settlement-Freeze-109692414.html (accessed November 22, 2010).
"Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." Mideast Web. www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…
Israel and the Arab WorldIntroductionThe history of modern Israel and the Arab world is a history of tension and violence that has gone on for decades. It is a history characterized by numerous wars, accusations of genocide, threats of annihilation, and bitter hostilities punctuated intermittently by peace agreements like the Camp David Accords, signed during the Carter Administration to ease tensions between Israel and Egypt. This paper will describe the history of Israel, the nature of the hostilities between Israel and the Arab World, and relations between the UAE and Israel.History of IsraelFollowing World War 1, England took control of Palestine, known then as the British Mandate. Prior to the war, the Ottoman Empire had controlled the realm. The Zionist Movement, seeking a home for the Jewish people, had sought protection from the Ottoman Empire, which promised nothing of the sort. The English Lord Balfour, in the famous Balfour Declaration…
ReferencesBaker, P., Kershner, I., Kirkpatrick, D. & Bergman, R. (2020). Israel and United Arab Emirates Strike Major Diplomatic Agreement. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/13/us/politics/trump-israel-united-arab-emirates-uae.html Balfour Declaration. (1917). Retrieved from https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/text-of-the-balfour-declaration Baroud, R. (2009). My Father Was a Freedom Fighter : Gaza\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Untold Story. Pluto Press.Congressional Research Service. (2019). US foreign aid to Israel. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20200115021105/https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf Gazit, M. (2000). The Genesis of the USIsraeli Military-Strategic Relationship and the Dimona Issue.Journal of Contemporary History,35(3), 413-422.Hoffman, B. (2011). The rationality of terrorism and other forms of political violence: lessons from the Jewish campaign in Palestine, 19391947.Small Wars & Insurgencies,22(02), 258-272.Hoffman, B. (2020). The bombing of The King David Hotel, July 1946.Small Wars & Insurgencies,31(3), 594-611.Hughes, G. A. (2014). Syria and the perils of proxy warfare.Small Wars & Insurgencies,25(3), 522-538.Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2013). 1947: The international community says YES to the establishment of the State of Israel. Retrieved from https://mfa.gov.il/Jubilee-years/Pages/1947-UN-General-Assembly-Resolution-181-The-international-community-says-Yes-to-the-establishment-of-the-State-of-Israel.aspx#:~:text=Neither%20saw%20fit%20to%20establish,from%20its%20inception%20until%20today .Khalidi, R. (2007). The Iron Cage the Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood / Rashid Khalidi. 1st ed. Boston: Beacon Press.Kurtulus, E. N. (2007). The Notion of a pre-emptive War: the Six Day War Revisited.The Middle East Journal,61(2), 220-238.Neubauer, S. (2017). Israel: A Strategic Partner for the UAE?.IndraStra Global, (11), 3.Popp, R. (2006). Stumbling decidedly into the six-day war.The Middle East Journal,60(2), 281-309.Salisbury, P. (2015). Yemen and the SaudiIranian Cold War.Research Paper, Middle East and North Africa Programme, Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 11.Ulrichsen, K. C. (2016). Israel and the Arab Gulf States: Drivers and Directions of Change. Retrieved from https://www.bakerinstitute.org/media/files/research_document/13eaaa71/CME-pub-GCCIsrael-090716.pdf Weinbaum, M. G. (1985). Egypt\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Infitah and the politics of US economic assistance.Middle Eastern Studies,21(2), 206-222.Yisraeli, D. (1971). The Third Reich and the Transfer Agreement.Journal of Contemporary History,6(2), 129-148.
Rather, it was more a question of magical thinking: Ben-Gurion wanted a place for ews and his desire was sufficiently strong that it blinded him to the nature of Palestinian self-definition and identity.
Another point that I will examine in greater detail later that would change Ben-Gurion's views towards Arab nationalism was that he could not, in the 1930s predict the extent of the Holocaust. The death of so many ews so quickly would rewrite the equation -- for Ben-Gurion as well as others -- of the relationship between ews and Arabs.
At the same time that Ben-Gurion was pushing to create an increasingly powerful economic base of ewish workers and employers, Lockman writes, he was at the same time denying the legitimacy of Palestinians claims to Arab nationalistic authority and strongly arguing that ews had a far stronger claim to the land. This is perhaps the best-known understanding of…
Judea Pearl. "Early Zionists and Arabs," in Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2008, p. 75.
Martin Gilbert. Israel: A History. London: Black Swan, 1998, p. 16.
Colin Shindler. A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 12.
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…
"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
It was after one of them bombed Cairo in July 1948, that the Israelis were able to establish air supremacy. Succeeding victories came in rapid succession on all three fronts. The Arab states all negotiated separate armistice agreements. Egypt was the first to sign in February 1949, followed by Lebanon, Transjordan and finally Syria. Iraq chose to withdraw its forces without signing an agreement. Israel significantly expanded its territory beyond the United Nations (UN) partition plan for Palestine at the expense of its Arab neighbors. The cost of victory was in more than 6,000 Israeli lives which represented approximately 1% of the population. After the peace agreement wartime recruits were rapidly dismissed. This made it difficult for the basic manpower problem of a small population faced with the need to mobilize a sizable army during a wartime emergency. After a study of the Swiss reservist system, Israel introduced a three-tiered…
"1948 Arab-Israeli War." 2007. 10 November 2009 <
Frum, David. 2009. "1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War." 10 November 2009
The Holocaust was just one in a long string of persecutions the Jews suffered. Pogroms against Jews were not uncommon in Europe. But the size, scope and horror of the Holocaust provided the impretus needed to act on the previously recognized need. Since Balfour, the western half of Palestine had seen a signifcant influx of Jewish immigrants despite the tough immigration policies of the British. They fled Germany and other parts of Europe during the rise of the Nazis; they fled Russia to avoid Stalin's many purges.
This dichotomy of outcomes - the displacement of Palestinians and the establishment of a sovereign Jewish state, explains why in Israel the 1948 ar is known as the ar of Indpendence but amongst the Palestinians is known as the Catastrophe. The fact that sixty years later the issue remains unresolved is one of the reasons why the establishment of the State of Israel…
No author. (2008). British Mandate Overview. PalestineFacts. Retrieved July 21, 2008 at http://palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_overview.php
No author. (2008) Question of Palestine. United Stations. Retrieved July 21, 2008 at http://www.un.org/depts/dpa/ngo/history.html
Flannery, Rev. Edward H. (1969). Foundations of the State of Israel. The Lamp. Retrieved July 21, 2008 at http://www.nclci.org/Articles/art-flan-foundation.htm
Grobman, Gary M. (1990). The Final Solution. Remember.org. Retrieved July 21, 2008 at http://remember.org/guide/Facts.root.final.html
Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip and Jordan took control of Israel's West Bank. In 1949 the Green Line was the name of the boundary between Israel and its Arab neighbors. However, the end of the war did not bring peace. he 1950s were marked by a series of skirmishes between Israel and various Arab countries, but none of these skirmishes resulted in significant boundary differences.
he next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. his was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However,…
The next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. This was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However, the next official act of war began on October 6, 1973, when Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. This attack exacerbated the existing religious tensions, because it was launched on the high holy day of Judaism, Yom Kippur. Israel managed to repel the Egyptian and Syrian forces, but suffered territorial losses. In the late 1970s, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and began negotiating its withdrawal from occupied Palestine. The withdrawal never occurred, and in 1982 Israel because involved in the Lebanese Civil War so that it could destroy Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) bases, which had been used to attack Israel. Israel's involvement transformed the Lebanese Civil War into the First Lebanon War. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon. In 1987, Palestinians again protested the Israeli occupation, with six years of violence in occupied territories that is now referred to as the First Intifada.
The 1990s brought hopes of peace to Israel. First, in 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords, giving Palestinians a limited right to self-government and formal recognition of the state of Israel. Israel later withdrew from Hebron, and gave even more autonomy to the Palestinian National Authority. In the early 2000s, Israel withdrew forces from southern Lebanon, unilaterally withdrew from the Gaza Strip, and began constructing the Israeli West Bank barrier. However, peace was short-lived. When two Arab groups, Hamas and Hezbollah, kidnapped Israeli soldiers, Israeli launched the Second Lebanon War, which lasted five weeks.
Israel currently is bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel continues to control the West-Bank, though its government is ostensibly Palestinian. Israel continues to occupy some Arab territories, including the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and Golan Heights. Golan Heights and East Jerusalem are treated as a future part of Israel, while the Arab territories, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, are part of the proposed future independent state of Palestine. The United Nations is currently attempting to work with Israel and the Arab nations to negotiate an Independent Palestine.
History Of Zionism
is the political movement that arose in Europe in the late 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. It asserted that the Jewish people were a separate nation and were entitled to have a country of their own and succeeded in its objective with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Since then, the Zionist movement has concentrated on strengthening Israel and encouraging Jews from around the world to migrate and settle in the Jewish state. This paper traces the history of Zionism from its origins to the present time.
Origins and ackground
Although the Zionist political movement started in the late 19th century, its roots lie as far back as 70 AD when Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended with the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The land of Israel was…
Cohen, Michael Joseph. "Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2002
Edelheit, Abfaham J. And H. Edelheit. "History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary."
Westview Press, 2000
Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 62 - Return to the Land of Israel." Aish.com. Jan 27, 2002
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Since after May 1948 the Arab-Israeli has dominated the Middle East because both sides feel that Israel/Palestine belongs to them, it influenced the Israel's government to use military force against them.. With that, four major Arab-Israeli wars and numerous sporadic battles have occurred since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Unfortunately, in today modern, these issues still have fueled many armed conflicts and suicide bombs between the two developing nations. However, at the time of the Six Day War, the issues with the Middle East countries influenced the Israel's government decision to fight with military force.
The breakup of the U.A.. And the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan iver to…
The 1967 Six-Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/67_War.html
Six Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.israeli-weapons.com/history/six_day_war/SixDayWar.html
There will always be terrorist organizations such as Hamas, it seems, but with the Palestinians and Israelis getting along diplomatically, it could lead to better relationships with other countries, as well, and it could lead to a much stronger unity between the countries in the Middle East. This should be a long-term goal of the peace process, to bring an end to tension throughout the entire region, so they can concentrate on other elements of society and government.
In conclusion, the oad Map for Peace in the Middle East still seems to be a long way from conclusion. Israel has stopped all construction in East Jerusalem, another are under contention in the peace process, and talks are still going on bi-weekly between the two parties (as of the end of February, at least). A lasting peace would bring a new decade of hope to the region, and a new peace…
Bush, George W. "Joint Understanding Read by President Bush at Annapolis Conference." WhiteHouse.gov. 2007. 9 June 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/11/print/20071127.html
Editors. "A Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict." 2002. UN.org. 9 June 2008. http://www.un.org/media/main/RoadMap122002.html
Migdalovitz, Carol. "Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference." 2007. U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/98093.pdf
Rice, Condoleezza. "Press Conference." U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2007/12/97945.htm
The UAE and IsraelIntroductionIsrael has been, for most of its existence, involved in some form of conflict with the Arab world. However, the Arab world itself is largely conflicted between the Sunni and Shia states. Israels recent pivot toward forming greater relations with the Sunni states has indicated an improvement in relations between Israel and at least part of the Arab world. Yet, making matters more complicated is the fact that Palestine remains largely Sunni, and Palestine has viewed the Sunni states relations with Israel as a betrayal of the Palestinian peoples fight for independence and autonomy. For that reason, Palestine has disapproved the new relations between Israel and the UAE. As a Sunni majority state, the UAE has long sided with the rest of the Sunni Arab world in support of Palestine (Soriano, 2014). But now that has changed to some extent. This paper will discuss why the UAE…
ReferencesAlshuwaiter, M. (2020). President Hadi and the future of legitimacy in Yemen. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/president-hadi-and-future-legitimacy-yemen Alterman, J. (2020). The Significance of the Israel-UAE Deal. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/analysis/significance-israel-uae-deal Arnone, M & Padoan, P. (2007). Anti-Money Laundering by International Institutions: A Preliminary Assessment. CIDEI Working paper No. 74Bahi, R. (2018). Qatar Crisis: A Genuine struggle for power. Retrieved from shorturl.at/xBT89Baker, P., Kershner, I., Kirkpatrick, D. & Bergman, R. (2020). Israel and United Arab Emirates Strike Major Diplomatic Agreement. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/13/us/politics/trump-israel-united-arab-emirates-uae.html BBC. (2017). Qatar crisis: What you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-40173757 Belenkaya, M. (2019). Why did UAE foreign minister go to Russia following his meeting with Pompeo? Retrieved from https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2019/06/russia-uae-us-iran-egypt-peace-plan.html Bowen, J. (2020). Five reasons why Israel\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s peace deals with the UAE and Bahrain matter. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-54151712 Khakhar, P., & Rammal, H. G. (2013). Culture and business networks: International business negotiations with Arab managers.International Business Review,22(3), 578-590.Neuman, S. (2021). Intelligence Chiefs Say China, Russia Are Biggest Threats To U.S. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2021/04/14/987132385/intelligence-chiefs-say-china-russia-are-biggest-threats-to-u-s Ramani, S. (2020). Russian and Chinese views on the Israel-UAE normalization deal. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/russian-and-chinese-views-israel-uae-normalization-deal Reuters Staff. (2020). Israel, U.S. near deal to exclude China from Israeli 5G networks: U.S. official. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-israel-usa-5g-china/israel-u-s-near-deal-to-exclude-china-from-israeli-5g-networks-u-s-official-idUSKCN25A2CF Scollon, M. (2015). Who has a stake in Yemen fight? Retrieved from https://www.rferl.org/a/who-has-a-stake-in-yemen-fight/26925287.html Sly, L. (2018). Princely feuds in the Persian Gulf thwart Trumps efforts to resolve the Qatar dispute. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/princely-feuds-in-the-persian-gulf-thwart-trumps-efforts-to-resolve-the-qatar-dispute/2018/05/13/7853cc88-39cf-11e8-af3c-2123715f78df_story.html?utm_term=.ebe5fd3adafa Soriano, M. A. (2014). United Arab Emirates & Mexico: Do\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s and dont\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s in negotiation strategies,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" A Mexican perspective\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\".The Business & Management Review,5(1), 378.Tasmin News. (2020). Envoy: Iran-Russia Military Cooperation to Enter New Level. Retrieved from https://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2020/08/22/2333123/envoy-iran-russia-military-cooperation-to-enter-new-level Weir, D. T. H. (2003). Management development and leadership in the Middle East: An alternative paradigm. Leadership in the Management Theory at Work Series Conference, JuneWilson Center. (2020). Russia in the Middle East: National Security Challenges for the United States and Israel in the Biden Era. Retrieved from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/report-russia-middle-east-national-security-challenges-united-states-and-israel-biden Zhenqing, H. (2019). Turkey or generals aid Libya, the dispute over the delimitation of the Eastern Mediterranean has become a regional hot spot. Retrieved from https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_5252577 Zhongming, L. (2020). Professor Liu Zhongmin was interviewed by Shangguan News on the normalization of relations between Israel and the UAE. Retrieved from http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/06/8e/c3991a132750/page.htm
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
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ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010).
-- . BLAMING the VICTIM: THE TUTH ABOUT PALESTINIAN ANTI-SEMITISM. 09-28, 2010. http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/45397 (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
At present, the conflict continues. In September 2011, Palestinian officials petitioned the United Nations in a unilateral bid for statehood. However, their efforts failed as they were summarily unsuccessfully in securing the nine votes needed in the 15 member Security Council to garner approval (Haaretz, 2011). Moreover, the United States has already indicated a veto of the proposal once it is made. In addition, Britain made it known that they would abstain from the decision according to UK Foreign Secretary William Hague. The dissent posited by President Obama and the UK's Foreign Secretary is reportedly reflected of the sentimentality of many world leaders who maintain sensibilities regarding Netanyahu and the fluctuating position of the Israeli government on the international stage.
However, although unsuccessful in September, the Palestinian Authority was granted full membership at the cultural agency of the United Nations', and are seeking membership of the World Health…
Dershowitz, Alan. The case for peace: How the Arab-Israeli conflict can be resolved. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
Gudrun, Kramer. A history of Palestine: from the Ottoman conquest to the founding of the State of Israel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
"Haaretz." Haaretz. September 15, 2011. (accessed November 1, 2011).
esolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
This is a proposal argument for resolution of the Israel-Palestine problem. It uses 5 sources in MLA format.
As violence escalates in the Palestine, the intractable problem becomes even more intractable. Intense fighting between Israelis and Palestinians, the most intense inside the borders of the former Palestine since Israel's creation in 1948 are claiming a daily toll in double digits. Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's increasingly tough tactics are exacerbating the conflict. A war of attrition is going on that has the potential to escalate into an all out region al war.
Apart from the human tragedy, serious danger to peace and stability in the region is developing from this continued conflict. Any escalation would seriously jeopardize the American 'war against terrorism' both by focusing world attention on the Middle East and giving the anti-American forces and the 'terrorists' fresh justification for targeting American interest…
Author Not Available: "Watching the War." The Washington Post. March 7, 2002; Page A20.
Ratnesar, Romesh: "Season of revenge: Inside story of how Israel imprisoned Arafat and why the rage keeps burning." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 16-27.
Luttwak, Edward: "Worst Case Scenario." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 28-29.
The Economist: "Too Bloody to Ignore." March 16th, 2002.
Arab-Israeli region is one in which water is a critical problem, and being able to get access to clean, safe water on a regular basis is one element of the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict. While there may be serious, conflicting views on political and religious issues, along with many other aspects of the way people in the various areas live their lives, it is no secret that they all have to work together if everyone is going to have enough water to enjoy. A report in 2010 indicated that there were a number of challenges with ensuring that everyone in the region received enough clean water for drinking, irrigation, and other needs (Schneider, 2012). In order to attempt to combat that, Israel, Jordan, and Palestine all have water departments who are looking into working with one another. Without that level of cooperation, there will be numerous people in those areas without…
Schneider, V. (2012). Regional water data banks -- Overview of Middle East water resources. USGS International Programs. Retrieved from http://international.usgs.gov/projects/pawc-overview.htm
The map of the Middle East was completely redrawn as a result of WW1, reflected especially in the case of Turkey, Iraq and Palestine. The Ottoman Turks had ruled the realm prior to WW1 and had an alliance with Germany. The English, always wary of a strong state on the continent making inroads in the Middle East, sought to undermine both German and Ottoman power, and thus allied with the House of Saud, which it supported against the Ottoman Empire. When war broke out, the destruction of the Ottoman Empire was a main objective for England and it achieved that goal. At the same time, the English were indebted to the Zionist Jews who sought a restoration of Israel (Palestine) as a state of their own. Thus, the Balfour Declaration, issued during WW1, promised Israel to the Jews—and as the English now controlled the territory in the wake of the…
Anderson, L. (2018). The state and its competitors. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 50(2), 317-322.
Clark, J. (n.d.). Actors, public opinion, and participation.
Gaiser, A. R. (2017). A narrative identity approach to Islamic Sectarianism.
Johnson, N., & Koyama, M. (2019). The State, Toleration, and Religious Freedom. In Advances in the Economics of Religion (pp. 377-403). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Lust, E. (2018). Layered Authority and Social Institutions: Reconsidering State-Centric Theory and Development Policy. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 50(2), 333.
Much like the announced plans by President-elect Barack Obama to launch the most massive public works program since orld ar II by investing in the nation's highways and bridges, the same approach was used by the newly installed Israeli government to stimulate the economy. This approach, though, was considered a comprise approach since there were vastly differing views on what issues should be made priorities following the Oslo Peace Accords (Alterman 141). According to this author, "The shift of priorities was visible on the ground within a year or two: major highways and interchanges, long-neglected by the Likud governments, were upgraded. Environmental projects received public funds. Even the long-neglected rail system received a boost, which though modest was nevertheless its largest since pre-State British Mandate times" (Alterman 141). Despite this shift in priorities over the years, Israeli expansion and Palestinian statehood remain at the forefront of the ongoing and convoluted…
Alterman, Rachelle. Planning in the Face of Crisis: Land Use, Housing and Mass Immigration in Israel. London: Routledge, 2002.
Bird, Eugene. (1998, March). "With Oslo Accords in Shambles, a President Who Let it Happen Feels Shackled by Both Old and New Mistakes." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Special Report 15-16.
Details of the Oslo Peace Accords. (2008). Palestine Facts. [Online]. Available: http://Palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_oslo_accords.php.
Dunsky, Marda. (2001). "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly, 23(3), 1.
Many times Israel's leader has agreed to specific peace negotiations with the United States and with Palestine, only to turn right around and do the exact opposite of what he said he would do. There has been no peace made, because Israel will not compromise. It will not back down to any degree and let Palestine have anything, and it intends to make the country into a wasteland if it does not submit. The numbers that it provides regarding killing and such are also not found to be accurate.
The article addressed here looked at the numbers, and there have been many, many more Palestinians killed by Israelis than the other way around. The bombings and the rocket attacks have not ceased. Israel insists that it is doing this because of Palestinian rocket attacks, but none of these started at all until Israel started bombings and border closings and other…
Victims Become the Aggressors
The process of dehumanization is one that is repeated quite often in literature. Unfortunately, if we look at the history of mankind, we find that it is part of human behavior that regularly appears -- typically as some type of process in which one group asserts their superiority, whether moral, racial, physical, or all -- over another group. This paradigm of dehumanization occurs in covert and over ways, may be focused on a group of people (religious or ethnic minority) or against behaviors that are considered anti-societal (the disabled, homeless, etc.). Looking at history, one can find numerous examples of this sort of behavior -- the "other" taken to the extreme so that individuals are identified as being inferior, incapable of actualization, or barbaric. Sometimes this is an excuse for colonialism, sometimes for war, sometimes simply to subjugate people for organizational or state interests (Keen).
Biale, D. Power & Powerlessness in Jewish History. New York: Schocken Books, 1986.
Chomsky, N. Middle East Illusions. New York: Rowman and Littlefeld, 2003.
Covarrubias, J. And T. Lannsford, Strategic Interests in the Middle East. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007.
Halwani, R. And T. Kapitan. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Essays on Self-Determination, Terrorism and the One-State Solution. New York: Palgrave MacMaillan, 2008.
And this event came in the form of the tragic incident of first intifada on December 9, 1987.
Aruri, Occupation; Janet Abu-ughod. "The Demographic Transformation of Palestine," in Ibrahim Abu-ughod, ed., The Transformation of Palestine (Evanston, III.: Northwestern University Press, 1987).
Rodinson, Israel; Farsoun, "Settler Colonialism." See also Elia Zureik, The Palestinians in Israel: A Study in Internal Colonialism (ondon: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979).
J. Abu-ughod, "The Demographic Transformation."
Aruri, Occupation; I. Abu-ughod, George T. Abed, ed., The Palestinian Economy (ondon: Routledge Champan & Hall, 1988).
ea Tsemel, "Personal Status and Rights," in Aruri, Occupation, p. 64.
Aruri, "Dialectics of Dispossession," pp. 16-19.
Meron Benvenisti, 1987 Report: Demographic, Economic, egal, Social and Political Developments in the West Bank (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987), p. 40.
Muhammad Hallaj, "Israel's Palestinian Policy," in I. Abu-ughod, ed. Palestinian Rights, pp. 95-106;
Jan Abu-Shakrah, "The Iron Fist, October 1985 to January 1986," Journal…
Laurence Harris, "Money and Finance with Undeveloped Banking in the Occupied Territories," in Abed, Palestinian Economy, p. 191.
Joost Hiltermann, "The Dynamics of Mass Mobilization and the Uprising: The Case of the Labor Movement," paper presented at "The Palestinians: New Directions," Fourteenth Annual Symposium, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, May 4-5, 1989.P. 5
Hallaj, "Israel's Palestinian Policy," p. 99.
There is much to the assertion by Nachman Syrkin that the Jews have persisted in history because the performed a socio-economic function that other peoples did not want to do or could not do. In his 1898 "The Jewish Problem and the Socialist Jewish State, " Syrkin lays out these ideas. Regarding this, Syrkin argued that a classless society and national sovereignty were the only means of solving the Jewish question completely. He felt that this social revolution would be the key to the normalization of the Jewish condition. ith this in mind, he argued that the Jew must therefore join the proletariat as the only way to end class struggle and redistribute power justly. Since the bourgeoisie betrayed the principles of liberalism, then Jews must be the torchbearers of Socialism.
hile Syrkin is many times seen as working on his own, however he had predecessors and contemporaries who had…
Borochov, Ber. "The national question and the class struggle." 1997. In the Zionist idea.
Edited by Arthur Hertzberg, 355-360. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
Hess, Moses. "Rome and Jerusalem." 1997. In the Zionist idea. Edited by Arthur
Hertzberg, 120-139. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
This is significant, because it would give the U.S. A way of being able to maintain this kind of balance of power in the region. As the trade embargos / economic sanctions against Iran and Iraq would serve as an example of inappropriate behavior. This is because they were being punished, for different activities that were in violation of international law such as: the support of terrorism or the ability of either government to seek out weapons of mass destruction. The Oslo Accords were a way of being able to maintain this balance, by helping to support a strong ally and addressing the issues being faced by their adversaries. Where, this would undermine the position of hostile regimes; while strengthening the support for the U.S., by providing a frame work for dealing with the Israeli / Palestinian issue. (Massoulile 152 -- 155)
When you put these different elements together, this…
Deeb, Dennis. "Brief Overview of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict." The Collapse of Middle East Peace. Lincoln, NE: I Universe, 2003. 1 -- 7. Print.
Freedman, Robert. "The Arab Israeli Conflict." The Middle East and the Peace Process. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1998. 348 -- 352. Print.
Lochery, Neill. "Security Arrangement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip." The Difficult Road to Peace. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1999. 41 -- 60. Print.
Massoulile, Francois. "What is the Future of the Middle East." Middle East Conflicts. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Publishing, 2003, 152-155. Print.
Arabic literature thrived from the 4th to 7th century which mostly involved poetry about love, fighting and courage. ith the arrival of Islam, literature lost its value and the Quran (Noble Book of the Muslims) became the focus of all study. Arabic poetry underwent a period of decline from which it arose during the reign of the Umayyads. Many works were translated in Arabic during the reign of the Abbasids between 750-1258. In the 8th and 9th century, various subjects such as philosophy, mathematics, law, history and science were written about. During the 19th century, printing in Arabic started. The centers of Arabic printing were Cairo, Beirut and Damascus. Arab writers tried to express their opinions about themselves and their position in the modern world. Interest in modern Arabic literature arose after 1988 when the Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz won the Nobel Prize in Literature ("Arabic Literature").
During the 19th…
Abdul Sattar, Sufiyan. Mystical Arabic Poetry: Concept and depiction of love and its significance from others.. Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, n.d. E-book.
El-Enany, Rasheed. Naguib Mahfouz. London: Routledge, 1993. Print.
"Arabic literature." Infoplease.com, 2013. Web. 11 Dec 2013. .
Al-Madhoon, Raeem. "Ghassan Kanafani: The Symbol of the Palestinian Tragedy." Jadaliyya.com, 2012. Web. 11 Dec 2013. .
Negotiations here went on for thirteen days non-stop which "apparently would have failed without the mediation of Carter and his advisers." 15
On eptember 17, 1979, adat and Begin came to an agreement which is now known as the Camp David Accords in which the two adversaries agreed to a number of conditions, such as "establishing an elected, self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza," the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the West Bank and Gaza "except for specified security locations," and having all negotiations based upon the U.N. ecurity Council Resolution 242. 16 This agreement between Egypt and Israel effectively put an end to the hostilities between the two nations and brought about a lasting peace, one which has held to this day. However, after the peace treaty at Camp David, the focus of the Arab-Israeli conflict shifted to Israel's northern borders with Lebanon.
In April of 1981,…
Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. New York:
Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2004.
Silberstein, Laurence J., ed. New Perspectives on Israeli History: The Early Years of the State. NY: New York University Press, 1991.
States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…
Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."
Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los
Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.
Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
Balfour Declaration of 1917 impacts and endangers the Palestinian-Israel conflict. he author takes the reader on an exploratory look at the declaration as well ass current problems that declaration is creating. here were two sources used to complete this paper.
HE CONFLIC CONINUES
he history behind the Israel -- Palestinian conflict is long and complicated however there are several things that become more obvious as time goes on. One of the problems in the conflict that cannot be denied is the impact that the Balfour Declaration has on the situation today. In Daniel R. Brower's, he World in the wentieth Century From Empires to Nations Fifth Edition the detailed examination of the conflict makes the reader understand how the Balfour Declaration virtually ties the hands of the Palestinian participants with no obvious compromise or solution.
Brower presents an overview of the declaration and its purpose, doing so in the context…
The document has divided the camps in a way that does not seem to have solutions. Each side believes that the declaration gives Jews a permanent homeland in Palestine however they disagree on whether that right is automatic or a right that is to be held and bestowed upon the Jews by the Arabs. The conflict runs even deeper than the basic meaning behind the declaration. The belief of the Arabs that the declaration gives them permission to allow or not allow the Jews their homeland, sets the stage for a feeling of superiority and prejudice. The Arabs believe the declaration was written in language that encourages and allows such superiority. The Jews insist the declaration was to protect them for the future and allow them their Homeland without conflict of the threat of its dismantling. British officials could interpret the declaration today but even then each side can claim that the interpretation was misguided and the true intent of the authors was missed. While there does not seem to be any short-term solution to this conflict the world has learned a valuable lesson about writing its wishes in clear and undeniable language in the future.
Brower, Daniel. The World in the Twentieth Century: From Empires to Nations fifth edition. (Prentiss Hall, 1998).