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Traditional Depiction of Mexican Women

Words: 5292 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10694878

Tese women endured extreme ardsips in order to fulfill teir roles. Tey often ad to live in almost starvation level circumstances, since most of te food ad to be given to te battle ready individuals. Often tey would toil for ours to find food, dig roots, and oter metods to see te fruits of teir labor be provided te figting men. Tey endured te malnutrition as well as miserable living conditions in order to provide sustenance for te group. Many times tey even endured cildbearing under inospitable surroundings (Soto, 44). As nurses, tey ealed te wounded and endured te contamination of dangerous diseases as well as nursed back to ealt many of te fallen men during te Revolution. Many of tem suffered severe infections and diseases as a result of contact wit te sick, many primary records reveal tat anywere from ten to twenty percent of te soldaderas contracted serious…… [Read More] [Online] 1996.

Tuck, Jim. Poncho Villa and John Reed: Two Faces of Romantic Revolution. Tucson, Arizona. The University of Arizona Press, 1984.

Resendez-Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History. 1995. 52(4): 525-553.
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Forgotten Yet Essential Soladaras in

Words: 3477 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31593768

However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.

On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…… [Read More]


Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.

Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.

King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas"  (Accessed May 3, 2010)

Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
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Leadership How Battles Are Won

Words: 2883 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57626554

He explained that it was not popularity and looking good to others that should constitute success. It was what one struggled over and kept him thinking all night. He specifically spoke about President Truman's difficult decision to use nuclear weapons and his own military decision to risk lives (Roberts). According to him, the first rule about leadership is to take charge when in command (Saint 2001). The second rule is to always do what is right. He said that the challenge of leadership is to inspire others or followers to perform what they normally would not do. He described great leaders are "ordinary people in extraordinary times." According to him, great leaders are in history books because they responded adequately to the demand of extra ordinary times. He also said that leaders must take the time to train future leaders coming up through the ranks (Saint).

Schwarzkopf's adept leadership in…… [Read More]


Blumenson, M. (2004). Patton legend. 6 pages. Army: Association of the United States Army

Campbell, a (2007). Biography of General George S. Patton, Jr. 5 pages. Cape May County Herald. Retrieved on May 26, 2008 at;

Carter, J.C. And Finer, M.S. (2004). A survey of leadership. 8 pages. Infantry Magazine: U.S. Army Infantry School

Fisher, K. And M. (2000). H. Normal Schwarzkopf. 4 pages. CarpeNoctem. Retrieved on May 27, 2008 at
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Porofino Diaz Porfirio Diaz Began as an

Words: 2315 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23749102

Porofino Diaz

Porfirio Diaz "began as an activist against reaction and privilege and ended as a longtime dictator and staunch defender of the very forces he had once opposed," (Tuck). Indeed, Porfirio's life is characterized by a series of ironies. Porfirio was a Mestizo. His mother was a Native woman and his father was a working class Criollo (Mexican-born Spaniard). Some sources trace the Diaz family on both sides to Mestizo, "descended from both Mixtec Indians and Spaniards," (Mabry). In any case, Porfirio Diaz's father Jose de la Cruz Diaz died when Porfirio was three years old. Porfirio was one of eight children. Although Porfirio was "born into extreme poverty and never even reached complete literacy," and although the "early years of his life were filled with economic hardship and tragedy, the man would become one of the enemies of Mexico's poor (Minster n.d.; "Porfirio Diaz - from Military Hero…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mabry, Donald J. "Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915)" Retrieved online: 

Minster, Christopher. "Biography of Porfirio Diaz." Retrieved online: 

"Porfirio Diaz" NNDB. Retrieved online: 

"Porfirio Diaz - from Military Hero to Dictator." MexOnline. Retrieved online:
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Role of Deviance in Societies

Words: 2460 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2456834

Role of Deviance in Societies

Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).

Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance." ; hl=en

Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."

High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
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Looking Into Mexico From Early Recorded Time With Influence From Outside the Country

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18512938

Lesson Plan

Presentation Lesson Plan on "Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country"

"Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country"

Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country (from 16th century till 1940 and beyond)

Before troops from the Spanish Empire set foot on Mexican soil in 1519, indigenous Indian groups that had different trade and social systems occupied majority of the lands that now form Mexico. In general, relatively small indigenous tribes that were largely involved in the hunting and gathering of food occupied the northern arid parts of the country. These tribes, were called Chichimecs, collectively, even though they were different in several cultural and linguistic aspects. By 1100, much of the central and southern parts of the country was occupied by the Toltecs. The Toltecs had their capital at Tula and were also known for their…… [Read More]


Cary, Diana Serra. "Mexican War of Independence: Father Miguel Hidalgo's Revolt." Military hisyory. HistoryNet, October 12, 2000. Accessed June 8, 2016. .

"History of Mexico - Mexico." Accessed June 8, 2016. /topics/mexico/history-of-mexico.

"Mexico, A Brief History." Http:// Last modified 2007. Accessed June 8, 2016.

Palfrey, Dale. H. "The Spanish Conquest (1519-1521)?: Mexico History." Mexconnect. Last modified August 29, 2007. Accessed June 8, 2016. .
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The Underdogs by Mariano Azuela

Words: 1229 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43228830

Mariano Azuela

The Mexican Revolution has always been debated upon by historians, some labeling it as a "fiesta de balas" -- a party of bullets, with minimal political aims or ideologies. Others have not disregarded the revolution and noted that although most of the conflicts were centered in the provinces of the Mexican countryside, the revolutions' leaders were politically driven and adopted clear political ideologies. How does the novel The Underdogs treat this issue? Which side does it take?

The historiographical reality of the Mexican revolution of 1910[footnoteRef:1] has been deeply fashioned by novelists like Mariano Azuela. It was novels like the "Underdogs"[footnoteRef:2] that captured the essence of the revolution. The commotion that followed the fall of Porfirio Diaz, defined the Mexican nation in a new light, and although this was not the first time the oppressed Latin American masses rose against the ruling elite, it would definitely be the…… [Read More]

Bibliography APA

Azuela, M. (2008). The underdogs: A novel of the Mexican revolution. United Kingdom: Penguin Publishers.

Robe, S. L. (1979). Azuela and the Mexican underdogs (Vol. 48). Univ of California Press.
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Canadian Politics Why Should I

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67234984

God is wherever humans are, which can lead to the belief that where the human soul or heart is, then God will be there too. Heaven is the City of God, according to St. Augustine, but we can have access to God here on Earth through his Son, Jesus Christ. One must be meek and be thankful for Christ's sacrifice if God is to live within them and if they are to go on to the City of God after their death.

4. Don't let it end like this. Tell them I said something.

Descartes said, "I think, therefore I am." If one is no longer thinking, it means that they are no longer here. Man has always been and forever will be afraid of not being anymore, afraid of not being able to think and exist and he once was able. Pancho Villa said, "Don't let it end like…… [Read More]

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William J Donovan and the

Words: 4625 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15468295

Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Us. (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. [Online]. Available: .

Donovan, William J. Preface to the Ultimate Weapon, Oleg Anisimov, Chicago: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1953.

Ford, Corey. Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.

Heidekinq, Jurgen, Christof Mauch and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
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Owl Creek Bridge - Bierce

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94354626

Peyton Farquhar is not a soldier, but a wealthy plantation owner who was attracted to the possibility of dignifying himself by being of service to the South during the civil war. Tricked by a federal scout into trying to do something heroic for the South, he is about to hang from the bridge that he intended to burn. Bierce describes Farquhar's experience as one of extreme agony, followed by hope of survival. Farquhar feels devastating pain, but finds himself in the river, escaping from the soldiers with his senses "preternaturally keen and alert. Something in the awful disturbance of his organic system had so exalted and refined them that they made record of things never before perceived"(Hopkins/Bierce 309.)

This is the first clue that something is amiss, and that Farquhar is not in the world of physical reality.

Bierce's imagination of the confusion, pain and altered state that accompanies a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hopkins, Ernest J. Ed. Complete Short Stories of Ambrose Bierce.University of Nebraska Press/Doubleday: Lincoln, NE: 1970.

Korb, Rena "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge: The Portrayal of a Character's Inner Psychology

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia, "Ambrose Bierce" 2006© 1997-2006 Microsoft Corporation.

Singletary, Stacey Ann, University of No Carolina at Pembroke.
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Buffalo Soldiers Were Part of

Words: 930 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 57877442

Lyrics Freaks, (2010). Bob Marley Buffalo Soldier Lyrics. hp://

Is lyrics o he song Buffalo Soldier by Bob Marley. In he song are embedded hisorical innuendoes and he conribuions ha were made by he Buffalo Soldiers. Therein indicaed is he fac ha wihou he Bufallo Soldiers, i would be impossible o win he American wars a ha ime. The song ries o indicae he harsh condiions from which he African-Americans were aken from and subjeced o only o emerge as he vicorious soldiers, indeed, he says hey were solen from Africa. This is an example of how ar relieves he hisorical facs and recognizes he significan conribuions of he heroes in hisory. The song also indicaes ha despie he significan conribuions ha he Buffalo Soldiers made, people sill forge heir hisory and have o ask "who he 'eck do I hink I am," an indicaion of he ignorance ha he…… [Read More]

to Guarding the Frontier. 

The national Park Service sets out to give a brief history of the Buffalo Soldiers and some other details that have been covered above. Of significance is the fact that it portrays a plan to preserve the remaining history about the Buffalo Soldiers and decries the ignorance apportioned to the worthwhile history. There is a dedication of the Museum of Westward portion to the history of the Buffalo Soldiers history as noted in the website.

Being that the topic is of historical nature, the method used in this research is literature based, one that tries to collect the maximum number of literature available from organizational website, museum websites, historical websites and the contributions by significant historians. The data collection was more of a qualitative data collection than quantitative. It was found that there are invaluable information on these websites that can help in the deeper understanding of the Buffalo Soldiers and the history that surrounds them.
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National Guard and the National

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 26647100

Pershing had G-1 dealing with personnel; G-2 dealt with intelligence; G-3 deals with operations and training; G-4 was the supply division; and G-5 was focused on "strategic planning" (Madloff, 66).

Meanwhile, the Congressional Digest (the official federal publication that explains legislation) in 1934 provided some basic details on the Act of 1920. Beyond what has already been described vis-a-vis the 1920 Act, the Congressional Digest explains that the Act fixed the number of members of the Army at 15,034 combat officers, 280,000 enlisted men, in addition to the number of officers (17,726) alluded to earlier in this paper. There was also flexibility built into the military, in that the size of the army could "be varied depending on the changing importance of the branches in the scheme of defense" (Congressional Digest, 1934).

In conclusion, the Army National Guard has been very active in protecting Americans at home and abroad. At…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Army National Guard. 2011. Always Ready, Always There. Retrieved November 19, 2011,


Congressional Digest. 1934. Provisions of the National Defense Act. Vol. 13, Issue 4. Retrieved

November 18, 2011, from EBSCOhost.
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Twilight and the Day of the Locust

Words: 1745 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68399524

Twilight and the Day of the Locust

hat is most interesting about the juxtaposition of Nathanael est's The Day of the Locust and Anna Deavere Smith's Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992, is that each is a mirror of the other, and a mirror of what it pretends to be. If that seems convoluted, consider this: est has written fiction that nonetheless plumbs the depths of individual souls, souls that could be taken as representative of all souls. Smith has written 'true accounts' (as true as things remembered can be at some distance from the events themselves) that nonetheless fail to illumine deeply any facet of human emotion. That is to say, they are facile. Her interview with an old Hispanic who hates 'gringos' is too trite to be illuminating. Nor is the book filled with much that is.

The Day of the Locust and Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992, are nominally both…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Smith, Anna Deavere. Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992. New York: Anchor Books, 1994, 320 pp.

West, Nathanael. The Day of the Locust. New York: Signet Classics, 1983, 208 pp.
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Time Period Mexico

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61234058

evolutionary history of Mexico [...] revolutionary period/era in Mexican social development and describe the atmosphere of the period. The Mexican evolution was a period of great upheaval in the society and government of Mexico. It was an attempt to equalize class and social status and bring modernization to the country. However, ultimately the evolution failed, because Mexico remained as divided as ever after the evolution -- partly because the evolutionaries themselves could not work together and agree on just what reforms they wanted and needed. Most Mexicans still see the Mexican evolution as an almost "holy" occurrence in the country. That is why they usually capitalize the word when referring to the evolution. It did bring some reforms to the country, but not nearly enough.

The Mexican evolution began in 1910 with the initial idea of overthrowing President/dictator Porfirio Diaz. The poor people of Mexico resented the upper classes and…… [Read More]


Macewan, A. (1991, November). Banishing the Mexican revolution. Monthly review, 43, 16+.

Miller, Robert Ryal. Mexico: A history. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

Werner, M.S. (Ed.). (1997). Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, society & culture (Vol. 2). Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
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Great War World War One Ultimately Killed

Words: 981 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5878712

Great ar

orld ar One ultimately killed 35 million people -- this alone might have merited its being called "The Great ar," although to a large degree it was the astonishing way in which the deaths happened. On the first day of the Battle of the Somme alone, Britain suffered almost sixty thousand casualties. The ten-month stalemate of the Battle of Verdun resulted in seven hundred thousand (700,000) dead, with no discernible tactical advance made by either side (Tuchman 174). The immediate causes of orld ar One were complicated but fairly straightforward. Many of the long-standing political institutions of Europe were badly outmoded, in particular two of the oldest: the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Each of these institutions were the inheritors of previous large-scale imperial institutions (the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire accordingly) which dated back nearly a thousand years -- and each was failing badly.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Karp, Walter. The Politics of War: The Story of Two Wars Which Altered Forever the Political Life of the American Republic. New York: Franklin Square Press, 2010. Print.

Tuchman, Barbara. The Guns of August. New York: Ballantine, 1962. Print.
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George S Patton and His Contribution to WW2

Words: 1365 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63451669

General George Smith Patton and His Contribution in World War II

General George Smith Patton (1885 -- 1945)

George S. Patton, an American general in World War II, was born in California in 1885. He was graduated in 1909, from American Military Academy, and was recognized for his contradictory characteristics. He was well-known as a polo player, horseman, a poet and also a competent sailor. In addition, he was an introvert and famous for his unpredictable actions.

He participated in the U.S. 1912 Olympic pentathlon team and created the U.S. Cavalry's last combat sever in 1913 due to which it was named as "Patton Saber." He was also the first one to do the U.S. motorized vehicle attack at the Mexican order. He was also given the responsibility of doing action with the new United States Tank Corps in World War I[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Wilson, Dale. The American Expeditionary Forces Tank…… [Read More]


Blumenson Martin. "General George Smith Patton," The Patton papers 1940 -- 1945, Da Capo Press.

(1996) .p.542.

Pipkin Bernad, Trent D, Hazlett Richard and Bierman Paul . "Geology and the Environment"(5th ed.).

Belmont, California, USA: Thomson Brooks. (2008). p. 172 -- 173.
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General George S Patton Jr

Words: 2065 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93135255

Military Leadership Merits of General George S. Patton, Jr.

One aspect of cultural development which seems to be universal throughout the course of humanity's history is the innate desire of society to lionize the accomplishments of triumphant military leaders. Perhaps owing to a subconscious desire for the implicit protection provided by effectual wartime figures, nearly every civilization from the ancient Greeks to contemporary suburban Americans has placed its generals, admirals, and other military authorities on a proverbial pedestal, lauding their preternatural ability to motivate men during the heat of battle while achieving strategic victories. Among this nation's long lineage of military leaders -- which begins with George Washington's revolutionary heroics and includes famed generals like Andrew Jackson and William Tecumseh Sherman -- one of the most competent and accomplished figures to ever lead American troops on the field of battle was also considered to be among the most controversial. General…… [Read More]


Atkinson, R. (2007). The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943 -- 1944 (The Liberation

Trilogy). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Axelrod, A. (2006). Patton: A Biography. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Blumenson, M. (1974). The Patton Papers 1885-1940. Vol. I.
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What Led to the US Entry to World War 1

Words: 1876 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10732355

United States entry into world war.

Taking nations from more than half the globe as partakers and victims, the first war broke out, 1914-1918, and that is known as World War 1 or the First World War. Until the World War II broke out, it was widely known as the war which had broken out which had the capacity to put an end to all wars, and commonly it was known as The Great War. In fact multiple factors produced the First World War. An International anarchy was seen all over Europe. On the eve of the World War I there were 25 sovereign states in Europe, each desiring to act on its own individual conscience. None of them was ready to submit to the interference or will of the other, as each of them held its pride high, thinking if they accepted the advice of any other state, their…… [Read More]


Bass, Herbert J., "America's Entry Into World War I." Chicago; Holt, Rinehart And Winston, 1964, p.14-17

Andrea, Alfred J., and Overfield, James H., "The Human Record." Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994, p.63-66

Pope, Stephen, and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, "The Dictionary of The First World War" New York; St. Marten's Press, 1995, p.24-27

Venzon, Anne Cipriano, "The United States in the First World War" New York; Garland Publishing, Inc., 1995, p.56-59
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Defense Authorization Act of 1916

Words: 4387 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39128135

The National Guard, as anticipated by the Constitution's framers, was now a military reserve ready to serve the national interest. The National Guard, while getting large amounts of federal funds and growing in size, continued to struggle to find its true role in military operations and readiness. The natural disasters and civil disorder incidents in which Guardsmen were called to help supported their cause. These included such events as the San Francisco earthquake in 1906; over 21 times" (Smith 1990 P. 11-12).

In Florida, National Guard served the role of preventing the lynching of black, and they maintained order during worker strike in several states. Despite the Dick Act, the National Guard became less favorable before many Americans. Typically, when citizens went into labor strikes across the country and action taken by the undisciplined National Guard against the strikers was very questionable. Typically, National Guard underwent massive massacre of citizens…… [Read More]


Bowman, S. Kapp, L. & Belasco, a. Hurricane Katrina: DOD Disaster Response. CRS Report for Congress.2005.

Doubler, M.D. Listman, J.W., & Goldstein, D.M. "An Illustrated History of America's Citizen-Soldiers the National Guard".. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. 2007.

Doubler. M.D. The Guard Century Series: 1900-1920 Century of Change, Century of Contribution: A Militia Nation Comes of Age. National Guard Association of the United States. 2011.

Coasts, J.A. Base Closure and Realignment: Federal Control over the National Guard. University of Cincinnati Law Review. Vol 75. P 343-370. 2006.
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Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization

Words: 2299 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6115589

Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization

The revolutions in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Bahia as described and detailed in the three text From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer and The Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 Dialogos Series, 12 by Michael j. Gonzales all tell varied stories regarding the thematic development of revolution and change. Each has a different story to tell about labor, free and slave, politics, race and freedom yet underlying each of these themes is a current that is not only consistent but largely underdeveloped. This theme is agricultural and its changing labor and production practices. This work will analyze and compare the treatment of agriculture as a theme associated with each local. Each nation demonstrates the story of profiteering through agriculture in varied ways, and the rejection of it.

In each work…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868-1898. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Gonzales, Michael. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2002.

Torston Graden, Dale. From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835-1900. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2006.