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A paradigm is a conceptual model. It puts a frame around ideas and assumptions in order to give a sense of direction for understanding and action. In the field of alcoholism and addiction, the frames of reference most commonly used until recently have encased pictures in the frames of the personal: struggles, challenges, control and acceptance that come with looking alcohol and what it does to one as an individual. It is the "me" who is powerless against this mysterious (though possibly biochemical) force of compulsion, and thus it is "I" who must come to terms with the reality it imposes. The step programs that most people know reflect this understanding and take the initiative to bring together people who are framed by a similar life.
A different picture gets framed when one looks at the issues of drugs and addiction from a social constructs perspective; a conceptualization…… [Read More]
They would do so in a fashion ideally, so as to not merely prepare students to take the test in rote fashion, but to make the new information a vital part of the extant educational process. (SEDL, 2004)
Such instructional leadership is subject to quality controls in-house. As part of the paradigm, public school teachers are consistently and regularly evaluated by administers, while administers receive feedback in a concrete and constructive fashion through evaluations by instructors, students, and parents that come into contact with them. Learning becomes a holistic experience of the school, and there is a strong trust, responsibility and faith placed in teachers by administers as teachers are assumed to have a vested interest in, and a sense of history of, the school community.
It is said that "while administrators' visions tend to focus on district- or school- wide instructional issues, teachers' visions tend to address teacher roles…… [Read More]
The rules of this paradigm are that government usually perform formal inquiries because they hope to establish trends for funding or new educational models, while social research does not have to follow these rules, instead, they study social problems and divides that affect adult and distance learners, and seek to solve those problems through social change and reorganization.
Finally, the paradigm that exists between the institution and the adult learner is often one of opposition, rather than support. Research shows that the institution has certain requirements or "rules" that the student must follow, such as number of credits taken, types of classes to take for a degree, and even counseling and number of lessons per course requirements. These all tend to serve the institution's needs and perspectives, while ignoring the needs and perspectives of the learner. This paradigm needs to change as well, because it does not create a framework…… [Read More]
An article of the Physics Department at the Weber State University argues that Kuhn's complicated view is due to the essential nebulous character of the paradigm itself. Given this situation then, the authors at the Weber University argue that Kuhn's model is not entirely applicable as one cannot entirely know the features and characteristics of a paradigm, such as its components or its evolution. They go on by offering the example of the atoms, which, despite the extensive years of research and analysis, continue to be used in terms of assumption and controlled experiments. Given this situation, in which it may be difficult to control and foresee the movement and actions of atoms, the professors at Weber conclude that it is rather impossible to foresee the evolution of science as a whole, and even less so include it in a paradigm.
The final critique brought to Kuhn relies in the…… [Read More]
Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) was an American scientist, historian and philosopher who wrote a controversial book in 1962 called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and from an early age expressed interest in science, particularly physics; obtaining his BS degree in physics from Harvard in 1943. He stayed at Harvard for his MS and PhD, and credits the period of the late 1940s in helping him develop his views on the history and philosophy of science. He taught at Berkeley until 1964, and then moved to Princeton from 1964 to 1979, moving to MIT until 1991. Kuhn died in 1996 from lung cancer, but left a long tradition of scientific articles, books and student input (Fuller, 2000)
This book introduced the term "paradigm shift" and made several claims surrounding the manner in which we understand scientific knowledge, process that knowledge, and use that knowledge to come…… [Read More]
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure." (Marx, p. 1)
This ideology would give way to more focused application of the Conflict Paradigm in smaller-scale contexts. For example, the text by Dhami & Olsson (2008) reports, Egon Brunswick first and Kenneth Hammond thereafter, would be instrumental in making the Social Conflict Theory applicable to interpersonal relations. Here, both thinkers advanced the concept that conflict may be understood also as the natural state of relations between individuals. This conflict may not be inherently hostile in nature but both thinkers bring research to the notion that 'cognitive conflict' finds individuals sometimes at cross-purposes even when working cooperatively. The text by Dhami & Olsson notes, "for instance, different parties may have…… [Read More]
"This means that there will be as many different forms of postmodernism as there were high modernisms in place, since the former are at least initially specific and local reactions against those models."
One of the key transitional moments from modernism to postmodernism, frequently cited by a number of sources, is Marcel Duchamp's decision to display a urinal in an art gallery; this disruptive moment effectively shattered previous paradigms, thus giving way to an "opening up" of boundaries in art that Duchamp perceived as restrictive.
In art, one of the more recognizable features of postmodernism is pastiche.
Pastiche is contingent on the paradigm of "the death of the author," or the end of individualism, as it was previously known under Modernism. As it is impossible to be original, to have a unique style because "everything has been done before," postmodernist discourse is concerned with using previous styles in a playful…… [Read More]
Transactionally, leaders work with their followers rather than mandating the rules and regulations of the company. Instead there is a respect and consideration for each individual within the company. Each individual's needs, abilities and aspirations are taken into account to ensure that each person enjoys work satisfaction. Entities such as labor unions and other committees focused on the needs of the worker have been instated as part of this paradigm.
The transactional-functional paradigm of management thus incorporates all the social ideals that have evolved in society over the last century. Leadership has changed from autocratic and traditional to a more flexible paradigm. It is therefore clear that management has evolved to accommodate the society within which companies function.
Evolution thus ensures the survival not only of a species, but also of a company in business. The transactional-transformational paradigm in its very nature entails evolution. It is a transaction between managers…… [Read More]
Sociological Paradigms: Structural Functionalism, Conflict, And Symbolic Interactionism
In the field of sociology, there are three paradigms that reflect the ideologies, concepts and ideas prevalently used in sociological studies and research: structural functionalism, social conflict and symbolic interactionism. These paradigms are categorized as such because of their differences; however, they also complement each other because each provides information and explanation about social phenomena in various perspectives. Hence, each paradigm complements the other.
Structural functionalism is the first paradigm that emerged from study of sociology. Structural functionalism was patterned after the principle of empiricism, wherein objectivity and scientific and logical thinking are valued. Structural functionalists believe that social phenomena can be explained objectively and empirically. An objective explanation of social phenomenon involves looking at the phenomenon based on information that is observed by the social scientist. Thus, one must gather facts and information that proves how such phenomenon occurs -- to…… [Read More]
He describes Kuhn's specific concepts and shows the philosopher's evolution in thought on the topic. The Encyclopedia of Social Theory has as its objective the education of people searching for information on a specific topic. As such, the site is useful for those looking for information on Kuhn. The site also appears reliable, as it is part of a large network of articles. The author also cites a variety of sources as the basis of his writing.
ilson, Kenneth G. (2001). Review: The Road since Structure: Philosophical Essays, 1970-1993, with an Autobiographical Interview and Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History of Our Times in Physics Today:
The review begins by addressing the issue of history and how it relates to science. This is made relevant to Kuhn's concept of the paradigm, and how paradigm shifts are a necessary part of historical development. It is a useful site, in that it…… [Read More]
Private companies, however, must begin to take more of this burden on themselves in order to streamline procedures at these points of entry; the more prepared and well-documented each vessel is, the less time (and therefore money) they will have to spend at the various points of entry proving their compliance and security reliability (Lake 2004).
In the ever-changing world of the twenty-first century, corporations and other business entities must begin to shoulder more of the burden of both world and personal security, as their resources far outstrip those of even some of the largest governments, especially when it comes to the ability to deal with their own specific products, vessels, and issues. This new security paradigm does not eliminate the need for government intervention in security -- far from it, in fact -- but it does require a greater deal of planning and cooperation with business entities.
Intergraph…… [Read More]
theoretical paradigms: symbolic interaction approach, structural-function approach ( identifying manifest function, latent functions, social latent dysfunction) social-conflict approach analyzing euthanasia.
There is presently much controversy regarding the topic of euthanasia as even though the process gathered many supporters, most of the general public continues to criticize it. It is difficult to determine the exact effect that euthanasia has on the patient, given that some might be unable to fully comprehend everything related to the medical procedure when they are the ones responsible for ordering it. Although some communities are likely to accept euthanasia as being moral, others are very probable to condemn it and relate to it as something that is particularly wrong. There are a series of factors influencing people's perspectives in regard to euthanasia, ranging from the cultural standards that they were accustomed with and until their social status. Examining euthanasia by using theoretical paradigms makes it…… [Read More]
Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms
The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty
In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.
Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…… [Read More]
e believe that the best care is the delivery of care that exceeds all expectation and that is encircled by compassion." (Baptist Healing Trust, 1)
In terms of besting these challenges, the healing hospital must work to protect the morale of its personnel against the pressures that are inherent with the occupation. This means ensuring that personnel are giving the proper opportunities to rest, that facilities are adequately staffed and that the necessary resources are availed so that personnel can perform to the fullest of their abilities. This denotes that the healing hospital's capacity to meet its ambitions will be highly contingent upon its dexterity at managing the needs of healthcare workers just as it will be contingent upon its management of the patient needs.
The Gospels of Mark and Luke are particularly rich in allusion to the power which Jesus possessed to heal the sick. Here, the…… [Read More]
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…… [Read More]
According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010), childhood obesity has more than tripled over the past 30 years. The frequency of obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years rose from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008, while among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years the obesity rate increased from 5.0% to 18.1% during the same period. Obesity results when more calories are consumed than expended, and is influenced by genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Let us take a look at four paradigms associated with this phenomenon.
The functionalist perspective asserts obese are necessary in order to drive others to become healthy and learn what is making people obese. From this perspective the key is not to eliminate this condition, but to utilize this state to explore the psychological and emotional factors that make this situation possible.
Functionalists are concerned with the stability of society…… [Read More]
Joseph Blenkinsopp who penned the essay titled "Abraham as Paradigm in the Priestly History in Genesis" asserts that Abraham's tale -- a key portion of the Hexateuch's Priestly History -- was developed to offer individuals, who lived on after the 586 B.C. disaster, a religious foundation to reconstruct their lives on. In more specific terms, the part of Priestly History revolving around Abraham's life aimed at providing a model or paradigm for individuals who returned to Judah or wished to do so, after the Babylonian Empire's collapse in 539 B.C. This paper will examine the teachings explored by Blenkinsopp for the exiles' consideration with respect to their expected relations with "outsiders" since the 597/86 deportations (Blenkinsopp, 2009).
The Teachings on the Relations between Returned Exiles and Outsiders
In the article's 4th chapter titled "The Covenant of Circumcision," Blenkinsopp talks about a critical moment indicated by the rechristening of the aged…… [Read More]
Second, once these key resources are identified, the organization's management needs to evaluate whether the key resources are valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable and imperfectly substitutable. These conditions lead to the development of a distinctive competitive advantage for the organization.
Obviously, if we look at this model, many of the statements are logical ones. An organization will create a competitive advantage on the market if it possesses one or more internal resources that are not available to other companies. This will create the economic value added that will make the difference on the market.
As we can see from the previous descriptions, the main difference between the Industrial/Organization Paradigm of Strategy Model and the Resource-ased View Model is related to the models' focus.
The I/O Model bases its focus on the external environment and on evaluations of opportunities and threats on the market, as well as the competition and relationships with…… [Read More]
Processing Paradigm - The information processing paradigm (IP) is a concept in which one understanding learning as a process that individuals are cognitively active in their participation. Humans actively collect, store, modify, interpret, analyze, synthesize and incorporate new information with past knowledge, build upon that, and move forward to new explorations of learning. Learning, then, is not limited to the rote memorization of facts (bits of information), but also includes doing more with that information and finally coming up with something new and unique (Miller, 2009; Pashler and Carrier, 2006).
One of the phenomenal changes in the 20th century has been the complexity of modern life -- the myriad of choices, cohesions, challenges, and above all, technological improvement. This has ever been as important as it is in the current global economic model. Globalization, as well as the huge clinical and technological changes that are occurring so fast that one…… [Read More]
Thus, spatially, the peacemaking pyramid solution to criminal justice functions as thus: the base of the pyramid is nonviolence, followed by social justice, inclusion, correct means, ascertainable criteria, and on its top categorical imperatives for the system as a whole. But note what a great responsibility this places upon members of the community, whether they be criminals or not, to engage in nonviolent means in what may be a violent society. hile the model may be admirable in its stress upon dialogue, negotiation, and above all conflict resolution, it seems to have little role for the need of victims to seek justice, or of higher government institutions to be involved at lower levels of the process.
Fuller, John. (2001) Criminal Justice: A Peacemaking: Perspective. New York: Allyn…… [Read More]
Crossvergence: Questioning the Hofstede paradigm
One of the most well-known and popular methods of analyzing differences between cultures is that of Geert Hofstede's framework, which conceptualizes different cultures as having fundamental, core values regarding power distance, masculine and feminine norms, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and future orientation. However, Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley (2006) in their article "Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors" criticize the Hofstede framework as overly rigid and static. Cultures are not enclosed entities, but rather are permeable structures. The authors apply the concept of crossvergence to the Hong Kong and Chinese banking sectors, comparing the cultural differences between Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the United States -- the latter "an often assumed, dissimilar region" from these Asian nations -- during the years 1985-2000 (Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley 2006: 68).
One of the problems with using Hofstede's framework when…… [Read More]
As such, Yunus' business model for Grameen Bank directly contradicts Social Darwinism, since the former is giving collateral free loans to individuals who are not fiscally fit -- and who are oftentimes exceedingly destitute -- and enabling them to get the financial means to survive.
Additionally, it is critical to examine the role that women play in both Social Darwinism and in Yunus' enterprise with Grameeen. Women are the bearers of children, and regardless of what Social Darwin advances about the fittest of a species, no species can survive without the means of replicating itself. For humans, of course, such a conception prioritizes women over men. Therefore, it is highly significant that the bulk of the individuals receiving loans form Grameen are women. From a Social Darwinism perspective this fact is extremely noteworthy, since women can produce a more direct effect on the livelihoods of their children.
Still, it is…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic Approach or Paradigm
The Psychodynamic Approach incorporates theories and methods originating with Freud and expanded by his followers. Freud's original approach was referred to as Psychoanalysis; which can be considered both a theory as well as a therapy method. The Psychodynamic Approach is founded upon the influence that internal processes and past experience have in determining a person's personality. These theorists believe that behavior is driven by individual's unconscious urges not necessarily rational thought. One intuitive illustration of this can be found in the contemporary field of marketing. Advertisements rarely appeal to the rational side of consumers by offering information about products; instead they target to the emotional needs and wants of individuals (Samuel, 2010).
Freud's theories developed from interactions what his patients during treatment sessions. These interactions led Freud to believe that adult behavior is driven by instinctual impulses and desires that originated in their childhood. Most of…… [Read More]
Learning Organization: A New Paradigm in Business Management
Any company that is going to make it... (in the 21st century) has got to find a way to engage the mind of every single employee. If you're not thinking all the time about making every person more valuable, you don't have a chance. What's the alternative? Wasted minds? Uninvolved people? A labor force that's angry or bored? That doesn't make sense!"
John Welch, Jr.
In every companies annual report there is always a statement about how important human capital is when determining the overall success of any business. These organizations assert that their employees are a highly valued part of their companies and that their efforts and resources are focused on both employee satisfaction and continuous employee development. In some situations, these statements are true. But in some companies, they are only words strung together in a way that impresses potential…… [Read More]
What do you Think
Paradigm of Laws
Paradigm of Laws
• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons
Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.
The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…… [Read More]
relied upon within the world of communications. This discussion will focus on the theory of narrative paradigm. We will discuss when and why the theory developed and how the theory of narrative paradigm has been researched. Then we will discuss the theory in detail including the views of rational world paradigm. In addition we will summarize what scholars believe to be true about the paradigm theory. We will also discuss suggestions for future research in this area.
When and Why the Theory was developed
The Narrative Paradigm theory was created in the 1970's by Walter Fisher. (Narrative Paradigm Theory, n.d) Fisher created the theory because he felt that the rational world paradigm did not take into consideration the need for the narrative form of communication. Fisher asserts that the rational world paradigm only took into consideration the argumentative nature of communication a theory that was made famous by philosophers such…… [Read More]
spelling instruction are presented and compared in the article, 'Three paradigms of spelling instruction in grades 3 to 6' (Taylor-Heald, 1998).
In this article the three paradigms are identified as the traditional, the transitional, and the student-oriented. Each of these paradigms is a model for teaching children the basic and fundamental concept of spelling.
In this research paper, Taylor-Heald's article will be used as a basis for identifying each of the methods. Firstly, from the article by Taylor-Heald we will describe each method, how it is utilized and also discuss Taylor-Heald's view on each of the methods.
After looking at each of the methods separately, we will then briefly examine the major differences between the methods.
We will then discuss the implications of each of the methods, including how each method is used and the benefits of each method. This will also include looking at various other research studies that…… [Read More]
First, recent evidence has indicated that there are many different ways that students of all ages learn, and this is certainly true for adult learners just as much as it is true for those who are learning things at a younger age. Because there are inherent differences in the ways that students learn, when they are all taught in the same way their grades suffer. Some students certainly excel, but others struggle. When they are taught differently, they begin to improve and they have fewer problems with the material. That indicates that it is not the fault of the student, nor is it the fault of the material. It is really not even the fault of the teacher, but of the educational system itself, which does not really work in the way that it was designed to. Studies have shown that, despite the fact that the United States spends more…… [Read More]
oyota's traditional priorities had placed safety first, quality second, and volume third. But the over-confidant oyota had placed volume of cars above all else. Many of their new hires and vendors were also not adequately trained in the methods of otal Quality Management since continuous improvement had ceased to matter to the company.
Another problem was that decisions were centralized causing many of the problems of logical regions to be glossed over. he customer perspective was ignored with the company working form their own self-centered stance and interests. his resulted in failures of cars and breakdowns.
oyota's next step was decision-making.
oyota decided to reaffirm their values of placing safety and quality the highest on their list of priorities as well as to embrace their philosophy of continuous improvement (namely otal Quality Management (QM) or Kaizen ). oyota also formed a quality advisory group composed of globally respected and objective…… [Read More]
Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.
Adult Leaning Theoies
Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…… [Read More]
Implanting Total Quality Management in healthcare: The critical leadership traits" by Nwabueze (2011), TQM is an increasingly critical part of ensuring cost-effective management of healthcare in the modern economic environment. However, there are often substantial institutional and personal obstacles to realizing its benefits. "TQM leadership is therefore about presence, and a process carried out within an organizational role that assumes responsibility for the needs and rights of employees who choose to follow the leader in achieving results" (Nwabueze, 2011, p.331). In the article, leadership in general is conceptualized as motivating people to do what you want them to do of their own free will without constant supervision and coercion and TQM in particular is a values-based system (Nwabueze, 2011, p.332). The concept of zero defects and continuous improvement must be instilled within all employees on a consistent basis throughout the organization and this requires a transformation of past ways of…… [Read More]
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…… [Read More]
Perception of Touch
The author of this report shall be offering a literature review on a particular subject. The subject in question is the perception and sensation of touch. While this subject may seem very basic and simple to a lot of people, it is actually quite intense, complex and full of details that science is really just starting to uncover and learn. Whether it be the "feeling" of the world around us, the interaction between people that are lovers or the bond between mother and child, touch is a very significant part of life and it would be less than wise to dismiss it as unimportant or simple on its face. While only so much is known about touch and the sensations involved, are many things that are known or that are starting to be known.
One of the examples of touch that takes on more importance than…… [Read More]
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…… [Read More]
Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union is known as such because it was waged not through direct conflict, but in through military and political stand-off between nations. On an international level, the Cold War was waged through techniques such as the U.S.S.R. extending its sphere of influence into Eastern Europe and the United States' Berlin airlift. However, its effects were also felt inside the United States, with the hysteria that resulted in the form of McCarthyism and the often-obsessive fear people expressed in regards to protecting themselves from possible nuclear conflict. The hatred an American expressed for communism was used to validate his or her status as a 'real' American. This line of reasoning can be seen today in issues of discrimination against Arabs and other demonized ethnic groups, as well as upon moral issues as abortion and gay parenting. One's stance on these issues is…… [Read More]
espect must be shown for cultural differences and different belief systems and children should be encouraged to share their culture and values with others.
This belief can be operationalized by "show and tell "exercises in which children share something about their family and culture and by "International Night" in which children bring dishes of their country
Children are lazy; they need to be pushed to learn.
Learning takes place in a safe, supportive, and stimulating environment. This belief is operationalized by maintaining a classroom environment in which students show respect and tolerance for others, evaluating curriculum in term of how well it helps students learn, and the use of incentives, as opposed to discipline, to assure good behavior and academic excellence.
The teachers lectures; the student learns
Learning is the construction of knowledge and the making of meaningful connections through active participation. In real life, people learn more by doing…… [Read More]
Hermeneutics (interpretive) paradigm
This is a more complex approach to the explanation of the social events live poverty. Basically it deals with a detailed interpretation of written/oral histories to explain current social order and the social happenings like poverty among other factors. There are varies backgrounds that people come from, an in each community or society or even culture, there is always the stories of people and how they lived with each other. Therein are the details of the people who were once rich within that society as well as those who were poor (Joe eichertz, 2012).
The historical poverty within a given group of people is a thing that is found among all religions and all cultural groupings. Even in the Bible, there are those who were historically known to be from the richer tribes and those from the poorer tribes. It is on the same vain that the…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
Integrity and…… [Read More]
There needed to be a much greater level of coordination, communication and collaboration for the full benefits of project management initiatives and strategies to succeed. One of the best practices that emerged from the shift to a leadership and organizational basis of project management is the essential role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a galvanizing factor of making projects more relevant and accomplished in complex organizations (Clarke, 2010).
Where authoritarian and transactional management leadership had been sufficient for managing projects during the systems perspective era (Kioppenborg, Opfer, 2002) those leadership skill sets were not sufficient for the era of leadership and organizational behavior (Keegan, Hartog, 2004). This fundamental shift in project management perspective also corresponded to a shift in the expectations, need and requirements of a subsequent generation of knowledge workers as well (Keller, 2006). No longer would be authoritarian and transactional work. The entire culture of how projects were…… [Read More]
" (Byrne, 2003) Also, since the dominant form of real money in the economy consists of checkable deposits, it means that the private sector creates most of the money for the legitimate part of the economy, not the federal government. The increased private sector competition in recent years, intensified by the increase in international commerce and market fluidity, born of improved technology through which private shares can be traded has further made the Fed less relevant, according to Byrne. This is not necessarily a bad thing, since Byrne blames a more powerful FED for what he calls the "engineered recession of 1980-82."(Byrne, Aug 2003)
Byrne, Donald. (6 Aug 2003) "hat Recession?" An Economics Newsletter for the New
Millennium. Prepared by New Economic Paradigm Associates. Retrieved 21 Nov 2006 http://byrned.faculty.udmercy.edu/Newsletter%20Vol%202003%20Issue%201.htm
Byrne, Donald. (31 Dec 2003) "The Federal Reserve System." An Economics Newsletter for the New Millennium. Prepared by New…… [Read More]
eintegration of Ex-Felons
Although the paradigms of public administration have undergone considerable scrutiny and some evolution, particularly over the past several decades, there is merit in considering the historical paradigms with respect to public administration as an academic and scientific discipline. Paradigm 2, The Principles of Administration, circa 1927 to 1937, serves as the springboard for this discussion. In Henry's words, "Thus the focus of the field -- its essential expertise in the form of administrative principles -- waxed [in the 1930s and early 1940s], while no one thought seriously about its focus. Indeed the locus of public administration was everywhere because principles were principles and administration was administration" (Henry, 1795, p. 380). By the time a decade had passed, Herb Simon had eschewed the traditional foundations of public administration and presented his own version of a new paradigm for the discipline. Simon seized on the idea that "there ought…… [Read More]
If we consider the fact that Juno's goal, although not known to her at this point, is to end up in the end with Bleeker, this midpoint makes the character seem farthest from reaching her goal.
I think that this midpoint divides the first and second act because of the relationship between Juno and Bleeker. As mentioned, at this point, their relationship seems to no longer have any potential future, while the first act has always left this possibility in the open, as we could still see them interacting in the same manner and getting along.
5. The break-up in the adoptive couple is also essential and we can probably identify this as a second plot point, despite the fact that the previously presented midpoint is also important as a plot point (I have selected this, however, as the plot point because it seems to have more influence on the…… [Read More]
Consider how the paradigm of a healing hospital might influence your philosophy of caregiving.
Describe the components of a healing hospital and their relationship to spirituality.
What are the challenges of creating a healing environment in light of the barriers and complexities of the hospital environment?
Include biblical aspects that support the concept of a healing hospital.
According to Eberst (2008), one of the primary components of a healing environment is the environment in which the patient receives care; she states "We have learned that proving a loving and compassionate environment that is aesthetically pleasing promotes healing" (Eberst, 2008). It is not only the aesthetics that are important, rather the environment must be looked at from the patient's perspective to see what types of things may prevent a patient the rest and relaxation that they need during a recovery phase. For example, one of the best examples of…… [Read More]
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…… [Read More]
The significance of the nurturance is normal in this phase, it is thus a formative phase suitable for imposing the principles of reformulation that are taking place in the business world. The nurture capital indicates a new strategy for wealth generation. It is a strategy that generates value for the firm and for the society that it serves. The nurture capital strategy redefines priorities and entails a language for addressing such priorities. With application of such principles of nurture capital, efforts can be exerted so as to restructure the game of business, creating and clarifying mutually supporting relationships to construct a sustainable future. (Nurture Capital -- a New Paradigm for Business)
To conclude it may be pointed out the conscious business is on the rise. The differences can better be benefited out of the wise shopping, supporting green business and starting the own enterprises that makes our planet a healthy…… [Read More]
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]
65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.
What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?
Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…… [Read More]
The experience with law enforcement also shows similar models of paradigm shift. The leaders within the industry typically posed resistance to changes. Changes instead were driven by the needs of other stakeholders -- by politicians who shifted laws, funding and emphasis; by communities that demanded specific paradigm shifts such as improving the ethnic diversity of police forces. The ar on Drugs is one example of externally-driven paradigm shift. Politicians drove this change in emphasis that shifted the priorities of law enforcement. Some law enforcement agencies eventually have taken some of that paradigm shift back, choosing not to focus on petty drug crimes. In those cases, the paradigm shift is internally driven at the micro level by individual members of law enforcement leadership.
Paradigm shifts in law enforcement have traditionally been the result of leaders in the field reacting to changes in the external environment. The pace of change has not…… [Read More]
Organizational behavior -- globalization and diversity
Diversity is becoming more present within the contemporaneous business climates and it is necessary that economic agents devise and implement the most adequate strategies in responding to the challenges of diversity. Diversity in itself is not only a constant presence, but also a generator of impacts and organizational change. A relevant example in this sense is offered by the fact that diversity forces changes at the level of the leadership styles. Furthermore however, diversity also impacts organizational bottom line and productivity.
In light of the new evolutions at the level of the business climate, numerous changes occur in the previous paradigms. Specifically, one can easily observe shifts in organizational paradigms and to exemplify these, the cases of several Malaysian firms are introduced. Finally, the concept of organizational culture is detailed and emphasis is placed on the strategic strengthening of organizational culture.
Table…… [Read More]
As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.
Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…… [Read More]
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]
Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.
The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions
"Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. The most global is the community of all natural scientists."
~Thomas S. Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions
To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. He did not perceive the accumulation of knowledge as linear. Thus, before Kuhn explains the irrationality of scientific revolutions, he explains the irrationality of the historical picture of science in general. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. To paraphrase Kuhn,…… [Read More]
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…… [Read More]
adical Humanist Approach to Organizational Analysis
Patagonia is a small company that began by making perfect pitons for rock climbers. The company was founded by a band of climbers and surfers who lived the minimalist lifestyle they promoted. The company makes clothing and gear for the silent sports -- no motors or engines are involved -- of skiing, snowboarding, surfing, fly fishing, paddling, and trail running" ("Patagonia," 2012). For the founders, the reward in each sport comes at the nexus that takes "the form of hard-won grace and moments of connection" between them and nature ("Patagonia," 2012). The corporate mission of Patagonia is to make the best possible products and to cause no unnecessary harm while engaged in that effort.
The research in this study is grounded in critical theory and phenomenology. The personal accounts given by employees of Patagonia are expressions of how they experience…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…… [Read More]
The second case of cultural reaffirmation that Huntington discusses is that of Muslim societies which have followed a different path towards the reassertion of their cultural identity. In these societies, religion has been the main factor of cultural distinctiveness and influence. Huntington argues that religion is the main factor which distinguishes Muslim societies from the others, and that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" (Huntington 1998: 110). As far as the causes behind this resurgence, Huntington talks about the failure of state economies, the large and oftentimes rather young population of these countries, as well as the authoritarian political regimes of these nation states.
In light of these arguments, Huntington predicts great clashes will occur among civilizations. However he also identifies a possible cooperation between Islamic and inic cultures…… [Read More]
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…… [Read More]
Terrorism shares features in common with irregular warfare, insurgency, and crime. Like crime, terrorism violates the law and infringes on the rights of others. Like insurgency, terrorism "appeals as a weapon of the weak," (Arquilla, onfelt & Zanini 1999, p. 134). Similarly, Arquilla et al. (1999) note that terrorism "has appealed as a way to assert identity and command attention," (p. 134). Like irregular warfare, terrorism is asynchronous and asymmetrical, not ascribing to the rules of war. However, terrorism is unique in that "today's enemy is not a state but a transnational, non-state actor" that uses warfare that is "not traditional…elusive…and…exploits…industrial and technological advantages," (Howard n.d.). As Howard (n.d.) points out, terrorism more resembles a virus than anything else (p. 123). Moreover, terrorism involves ideology and paradigms that underwrite its existence: in the case of al Qaeda a pseudo-religious doctrine. The goals of terrorism are farther-reaching and more global than…… [Read More]