Paradigm Essays (Examples)

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Difficult to Understand Just How

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86753455

espect must be shown for cultural differences and different belief systems and children should be encouraged to share their culture and values with others.

This belief can be operationalized by "show and tell "exercises in which children share something about their family and culture and by "International Night" in which children bring dishes of their country

Children are lazy; they need to be pushed to learn.

Learning takes place in a safe, supportive, and stimulating environment. This belief is operationalized by maintaining a classroom environment in which students show respect and tolerance for others, evaluating curriculum in term of how well it helps students learn, and the use of incentives, as opposed to discipline, to assure good behavior and academic excellence.

The teachers lectures; the student learns

Learning is the construction of knowledge and the making of meaningful connections through active participation. In real life, people learn more by doing…… [Read More]

References

History of Reproduction, Contraceptives and Control" (1998) [Online]New Junod, S.W. (2000) "The Pill at 40." [Online] FDA Consumer, 4, 36, Abstract from: author File: Academic Search Elite Item Number: 8532382
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Ontology 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology

Words: 3653 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75331223

The research too has to be reliable and valid cohering to an internal and external scientific definition of reality that is more physical and eschews the metaphysical and the abstract.

Ontological Basis

Positivism accepts a certain reality of existence and insists that this reality can be discovered by universal and immutable scientific / mathematical principles (Tribe, 2009) .

Epistemological Basis

The researcher has to distance himself as much as possible from his research in order to come to verifiable attempts. The scientific approach can help hims distance himself.

Interpretive Paradigm

An alternate rendering of this can be the constructionist paradigm where the approach depends upon the researcher in question and is often inductively created. It is subjective and avowedly so and the meaning / conclusions / perspective is generated from one's particular experiences, way of thinking, and origin (Oakes & Minca 2004, p. 30).

Ontological Basis

The researcher acknowledge existence…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, DM (1973). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press

Catarina Marques, Elizabeth Reis & Joao Menezes (2010): Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8, 971-996

Hartmann, Nicolai. 1953. New Ways of Ontology. Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co.

Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Poverty Are the Various Approaches

Words: 1561 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95235235



Hermeneutics (interpretive) paradigm

This is a more complex approach to the explanation of the social events live poverty. Basically it deals with a detailed interpretation of written/oral histories to explain current social order and the social happenings like poverty among other factors. There are varies backgrounds that people come from, an in each community or society or even culture, there is always the stories of people and how they lived with each other. Therein are the details of the people who were once rich within that society as well as those who were poor (Joe eichertz, 2012).

The historical poverty within a given group of people is a thing that is found among all religions and all cultural groupings. Even in the Bible, there are those who were historically known to be from the richer tribes and those from the poorer tribes. It is on the same vain that the…… [Read More]

References

Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology: Themes and Perspective. 5th Edition, page 11). Collins

Educational.(2001).

Joe Reichertz, (2012). Objective Hermeneutics and Hermeneutic Sociology of Knowledge.

Retrieved February 27, 2012 form  https://www.uni-due.de/imperia/md/content/kowi/hermeneutikenglisch.pdf
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Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have

Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 863919

Theory vs. Creativity in Design

Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.

How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates

Integrity and…… [Read More]

References

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from  http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51 

Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.

Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.

DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
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Future of Project Management in

Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3559553

There needed to be a much greater level of coordination, communication and collaboration for the full benefits of project management initiatives and strategies to succeed. One of the best practices that emerged from the shift to a leadership and organizational basis of project management is the essential role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a galvanizing factor of making projects more relevant and accomplished in complex organizations (Clarke, 2010).

Where authoritarian and transactional management leadership had been sufficient for managing projects during the systems perspective era (Kioppenborg, Opfer, 2002) those leadership skill sets were not sufficient for the era of leadership and organizational behavior (Keegan, Hartog, 2004). This fundamental shift in project management perspective also corresponded to a shift in the expectations, need and requirements of a subsequent generation of knowledge workers as well (Keller, 2006). No longer would be authoritarian and transactional work. The entire culture of how projects were…… [Read More]

References

Clarke, N. (2010). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to transformational leadership and key project manager competences. Project Management Journal, 41(2), 5-20.

Gundersen, G., Hellesoy, B.T., & Raeder, S. (2012). Leading international project teams: The effectiveness of transformational leadership in dynamic work environments. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 19(1), 46.

Keegan, a.E., & Den Hartog, D.,N. (2004). Transformational leadership in a project-based environment: A comparative study of the leadership styles of project managers and line managers. International Journal of Project Management, 22(8), 609-617.

Keller, R.T. (2006). Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: A longitudinal study of research and development project team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 17-17.
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New Economic Donald Byrne's New

Words: 408 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95222527

" (Byrne, 2003) Also, since the dominant form of real money in the economy consists of checkable deposits, it means that the private sector creates most of the money for the legitimate part of the economy, not the federal government. The increased private sector competition in recent years, intensified by the increase in international commerce and market fluidity, born of improved technology through which private shares can be traded has further made the Fed less relevant, according to Byrne. This is not necessarily a bad thing, since Byrne blames a more powerful FED for what he calls the "engineered recession of 1980-82."(Byrne, Aug 2003)

orks Cited

Byrne, Donald. (6 Aug 2003) "hat Recession?" An Economics Newsletter for the New

Millennium. Prepared by New Economic Paradigm Associates. Retrieved 21 Nov 2006 http://byrned.faculty.udmercy.edu/Newsletter%20Vol%202003%20Issue%201.htm

Byrne, Donald. (31 Dec 2003) "The Federal Reserve System." An Economics Newsletter for the New Millennium. Prepared by New…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Byrne, Donald. (6 Aug 2003) "What Recession?" An Economics Newsletter for the New

Millennium. Prepared by New Economic Paradigm Associates. Retrieved 21 Nov 2006  http://byrned.faculty.udmercy.edu/Newsletter%20Vol%202003%20Issue%201.htm 

Byrne, Donald. (31 Dec 2003) "The Federal Reserve System." An Economics Newsletter for the New Millennium. Prepared by New Economic Paradigm Associates. Retrieved 21 Nov 2006  http://byrned.faculty.udmercy.edu/2003%20Volume,%20Issue%205/newsletter%20fiveA.htm 

Byrne, Donald. (18 Nov 2003) "The National Debt" An Economics Newsletter for the New Millennium. Prepared by New Economic Paradigm Associates. Retrieved 21 Nov 2006 (http://byrned.faculty.udmercy.edu/2003%20Volume,%20Issue%204/Newsletter%20Volume%202003%20Issue%204%20(4th%20Newsletter)%2011-22-03.htm
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Ex-Felons Returning Back to the Community

Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24840375

eintegration of Ex-Felons

Although the paradigms of public administration have undergone considerable scrutiny and some evolution, particularly over the past several decades, there is merit in considering the historical paradigms with respect to public administration as an academic and scientific discipline. Paradigm 2, The Principles of Administration, circa 1927 to 1937, serves as the springboard for this discussion. In Henry's words, "Thus the focus of the field -- its essential expertise in the form of administrative principles -- waxed [in the 1930s and early 1940s], while no one thought seriously about its focus. Indeed the locus of public administration was everywhere because principles were principles and administration was administration" (Henry, 1795, p. 380). By the time a decade had passed, Herb Simon had eschewed the traditional foundations of public administration and presented his own version of a new paradigm for the discipline. Simon seized on the idea that "there ought…… [Read More]

References

Brown, B. (2011). Vocational psychology and ex-offenders' reintegration: A call for action. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(3), 333-342. doi: 10.1177/1069072710395539

Henry, N. (1975, July -- August). Paradigms of public administration. Public Administration Review, 35(4), 378-386.

Hughs, O.E. (1994, 1998, 2003). Public management and administration: An introduction (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.

Morrison, A. (2012). Obama administration announces $20.5 million in ex-felon grants. Loop21. Retrieved http://www.loop21.com/politics/obama-administration-20-million-ex-felon-grants
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Juno and the 3 Act

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15759688

If we consider the fact that Juno's goal, although not known to her at this point, is to end up in the end with Bleeker, this midpoint makes the character seem farthest from reaching her goal.

I think that this midpoint divides the first and second act because of the relationship between Juno and Bleeker. As mentioned, at this point, their relationship seems to no longer have any potential future, while the first act has always left this possibility in the open, as we could still see them interacting in the same manner and getting along.

5. The break-up in the adoptive couple is also essential and we can probably identify this as a second plot point, despite the fact that the previously presented midpoint is also important as a plot point (I have selected this, however, as the plot point because it seems to have more influence on the…… [Read More]

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Creating a Healing Environment

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12606994

Healing Hospital

Consider how the paradigm of a healing hospital might influence your philosophy of caregiving.

Describe the components of a healing hospital and their relationship to spirituality.

What are the challenges of creating a healing environment in light of the barriers and complexities of the hospital environment?

Include biblical aspects that support the concept of a healing hospital.

According to Eberst (2008), one of the primary components of a healing environment is the environment in which the patient receives care; she states "We have learned that proving a loving and compassionate environment that is aesthetically pleasing promotes healing" (Eberst, 2008). It is not only the aesthetics that are important, rather the environment must be looked at from the patient's perspective to see what types of things may prevent a patient the rest and relaxation that they need during a recovery phase. For example, one of the best examples of…… [Read More]

References

Dunn, L. (2010). Creating Healing Environments: A Challenge for Nursing. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 3-4.

Eberst, L. (2008). Arizona Medical Center Shows How to Be a "Healing Hospital." Health Progress, 77-80.
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Thomas Kuhn's Book - The

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97415676

esearch can be added to the paradigms through discovery, without an actual paradigm shift, or the paradigm can be completely replaced through crisis.

Scientific revolutions are sometimes so great that it can be said that with the advent of a paradigm shift, the world itself changes. However, as Kuhn (1996) sustains, the world does not actually change every time a paradigm shift occurs, although it can be said that the world does become a different place for the ones who perceive it from the point-of-view of a different paradigm. (p. 111)

In the light of Kuhn's theory, the history of past science as well of the structure of the present science and the forecast of the future developments can be defined or predicted.

The Structure of Scientific evolutions is a great step towards an understanding of the past of science as well as of the manner in which it evolves.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Kuhn, T.S. (1996) The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
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Overarching Goal of This Study

Words: 18833 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98616754

Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.

Positivist Research Paradigm

The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.

Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.

Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.

Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
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Values and Practices That Comprises

Words: 1606 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39503238

The significance of the nurturance is normal in this phase, it is thus a formative phase suitable for imposing the principles of reformulation that are taking place in the business world. The nurture capital indicates a new strategy for wealth generation. It is a strategy that generates value for the firm and for the society that it serves. The nurture capital strategy redefines priorities and entails a language for addressing such priorities. With application of such principles of nurture capital, efforts can be exerted so as to restructure the game of business, creating and clarifying mutually supporting relationships to construct a sustainable future. (Nurture Capital -- a New Paradigm for Business)

To conclude it may be pointed out the conscious business is on the rise. The differences can better be benefited out of the wise shopping, supporting green business and starting the own enterprises that makes our planet a healthy…… [Read More]

References

Caldwell, Roger. C. "Paradigms - the Big Changes and Shifts in Society" Retrieved from http://ag.arizona.edu/futures/era/paradigmsmain.html. Accessed on 2 February, 2005

Jeantheau, Mark. "Paradigm Shift-How Some Try to Win by Changing the Rules of the Game" Retrieved from www.learnthis.info/articles/trivia/paradigm-shift -- how-some try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html http://www.learnthis.info/articles/trivia/paradigm-shift -- howsome try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html Accessed on 2 February, 2005

McNamara, Carter. (1999) "New Paradigm in Management" Retrieved at http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/paradigm.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Paradigm Shift" Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved at  http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/paradigm.html . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
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Leadership and Social Advocacy

Words: 5374 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42281879

Social Advocacy in Counseling

Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.

Social Justice

Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]

References

American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.

Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.

Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
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Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning How

Words: 7785 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11517163

65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.

b.

What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?

Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…… [Read More]

References

About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov / landing2_about.htm.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:

Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.
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Embedded in Schooling Relate to

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5073898



The experience with law enforcement also shows similar models of paradigm shift. The leaders within the industry typically posed resistance to changes. Changes instead were driven by the needs of other stakeholders -- by politicians who shifted laws, funding and emphasis; by communities that demanded specific paradigm shifts such as improving the ethnic diversity of police forces. The ar on Drugs is one example of externally-driven paradigm shift. Politicians drove this change in emphasis that shifted the priorities of law enforcement. Some law enforcement agencies eventually have taken some of that paradigm shift back, choosing not to focus on petty drug crimes. In those cases, the paradigm shift is internally driven at the micro level by individual members of law enforcement leadership.

Paradigm shifts in law enforcement have traditionally been the result of leaders in the field reacting to changes in the external environment. The pace of change has not…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Rogers, D. (2000). A paradigm shift: Technology integration for higher education in the new millennium. Educational Technology Review. Spring/Summer 2000, pp. 19-33

Helmi, a. (2001). An analysis on the impetus of online education: Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia. The Internet and Higher Education. Vol. 4 (3-4) 243-253.

Langerman, a. (2007). A force united: Information sharing across law enforcement. Officer.com. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/a-FORCE-UNITED -- Information-sharing-across-law-enforcement/1$37,891
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Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific

Words: 1902 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93853295



The concept of the paradigm shift, however, negates the very idea that truth could ever actually be reached. Each paradigm -- which only gives way to another paradigm, leaving all knowledge and understanding ultimately tied to some semblance of foundational assumptions. There is no getting beyond the assumptions, as they are a necessary component (in Kuhn's view) of establishing any sort of causal understanding at all. Science is then, taking Kuhn's theory of paradigm shifts to its logical conclusion, ultimately and always doomed to failure if its goal is defined as the determination and explanation of truth. The goal of science must itself be redefined as a result of Kuhn's concept of the paradigm shift, unless a competing theory proves as effective in explaining scientific progress -- and captures the attention of the scientific community as well. Such paradigm shifts do not come easily, however.

Conclusion

Few -- if any…… [Read More]

References

Blunden, a. (1998). "On the nature and necessity of scientific revolutions." Accessed 20 February 2010. http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/kuhn.htm

Bird, a. (2004). "Thomas Kuhn." Accessed 20 February 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/thomas-kuhn/

Eng, L. (2001). "The accidental rebel: Thomas Kuhn and the Structure of Scientific Revolutions."  http://www.cjas.org/~leng/kuhn.pdf 

Forster, M. (1998). "Thomas Kuhn's the Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Accessed 20 February 2010. http://philosophy.wisc.edu/Forster/220/kuhn.htm
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Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behavior -- Globalization and

Words: 4864 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55372204

Organizational Behaviour

Organizational behavior -- globalization and diversity

Diversity is becoming more present within the contemporaneous business climates and it is necessary that economic agents devise and implement the most adequate strategies in responding to the challenges of diversity. Diversity in itself is not only a constant presence, but also a generator of impacts and organizational change. A relevant example in this sense is offered by the fact that diversity forces changes at the level of the leadership styles. Furthermore however, diversity also impacts organizational bottom line and productivity.

In light of the new evolutions at the level of the business climate, numerous changes occur in the previous paradigms. Specifically, one can easily observe shifts in organizational paradigms and to exemplify these, the cases of several Malaysian firms are introduced. Finally, the concept of organizational culture is detailed and emphasis is placed on the strategic strengthening of organizational culture.

Table…… [Read More]

References:

Barak, M.E.M., 2010, Managing diversity: toward a globally inclusive workplace, SAGE

Brooks, M.B., 2009, Diversity is about the bottom line, Major Ben's Consulting, http://majorben.com/resources/diversity-is-about-the-bottom-line / last accessed on May 4, 2011

Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high cost of low price, Documentary

Jaya, P., Pinang, P., Bahru, J., Marketing the key too success in Malaysian business development, Malaysian Institute of Management, http://mgv.mim.edu.my/MMR/8708/870802.Htm last accessed on May 4, 2011
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Richard Dawkins' the Selfish Gene

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36443466

As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.

Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.

Dobbs, M. (2005, April 21). NEA, States Challenge 'No Child' Program. Washington Post.

Ehrich, R. (2007). The Impact of School Size. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from Virginia Tech: http://delta.cs.vt.edu/edu/size.html
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Thomas Kuhn's the Structure of

Words: 3200 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14073607



What they had regarded as the most certain of all theories turned out to be in need of serious revision. In reaction, they resolved never again to bestow their faith in scientific truth unconditionally. Skepticism, not certainty, became their watchword. (ibid)

The implication of Kuhn's work was that science was seen to be dependent on history. It was no longer superior to historical analysis but could only be understood within the context of history. This too is another post-modern concept which is very important in deconstruction theory. "Philosophers therefore turned to a more serious study of history than they would have considered desirable even a few years earlier. They also learned more about the internal workings of the sciences than their earlier, much more abstract epistemological approach would ever have justified or even tolerated." (ibid)

3. Postmodern thought

Thomas Kuhn's groundbreaking work in the field of the philosophy of science…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bernstein, Richard J. Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

Boon, Timothy. "Making the Modern World" History Today Aug. 2001: 38. Questia. 10 Dec. 2004  http://www.questia.com/ .

Borradori, Giovanna. The American Philosopher: Conversations with Quine, Davidson, Putnam, Nozick, Danto, Rorty, Cavell, Macintyre, and Kuhn. Trans. Crocitto, Rosanna. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Burns, Tony. "Zamyatin's We and Postmodernism." Utopian Studies 11.1 (2000): 66. Questia. 10 Dec. 2004
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Social Science Research Are Qualitative and Quantitative

Words: 4883 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70439606

social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.

In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/

Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
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Clinical Implications of Levinson's Stage

Words: 2168 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69843208

Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.

The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…… [Read More]

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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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Philosophy Kuhn's Rationale on the Irrationality of

Words: 2831 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87324781

Philosophy

Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions

"Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. The most global is the community of all natural scientists."

~Thomas S. Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions

To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. He did not perceive the accumulation of knowledge as linear. Thus, before Kuhn explains the irrationality of scientific revolutions, he explains the irrationality of the historical picture of science in general. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. To paraphrase Kuhn,…… [Read More]

References:

Andersen, H., Barker, P., & Chen, X. 'Kuhn's mature philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.' Philosophical Psychology, Volume 9, issue 3, 1996, p. 347 -- 363.

Bird, Alexander, 'Thomas Kuhn', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), , 2011 (accessed 2012 March 14).

Budd, J.M., & Hill, H. 'The Cognitive and Social Lives of Paradigms in Information Science.' , 2007 (accessed 2012 March 15).

Eng, L. 'The accidental rebel: Thomas Kuhn and The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.' STS Concepts, , 2011, (accessed 2012 March 14).
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Theory Comparison

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97000938

Hermeneutics

Phenomenology and Hermeneutics

Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).

In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…… [Read More]

References

Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.

Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).