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Parkinson's disease impacts the human brain's dopamine-secreting nerve cells. Its symptoms include tremors, gait and speech modifications and muscle rigidity. The disease has no permanent cure; a patient of Parkinson's disease can only take treatment to alleviate his/her symptoms (WebMD, 2017).
A fifty-year-old male patient complains of trembling hands, a condition that has been aggravating over the course of the last two or three years. His hands tremble when eating, writing, tying his shoelaces, cutting things, and doing other activities by hand. He complains that his handwriting is now nearly illegible and slumping. He is a carpenter by profession, and is anxious that his problem may affect his ability to continue earning a living.
Parkinson's disease symptoms are different for different individuals. Further, with disease advancement, the symptoms transform. Initial symptoms of a particular patient may never surface in another, or may only surface at a very advanced stage…
Harvard Health Letter. (2012). Exercise helps prevent, fight Parkinson's disease. Harvard Health Letter. Retrieved from http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletters/Harvard_Health_Letter/2012/March/another-reason-to-get-out-there-and-get-moving?utm_source=health&utm_medium=pressrelease&utm_campaign=Health0312
MFMER. (2015, July 7). Parkinson's disease. Retrieved from Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research:
UNDESTANDING THE PAKINSON'S DISEASE
Understanding Parkinson's disease
Parkinson disease is a progressive neurological problem that affects people of all ages and races. It is a very common condition. It is estimated that about 70, 000 Australians live with this disease. The average diagnostic age is 65 years, however, that does not rule out the possibility of young people developing Parkinson. In young people, the condition is known as Young Onset Parkinson Disease. Diagnosing Parkinson disease is not an easy task. There are no known laboratory tests like brain scan or blood test, so it is important to ensure a specialist such as a neurologist carries out the diagnosis. The specialist is expected to look for any known physical signs of the condition and take the detailed history of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. There is still no known cause of Parkinson's disease in people. Many theories exist…
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) 'Disability, Ageing and Carers Australia, Summary of Findings, 2009', Cat. No. 4430.0, 20 June.
Begg, S., Vos, T., Barker, B., Stevenson, C., Stanley, L., & Lopez, A. (2007). Burden of disease and injury in Australia, 2003.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare AIHW.
Deloitte (2011). Living with Parkinson's Disease -- update. Retrieved 9 April 2016 from http://www.parkinsonsnsw.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/AE-Report_2011.pdf
Dickson, D. W. (2012). Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism: Neuropathology. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(8), a009258. http://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a009258
Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia, while Parkinson’s disease is known as a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that affects significantly more men than women. The two disorders have some similar symptoms but are also very different. With regards to treatment, no standard intervention has been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disorder. The only existing drugs are those that address some of the symptoms. Likewise, there is no standard therapy for those with Parkinson’s disease. But lifestyle changes, approved drugs, and surgical operations can be recommended to address symptoms. Nevertheless, stem cell research has shown a lot of promise in helping to restore and regenerate destroyed brain tissues and is, therefore, currently being tested to help treat brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. This work looks at what the evidence is saying about the efficacy of stem cell transplants approach in the treatment…
Parkinson's disease is a neurological disorder that has become the topic of much research lately. This neurological disease affects more than four million individuals around the world, making it the second largest neurological disease affecting people (National Institute of Health, 2013). The United States alone has about 60,000 new diagnoses made every year. Parkinson's disease can affect an individual of any age, however, the branch of this disease that people are most familiar with is late-onset Parkinson's disease. This part particular group encompasses those that are older than 55 years old. Young-onset or early-onset Parkinson's disease affects individuals before the age of 50, while juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease affects those under the age of 20 (NHGI, 2011). No matter the age at which the disease first appears, its devastating effects are the same.
The symptoms of this disorder create great disruption in the affected individual's life. Parkinson's disease causes the degeneration…
EuroStemCell. (2012). Parkinson's Disease: How could stem cells help? Eurostemcell.org. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/parkinson%E2%80%99s-disease-how-could-stem-cells-help
National Institute Of Health. (2013). Parkinson disease. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/parkinson-disease
NHGRI. (2011). Learning About Parkinson's Disease. National Human Genome Research Institute. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://www.genome.gov/10001217
Talan, J. (2012). Parkinson's Disease. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/parkinsons-disease/overview.html#Exams-and-Tests
Parkinson's disease is a neurological disorder which is primarily diagnosed in people aged 50 and above. This degenerative disease affects the muscular movement, creates tremor and increases posture rigidity. First explained in 1817 by James Parkinson, this disease is prevalent throughout the world. In the United States as well as the UK around 2% of the elderly population is afflicted by this neurological disorder. In the U.S. alone there are around 1 million patients and every year 50,000 new cases are diagnosed with Parkinsonism and as a nation with a high percentage of elderly and aging population the figures may increase rapidly in the near future. A brief overview of the etiology, symptoms, treatment, patient care and education, would help us better understand the disease condition and its management.
Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the motor structures in the basal ganglia region of the brain.…
1) Dr. David Nicholl (2003, OCT 19), "Parkinson's Disease," MedWeb
Retrieved June 4th 2004, at http://medweb.bham.ac.uk/http/depts/clin_neuro/teaching/tutorials/parkinsons/parkinsons1.html
2) Jeff Blackmer, MD (2004, May 20), "Parkinson Disease," eMedicine
Retrieved June 4th 2004, at http://www.emedicine.com/pmr/topic99.htm
Fortunately my father's symptoms early on have been quite mild thus far. With the exception of some slight tremors in the hands now, my father exhibits relatively few of the debilitating or crippling symptoms associated with Parkinson's. Though this may change with time, our hope is that new therapies and treatments will soon be discovered to extend and continue to improve the quality of life for patients with Parkinson's disease far into the future.
It is also important that family members and patients are realistic in their treatment expectations (Kindracke, 2001). Parkinson's is a progressive disease that some find crippling and debilitating as life goes on. Many patients grow to resent their bodies for "betraying them" as time goes on (Kindracke, 2001). Again however, the best steps a patient and family member can take to conquer this disease are to live life to the fullest each and every day they…
Gao, H.M, Hong, J. & Liu, B. (2003). "Parkinson's Disease and exposure to infectious agents and pesticides and the occurrence of brain injuries: role of neuroinflammation." Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8): 1065
Henkel, J. (1998 - July). "Parkinson's disease: New treatments slow onslaught of symptoms." FDA Consumer, 32(4): 13.
Kondracke, M. (2001). Saving Milly: Love, politics and Parkinson's disease. New York:
There are around 60,000 Americans who are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease ever year, and this number does not take into account the thousands of cases that go unnoticed. Occurrence of Parkinson's goes up with a person's age, but it is estimated that about four percent of people are diagnosed before the age of 50. There are an estimated seven to 10 million people worldwide are living with Parkinson's disease (Statistics on Parkinson's, 2010).
Parkinson's disease is often accompanied by additional troubles:
People with Parkinson's disease of suffer from depression. eceiving treatment for depression can make it easier to deal with the other challenges of Parkinson's disease.
People who have Parkinson's disease frequently have trouble falling asleep and may wake up often throughout the night. They may also experience unexpected sleep onset, called sleep attacks, during the day.
The muscles that one uses to swallow may be affected in the later…
Health Issues for the Aging
One of the diseases that creates a burden on our health care system, especially among the aged, is Parkinson's disease. At present, there is no known cure for Parkinson's, merely treatments that can help to reduce the symptoms. This makes it difficult to develop a public health solution to Parkinson's. On the prevention side, one of the challenges is that while there have been some risk factors potentially identified, the reality is that there is no known cause either. For example, a meta-analysis suggest that living in a rural area, drinking well water, farming and exposure to pesticides all might be risk factors (Priyardashi et al, 2001). The current state of research at present is such that the different forms that Parkinson's takes are being studied (Peto, et al, 1995). Moreover, the different ways that Parkinson's presents can also bring about a number of different…
Belluci, A., Navarria, L., Zaltieri, M., Missale, C. & Spano, P. (2012). Alpha-synuclein synaptic pathology and its implications in the development of novel therapeutic approaches to cure Parkinson\\'s disease. Brain Research. Vol. 1432 (2012) 95-113.
Carroll, C., Zeissler, M., Hanneman, C. & Zajicek, P. (2012). ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of Parkinson\\'s disease. Neuropathy and Applied Neurobiology. Vol. 38 (2012) 535-547.
Investors.com (2017). Adamas Parkinson\\'s drug is double the cost of analyst expectations. Investors\\' Business Daily Retrieved November 20, 2017 from https://www.investors.com/news/technology/adamas-parkinsons-drug-cost-is-double-analyst-expectations/
Lee, H. & Pienaar, I. (2014) Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in Parkinson\\'s disease: Curse or a route to a cure? Frontiers in Bioscience. Vol. 19 (2014) 272-280.
Liptak, K. (2017). White House: Feds will step up marijuana law enforcement. CNN. Retrieved November 20, 2017 from http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/23/politics/white-house-marijuana-donald-trump-pot/index.html
Natale, G., Pasquali, L, Ruggieri, S., Paparelli, A. & Fornai, F. (2008). Parkinson\\'s disease and the gut: A well-known clinical association in need of an effective cure and explanation. Neurogastroenterology and Motility. Vol. 20 (2008) 741-749.
NINDS (2017). Focus on Parkinson\\'s disease research. NINDS.NIH.gov. Retrieved November 20, 2017 from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Current-Research/Focus-Research/Focus-Parkinsons-Disease
Peto, V., Jenkinson, C., Fitzpatrick, R. & Greenhall, R. (1995) The development and validation of a short measure of functioning and well-being for individuals with Parkinson\\'s disease. Quality of Life Research. Vol. 4 (3) 241-248.
Speech Science – Vowel Acoustics in People with Parkinson’s Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that contributes to the progressive decline of motor function because of loss of dopamine-creating brain cells. Given the progressive decline of motor function, this disease shows characteristics of hypokinetic dysarthria as well as major signs of rigidity, tremor, and bradykinesia. In light with these effects, vowel acoustics in people with Parkinson’s disease has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Actually, for many individuals with Parkinson’s disease, hypokinetic dysarthria is a common condition, which is an indicator of motor speech disorders. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine motor speech disorders in Parkinson’s disease, particularly in relation to hypokinetic dysarthria. This paper examines some studies that have been conducted to evaluate the issue of hypokinetic dysarthria in people with Parkinson’s disease with regards to vowel acoustics. The article provides a summary of the articles and…
Bang, Y., Min K., Sohn, Y. H., Cho, S. (2013). Acoustic Characteristics of Vowel Sounds in Patients with Parkinson Disease. Journal NeuroRehabilitation, 32(3), 649-654. doi:10.3233/nre-130887
Skodda, S., Grönheit, W., & Schlegel, U. (2012). Impairment of Vowel Articulation as a Possible Marker of Disease Progression in Parkinsons Disease. PLoS ONE, 7(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032132
Watson, P. J., & Munson, B. (2008). Parkinson\\\\'s disease and the effect of lexical factors on vowel articulation, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(5): EL291–EL295.doi:10.1121/1.2987464
Parkinson disease is considered to be an idiopathic condition. This means that there are no known cures and researchers are still trying to determine its primary causes. When someone is first diagnosed they will exhibit a number of symptoms. The most notable include: shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, trouble walking and gait. (Sanchez, 2009) (Follet, 2010) (Cummings, 1992) (Leroy, 1998)
As the disease progresses, it will contribute to dementia and depression. This is showing its effects on entire body systems. In this outline, there will be a focus on the team strategy, questions and discussing the sources for the condition. Together, these elements will highlight how the study will be conducted and the way objectivity will be maintained. (Sanchez, 2009) (Follet, 2010) (Cummings, 1992) (Leroy, 1998)
Your team strategy for approaching and completing this project, including a delineation of tasks
The basic team strategy will involve dividing responsibilities among the…
Cummings, J. (1992). Depression and Parkinson Disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149 (4), pp. 443 -- 454.
Follet, J. (2010). Pallidal vs. Subthalamic. New England Journal of Medicine, 362, pp. 2077 -- 2091.
Leroy, E. (1998). The Ubiquity Pathway in Parkinson's disease. Nature, 395, pp. 451 -- 457.
Sanchez, J. (2009). Genome Wide Association. Nature Genetics, 41, pp. 1308 -- 1312.
This paper examines the impact of Parkinson’s disease on elderly (65+ years of age) Caucasian males. This is an underserved population in the U.S. 1% of all elderly persons suffer from Parkinson’s and 60% of them are of this underserved population. The paper discusses risk factors that may lead to the onset of this disease but recognizes that the etiology of Parkinson’s is still as of yet unknown. It examines some of the most common health issues of this population and identifies existing barriers to care. The key factors and social determinants of health of this population are discussed and health policies and advocacy groups, such as the Michael J. Fox Foundation are examined in terms of what they bring to the discussion about regulating control and prevention of the disease. Finally, recommendations for improving existing programs and interventions for this population are identified, including: the need to increase…
A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."
In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W. & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain,
Second Edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
" (Fleming et al., 1994)
B. Genetic Factors
hile environmental factors are shown to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease there are also specific mutations linked to the development of PD in certain populations. For example it is reported that a study conducted on Parkinson's Disease and hereditary genetic risks of developing this disease states findings that researchers in the study "...found that ethnic Chinese individuals carrying a mutation they indentified in the LRRK2 gene are over two times more likely to develop the disease than non-carriers." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004) the study was conducted at Mayo Clinic in 2004. The research team not only discovered the LRRK2 gene and the role it plays in Parkinson's disease but as well discovered "...a number of mutations in LRRK2 a gene that codes for poorly understood protein, leucine-rich repeat kinase." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004)
One of the mutations 'G209S…
Wood-Kaczmar, a., Gandhi, S. And Wood, NW (2006) Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease Trends Mol Med. 2006 Nov;12(11):521-8. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Links
Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease.
Priyadarshi, a., Khuder, SA, Schaub, EA and Priyadarshi, SS (2001) Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis. Environe Res. 2001 Jun; 86(2):122-7.
How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease (2009) Psysorg 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.physorg.com/news154950981.html
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…
Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .
Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.
Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.
Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…
Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2
Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002
Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974
Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
PAKINSON'S & ASAGILINE
One of the drugs that has emerged as promising and at least somewhat effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is known as asagiline. This report will explore the neurobiological and psychological implications of the drug as it relates to Parkinson's and in general. The depth and breadth of some of the studies will be discussed as well as how that evidence was found, a general discussion of asagiline and its current/future status as a Parkinson's treatment and how all of the above should be taken with a grain of salt given the limitations that exist. There are some great opportunities for future research when it comes to Parkinson's in general and asagiline in particular.
Parkinson's is a very debilitating and difficult disorder to deal with and treat. Even with the prominence of several major celebrities (e.g. Muhammad Ali, Michael J. Fox, etc.) and increase public…
Badinter, F., Amit, T., Bar-Am, O., Youdim, M. B., & Weinreb, O. (2015). Beneficial behavioral, neurochemical and molecular effects of 1-(R)-aminoindan in aged mice. Neuropharmacology, 99264-272. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.05.041
Giladi, N., Tal, J., Azulay, T., Rascol, O., Brooks, D., Melamed, E., & ... Tolosa, E. (2009). Validation of the freezing of gait questionnaire in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 24(5), 655-661 7p. doi:10.1002/mds.21745
Hanagasi, H., Gurvit, H., Unsalan, P., Horozoglu, H., Tuncer, N., Feyzioglu, A., & Emre, M. (2011). The effects of rasagiline on cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease patients without dementia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Movement Disorders, 26(10), 1851-1858 8p. doi:10.1002/mds.23738
Naoi, M., Maruyama, W., & Inaba-Hasegawa, K. (2013). Revelation in the neuroprotective functions of rasagiline and selegiline: the induction of distinct genes by different mechanisms. Expert Review Of Neurotherapeutics, 13(6), 671-684. doi:10.1586/ern.13.60
Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false
Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false
Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false
Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
Anatomy: Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is a central nervous system disease that is degenerative. It disrupts normal functioning at the cellular level by reducing the activity of cells that secret dopamine (Davie, 109). That happens through the death of cells, as well, in a couple of different regions of the brain. The two regions most affected are both related to movement and learning. They also affect how a person reacts to something, and whether he or she feels like a particular behavior was rewarding. The pathways that connect the basal ganglia of the brain to other areas are all affected in people who have Parkinson's disease (Shulman, De Jager, & Feany, 196). The symptoms are based on the ways in which those pathways are disrupted by the disease process and the death of the cells. As these cells die, they are not able to stop the body's systems from activating…
Davie, C.A. "A review of Parkinson's disease." British Medical Bulletin, 86(1): 109 -- 127. 2008. Print.
Shulman, J.M., De Jager, P.L., & Feany, M.B. "Parkinson's disease: Genetics and pathogenesis." Annual review of pathology, 6: 193 -- 222. 2011. Print.
Huntington's disease affects families
What is Huntington's disease, and how does it affect the patient and his family? How does one deal with the patient? Is there any cure for the disease, and what is it? When was the disease discovered? Who discovered it, and how was it discovered? What way is support offered from external sources for the disease, and how can one avail of the support? What, exactly is Huntington's disease? It is a genetic disease that affects the central nervous system, in individuals who are thirty years and above, though it does occur sometimes in people younger than this. When the disease occurs, it occurs as an inherited autosomal dominant condition, and it affects all or most of the family members within the same family. The onset of symptoms and of the rate of the progression of the disease may differ between the different family members, and…
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.
Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002
Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
Alzheimer's disease has developed into a major health concern for the elderly population throughout the world. This degenerative brain disorder was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907. Today Alzheimer's is one of the most prevalent forms of brain disorders contributing to as much as 50 to 70% of all reported cases of dementia. Over the years the study of early onset Alzheimer's disease (pre-senile AD) has kind of overshadowed the study of late onset Alzheimer in elderly group. However the disease statistics indicate an increasing susceptibility of the older population. Approximately 5% of the population above 65 years of age and around 20% of the people above 85 years of age are affected by Alzheimer's disease. Hence what was previously ignored as an inevitable old age symptom (senile dementia) is now being properly recognized as an illness. This new perspective of AD has resulted in a drastically altered understanding…
Simon Lovestone and Martin Dunitz, " Early diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer's
Disease," Published by Martin Dunitz Ltd., 1998
Gerry Bennett and DR Mark Jones, "The Alzheimer's Handbook," Vermilion
" Does she have faith that a more clear understanding of those problems among the medical establishment will become evident? "I wonder," she wrote, cryptically.
HAT PARENTS HO HAVE PD SHOULD SAY to THEIR CHILDREN: The Parkinson's Disease Society (www.parkinsons.org.uk) offers pertinent advice and counsel to those parents who have both PD and children. "A key message seems to be open and honest" when talking to your kids, the PDS Information Sheet suggests. "Don't keep it a secret." As soon as you are diagnosed with PD, explain to them what it means to your health and to their lives as part of the family as a whole.
Don't be vague or apologetic, the PDS suggests. Be specific and clear, and fully explain that PD is not contagious. Because of the fatigue associated with PD - and the "on-off fluctuations" that are inevitable - parents with PD may not be able…
Ali, Rasheda. "Muhammad Ali's Daughter Writes Children's Book on Parkinson's. ABC
News. 2005. Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/print?id=913265 .
Lees, Lesley. "Living with Parkinson's disease - a child's perspective." British Medical
Journal 324.1562 (2002): Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/short/324/7353/1562?eaf .
In stage five, the affected person will begin to experience "major gaps in memory and deficits in cognitive function" and may require some type of assistance with "day-to-day activities like preparing meals, taking a bath or putting on clothing. The affected person will also lack the ability to recall very simple, ordinary things like his/her address, telephone number or even the name of his/her spouse or close friend and will be unable to recall where they are in a physical setting, such as in a shopping mall or even their own home, and will not be able to recall what day of the week it is or the exact date (2009, "The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's," Internet).
In stage six, the affected person will experience severe cognitive decline in the form of a change in his/her personality and will not be able to "recollect their personal history, such as where…
The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's." Alzheimer's Association. 2009. Internet. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_symptoms_of_alzheimers.asp?gclid=CJfdgdv5o5gCFQrFGgodwnf7mQ .
Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).
Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…
Causes and risk factors. (2016). Health Communities. Retrieved from http://www. healthcommunities.com/huntingtons-disease/cause.shtml.
Denbo, S. M. (2013, January 1). Balancing the rights of children, parents and the state: The legal, ethical and psychological implications of genetic testing in children. Southern Journal of Business and Ethics, 5, 188-190.
Domaradzki, J. (2015, January 1). Lay constructions of genetic risk. A case-study of the Polish Society of Huntington's Disease. Polish Sociological Review, 189, 107-111.
Draper, B. (2004). Dealing with dementia: A Guide to Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Addict, Michael Stein uses a case study approach to exhibit, analyze, and discuss addiction in general and how addiction impacts the lives of individuals specifically. The author takes into account psychological trauma, psycho-social issues, and other situational variables but ultimately ascribes to the disease model of addiction. Stein concludes from his case study with Lucy that substance abuse is a disease just as heart disease is but does not provide any substantial evidence backing up this claim. In fact, Stein (2010) simply calls addiction "the disease of wanting more," which is hardly a scientific assessment of substance abuse (p. 25). If the disease model were supported by the literature, there would be clear outlines of disease etiology and the neurobiological pathways upon which it works. In fact, the disease model has not received unequivocal research support. Although popular and politically effective in terms of freeing up funding for addiction treatment,…
References Not Cited
Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.
Rasmussen, S. (2013). A management model for a chronic disease called addiction. APHA 275427. Retrieved online: https://apha.confex.com/apha/141am/webprogram/Paper275427.html
Volkow, N.D., Koob, G.F. & McLellan, T. (2016). Neurobiologic advances from the brain disease model of addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine 2016(374), 363-371.
A website for Current Nursing touts a health promotion model as espoused by Nola J. Pender, a former professor of nursing at the University of Michigan. The model's focus is on three areas: 1) individual characteristics and experiences, 2) behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and 3) behavioral outcomes (Current Nursing, 2011). Additionally, the model touts the fact that each individual has unique personal characteristics and experiences that will affect their actions and their health. Employing the Pender health promotion model concerning obesity will necessarily entail understanding each individual's motivation for participating in the study, and gearing the study towards those motivations.
It might be a simple matter to understand the motivating factors an obese person will be feeling regarding participation in the study, but to prepare an individualized course of action for each individual would likely entail a lot more time and expense than developing a more broad based approach…
Aitlhadj, L.; Avila, D.S.; Benedetto, A.; Aschner, M.; Sturzenbaum, S.R.; (2010) Environmental exposure, obesity, and Parkinson's disease: Lessons from fat and old worms, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 119, Issue 1, pp. 20 -- 28
Cliff, D.P.; Okely, A.D.; Morgan, P.J.; Jones, R.A.; Steele, J.R.; (2010) The impact of child and adolescent obesity treatment interventions on physical activity: A systematic review, Obesity Reviews, Vol. 11, Issue 7, pp. 516 -- 530
Current Nursing (2011) Health Promotion Models, accessed on August 1, 2011 at: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/health_promotion_model.html ,
Davin, S.A. & Taylor, N.M.; (2009) Comprehensive review of obesity and psychological considerations for treatment, Psychology, Health & Medicine, Vol. 14, Issue 6, pp. 716-725
Conflict of Interest
Should I, as principal investigator of a new drug that potentially could help those who suffer from Parkinson's disease, enroll my father, who has Parkinson's disease, in the study?
My Answer to the Question
First of all, the study entails a brand new drug that has not been researched previously. I am to study the "efficacy and safety" of a drug, we can assume is powerful, whether it is really the answer to Parkinson's or not. I would not enroll my father in this test for several reasons.
If it turns out the drug has harmful side effects I would not want to have subjected my father to that negative impact. Of course that may sound hypocritical because I would then be willing to subject other person's fathers to the potential negative impacts of this experimental drug. But other participants' families will no doubt sign off on…
Academy Health. (2004). Ethical Guidelines for Managing Conflicts of Interest in Health
Services Research. Retrieved March 17, 2015, from http://www.academyhealth.org .
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2015). Parkinson's Disease: Hope
Through Research. Retrieved March 17, 2015, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov .
Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)
The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…
Aarsland, D. Laake, K. Larsen, J.P. & Janvin, C. (2002) Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 72 (6), 708-712.
Cools, R. Barker, R.A. Sahakian, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (December 2001) Enhanced or Impaired Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Dopaminergic Medication and Task Demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11 (12), 1136-1143.
Drapier, D. Peron, J. Leray, E. Sauleau, P. Biseul, I. Drapier, S. Le Jeune, F. Travers, D. Bourguignon, a. Haegelen, C. Millet, B. & Verin, M. (September 2008) Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates. Neuropsychologia 46 (11), 2796-2801.
Dubois, B. Pillon, B. (November 1996) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Nuerology. 244 (1), 2-8.
As people age, there are three main types of cognitive changes that can impair or alter cognitive functioning: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. All of these syndromes are more severe than the normal decline that is expected with aging, though they do not all reach the severity of dementia. Dementia refers to the "the loss of cognitive functioning- thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavior abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities" (NIH, 2013). While there are some similarities between these three conditions, there are also significant differences between the three syndromes. These differences can impact treatment options and also help predict impact on the patient and the family.
MCI is an intermediate stage, which features a more significant cognitive decline than that expected with normal aging, but is not as severe as full-blown dementia. "It can involve problems…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, August 21). Mild Cognitive Impairment. Retrieved October 21, 2013
from Mayo Clinic website: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mild-cognitive-impairment/DS00553
National Institutes on Health. (2013, October 17). Alzheimer's Fact Sheet. Retrieved October
21, 2013 from the National Institute on Aging website: http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-fact-sheet
Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"
Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.
Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…
Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at http://www.st - marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/inheritedpd.htm
Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April
21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures
Web site: http://www.rkm.com.au/BSE/index.html
Another hypothesis that has just began to be explored by the academic community is the possibility that flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling, thus limiting the ability of the cell to initiate rapid growth 8). Study into this area are just beginning to emerge and more information will be available in the next several years.
Potential Health Benefits
The key to solving the riddle of why persons that consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables can expect to have certain health benefits depends on the ability to understand the mechanisms at play. Let us first examine current hypothesis regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for the anti-carcinogenic effects of flavonoids. Research into the mechanisms by which certain flavonoids demonstrate anti-carcinogenic effects can be grouped into five categories. Currently these studies are at the in vitro stage, with a few animal studies in the present group. Therefore, it is not known…
(25) U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Program 107, Human Nutrition, Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods; usda.gov, NP-107-2006, pg 24-29.
(26) Prior, RL, Wu, X, Gu, L. (2006). Flavonoid Metabolism and Challenges to Understanding Mechanisms of Health Effects, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 86(15): 2487-2491
medication for patient named KM is Prothiaden. Prothiaden is used to treat depression as well as limit the feelings of anxiety in those taking it. The case file indicates a normal MI and no previous diagnosis of neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. Patient KM has complained of depression and anxiety related to the passing of her mother. Progressive functional and cognitive decline has presented ever since mother died four years ago.
Although the patient worked until the age of 60 as an accountant, within the last 18 months patient has experienced fluctuations in mood, confusion, mild word finding difficulties and spatial disorientation. She also has visual hallucinations and violent dreams. She experienced recent falls and a slowing of motor skills. These symptoms extend to the inability to carry out motor sequences with either hand or double alternating hand movements. Although she can detect shapes well, she has poor ability in…
Armstrong, M., Litvan, I., Lang, A., Bak, T., Bhatia, K., Borroni, B., Boxer, A., Dickson, D., Grossman, M., Hallett, M., Josephs, K., Kertesz, A., Lee, S., Miller, B., Reich, S., Riley, D., Tolosa, E., Troster, A., Vidailhet, M. and Weiner, W. (2013). Criteria for the diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration. Neurology, 80(5), pp.496-503.
Ballard, C., Jacoby, R., Del Ser, T., Khan, M., Munoz, D., Holmes, C., Nagy, Z. and Perry, E. (2004). Neuropathological Substrates of Psychiatric Symptoms in Prospectively Studied Patients With Autopsy-Confirmed Dementia With Lewy Bodies: American Journal of Psychiatry: Vol 161, No 5. American Journal of Psychiatry, [online] 161(5), p.843. Available at: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.161.5.843 [Accessed 19 Sep. 2015].
Burke, A., Yaari, R., Tariot, P., Dougherty, J., Fleisher, A. and Brand, H. (2012). The Shadow People. The Primary Care Companion For CNS Disorders.
Ciro, C., Hershey, L. and Garrison, D. (2013). Enhanced Task-Oriented Training in a Person With Dementia With Lewy Bodies. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(5), pp.556-563.
Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure
egents Online Degree Program
Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.
M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…
Ahern J, Kruger DF, Gatcomb P, Petit W, Tamborlane W.,(1989). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): the trial coordinators perspective. Diabetes Educ 15:236 -- 281
Bassilios N, Launay-Vacher V, Khoury N, et al. (2001) Gabapentin neurotoxicity in a chronic haemodialysis patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant.
Blum RA, Comstock TJ, Sica DA, et al.(1994). Pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in subjects with various degrees of renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther;56(2):154-159
Brawek B, Loffler M, Dooley DJ, Weyerbrock A, Feuerstein TJ.(2008) Differential modulation of K (+)-evoked (3)H-neurotransmitter release from human neocortex by gabapentin and pregabalin. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol.:376(5):301-307
Fall Among the Elderly Age Group
Falls among the Elderly Age Group
Expected falls and unexpected falls
isk Elements for Falls
Outline of Several Different Strategies
Counseling and Health Education Strategies
Exercise and physical activity 8
Interventions of Unidentified Effectiveness
Developed Based on your Understanding of the Public Health Problem
Schedule an appointment with your Medic
Wear sensible shoes
According to JM (2009), "As people get older, falls turn out to be a typical and often hurting issue that occurs among those that are in the elderly category, producing a huge quantity of illness, death and use of health care services as well as premature nursing home admittances ( p. 42)." However, falls are a difficult, multi-faceted problem that comprises of social, medical, and financial elements. Medically, the mixture of a high occurs of falls and an increased…
A., B. (2012). Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. United Kingdom: Open University Press.
Campbell AJ, R. M. (2013). Rethinkingindividual and community fall preventionstrategies: a meta- regression comparingsingle and multifactorial interventions. Age and Ageing, 21(6), 656-662.
JM., H. (2009). Cognitive and Emotional benefits of exercise may mediate fall reduction. British Medical Journal, 128, 325(.
Lord SR, T. A. (2013). The effect of an individualized fall prevention program on fallrisk and falls in older people: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 14(8), 1296-1304.
Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan
BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274
Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)
6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…
16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
Alzheimer’s Intervention Evaluation
This paper provides a basic evaluation plan for evaluating a health program for elderly patients with Alzheimer’s. The health program focuses on designing and implementing an open space concept for the patient, having a social worker regularly meet with the patient and loved one or caretakers to ensure support, having family therapy sessions available for loved ones acting as caretakers if they should want it and providing a falls prevention initiative through training in an exercise routine to strengthen the balance and agility of the elderly person—all of which are considered vital aspects to improving the health status of an elderly person with Alzheimer’s (Canning et al., 2015; Hoof, Kort, Van Warde & Blom, 2010; Rubin, 2011). The overall question an intervention evaluation asks is: Was the intervention implemented as planned? (Harris, 2010). The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation plan for the…
Anomic Aphasia is also known as nominal aphasia, dysnomia, and amnesic aphasia and refers to a disorder that generates difficulties in recalling names or words. This brain disorder is considered as a dearth of expressive language that makes it difficult for an individual to recall names or words. In addition, patients suffering from anomic aphasia experience difficulties in recalling numbers. While an individual has clear understanding of what he/she is attempting to name or write, he/she requires a relatively long period of time to recall it or may experience tremendous challenges in articulating the word, name or numbers. In some cases, patients suffering from anomic aphasia produce jargon words or other words when attempting to recall or express certain words, names or numbers. The other symptom of this condition is the inability for a patient to identify the appropriate word for an object or individual through he/she has the capability…
The control of motor movement progresses from mastery of gross movement to fine motor control as humans develop (Wilson, 2013). This progression depends on the maturation of the extrapyramidal motor system, followed by the maturation of the pyramidal motor system. The extrapyramidal motor system incorporates multiple areas of the brain that are involved in controlling gross motor movements, including the cerebellum and basal ganglia. The cerebellum functions to coordinate muscle movement in response to sensory stimuli generated by muscles, tendons, the reticular formation, and the vestibular system. By comparison, the role of the basal ganglia in regulating muscle movement is still being investigated. In general terms, the basal ganglia serve as an information relay center for various centers within the cerebral cortex; however, researchers seem to agree that one of the functions of the basal ganglia is to inhibit muscle movements before they can begin.
esearchers have also…
Rieger, Martina, Gauggel, Siegfied, and Burmeister, Katja. (2003). Neuropsychology, 17(2), 272-282.
Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Onlaor, S., and Gluck, M.A. (2004). Role of the basal ganglia in category learning: How do patients with Parkinson's disease learn? Behavioral Neuroscience, 118(4), 676-686.
Stocco, Andrea, Lebiere, Christian, and Anderson, John R. (2010). Conditional routing of information to the cortex: A model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination. Psychological Review, 117(2), 541-574.
Wilson, Josephine F. (2013). Biological Basis of Behavior. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-62178-103-5.
Although the severities of congestive signs may be similar, medical evaluation should be instructed to determine whether there is accompanying proof of cardiovascular disease. Physical proof of cardiovascular disease contains the narrow pulse pressure, cool arms, and legs, and sometimes changed mentation, with supporting proof sometimes provided by reducing serum sodium level and deteriorating renal function. Cardiovascular disease is frequently difficult to recognize through phone contact but may be suspected when previously effective diuretic increases fail, nurses report lower blood pressure, or patients explain improved lethargy.
Facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes
Environmental factors and cultural beliefs; motivators and hinders
In this case, the client thought he was suffering from a heart attack and feared to come to the hospital. The symptoms had presented for four days before the patient sought help. The patient had been suffering from similar symptoms for the past six months, but thought…
American Association of Cardiovascular (2013). Guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs. John Wiley & Sons.
Bunting-Perry, L.K., & Vernon, G.M. (2007). Comprehensive nursing care for Parkinson's disease. New York: Springer Pub.
Holloway, N.M. (2014). Medical-surgical care planning. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Gulanick, M. (2007). Nursing care plans: Nursing diagnosis and intervention. St. Louis: Mosby.
4. What is the advantage of a "patch"?
Evidently, the drug rivastigmine causes gastrointestinal side effects, but the patch allows only a small amount to be steadily absorbed into the bloodstream and thus creates fewer negative reactions to the drug. The Novartis website makes the case for a patch over a pill by saying "On average, an older American takes 5 prescription medicines. These medicines may need to be taken at different times and managing them all may seem overwhelming" (Novartis, para. 1). In this case, a patch eliminates having to remember several doses each day of one of the medications.
5. What is "moderate" dementia? What is dementia?
Dementia affects brain function. There is no known cure for dementia. It refers to several illnesses (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy or DLB) involving behavior, memory, communication and learning problems. There are other conditions in the brain which damage nerves or blood…
Activa. (2008). Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. Activa Deep Brain Stimulation. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website: http://www.activadbs.com/symptoms.asp .
Medications and treatment. (2008). Parkinson's Disease Foundation Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website: http://www.pdf.org/AboutPD/med_treatment.cfm .
NHS. (2005). Holding Statement. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/Alzheimer_holdingstatement.pdf .
NHS. (2007). Final appraisal determination: Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine (review) and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Centre Director Report for Guidance Executive. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from Website: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/GE050705AlzFADSignoffReport.pdf .
Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).
Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…
Jankovic, J. (2008). Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:368 -- 376.
Neve, A.K. (2009). The Dopamine Receptors, The Receptors. Edition 2. Springer.
Webster, R. (2001). Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. John Wiley and Sons.
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…
"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.st udentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html
"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html
"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html
Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
Kuru Sorcery in New Guinea
Introduction to Shirley indenbaum
The author of Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands, Shirley indenbaum, is a cultural anthropologist and professor in the Ph.D. Program in the Department of Anthropology at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. In addition to her ground-breaking research in Papua New Guinea - studying the prion ailment called "kuru" (explored in depth in this paper) and linking cannibalism to kuru - indenbaum has conducted extensive research (and published books and scholarly articles) on cholera in Bangladesh, and on AIDS and HIV in the U.S. And elsewhere. She also has published books titled The Education of Women and the Mortality of Children in Bangladesh, and Knowledge, Power and Practice: the Anthropology of Medicine and Everyday ife, according to her bibliography in the City University of New York Web pages for faculty members (www.gc.cuny.edu/anthropology/fac_lindenbaum.html).
Lindenbaum, Shirley. Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands.
Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1979.
Nutrition Health Review. "Kuru, a Meat-Eating Disease that affects Cannibals." (2003)
Mr. H case study
What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.
Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…
Alzheimer's disease: Treatment and drugs. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:
Diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. (2013). BehaveNet. Retrieved from:
hat treatments did the individual seek? ere any available at the time?
Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.
Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to…
Crews, C. (1998, May 3). The role he can't escape. Washington Post. Washington Post
Hall, F. (2005). Christopher Reeve. UU World: The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist
This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, R. (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, R., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. Received: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Solomon, N., McKee, A. And Garcia-Barry, S. (2001). Intensive voice treatment and respiration treatment for hypokinetic-spastic dysarthria after traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. (10) 51-64.
What was the problem or question the authors were asking?
A young man who had sustained massive brain trauma was examined to see which method would help him to breath and speak properly again.
What research or background information was described?
The efficacy of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) was explored and tested in terms of a patient twenty months after the sustainment of a major injury. LSVT is "an intensive 4-week program that focuses on increased vocal effort" (Solomon 2001,-page 51). It has proven to be successful in helping patients with Parkinson's.
c. Therefore, what was the purpose of the present article?
To see whether or not the LSVT would help a young man with traumatic brain injury (tbi) and…
Currently affiliated with Courage Center, Minneapolis, MN
Submitted on February 18, 2000
Accepted on November 20, 2000
Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)
In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely…
About Dementia. http://www.about-dementia.com/.2006.
Davis, Alison. "Stress -- it might be even worse than you think," a Summary of the Conference "Biology of Stress" co-sponsored by the OBSSR and NIGMS, April 12, 2006.
Huang, Cindy S., et al. "Common Molecular Pathways Mediate Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Excitation and Slow Synaptic Inhibition." Cell (Journal), Volume 123, Issue 1, 7 October 2005, Pages 105-118.
Pearce, Gillian. Depression Antidotes Newsletter. Thu, 15 Jul 1999-18:35:21 -0400.
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…
Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.
Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.
Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.
Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…
Bell, H. (2000) "Case Study: The Uninsured" American Medical Student Association. < http://www.amsa.org/tnp/uninsured.cfm >
Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…
Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
aldness and thinning hair are common and the ultimate fate of almost all men and women as they age. In fact, hair loss is genetic in origin, and as we come to a greater understanding of the biology and genetics of hair loss, we are beginning to find novel solutions to this age-old "problem" of the human condition. We have come a long way from the treatments for hair loss in ancient Egypt, which used a mixture of crocodile fat and hippopotamus dung to combat baldness. Another ancient cure for baldness included eating fried leeches. Men have been attempting to treat their hair loss for over 5000 years, beginning in approximately 3500 C, when a list of treatments was passed on from generation to generation and incorporated into the medical libraries of Egyptian healers. In 1553 C, the Ebers Papyrus, discovered in Luxor, Egypt, suggested a baldness prescription of iron,…
Bruning, Nancy Paul. What You Can Do About Chronic Hair Loss (The Dell Medical Library) Dell, 1993.
Jacobs, Sheila. The Big Fall: Living With Hair Loss Next Century Books, 1992
Kobren, Spencer David; Eisman, Diane B; Eisman, Eugene H. The Bald Truth: The First Complete Guide to Preventing and Treating Hair Loss, Pocket Books. 2000
Kobren, Spencer David; Christiano, Angela. The Truth About Women's Hair Loss: What Really Works for Treating and Preventing Thinning Hair. Mcgraw Hill, 2000.
Schizophrenia Affects the Brain, Person, & Family
This paper looks at the how schizophrenia affects the brain, the person, & the family, also looking at the history of the subject and its role within society. Bibliography cites four sources
Schizophrenia is one of a range of mental conditions that is widely misunderstood. May see it as a relatively recent disease, and the term has only been in use for about a century. However the condition is not new. This disease, which is one of the most disabling of the range of metal conditions, can be traced back for millennia. The first documented cases appears to have occurred in Ancient Egypt, where a discretion of the condition is described in the Eber papyrus, in the Book of Hearts (kasha, 1999). The condition was not understood in detail, and the treatment was usually incubation, this was an achieved by spending the…
Okasha A, (1999), Mental Health in the Middle East: An Egyptian Perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 8, 917-33
RXlist, (2002), [online] accessed at http://www.rxlist.com/
National Institute of Mental Health, (2002), [online] accessed at www.nimh.nih.gov
Altering the Universe: From Gutenberg to Biotech
Revolution is in the air. hile the digital revolution is transforming our view of the universe, the biotech revolution has the potential to alter the universe itself. The parallel with the invention of the printing press and the Renaissance is clear. (Blake, 2001). "Gutenberg's and Caxton's inventions turned the world figuratively and intellectually upside down and heralded new patterns of human activity and organization that were inconceivable prior to the early 15th century." (Blake, 2001, pg. 9). One of the great achievements of that era was the quick adaptation of this communications revolution to every aspect of human life. Today, "we are at the beginning of a new Renaissance...." (Blake, 2001, pg. 9). One of the more controversial elements of this new Renaissance is stem cell research. There is perhaps no field fraught with more possibility along with questions of morality and medical…
Bartlett, Roscoe G. "Do Stem-Cell Research without Killing Embryos." Insight on the News 3 Sept. 2001: 44.
Blake, Christopher R.L. "A Different Reason for Worrying about Stem Cell Research." Matrix: The Magazine for Leaders in Higher Education Oct. 2001: 9.
The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)
Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).
Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such…
Info Center. (2006) In Stem Cell Information. National Institute for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.stemcells.nih.gov/info.defaultpage, Accessed November 13, 2006
The condition was shown to be the second-most common cause of older adults being institutionalized because of the inordinately demanding nature of caring for them that is typically beyond the ability of many spouses or other family members. In the final analysis, the chances of older adults suffering from urinary incontinence are fairly high given that the population will increasingly include older adults, many of whom will be among the very old.
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Fantl, J.A., Newman, D.K., Colling, J. et al. (1996).…
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.
Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama
The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…
AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009 http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/ .
Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp .
Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009 http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf .
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.
Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.
Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:
No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.
Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.
Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.
Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.
The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…
Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New
World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell