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Compare and Contrast -- styles in the same subject, the works of Paul Cezanne and Camille Pissarro
Both the oil depictions of Paul Cezanne of "Jallais Hill: Pontoise 1867" and Camille Pissarro of "Jallais Hill, Pontoise 1879-81" show the same green and rural French local, during the same century, but as envisioned through the eyes of two different men. Occasionally, such a contrasting study of two works might purely highlight the differences of two artist's rendering of the same subject. But of the relationship of Camille Pissarro and Paul Cezanne, a recent article noted, "their artistic relationship lasted longer than some marriages." (AP ire, 2005) In fact, from the time they met in France in 1861, these two men were said to recognize each other as kindred artistic spirits. This can be seen in the same similar and simple choice of subject of the work, as well as…
Associated Press Wire. "MoMA Exhibit Explores Relationship Between Cezanne, Pissarro." 27 Jun 2005. NBC Entertainment News. http://www.wnbc.com/entertainment/4655350/detail.html
"Paul Cezanne." Biography. Expo. 2005.
The words "stripped skirt" not only literary defines the type of the dress but also describes the lady's personality as she was a fashion icon of her time and was famous for her dress sense and elegancy. Hence the title itself depicted her as a lady with a powerful personality (Art Galleries, 2009).
The other painting under discussion is the art work of Henri Matisse titled as "The woman with a Hat." This is also a hand made oil painting produced in 1905 and the women in the picture are believed to be Matisse's wife Amelie. The art style used in his picture by the painter was different from that of his precedor, Paul Cezanne. Cezanne painting is an example of his impressionist style with the use of real life colors and expressions in the painting while Matisse used unnatural brighter and expressive colors and tones, creating an art piece…
Art Galleries, (2009). Zannes, World of Influence, retrieved August 9, 2011 from http://www.boston.com / ae / theater arts / articles / 2009/03/08 / c233zannes world_of_influence/?page=2
Did you Know, (n.d.). The Worldwide Art Gallery, retrieved August 9, 2011 from http://www.theartgallery.com . au/DidYouKnow.html
Nicolas P. (2002). Cezanne, Paul: Portraits of Mme Cezanne, Web Museum Paris, retrieved August 9, 2011 from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/portraits/mme/
Tate, (2007), Glossary: Fauvism, Retrieved on August 9, 2011 from http://www.tate.org.uk/collections/glossary/definition.jsp?entryId=102
Now I will discuss the middle ground of the painting. The middle ground consists of a triangular shape and of the roadway leading back to the focal point. Together with the Roman Aqueduct, which resembles bridge, a triangular shape is forged. It leads the eye back to the mountain.
The background of the painting consists of the focal point - the luscious, golden hued mountain.
Paul Cezanne's Mont Sainte Victoire is an exceptional piece of work that has its roots in realistic landscape painting. At the same time, with Cezanne's masterful line work and heightened color effects, the painting comes across as something truly not of this world.
Martin, David F., and Lee a. Jacobus. The Humanities Through the Arts. 7th ed. New York:
Lisa Moore, 2008.…
Martin, David F., and Lee a. Jacobus. The Humanities Through the Arts. 7th ed. New York:
Lisa Moore, 2008. 26-27
hereas Plato believes that art is by definition imitation of life, Cezanne believed that the role of art was not to imitate or copy life but to enhance it, contribute to it, and comment on it. Cezanne said that art was a "harmony running parallel to nature," not a method of imitating nature (Art Institute of Chicago). Cezanne assumed a deconstructionist approach to art, which would eventually inspire the all-out shift towards cubism and abstraction. This can be seen in paintings like "Mont Sainte-Victoire," in which the landscape is constructed of various shapes that come together to form a cohesive whole: there are distinct triangles forming the roofs of the houses, showcasing the triangular yet curvilinear shape of the hill beyond, the titular Mont Sainte-Victoire.
Although he was not visual artist aesthetics were central to Plato's philosophy, and that philosophy would end up having a strong impact on the evolution…
Art Institute of Chicago. About this artwork, n.d.. Retrieved online: http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/111436
Cezanne, Paul. "Mont Sainte Victoire." Retrieved online: https://waldina.com/2016/01/19/happy-177th-birthday-paul-cezanne/#jp-carousel-15500
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. "Cezanne's Doubt." Painting: Powers of Observation. Retrieved online: http://www.powersofobservation.com/2011/01/cezannes-doubt.html
"Paul Cezanne." The Art Story. N.d. Retrieved online: http://www.theartstory.org/artist-cezanne-paul.htm
These pastel-colored etches influenced Degas' late-life paintings. Those were characterized by women frequently engaged in some type of grooming, such as bathing. Rather than the tightly-structured lines of his earlier works, these later works seemed more hurriedly-drawn and less meticulous than his early works.
For example, in oman Drying Her Hair, a pastel on paper, Degas depicts the back of a nude woman, drying her hair. Unlike many of his works, which overtly differentiate between women of different classes and different occupations, this image in the photo is very every-woman. The bather is classically female, but the painting holds no clues as to her lifestyle outside of the bath. Moreover, the work demonstrates Degas' unique use of light, as it contains unrealistic amounts of shadow, almost as if the bather is caste in an artificial light. Though Degas rejected much of what has come to be associated with Impressionism, his…
Degas, Edgar. Dancer at Rest, Hands Behind her Back, Right Leg Forward. Brooklyn Museum,
Brooklyn, NY, 1882-1895.
Degas, Edgar. Portrait of Mlle Fiocre in the Ballet "La Source." Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn,
Art is something that can be appreciated in several ways. Thanks to the various museums cities have to offer, one can visit numerous places and see exhibitions from various artists. Two such places are the David Zwirner Galley and The Guggenheim. Both places have introduced audiences to interesting and thought-provoking works of art. Four of which will be featured here. The artists of the four works are Robert Crumb and Paul Cezanne.
David Zwirner Gallery is a modern art gallery located in New York City, offering another location in London. Owned by David Zwirner it features of collections of artists like Robert Crumb. For twelve years from 2000-2012, the Gallery was known as Zwirner & irth Gallery.
The R. Crumb Art & Beauty exhibition which opened April 15th and ends June 2nd, 2016, is an exhibition featuring various sketches. Lined up in a stark, white room, these black and white…
Guggenheim, "Still Life: Plate of Peaches." Guggenheim. N.p., 1879. Web. 18 May 2016.
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Life with Apples," ca. 1893-94. The original work is an oil on canvas, hung in the J. Paul Getty Museum in California. Cezanne painted many still lifes, and many with apples, but this is one of his most interesting and detailed looks at common, everyday objects.
Paul Cezanne was born in 1839 in Aix-en-Provence, a small town about fifteen miles north of Marseilles. His family was prosperous, and the boy was well educated. He first studied law, but also began to take lessons at the Drawing Academy of Aix, and found he enjoyed art much more than the law. By 1861, his father allowed him to go to Paris to continue his art studies, and his career as an artist was born. Even his art teacher did not encourage his interest in supporting himself as an artist. He returned for a time to his hometown to work in his father's…
Cezanne, Paul. "Still Life with Apples. J. Paul Getty Museum. 2005. 15 Oct. 2005.
Eitner, Lorenz. An Outline of 19th Century European Painting: From David through Cezanne. 1st ed. New York: Westview Press, 1992.
Schapiro, Meyer. Paul Cezanne. 2nd ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1962.
La Berceuse (Woman Rocking
Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.
incent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,
Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996
The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of an Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.
The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. ery near the time of his breakdown at Arles.
La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle…
Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.
3. London: Thames and Hudson.
Fry, R. 1998. Cezanne. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Another possibility is to allow companies to convert traditional defined-benefit pensions, which encourage retirement as early as age 55, to cash-balance plans, which have no built-in incentives to retire. Perhaps the most controversial idea is to break the typical link between pay and seniority. As more people work into their late 60s and 70s, pay should be adjusted to match how much people work and what they accomplish on the job.
Basing pay on performance is a controversial idea because what the criterions of performance for most hi-level professional jobs that older workers are performing are ambiguous at best. How does one determine success at a professional job? Unlike a manual job, where productivity can be measured in, for example, widgets per hour, professional job performance involve intangible factors such as interpersonal relations and communication skills. In many cases, performance may be defined solely in terms of what your boss…
Spirit of Change
a) In Still Life with Plaster Cast, the viewer sees a painting-within-a-painting. Identify and describe another work in your text that uses a similar approach.
Cezanne's Post-Impressionist 'take' on the constructed nature of art is not the only treatment of 'the artist and his art' as a subject of painting. The painter Courbet's more realistic portrayal of a 'painting within a painting' called The Artist's Studio shows an artist painting in a large room, surrounded by the metaphorical representations of 'influences' upon his work, over the course of the seven years it took the artist to construct the painting. A nude, beautiful woman looks over the painter's shoulder and a child and a small dog gaze up at the painting in rapt attention. Courbet's meaning is less ambiguous than Cezanne's more humorous and deflated view of the nature of art. Cezanne's less beautiful, broken Cupid and ugly…
Cezanne, Paul: The Mont Sainte-Victoire and Bibemus saga. (2012). Web Museum. Retrieved:
Rosenthal, Donald. (1999). Gustave Courbet. Discover France. Retrieved:
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…
Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.
Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992
Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.
Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…
Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,
1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper
Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-
The manner in which Cezanne abstractly modulated color in his paintings was seminal to the controversial cubist style. What is more, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon simplified previous endeavors in terms of structure by employing a savage two-dimensional angularity, and as such was exponential for early modern art.
Modernist painting, in Clement Greenberg's words, "used art to call attention to art" (193) as opposed to ealism's alleged concealment of art. Formerly inferred drawbacks attached to the limits imposed by the medium of painting, such as the plain surface, the pigment's properties or the shape of the support, were brought to light in modernism and even considered positive elements (Greenberg 195). To list various embodiments of the modern newly found openness and embracing of factors that used to be regarded as glitch, Piet Mondrian's minimalist Composition in Yellow, ed, and Blue, Jack Pollock's abstract expressionist Autumn hythm, Mark othko's 1959 Lavender…
Greenberg, Clement. Modernist painting. Art and Literature Spring 1965: 193-201
hey created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.
Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. heir art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. hat is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. hey do not conform, rather, they dare to be…
Through their art, they changed what was accepted in the art world, but they also made social commentaries about what was happening in society. For example, in 1938, Picasso painted "Guernica," an emotional reaction to the bombing of a Spanish Basque town by Nazi bombers. The painting has remained one of his most famous and well-known, as much for its depiction of the destroyed town and some of the victims as for its staunch and clear stand against the brutality of the Nazis. These artists were not afraid to stand up for what they believed in, and they wanted to change society to become a better place. They created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.
Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. Their art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. That is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. They do not conform, rather, they dare to be different and unique and hope tastes will change and people will begin to embrace their art. They do not give up, however. Matisse is a good example of that tenacity that turns into favor. His work was modern when Impressionism had finally come into vogue, and he had to wait many years for his artwork to be accepted and viable. The avant-garde artist is different and unique - on the cutting edge so to speak - and so, they create new and daring art forms that take time to be accepted, but usually are.
It is also interesting to note that once an artist and their style or movement has become accepted, they often move on to a new style or movement. For example, modern artist Salvador Dali embraced Dadaism, and then took it one step further with his own "Paranoiac Critical Method." When that movement became accepted, he created another, "Nuclear Mysticism" later in his life. Dali also did not confine himself to one medium, but worked in sculpture, jewelry, and even theater sets. Each of these artists worked for what they believed in and for social change and acceptance.
This exhibition shows the artists as young men struggling to make it on their own, showing the influences of their key friends including the Stein family.
In addition to Picasso who would go on to become world known and the most famous of all artists living in the area of Paris ertrude Stein was living at the time, Paul Cezanne, Edgar Degas, Paul auguin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec were also regular visitor to the Stein's apartment. The influence of ertrude Stein as a benefactor of their works is evident in how they portray the Stein family in general and ertrude specifically. Two of the most celebrated French painters of the 19th century, Edouard Manet, and Auguste Renoir, are also included in the exhibition. Seeing paintings from these two French impressionistic masters is worth the trip to New York alone. Their work is exceptional and technique so unique no one has been…
Gertrude Stein knew Pablo Picasso personally and often watched him paint the works shown in this exhibition. There are a few self-portraits of Gertrude Stein as well in the collection. In 1903 Gertrude Stein arrived in Paris and opened her bookstore on the South Bank of Paris. Over time she made friends with the leading artists living in and around Paris, including Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso. Both of them were unknown and struggling to make ends meet, often painting pictures of wealthy Parisians for pay, staying with Gertrude Stein and her brothers when they could not afford their own apartments. it's stories like this that make the exhibition so fascinating to look at, as these world-famous artists were creating these works of art before they were globally recognized and much more wealthier. This exhibition shows the artists as young men struggling to make it on their own, showing the influences of their key friends including the Stein family.
In addition to Picasso who would go on to become world known and the most famous of all artists living in the area of Paris Gertrude Stein was living at the time, Paul Cezanne, Edgar Degas, Paul Gauguin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec were also regular visitor to the Stein's apartment. The influence of Gertrude Stein as a benefactor of their works is evident in how they portray the Stein family in general and Gertrude specifically. Two of the most celebrated French painters of the 19th century, Edouard Manet, and Auguste Renoir, are also included in the exhibition. Seeing paintings from these two French impressionistic masters is worth the trip to New York alone. Their work is exceptional and technique so unique no one has been able to imitate it.
The exhibition shows how an arts benefactor, Gertrude Stein, has been able to create a lively, active artistic community in Paris in the early 20th century. Her involved and support for these artists made it possible for them to turn their great ideas for art into finished works, and the world is richer for it. The exhibition also includes sculptures and artifacts that Gertrude Stein collected during those years. It will be like stepping into a time machine and walking out in the early 20th century on the left bank of Paris, which would have been fascinating.
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Along with Georges Braque, Fernand Leger and Pablo Picasso were firmly at the forefront of the cubist movement in modern art. Cubism sprouted from Picasso's experimentations with collage, along with Braque, but later morphed into an interpretive and expressive style of painting that heralded many related movements in abstract modern art including futurism. As Fitz puts it, Picasso used the cubist style to express the things he could not see, but which he knew were there; the things that everybody is "certain of seeing," but which are not depicted on a traditional canvas (228). As a result, Picasso reinvented painting, and reinterpreted what the function of painting was. Leger deserves credit also, for he too pursued the " quest for a means by which to accurately describe three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional canvas," (Spector). Leger and Picasso developed totally unique and distinct brands of cubism, even if their formative…
Dickerman, Leah. Inventing Abstraction. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2013.
Fitz, L.T. "Gertrude Stein and Picasso: The Language of Surfaces." American Literature. Vol. 45, No. 2. May 1973.
Lanchner, Carolyn, Leger, Fernand, Hauptman, Jody, Afron, Matthew, and Erikson, Kristen. Fernand Leger. New York: The Museum of Modern Art. 1998.
Spector, Nancy. "Fernand Leger." Guggenheim. Retrieved online: http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/show-full/piece/?search=Nude%20Model%20in%20the%20Studio&page=&f=Title&object=49.1193
Gustave Courbet, Bonjour Monsieur Courbet 1854.
Works of Art
The world of art includes a picture in a location, someplace in either fictional or real universe. It is usually a view framing a section of space, and occupies an elaborate ground. It forms a vicinity; a scene with entrance and exit. Pictures formed here tend to be a bit precise. The place of the picture is attached to a particular site within the world. Some fixed landmarks and scheduled stop in the art identifies the reasons as to why the picture settled at a given place of the surface earth.
Some other pictures pitch their tents at any place. They have no particular place; it is jut someplace where somebody is. For example, Gustave Courbet's The Meeting reveals three men on a country way doffing their hats. The artist himself is the man with staff and backpack, while the man…
Courbet, Gustave, (1992) Letters of Gustave Courbet, University of Chicago Press,
Clark, Timothy J., (1999) Image of the People: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 Revolution, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Danto, Arthur C. (1989) "Courbet," The Nation.
Gustave Courbet (1819). The Meeting, or Bonjour Monsieur Courbet, 1854. Oil on canvas.
ealism as a Social Movement
ealism as an art movement established itself around the time when there were many social changes and political movements, enlightenment and industrial revolution. The 1940s saw hard times both economically and socially and realism as a form of art and a social movement came in to defy the traditional trends of art depicting heroic figures and towing the political lines. ealism achieved a democratic political dimension that depicted the true living conditions of people in society and the despondency that existed. It had a leftist origin and it was art against social decadence and advocated for social change especially from the political class. This break brought about by realism made realism to be considered the beginning of modern art. The artist call for social change through their painting at time displayed unflinching and a lot of time ugly moments of life as it was hence…
Ireland C., (2010). When Photography Became Art. Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2010/10/when-photography-became-art/
The Art Story, (2016). Realism. Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://www.theartstory.org/movement-realism-artworks.htm#pnt_3
Webexhibits, (2016). Impressionism: The Innovations and Influence. Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://www.webexhibits.org/colorart/page18.html
Camille Pissarro was born in St. Thomas in Virgin Islands. A famous Fresh impressionist, Pissarro was taught and influenced by Barbizon and Corot School. ("Pissarro, Camille," 2012) It wasn't until later that Pissarro linked himself with the other impressionists and thus was portrayed in all the impressionist exhibitions. The era of the eight impressionists lasted from 1874 till 1886. From 1885 till 1890, Pissarro led a Neo-impressionist phase. Along with sharing and trying out different forms of art, Pissarro didn't back away from being an amazing teacher. He taught art to artists like Van Gogh, Cezanne and Gaugin.
The first school that Pissarro attended was at Passy near Paris during 1842 till 1847. It was his time during this school that Pissarro developed interest in drawing and going to museums. None of his parents had a link or interest in art as they were both merchants. It was…
(2007). Technique, style and method of Camille Pissarro. Retrieved from: http://www.degas-painting.info/impresionists/camille_pissarro_style_technique.htm . Accessed November 23, 2012.
(2012) Pissarro, Camille. The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed).The Columbia University Press
Clement, R.T., & Houze, A. (1999) Neo-Impressionist Painters: A Sourcebook on Georges Seurat, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Theo Van Rysselberghe, Henri Edmond Cross, Charles Angrand, Maximilien Luce, and Albert Dubois-Pillet. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
DeLue, R.Z. (1998) Pissarro, Landscape, Vision and Tradition. The Art Bulletin, 80 (4).
Post-Impressionist artists were interested in the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche, particularly in his concept of the Ubermensch, a superman who would be capable through intense struggle of surmounting the lower forces that would limit his ability to achieve. The idea that man could evolve beyond his present capacities influenced the relationship of European man to previous cultures and to contemporary but less "civilized" societies. This paper explores the ways in which Paul Gauguin applied the Ubermensch concept to his art and to his life, and examines parallel motifs in the oeuvres of his contemporaries.
The Artist Gauguin: Man, Nature, Ubermensch and God
At the beginning of the enaissance, Massacio painted The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, and initiated a new view of humanity: an intensely personal and emotionalized struggle against fate. In spite of the Neo-Classical return to the formal norms of the past, the…
Biography of Gauguin. http://www.abcgallery.com/G/gauguin/gauguinbio/html (November 14, 2002).
Dillon, John K. (1997) The Death of Tragedy: The philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche's Ubermensch. http://www.nsula.edu/scholars_college/Thesisabstracts/HSTtheses/dillon.html (November 14, 2002).
Gauguin, Paul. (1897) Noa: The Tahitian Journal. 1985 ed. Dover Publishing.
Norris, George. (1996) Expressionism: Its Spiritual and Social Voice. http://www.br.cc.va.us/vcca/norris.html (November 15, 2002).
The perspective might seem extreme. In this sense, it is important to understand that Van Gogh was trying to break free from the limitations of the perspective frame which imposed realistic perspectives and proportions. Moreover, towards the end of his life, at the peak of his artistic maturity, he rebelled against the muted colors that Dutch painters were using at the time.
tylistically, the task of understanding Van Gogh's paintings cannot be undertaken without a proper look at what Post-Impressionism meant. Post-Impressionism took Impressionism to another level. However, Post-Impressionists continued to use vivid colors and real-life subject matter, as well as thick layering of paint. In addition, nonetheless, Post-Impressionists rejected the confines of Impressionism which upheld natural colors and traditional forms. From this point-of-view, Van Gogh along with other Post-Impressionists such as Cezanne, Gaugain and Bonnard, blurred the limitations of conventional form, and distorted it in order to increase the…
Neo-Impressionism." Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.impressionniste.net/neo-impressionism.htm
Paul Signac Biography." Paul Signac Online. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.paul-signac.com/
Post-Impressionism." Art Movements. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.artmovements.co.uk/postimpressionism.htm
Vincent Van Gogh Paintings." Vincent Van Gogh Gallery. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.vangoghgallery.com/
An artist writing is not new; in act, it is a way by which many artists demonstrate their arguments and they also reveal how an artist thinks about many things, his art included. Naturally, because of Matisse's fame, there would be much written about him and from the writings of his peer, we can see more of what was going on at the height of Matisse's career from those who experienced it. The result of such study is "striking" (5) as Benjamin puts it because it "shows that we cannot, from a similarity of professed theories, infer a similarity in styles of painting"(5). e must instead focus on what the artist produced and weight it against his thoughts.
Matisse studied at the Academy Carriere, who was "interested in the question of art education" (70). His schools floundered a bit in that they were closed and suffered from mixed reviews. hen…
Benjamin, Roger. "Matisse's Notes of a Painter."
Bois, Yve-Alain. "1906."
Indeed. Gertrude Stein wrote for "herself" for many years prior to ever being noticed as the marvelously talented and versatile writer that she was. That fact was a reality simply because she did not have the opportunity for many years to publish the work she was so tirelessly putting out. Meanwhile, her legacy today is that of an extraordinarily insightful and respected woman of letters, an innovator, an elite member of the artistic avant garde in Europe, a prolific poet and writer, a visionary, something of a rebel, and more. Although she died in 1946 (of intestinal cancer), her work is discussed, debated, dissected and analyzed like the work of few other poets/writers. It's almost as if she were alive today.
Certainly this paper focuses on a gifted thinker whose poetic form is sometimes misunderstood, but rarely ignored. And it also delves into the life of a…
Cook, Dana. "Meeting Gertrude Stein...a miscellany of first encounters."
Time-Sense: an electronic quarterly on the art of Gertrude Stein. 2002. http://www.tenderbuttons.com/gsonline/timesense/1_2cook.html.
Hartley, George. "Textual Politics and the Language Poets." English Department
University of Pennsylvania 2002. http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/hartley.html
On the contrary, if I had been able to be a clergyman or an art dealer, then perhaps I should not have been fit for drawing and painting, and I should neither have resigned nor accepted my dismissal as such. I cannot stop drawing because I really have a draughtsman's fist, and I ask you, have I ever doubted or hesitated or wavered since the day I began to draw? (Van Gogh, Letter to Theo, April 1882).
That he was a talented artist was undeniable. Yet, art was no substitute for religion, and, further still, art was no direct avenue to sanctifying grace. Van Gogh's increasing sense of alienation and feeling of despair would continue unabated -- evidenced by he and his brother Theo's inability to live together for long; the inability of his dream of an artists' collective (the artistic equivalent of a kind of monastic community) to come…
Fritillaries. (2006). Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved from http://www.musee-
Garrigou-Lagrange, R. (1938). The Three Ways of the Spiritual Life. London: Burns
artworks subject matter, the artist (enri de Toulouse-Lautrec), and the art movement. Look for information on the context found most relevant to the artwork (I think which should be biographical). Consider how a visual description and an analysis of the work, using Elements of Art and Principles f design supports discussion of context. In addition, discuss how initial interpretation from assignment 1 was challenged, changed, and/or supported by the research process.
The Artist and his style of painting
enri de Toulouse-Lautrec (24 November 1864 -- 9 September 1901), a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, was a colleague of Cezanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin, and was one of the great artists of the Post-Impressionist period .
Physically handicapped (with child-size legs and an unknown genetic disorder, that may have been pycnodysostosis) and constrained by his physical limitations, Lautrec threw himself in his art becoming a lithographer, are nouveau illustrator, and…
His paintings have often been described as drawings in colored paint; his paint was applied in long thin brushstrokes with much of the canvass showing through.
A Woman Resting (1889)
We see Lautrec's style exemplified most vividly in one his image titled A Woman Resting (1889) (J. Paul Getty museum). The image painted in tempera or casein with oil is of a young woman sitting in a chair that appears to me to be draped with a white furry blanket. We see her from behind, and this viewpoint emphasizes her submissiveness and the spectator's control over subject. A part of her left breast is exposed. It could mean that she's a nude model and she's on the set of the shoot, that she's a prostitute resting from a long day at work (and Lautrec, indeed, became acquainted with one of his famous prostitutes around this time, a woman in Montmartre called Marie-Charlotte (Milner, 1992)) or it could be her way of relaxing. The row of green small round tables and chairs further indicate that she may be a prostitute and that this may be a brothel since the setting seems less of a home and
Fern Hill (Dylan Thomas)
The "Poetry Explications" handout from UNC states that a poetry explication is a "relatively short analysis which describes the possible meanings and relationship of the words, images, and other small units that make up a poem."
The speaker in "Fern Hill" dramatically embraces memories from his childhood days at his uncle's farm, when the world was innocent; the second part brings out the speaker's loss of innocence and transition into manhood. This explication will identify and critique Thomas' tone, imagery (including metaphors) and expressive language (as it contributes to the power of the poem). ("Fern Hill" uses 6 verse paragraphs; there are 9 lines in each paragraph.)
"Now as I was young and easy under the apple boughs / About the lilting house and happy as the grass was green / the night above the dingle starry / time let me hail and climb / golden…
Bible Meanings. (2011). Lamb. Retrieved December 9, 2012, from http://www.biblemeanings.info/words/animal/lamb.htm.
Cox, C.B. (1959). Dylan Thomas's 'Fern Hill.' The Critical Quarterly, 1(2), 134-138.
Thomas, Dylan. (2012). Fern Hill. Academy of American Poets. Retrieved December 9, 2012,
from http://www.poets.org .