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Jeffrey Spence's 2011 article "Conscious rating distortion in performance appraisal: a review, commentary, and proposal framework for research" discusses the relationship between managers and employees and how managers use conscious rating distortion as a means to evaluate individuals that they are in charge of. Performance appraisal is one of the principal topics that the paper relates to as the writer tests several theories with the purpose of determining the techniques that managers use and their tendency to adopt particular attitudes. In order to increase productivity, managers make use of a wide range of methods, but they are not necessarily motivated by their determination to obtain accuracy from their employees.
hile managers are generally focused on influencing their employees in obtaining positive results, they are also aware that a successful company consists out of groups of individuals who have strong relations and who work as a team. It would…
Kok-Yee Ng; Koh, Christine; Ang, Soon; Kennedy, Jeffrey C.; Kim-Yin Chan, "Rating Leniency and Halo in Multisource Feedback Ratings: Testing Cultural Assumptions of Power Distance and Individualism-Collectivism"
Spence, Jeffrey & Keeping, Lisa, "Conscious rating distortion in performance appraisal: a review, commentary, and proposal framework for research"
Causes of Performance Appraisal
Steps Leading to Performance Appraisal
Data Analysis and Interpretation
This research paper aims to conduct a study regarding the effectiveness of performance appraisals and the issues accompanying performance appraisals.
Performance appraisal" is a term used for evaluating performance of employees in an organization. The purpose behind performance appraisal is firstly, to rate an employee's performance on the job. Secondly, these appraisals are conducted to determine whether employees have achieved the goals they were required to. Moreover, performance appraisals not only measure the achievement of individual employee goals but also the goals of the organization at large. However it cannot be ignored that performance appraisals are highly subjective in nature, depending a lot upon an individual's view of a situation, the employer-employee relationship, etc. It was for these reasons primarily, that performance appraisals are usually avoided by even large, well-established organizations…
Barry, John M., Performance management: a case study. Vol. 60, Journal of Environmental Health, 11-01-1997, pp 35(5).
Bruns, William J., Jr.; McKinnon, Sharon M., Achieving focused management activities through formal performance evaluation: results from a field study.. Vol. 6, Journal of Managerial Issues, 09-22-1994, pp 265(17).
Buch, K., and R. Spangler. 1990. "The Effect of Quality Circles on Performance and Promotions." Human Relations 43: 573-582.
Dipboye, R.L., and R. de Pontbriand. 1981. "Corrolates of Employee Reactions to Performance Appraisals and Appraisal Systems." Journal of Applied Psychology 66: 248-251.
This analysis will provide an overview of the 360-degree performance appraisal. A 360-degree feedback system is also known by a number of other names such as a multi-rater feedback, multisource feedback, or multisource assessment. This model of a performance appraisal involves gathering performance feedback form a number of different sources including supervisors, employees, customers, and peers to name a few. However, this model is flexible and virtually anyone who works with anyone else can provide a performance appraisal. This paper will discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the 360-degree feedback system. If administered properly and implemented in the right setting, this model can provide an effective tool that can help organizational members advance their careers.
Performance appraisals are an important tool in any organization. The effective use of different evaluation program has actually been shown to be able to reduce stress and an employee's…
Avey, J., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. (2009). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 677-693.
Becker, K., Antuar, N., & Everett, C. (2011). Implementing an employee performance management system in a nonprofit organization. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 255-271.
Muniute-Cobb, E., & Alfred, M. (2010). Learning from evaluation by peer team: a case study of a family counselling organization. International Journal of Training and Development, 95-111.
Wiley, K., & Gardner, A. (2009). Developing team skills with self- and peer assessment: Are benefits inversely related to team function? Campus-Wide Information Systems, 365-378.
Describe two different performance appraisal methods.
There are many types of performance appraisal method. Some of them are job results/outcome; essay method; ranking; forced distribution; graphic rating scale; behavioral checklist; behavioral anchored rating scales (BAS); and management by objectives.
Two other performance appraisal methods are the following:
The manager can document performance objectives and process in a journal. This can be one way for evaluation and appraisal of performance
Supporters of this approach argue that this approach will only be effective when there is a clear psychological contract between employer and employees based on mutual trust and commitment. The organization will benefit from setting out its aims in a clear way which then gives direction to everyone in the organization ((Dransfield, 2000) p.89).
The company can try a hybrid mixture of informal / formal performance appraisal where the employees evaluate one another and the manager also informally surveys…
Dransfield, R (2000) Human Resource Management, Heinemann Ed.:USA
SAP online. Success Factors
The use of the four basic types of appraisal forms is important to ensuring that each form serves a purpose that is useful for specific job types. By using a management/supervisory form, employers can focus on the duties of managers and supervisors in the performance appraisals. Managers are not only responsible for their own work but for the work of their subordinates, so they have special situations that need to be considered during performance appraisals. Forms that target managers and supervisors tend to focus on the individual's accomplishments, managerial style and results.
Forms used for professional and technical workers are targeted to address specific job duties and are more individualized; since these workers are responsible mainly for their own performance, management style and the work of subordinates is not an issue. These forms stress individual accomplishments and results.
The role of the nonexempt worker, or service employee, is…
At my last organization, the performance appraisal process was driven primarily by the need of the organization to align my performance with the strategic objectives of the organization. Chandra (2004) does not note this as a major reason for conducting performance appraisals, yet it is quite common in the business world. Health care organizations are, in this country, businesses. They will all have strategic missions, and within those missions all of the different tasks that support the mission and its related objectives will be broken down. That is a fundamental role of any human resource department, to understand what the different jobs are that need to be done, and to find the right people to do those jobs.
And so I feel that my performance appraisals were generally well-aligned with this perspective of the performance appraisal process. It was not explicitly stated as such, but the performance appraisal…
Beehr, T., Ivanitskaya, L., Hansen, C., Erofeev, D. & Gudanowski, D. (2001). Evaluation of 360 degree feedback ratings: Relationships with each other and with performance and selectin procedures. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 22 (7) 775-788.
Chandra, A., Frank, Z. (2004). Utilization of performance appraisal systems in health care organizations and improvement strategies for supervisors. The Health Care Manager. Vol. 23 (1) 25-30.
Jackson, E. (2012). The 7 reasons why 360 degree feedback programs fail. Forbes. Retrieved March 13, 2015 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericjackson/2012/08/17/the-7-reasons-why-360-degree-feedback-programs-fail/
Performance appraisal system: Kudler Foods
Within the food and hospitality business, a wide variety of types of employees are needed to bring a company's vision to fruition. These require a vast array of different skill sets. For example, a store or general department manager needs to be an effective leader, know how to delegate, and be able to prioritize objectives to suit the needs of various consumers. A department specialty manager requires more specific knowledge of the different aspects of the food business he or she is operating within. Entry-level positions require an ability to take orders, reliability, and often the ability to serve customers with a smile. Kudler Foods must create different performance evaluation methods to evaluate employees with these distinct skill sets, while still creating an overall company ethos reflecting a commitment to quality.
One way one of Kudler Foods' major competitors has navigated…
Fishman, Charles. (1996). Whole Foods is all teams. Fast Company. Retrieved:
Within most organizations, performance measurement is the process in which an organization establishes certain parameters regarding the level of expectations and output with internal staff, external vendors, systems, product quality, and overall OI. The fundamental purpose of such measurements should be directly related to both improving business and be able to directly evaluate how resources (human or otherwise) are performing. To do so, and to provide outcome that is directly related to the stated aims of the organization, performance measures are integral to the success of any organization. Studies have shown that people improve in all sorts of ways when measurement is used -- in learning, their performance, etc. As long as measurement is tied to something specific (e.g. decision making, program effectiveness, setting goals and objectives, recognizing performance, control and allocation of resources, etc.) (Spitzer, 2007).
However, performance measurement is never an end in and of itself.…
Employee Performance Evaluation: Common Rating Methods. (2009). Performance
Appraisal Sharing Experiences. Cited in: http://www.whatmakesagoodleader.com / Employee-Performance-Evaluation.html
Behn, Robert D. (2003, Sep-Oct). Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures. Public Administration Review, 63, (5), 586. Cited in:
Timeliness is also an important part of a helpful review. After a hard day's work, knowing what you have done well enables the employee to continue in that pattern. Negative or constructive feedback, if specific, is at least conducive to positive change, as opposed to no feedback at all, or feedback after it is too late to alter one's performance.
Particularly given the 'two point' bias in favor of the employee's performance -- yes, the manger should review the employee's appraisal. A manager should have an idea of how the employee sees him or herself, which will enable the manger to specifically target areas where the employee is consciously, rather than unconsciously lacking in critical areas.
Welch's "forced distribution" is a system to minimize the tendency for managers to give everyone a good or a bad rating -- the manager must rank all employees, from best to worst,…
There are many different types of performance appraisals available. Among the more common include:
Comparative Standards -- This type of performance appraisal compares employee's performance with others in a group
Group anking Order -- In this type a supervisor places each employee in a classification, such as top 1/2 of employees. Usually someone has to be assigned in a bottom fraction of the group.
Individual anking -- This is the most commonly used form where a supervisor will list employees from highest and lowest.
Paired Comparison -- This type of performance appraisal compares employees with each and every other employee within a group and rates employees in terms of 'superior' or 'weaker' compared with another. A ranking and score is then assigned employees.
Source: Allen, 1998. "Management Evaluation."
This particular evaluation combined a group ranking method with 360 degree feedback, where a comprehensive evaluation of employee performance is…
Allen, G. (1998). "Management evaluation." BMGT-1301, DCCCD. September 27,
Hunter, M. (2003). "Best practice: 360 degree feedback performance appraisal/merit
System." September 27, 2004, from: http://www.bmpcoe.org/bestpractices/external/mash/mash_18.html
Performance Appraisal Mistakes I Have Experienced
In being appraised by an employer at TNLT.com, Sullivan quotes that "Some 90% of performance appraisal processes are inadequate" (2011). There are many problems their companies have with the evaluations of their employees, and a lot of concerns are because managers do not review the employee's real performance by focusing on other issues, the managers are not held accountable for not giving feedback, or not doing a thorough assessment, or it being late, while many employers in this position focus on weak performers instead of their entire staff, and there has been controversy over the performance appraisals that are kept unrevealed (Sullivan, 2011).
One of the biggest concerns Sullivan listed out of the top 50 problems is "Don't Assess the Actual Performance" which describes bosses that do these assessments look at individual characteristics and their pledge and familiarity of duties and behaviors. However they…
Business and Legal Resources. (2011). Performance Appraisal. Available: http://www.blr.com/hrtips/performance-appraisals -. Last accessed 7th June 2011.
Dr. John Sullivan. (2011). The Top 50 Problems with Performance Appraisals. Available: http://www.tlnt.com/2011/01/31/the-top-50-problems-with-performance-appraisals/ . Last accessed 7th June 2011.
Performance Appraisal NATIONAL VOCATIONAL & EDUCATION SYSTEM
When & How
Favorable for Employees and Managers
This paper discusses the theory of performance appraisal. The uses and objectives of the performance appraisal method are also discussed. It also highlights the most common method of performance evaluation; 360-Degree. The main objective of this paper is to find out if the performance appraisal method is for encouragement of employees only or it can reduce their morale too.
The performance appraisal is a process that provides an analysis of a person's potential and hard work which helps in making informed decisions for a particular purpose. A performance appraisal is a process through which the performance of an employee is analyzed. The basic purpose of performance appraisal is the career development of the individuals and it consists of regular feedback on their work and abilities. Performance appraisals are designed to encourage…
Harrison, R. (2009). Learning and Development. (5th Ed). London
Leitch, S. (2006) Review of Skills: prosperity for all in the global economy-world class skills.
This in turn means that the adequate decisions would be made.
The high quality appraisal system creates opportunities for the employees to be promoted to higher positions, which also come with higher pays and more benefits, to create higher levels of employee motivation.
The performance appraisal system correlates the employee achievements with the adequate rewards. The offering of the proper rewards generates additional motivation. Some of the common benefits include premiums, bonuses or share packages. This last benefit sees that employees participate to the distribution of the profits and they are as such better motivated to support increasing organizational performances (Masternak, 1999).
4. Conclusions and discussion
The modern day staff member is a highly evolved and rewarded individual, and has attained this position as a result of the tremendous role he plays within the business community in his support of business success. In such a context, it is crucial for…
Bhat, V., 2010, Characteristics of an effective performance appraisal system, MBA Notes, http://www.mbanotesworld.in/2007/08/characteristics-of-effective.html last accessed on February 7, 2011
Deb, T., 2006, Strategic approach to human resource management, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors
Gupta, B.L., 2007, Governance and management of technical institutions, Concept Publishing Company
Masternak, R.L., 1999, HR guide to the internet: compensation: incentive plans: gainsharing, HR Guide, http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G443.htm last accessed on February 7, 2011
Behavioral methods of evaluation focus on certain behaviors as performance indicators, positive or negative, and the employee's frequency or lack thereof of performing such actions. A nurse in a medical office might be evaluated by his or her superiors for his or her ability to accurately evaluate a patient during an initial exam, to triage patients in an effective manner, and to aid the doctor in performing routine and non-routine procedures. Although subjective to some degree, the employee is able to point out examples of efficacy and performance frequency if he or she feels that the assessment made by the supervisor may be in error.
Results methods evaluate employees based upon successful results. A certain benchmark is established of quality, and the employee is measured against that benchmark, as exceeding or falling beneath the acceptable standard. A new doctor might be assessed upon the rate of recovery of his…
Compliance with the law is also critical. hen hiring, human resources managers must take care not to ask illegal and inappropriate questions, such as a female candidate's desire to have children, questions pertaining to sexual orientation, or aspects of the candidate's personal life not directly relevant to the job. Diversity training has become standard at most major companies, to ensure that an inclusive workplace atmosphere is created. Violating employee law has obvious legal consequences for a company in terms of financial losses, and a lawsuit can also damage the company's reputation amongst consumers and future employees. Finally, even if an employer is not 'caught,' flagrantly violating critical aspects of employee law, such as "overtime pay, family leave, final paychecks, or occupational safety and health," standards can have a negative impact upon employee morale and retention. (Guerin, 2006, p.2)
Guerin, Lisa. (2006) "hen Do I Need an Employment Lawyer?"…
Guerin, Lisa. (2006) "When Do I Need an Employment Lawyer?" Nolo.com. Retrieved 10 Jan 2007 at http://www.nolo.com/article.cfm/pg/2/objectId/7FCAEE2C-39BA-429E-AD62ED43C0E1D72C/catId/CB627BAD-F421-4AF1-AE5C9D84021BB999/111/259/ART
I would want to be evaluated through a form that would reveal whether or not I was conducting my assigned duties. Because of its specific nature, figure 11-3 would not only allow the evaluating manager to make an informed representation of my work, but also remind me of specific duties. Thus, as an employer and an employee, figure 11-3 is the superior form. It allows for the accurate and succinct evaluation of workers and the best chance of convincing those workers to continue to strive or make up for what they have lost.
When looking at the performance appraisals in figures 11-1 and 11-3, employers can find many factors on which to evaluate them. The first, job-relatedness, has already been discussed above, noting that the second form was superior in this area. While it may not have been nearly as job-related, the first form was probably less expensive.…
ole-Play a (with Manager a and Employee A)
In this example obert is meeting with Denise to go over her performance appraisal. When Denise is asked to tell obert how she feels she has done over the last year, Denise states that she feels satisfied with her performance and believes she is doing good because she has not received any feedback from obert otherwise. There are two issues to be concerned about with this statement. First, employees should be given regular and systematic feedback on their performance throughout the appraisal period, not just once a year (Ash & Quarry, 2010). Second, a yearly appraisal period is too long. Performance appraisals should be given at least twice per year, if not more often, in order to give equal credit to the good performance and not so good performance (Pardue, 1999). We tend to only remember what has happened recently…
Eve Ash & Peter Quarry (2010) 10 Steps to Flawless Appraisal Interviews. Gower, Training Point: Ash Quarry Productions. [DVD]
Pardue, Howard, 1999. Performance Appraisal as an Employee Development Tool. [Online]. Available at: < http://www.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Articles/Pages/CMS_000104.aspx > [Accessed December 13, 2010].
Performance reviews, even from the organization's point-of-view, allow the organization to engage in some soul-searching as to what areas of employee performance are valued. They may even help the organization identify star performers that may not shine and glitter, but have made a measurable contribution to the organization by helping it meet its benchmarks. It can be an education and a valuable form of self-scrutiny for the organization as well as for the employee. Sadly, in today's litigious climate, performance reviews may also be a necessity simply from the point-of-view of demonstrating to a court of law, if the employer lets go a particular individual, that the employee was performing below 'par' on a consistent basis, review after review. It also helps the organization, if the appraisals are oral, gain feedback from both good and bad employees about what makes them perform at an optimal or sub-optimal level.
Of course, while it is important that an officer be able to inspire confidence in the community, it is also very important for an officer to be able to solve crimes. Therefore, part of the evaluation process should look at the percentage of crimes that an officer is able to clear. In addition, deterrence is a major goal of community policing. While one would expect a temporary upswing in minor crime rates at the beginning of a community policing approach, any effective appraisal system would look at whether minor crime rates eventually declined or continued to rise.
There are several different types of evaluations that would provide a better measure of individual and group performance than traditional performance appraisals. The first type of evaluation is a group evaluation and looks at the long-term changes in crime and crime rates. The primary goal of deterrence is to deter major, violent crime;…
Job Performance Appraisals
There are three basic ways to appraise an employee's job performance: traits, behavior and results. Each of these ways has both advantages and disadvantages. Using an employee's traits to evaluate and appraise job performance can be beneficial because it allows the employer to see how well the person fits the position. Traits, which are qualities such as personality, communication style and background, are factors which cannot be created or faked. In many cases, certain traits are more suitable to a position and an employee showing these traits will demonstrate better performance. The disadvantage to evaluating based on traits is that the employee has no control over these factors and so should not be blamed for having traits that do not match the position. Also, appraising job performance based on traits can lead to illegal discrimination if traits such as gender, race and age are considered.
Aggarwal (2013), the critical incident method of performance appraisal was first formalized by Fitts and Jones as early as 1947. The first purpose of the technique was to classify pilot error experiences with the reading and interpretation of instruments within aircraft. Although referring to "critical incidents" as "errors," the authors served as the harbingers of this method of performance appraisal in the workplace. John Flanagan was the first to refer to the method as the "Critical Incident Technique," defining it as a description of events associated with special significance in order to describe human behavior in various circumstances. For the workplace, this means that an employer or a team of analysts would monitor employee behavior in various circumstances or during specified events. This can then be used to determine the effectiveness or quality of employee performance.
According to Marrelli (2005), one of the main rationales for the critical incident method…
Aggarwal, A. (2013, Feb.). Techniques of Performance Appraisal -- A Review. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 2(3). Retrieved from: www.researchgate.net
Marrelli, A.F. (2005). Critical Incidents. Performance Improvement. 44(10). Retrieved from: http://www.ispi.org/pdf/suggestedreading/articlesix_criticalincidents.pdf
ANNUAL PEFOMANCE EVIEW
The supervisor and employee meet at the beginning of the review period and together identify and prioritize three to five primary job responsibilities from the employee's job description. Goals, objectives, and special projects may be identified at any time throughout the review period.
At the end of the review period, the employee self-evaluates his or her performance (job responsibilities, performance factors, and goals/objectives) using the rating scale, completes Part I of the Career Development section, and returns the form to the supervisor.
The supervisor evaluates the employee's performance of job responsibilities, performance factors, and goals/objectives using the rating scale. Supervisor comments are EQUIED for any evaluation of "Exceeds Expectations," "Improvement Needed," "Fails to Meet Expectations," and for the OVEALL rating.
The supervisor then meets with the employee and together they discuss the ratings, complete Part II of the Career Development section, and sign and date the…
Edmondson Bell, E.(2003) Your job-performance review: make your boss your partner in getting ahead. Advance preparation can help. Essence 34(2), 120-121.
Nowack, K.M., Hartley, J., & Bradley, W. (1999) How to evaluate your 360 feedback efforts Training & Development 53(4), 48-54.
Nowack, K. (2005). "Longitudinal evaluation of a 360 degree feedback program:
Implications for best practices." Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles.
However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible. In addition, there is also the question about whether a truly accurate (when negative) appraisal is the best course of action due to the possible negative consequences.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Sudarsan (2009) surmises that, in the past, researchers have concluded that there are primarily three approaches to performance appraisals. The first approach -- the results focused approach -- is centered on determining whether a specific job has been performed or not. If these performance targets are met or exceeded, the employee is rewarded. The second approach -- the behavioral approach -- focuses on employee behavior. The actual output of the employee is ignored, but instead the methods the employee is using is evaluated. This approach has the benefit of being…
Addison, J. & Belfield, C. (Sept 2008). The determinants of performance appraisal systems. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Addison and Belfield compare the findings of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey with their findings in Britain, using the Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Of particular interest for this paper was the conclusion from both studies that tenured employees are not strongly motivated by performance appraisals. This shows the ineffectiveness of appraisals, no matter what system is used, for those employees with tenure.
Banu, C. & Umamaheswari, P. (Jul 2009). A study on 360 degree performance appraisal systems in Reliance Life Insurance, Udumalpet. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 8(7). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Banu and Umamaheswari research the use of the 360-degree performance appraisal system on a life insurance company. It was found that this appraisal system was helpful in identifying training needs, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It was also found to be useful in determining rewards and incentives, as well as promotions. However, the authors failed to acknowledge the challenges inherent in this system, as found be other researchers.
This is the point that their underlying profit margins will consistently increase, while managers and employees are willing to go the extra mile. (DelPo 2007, pg. 11)
Clearly, one of the biggest challenges with using performance appraisal systems is that, mangers could be looking at them subjectively. While at the same time, they can create a number of different problems including: resistance to change, the halo effect and mistrust between executives / staff members. This is troubling, because it means that these issues can have an adverse impact on an organization. However, if managers keep an open mind along with utilizing flexibility, this can lead to a number of benefits to include: it helps in setting goals for executives / staff members, identifying weaknesses, it is rewarding good employees and it allows a company to stay on top of their needs. This is important, because it is illustrating how this…
Collins, D, 2006, Behaving Badly, Dog Ear Publishing, Indianapolis.
Daley, D, 1992, Performance Appraisal, Quorom Book, Westport.
DelPo, A, 2007, The Performance Appraisal Handbook, Nolo, Berkley.
Gorte, R, 1996, The Complete Guide to Performance Appraisal, AMACOM, New York
Q1. Discuss specific reasons why personnel appraisals serve the interests of the organization.
Even in the most technologically-driven organizations, personnel appraisals are critical for ensuring high levels of quality control. Humans are still the primary operators of technology, and without good people at the helm, appropriate security protocols will not be enforced. People need to know on a regular basis how they are performing and usually desire feedback. Ideally, this feedback should combine both positive and negative input, since simply focusing on the negative can be disheartening from the employee’s point-of-view. Also, another function of performance appraisals is to communicate to employees the degree to which the organization takes a vested interest in their development. That is why, according to McCrie (2016), “In well-structured organizations, all employees deserve appraisals” (p.160). Performance appraisals are something employees deserve, to support their progress and to show that the organization does not regard them…
Performance Appraisal and the ole of Hr
ole of HM in Performance Management
The performance management process has to be connected with the H processes for success to be realized. The performance management process has to be consistent with the business strategy and ensure that all the processes are managed top-down. In most cases, employees must be provided with the right feedback for them to appreciate the feedback and work on it. Normally, it is the role of the HM in training managers to provide honest feedback concerning the performance of the employees. The role of the HM is related to making the process transparent and clear. This means that the performance management process should be consistent in every department in the organization. The HM ensures that the results of the employees are comparable as the outputs may be used in determining other H processes (Dusterhoff, Cunningham, & MacGregor, 2014).…
Bernardin, H. J., & Wiatrowski, M. (2013). Performance appraisal. Psychology and Policing, 257.
Dusterhoff, C., Cunningham, J. B., & MacGregor, J. N. (2014). The effects of performance rating, leader -- member exchange, perceived utility, and organizational justice on performance appraisal satisfaction: Applying a moral judgment perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(2), 265-273.
Performance Appraisal Approaches
The Graphic ating method
The Graphic rating scale is one of the most common methods used in performance appraisal evaluation. The method requires that evaluators show the level an employee manifests a given trait, result of performance and behavior related to the delivery of work related tasks. The ratings are tailored to capture performance in specific work related areas. These areas could be the level of knowledge of their work, quality of work and responsibility. The scale offers a continuum that stretches from such descriptions as low, high, good or poor, most effective to least effective etc. Although the scales may go higher or lower, they usually have up to a maximum of 7 points. The graphic variety may often not define their points. The following characteristics should typically influence acceptability positively
The rating of performance must be defined clearly
The scale should reflect behavior and backed…
exploreHR. (2016, Febuary 7). Performance Appraisal MethodsPerformance Appraisal Methods. Retrieved from exploreHR: http://www.explorehr.org/articles/Performance_Appraisal/Performance_Appraisal_Methods.html
Kokemuller, N. (2016, Febuary 7). The Pros & Cons of Performance Appraisal Methods. Retrieved Febuary 7, 2016, from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/pros-cons-performance-appraisal-methods-39497.html
Mayhew, R. (2016). Best Appraisal Method for Office Managers. Retrieved from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/appraisal-method-office-managers-60685.html
Mayhew, R. (2016, Febuary 7). Legal Aspects of Performance Appraisals. Retrieved from Chron: http://work.chron.com/legal-aspects-performance-appraisals-20795.html
Personnel records are data pertaining to employees which consist of factual and comprehensive information of employee. All employee information is kept in systematic order which assists human resources manager to make an effective decision about employee. Typically, personnel records consist of employee past records, medical report and employee progress. Personnel record also consist of payroll records, leave records, and benefit record and turnover record. Training and development record contains training schedule, transfer cases, and appraisal reports. Health and safety record contains medical history, safety provisions, sickness reports, and insurance reports. The service record contains essential records that consist of bio-data, family information, residential information, and marital status, academic qualifications, past address and employment records. While some critics argue that personnel records is a waste of time and money, however, Yoder (1942) provides several benefits that organization could derive from personnel record:
Personnel record assists managers to identify crucial…
Ahmed, S. (2005).Analysis of Workplace Surveillance in a Quest for Ethical Stance. Journal of Business Systems Governance and Ethics .2(4).
American Bar Association.(2001).Employment: Proof of Discrimination. Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter. 25( 5): 826-831.
Aswathapp, K. (2005).Human Resource and Personnel Management. (4th Edition) Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Aswathapp, K (2010). Employment Law for Human Resource Practice. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Job Analysis and Performance Appraisal Methods: Practical Applications
My current circumstances could be grooming me for a totally different profession but deep inside, I have always admired the work journalists do. I particularly like how news reporters go out to the field, gather real time information, and interact with newsmakers. In addition to enjoying themselves, these ladies and gentlemen play a very significant role in the creation of a more open and just society. For this assignment, I will address a number of issues with regard to the job I would be interested in pursuing, i.e. news reporting.
Job analysis according to Werner, Schuler, and Jackson (2010) is essentially "a systematic process of describing and recording information about job behaviors, activities, and worker specifications" (p. 122). In that regard therefore, a job analysis seeks to generate information regarding both those performing the job and the job itself. It…
Mathis, R.M. & Jackson, J.H. (2010). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Snell, S.A. & Bohlander, G.W. (2011). Managing Human Resources (16th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Werner, S., Schuler, R.S. & Jackson, S.E. (2012). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
The initial recommendation comes from the employee's direct supervisor and is then discussed with the general director and the payroll manager.
At the fourth stage, the performance review, the employee and his direct supervisor come once again face-to-face to discuss the outcome of the performance appraisal process. The employee is informed of the managerial decision regarding future remunerations, and a date for a new meeting is set. The new meeting will establish goals for the following year, ergo the cyclic characteristic of the appraisal system (Grote and Grote).
Aside for meeting the three scopes previously identified, performance appraisals also present the company with several benefits. For instance, they create a context in which the employee is introduced to his own core competencies and limitations, based on which he can better direct his future formation. Then, the employees take an active role in their own evaluation and get to know themselves…
Armstrong, S., Appelbaum, M., Stress-free performance appraisals: turn your most painful management duty into a powerful motivational tool, Career Press, 2003, ISBN 1564146863
Coens, T., Kenkins, M., Block, P., Abolishing performance appraisals: why they backfire and what to do instead, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002, ISBN 1576752003
Falcone, P., Sachs, R.T., Productive performance appraisals, 2nd edition, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2007, ISBN 0814474225,
Grote, D., Grote, R.C., the performance appraisal question and answer book: a survival guide for managers, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2002
While the supervisor still maintains the role of performance appraiser and evaluator, the more modern role also allows the supervisor to solicit input directly from the subordinate (Daft, 2005; ussell-Whalling, 2008).
In that regard, some of the most important information relates to the subordinate's perspective of the possible factors that may contribute to less-than-optimal performance (ussell-Whalling, 2008). Furthermore, the modern approach to personnel and performance management also recognizes that the most effective systems also include elements of bottom-up evaluations in addition to the traditional top-down evaluations (Daft, 2005; ussell-Whalling, 2008). Naturally, bottom-up evaluations are more informal than top-down evaluations (Daft, 2005), but they often provide important information that enables supervisors recognize their own limitations and shortcomings in addition to allowing subordinates to supply valuable information pertaining to what they know about their own learning styles (Daft, 2005).
The traditional performance appraisal and personnel management approach serves the purpose of evaluating…
Daft, R. (2005). Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Russell-Whalling, E. (2008). 50 Management Ideas You Really Need to Know.
Performance appraisal systems are complex and time consuming, especially for managers who supervise extended numbers of employees
Performance appraisal systems can be stressful and ineffective (Clark, 2011).
5. Structure of performance appraisal systems
The construction of a performance appraisal system is a complex endeavor, based on both theoretical as well as practical considerations. John J. Gabarro and Linda a. Hill (1995) for instance argue that managers ought to construct their appraisal systems in a critical manner, based on both pre-existent models and frameworks, but also on internal features within the organization. Cynthia Morrison Phoel (2011) and her co-editors argue that the main criterion to an effective appraisal system is represented by feedback.
Kevin . Murphy and Frank E. Saal (1990) then argue that there exists a triple structure to create frameworks for employee appraisal. The frameworks are constructed based on four criteria: the constituents, the goals, the specific objectives and…
Armstrong, M., 2000, Performance management: key strategies and practical guidelines, 2nd edition, Kogan Page Publishers
Armstrong, M., Baron, a., 2005, Managing performance: performance management in action, 2nd edition, CIPD Publishing
Baruch, Y., Harel, G., 1993, Multi-source performance appraisal: an empirical and methodological note, Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 1
Clark, K., 2011, Advantages and disadvantages of performance appraisals, ZeroMillion, http://www.zeromillion.com/business/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-performance-appraisals.html last accessed on March 7, 2011
Having managers justify their reviews to their superiors will give little quality control if the supervisors wish the reviews to have a predetermined positive or negative conclusion. Using pay-for-performance and performance reviews in general when the outcomes are foregone conclusions and shaped by rater needs to motivate employees, preserve workplace harmony, or conversely cut a department is both unjust to employees and fosters worker cynicism and resentment. While fears of lawsuits may be valid, having a paper trail of positive or negative assessments that contain known errors is unlikely to help the organization prosper in the long run and can create legal complications of its own.
Employers must first ask if performance reviews can be meaningful in the organization, of if the work culture is better suited to team-based reviews, rather than individual reviews. Pay-for-performance strategies should only be used if supervisors have enough data about employees to make meaningful…
Curtis, Ami B., Richard D. Harvey & Daran Ravden. (2005, February). Sources of political distortions in performance appraisals. Group & Organization Management, 30(1): 42-60.
Retrieved February 21, 2010 at http://www.buec.udel.edu/beckert/BUAD%20875%2009S/Pres%203%20article%20appraisal.pdf
Staudenmayer, N, M Tyre, L Perlow. (2002, September-October). Time to change:
enablers of organizational change. Organization Science, 13(5): 583-587.
Somehow, while the appraisals are meant to rate employees and indicate their chance for a raise or promotion, they seem to be misused and misunderstood in this company.
The objections of the supervisors should be to rate the employee honestly, to candidly evaluate their work and performance, and let them know where they stand in the company. Taking personal feelings, situations, company politics, and fear of lawsuits into consideration only muddies the process and turns it into something to dread, rather than something to learn and grow from. An employee should be able to look forward to an appraisal without fear or distress; they should be able to look forward to receiving a sincere review of their performance, with suggestions for improvements as a guide for the coming year. It does not seem like that happens in many companies.
The Navy's HM strength lies in both its employee selection process and criteria and performance appraisal management program. However, these processes are not without their inherent weaknesses. While ideally, employee selection processes should be objectively conducted through job analysis, it is inevitable that HM personnel will have to depend on both objective measures and intuitive judgment (i.e., based on their experience screening applicants for the organization) to screen and determine the suitability of each applicant for the position. Fortunately, "A school" will ultimately determine the applicant's fit in both the job s/he is chosen for and the organization that is the U.S. Navy. However, to minimize the errors in the process and analysis, it is suggested that the HM should quantitatively determine the minimum mandatory requirements that will help them assess who is the most suitable candidate given that HM needs to screen numerous applicants and must come up with…
Armstrong, T. (2006). "Current recruitment and selection practices: a national survey of Fortune 100 firms." North American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 3.
Bohlander, G. And S. Snell. (2010). Managing Human Resources. OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Bourne, M. And Borman, W. (2006). "Development of New Navy Performance Rating Scales and Counseling Procedures)." Available at: www.internationalmta.org/Documents/2006/2006019T.pdf
"Navy's Total Force Vision for the 21st Century." (2010). Published by the Department of the Navy Human Capital Strategy.
Only the direct supervisor may access the performance appraisal with request from District officials. Any other personnel requesting review of information must acquire permission from appropriate District representatives.
In the event of a negative performance review the evaluatee will have the ability to appeal the performance review. In the event the appeal is denied and the evaluation demonstrates that the teacher has deficiencies in one or more areas it will be necessary to recommend measures to resolve the negative performance issues.
If the matter is related to performance abilities or skills, appropriate training and mentoring may be recommended; with a follow up mid year evaluation recommended six months from the date of completion of the initial review.
If the performance evaluation is unsatisfactory due to issues of attendance or other personal matters, the evaluatee will be observed for the next three months and given the opportunity to resolve…
Placing the performance appraisal system on the Internet should save Otis Elevator time and money by reducing the number of staff required to process appraisals. For example, it eliminates the creation, distribution and collection of forms and should automatically tabulate and aggregate results. Required information is more readily updatable as evaluation needs change because the appraisal is in a centralized electronic format and data can more easily be integrated with other HR systems as necessary. Further, it should now be easier to compare results across managers for corporate-wide improvement strategies and to create a history of the evaluations that will facilitate tracking ongoing progress. Otis Elevator could also take advantage of the new online system to increase the frequency of performance appraisals and the number of participants in the performance appraisal process. Increased employee access might have the indirect benefit of increasing morale if employees feel more valued because…
Koebelin, G. (1999, Spring). Are you ready for 360. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from Web site: http://www.work911.com/performance/particles/360.htm
Linman, T. 360-degree feedback: Weighing the pros and sons. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from Web site: http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/ARossett/pie/Interventions/360_1.htm
The organizations that aim at having higher performance are often noted to be investing in performance appraisal at al levels of the organization structure, this is because they know that there are measurable advantages that come from performance appraisal. One importance of performance appraisal is that the measuring of performance accurately will allow for the formulation of a reward system that will take care of the efforts put in by the individual employee hence acting as a motivator as well. appraisals that allow the participation of the employees are seen as a source of motivation for the individual employees hence helping in keeping the organization in an all time high motivation status. The organization will also be targeting better outcomes by appraising performance since the top achievers will be rewarded making them to work even harder. The appraisal is also seen to foster cooperation among employees since the…
Kennerly M. & Nely A., (2008). Measuring Performance in Changing Business Environment. Retrieved November 2014 from http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/dinamic-content/research/cbp/IJOPM_v23_n2.pdf
Do not penalize strong performers for being members of strong teams. Lackluster employees would be penalized because no one would want them on their 'team.' Now, there is an incentive to work with weak employees, to boost one's own relative performance rating. This idea seems strong, and although it world reduce competition on work teams, as there would be less jockeying for power and the chance to win the highest team ranking, on the other hand, such a system would seem to be more in keeping with Microsoft's emphasis on company cohesiveness, a company committed to driving its mission of innovation forward and boasts that its greatest reward is allowing its employees to work together "with great people," and have an impact" as a member of a team not merely as an individual ("Employee Profile: David -- HR General Manager," 2006, Careers -- United States Microsoft ebsite).
Employee Profile: David -- HR General Manager." (2006). Careers -- United States
Microsoft Website. Retrieved 28 Jan 2006 at http://members.microsoft.com/careers/epdb/profileDetailPage.aspx?profileID=107
Microsoft's 3.0 (or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Curve." (2005)
Mini-Microsoft Blog. Retrieved 28 Jan 2006 at http://minimsft.blogspot.com/2005/06/microsofts-30-or-how-i-learned-to-stop.html
Furthermore, the customer is most likely not to be biased hence the credibility of the feedback. The sources of information will be integrated by analyzing the data and comparing the feedbacks to determine if they show consistency; before drafting the final report.
The performance appraisal method of evaluating the behavior for rating has a critical technique of analyzing information incorporated. Therefore, in developing the tool, the first approach is to establish the information that is required (Flynn, 2010). Once determined, the questioned are phrased and documented into questionnaires and interviews, which will then be administered to the supervisors, the co-workers and customers for feedback purposes. Additionally, the previous reports on the company's trends will be incorporated to show how the behavioral changes in the department affect the returns of the company. The information gathered is then consolidated into a report for the final scaling which is the report of…
Josiane Fahed-Sreih, (2009) "The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance,"
Management Research News, Vol. 32 Iss: 3, pp.297-299
Maurer, S.D. (2002). A practitioner-based analysis of interviewer job expertise and scale format as contextual factors in situational interviews. Personnel Psychology, 55(2), 307-327.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220142693?accountid=35812
This was accomplished by: breaking down into small teams and having everyone work directly with some of the top executives at the firm (i.e. Steve Jobs). This created an atmosphere that encouraged employees to discuss their ideas and the impact they are having on consumers. It is at this point, that Apple was able to integrate these different ideas into their performance evaluation procedures. (Stone 38 -- 40) (Snell 143 -- 179)
Clearly, the performance evaluation system that Apple is using is helping the firm to attract and retain the best employees. This is because there is a focus on ensuring that all candidates for a position meet: the basic educational and experience qualifications. During the next stage, is when they will be subject to: a series of interviews, a practical exam and other criteria. This allows the company to decide which individuals would be the best choice for…
Griffin, Ricky. Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. Print.
Herbold, Robert. What's Holding You Back. San Francisco: Josey Bass, 2011. Print.
Highhouse, Scott. Stubborn Reliance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1:3 (2008): 333 -- 342
Snell, Scott. Managing Human Resources. Mason: South -- Western, 2012. Print.
An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…
Sims, R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kreiner, J. (2000). Examining the human Body. The Washington Times. March 18.
Prasad, S., Tata, J., & Thorn, R. (1999). The Influence of Organizational Structure on the Effectiveness of TQM Programs. Journal of Managerial Issue. Vol. 11.
Performance Management through the Lens of Keys v. Humana (2012)
Kathryn Keys, former employee of Humana Incorporated, filed a claim of racial discrimination under the Civil ights Acts of 1964 and 1991 (Keys v. Humana, 2012). The U.S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky sided with the defendant, Humana Inc., in January 2010 and dismissed the case on the grounds that the facts were insufficient to support a claim of racial discrimination under the McDonnell Douglass framework. The McDonnell Douglas framework requires the plaintiff to show that they are a member of a protected class, were qualified to hold the job in question, were treated differently than others not belonging to a protected class or were replaced by an unprotected person, and were harmed by an employment decision. Specifically, the lower court found that Keys failed to show that Caucasian employees who were not fired were indeed performing…
Human Inc. (2012). Well-being starts with us. 2010 & 2011 Corporate Social Responsibility Report. Retrieved 26 Feb. 2014 from http://apps.humana.com/marketing/documents.asp?file=1853059 .
Keys v. Humana Inc., No. 11-5472 F.6th (Fed. Cir. 2012).
Littler Learning Group. (2009). Performance management and corrective action: A resource guide for managers & supervisors. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://www.csus.edu/hr/docs/professional/perfmgmtandcorrectiveaction050109.pdf .
Van Bogaert, D.A. (n.d.). New legal battlegrounds for performance evaluations. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://myweb.lmu.edu/dbogaert/newlegalbattlegroundspedvb.pdf .
Performance Gap Policing
A performance gap exists when the police department's performance does not meet organizational expectations or citizens expectations. Management is a critical success factor for managing a performance gap when it exists. Many police administrators are contemplating community policing projects due to performance gaps. In order to solve the problem of a performance gap, police agencies must look internally and externally for solutions. They must develop an action plan that includes organizational goals and community goals in order to narrow the gap and foster a collaborative and successful work environment.
Many view community policing as an answer, as a means of "developing communication with the public and interest groups" and encouraging active participation from community members and police agents to further the best interests of the community as a whole (Fielding, 1995). Community policing strategies are being widely adopted in many police agencies as a means of improving…
Bouckaert, G. & Halachmi, A. "Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector: Toward service, effort and accomplishment reporting." Westport: Quorum: 1996.
De Vries, M.S. & Van Der Zijl, V.DH "The implications of community policing for police-citizen relationships." International Journal of Public Administration 26(8-9), 2003:1017.
Fielding, N.C. "Community Policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press:1995
Reiner, R. The Politics of the Police; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000
In a good performance management system the manager plays a vital role. He is responsible to not only identify the employee strengths and weaknesses but also to acknowledge good performance and to provide developmental suggestions. The later part is very important, as it does no good to just spot the deficiency of an employee without providing positive suggestions for improvement. The employees for their part must be encouraged to provide their valuable input during every stage of the process. For example, some organizations even collect feedback from employees to evaluate the performance of their superiors. Thus, an appraisal denotes not just the supervisors assessing their subordinates but also rating from team members, rating by employees of their superiors, review by the HR department etc. Once such active and collaborative participation is achieved then the performance appraisal process attains its chosen objective, that of increasing the overall employee performance.
Performance Management: Implementing an Effective Performance Management System
Why Performance Management?
Performance management is the organized method that companies use to monitor the results of work activities, to measure and evaluate the performance of the employees, and to ensure that goals are met in an effective and efficient manner. According to Pulakos (2009), performance management is a key process that ensures that work gets done; and it is used by different organizations to communicate expectations and drive behavior towards achievement of important goals. For instance, ABC Company has offices in more than 50 countries across the globe and it employs over 40,000 employees from various cultural backgrounds, and it also deals with a diverse range of customers. It therefore needs to develop a performance management system that fosters an inclusive environment and channels different employees' talents and capabilities towards achievement of the organization's goals.
It is important to implement an…
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance management: A new approach for driving business results. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.-Blackwell Publishing.
Stone, R, D. (2009). Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. 48(5) 37-44. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/AD71C5FFAAEA427APQ/1?accountid=39364
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…
Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
Measures should be developed at every level of the organisation as this will help in the measurement of performance at those levels. Again all services and teams will have action plans that they will have to meet which will make sure that the organisation reaches its goal. There has also got to be indicators for individuals as this will determine their performance for their teams and the organisation. (Measures of performance) the total service plan has to focus on the corporate and service objectives, highlight the important matters to the customers and staff, and the decision about the ultimate user of the information and their purpose for getting the information. (Key steps to effective performance measurement)
The measurement of the task done is against the information and there details that one has indicators for the objectives and also decides whether the task done will be meaningful and robust. The total…
Foundations of performance management. Retrieved at http://www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=76249
Glick, Bryan. 2005. Trudy Norris-Grey, Sun Microsystems UK managing director. 13 April. Retrieved at http://www.computing.co.uk/analysis/1162459
Hats Off to Communicators a Great Success in Denver. 2001. Spring, Volume: 9; No: 3.
Retrieved at http://www.nagc.com/newnewsletter.pdf
What issues might arise as they attempt to merge their respective performance management systems?
Performance management systems play a significant part in the everyday operational success of an organization. When a firm acquires another firm, there are fundamental issues that might emanate as they try to merge their corresponding performance management systems. One of the key issues is that some of the metrics being employed by one company may not be suitable or efficacious for the other company. Majority of the organizations have a performance management practice and procedure that they utilize to measure and assess personnel on objectives delineated by human resources and ascertain bonus payments and compensation. Therefore, the lack of compatibility of the performance management systems of the companies whilst merging implies that the companies may fail to properly assess and manage the performance of the new set of employees and therefore give them the wrong set…
performance feedback methods that seek to present employees with an opportunity to receive feedback (with regard to their performance) from not only their supervisors but also from customers, co-workers, and peers. One of the key advantages of this performance appraisal system has got to do with its ability to allow for full participation. It also gives a variety of perspectives with regard to the performance of an individual. It is however important to note that in this case, feedback from the concerned sources could end up being somewhat overwhelming. A 360-degree feedback system could result in confusion and/or frustration. This is particularly the case given that there is always a chance of there being conflicting ratings.
For a number of reasons, evaluations may encounter significant opposition from those being evaluated. Training acquaints those conducting performance evaluations with not only the common reasons for the said opposition but also…
performance management? Performance management is the company's goals equal the employee's activities and outputs. Defining performance, it specifies which aspects of employee's performance remain relevant to the business through job examination. Job examination or analysis means getting detailed data concerning jobs. Measuring performance involves measuring said aspects through performance evaluation. Performance evaluation is a method for managing performance. After evaluations, employees gain feedback and learn whether their performance has been effective or not.
Typically, businesses perform the process of performance management annually. Most of the reviews are for individual performance management while others are for pay decisions or establishing training priorities. In recent times, numerous business are moving toward ore streamline, frequent performance reviews. When examining the model of performance management, one may look at organizational strategies, individual attributes, and situation constraints, which all go to individual behaviors. From there it moves on to objective results. The three main purposes…
Sullivan, J. (2015). How Google Is Using People Analytics to Completely Reinvent HR. TLNT. Retrieved 19 February 2015, from http://www.tlnt.com/2013/02/26/how-google-is-using-people-analytics-to-completely-reinvent-hr/
Whatmakesagoodleader.com,. (2015). Job performance appraisal. Retrieved 20 February 2015, from http://www.whatmakesagoodleader.com /Job-Performance-Appraisal.html#Contrast
With the operational environment becoming ever more competitive, and against the backdrop of austerity in resource management, the importance of performance-based management (PBM) cannot be overemphasised. Indeed, PBM has increasingly become a common practice in organisations of different sizes -- small and large -- and in diverse sectors -- manufacturing and service, as well as public and private sectors (Ploom & Haldma, 2013; Lutwama, Roos & Dolamo, 2013; Rivenbank, Fasiello & Adamo, 2016; Wierzbinski, 2016). Organisations now rely on performance data to make decisions relating to various organisational processes, including strategic planning, internal management, resource allocation, reporting, as well as monitoring and evaluation.
Defining PBM can be quite problematic, with the term being often confused with performance measurement (Rivenbank, Fasiello & Adamo, 2016). In addition, performance management is often thought to involve only personnel management processes such as employee performance appraisal (Turk, 2016). Furthermore, contention exists over whether it…
Managers and Performance Evaluation
The fact that so many managers dislike performance evaluation is as old and common as human nature itself. Performance evaluation is so disliked by so many because it requires that one take a long and hard look at oneself and engage in the process of problem-solving and making changes. Finding solutions and making changes are two of the most difficult challenges to face human beings because it forces them to dig deep and engage in a process that doesn’t always have the clearest of steps and which may or may not be successful. However, performance evaluations are necessary because they force leaders in the workplace to make necessary changes and to find solutions for problems that are undermine the growth, development and success of the company. Regardless of a manager’s discomfort, performance evaluations at regular intervals are crucial to the success of the company. This paper…
2. The first type of feedback -- that with respect to errors -- will come from supervisor appraisals. The supervisor is uniquely positioned to identify situations in which the generalist has erred, or failed to properly implement company policy. The supervisor has the understanding of the situations and the policies required to make the error determination. Supervisor appraisal is therefore necessary for this type of measurement.
For the second measure -- the ability to forge relationships, 360 degree feedback is the best method. This method solicits feedback from all around the employee. Given that the employee must forge relationships with and work alongside virtually all members of the organization, it is reasonable that the entire organization should contribute in some way to the performance appraisal, particularly with respect to the employee's ability to deal with them.
For the third measure -- positive contributions -- the employee should be measured by…
Contrary to popular belief, improved performance by employees in a particular organization is not always linked to incentives; in today's dynamic business environment, it is crucial for human resource managers to balance the needs of individuals with those of the organization. One critical component that leads to good individual as well as organizational performance is the application of an effective performance management process. In fact, companies that invest in good performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not measure and manage their performance (Leeuw and Berg, 2010). According to Cardy and Leonard (2011), performance management can be defined as the integrated and strategic approach used by human resource managers to deliver successful results by improving the performance of all the individuals in the organization. It ensures that the goals of an organization are achieved in an efficient and effective manner, while at the same time maintaining good…
Cardy, R & Leonard, B. (2011). Performance Management: Concepts, Skills and Exercises. (2nd Ed.) New York, NY: Routledge
Leeuw, S & Berg, J.P. (2010) Improving operational performance by influencing shopfloor behavior via performance management practices. Journal of Operations Management Vol. (29)1 224-335. Retrieved 9 April 2015 from http://www.isihome.ir/freearticle/ISIHome.ir-21006.pdf
Riccio, S. (2014) Hudson College Scenario C: Performance Management. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved 10 April 2015 FOM https://www.shrm.org/Education/hreducation/Documents/Riccio_Hudson%20College_Scenario%20C_Student%20Workbook_FINAL.pdf
Stone, R.N. (2009) Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. (48)5 37-44. Retrieved 10 April 2015 from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/4155FCBF55844623PQ/1?accountid=39364
Performance Management and Performance Appraisal eport:
As a member of the U.S. military, my organization's current performance management and performance appraisal system is driven by very unique needs. It is in many ways highly bureaucratic and standardized. This is so that the requirements of the organization vs. The personal and subjective responses of supervisors define the ratings process. It also has specific mechanisms for the mentorship of soldiers advancing through the system. Although there are certain aspects to the Army's performance management approach which are quite specialized and specific, I believe that any organization, including private for-profit enterprises, could learn from its philosophy. Its strong emphasis on mentorship and performance feedback minimize frustration with criticism and the candidate's sense of being unfairly judged. The process is on one hand uniform in terms of the benchmarks to which candidates are held but on the other hand, the coaching and individualized…
Aguinis, H. (2013). Performance management (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Aguinis, H., Joo, H., Gottfredson, R. (2011). Why we hate performance management -- and why we should love it. Business Horizons, 54, 503 -- 507
Performance Management Plan
Provide a description of your company and employees.
The company is question is Allure Car Company. The company is in its first year and has twenty-five employees. The company operates out of New York. In addition, the owner of the company expects that the business will generate about $100,000 in revenue in its first year and a growth of 5% every fiscal year subsequently. More so, the company expects a turnover growth of 10% every year from now on for a period of three years.
How will you assess employees? (For example, will you make performance appraisals? Will you rank employees?)
The basic approach that I will use to assess the employees of the company will be through a behavior-based rating system and a secondary evaluator that is based on the results of the employees. In particular, I will appraise the personnel using the…
Seotlela, R. P. J., & Miruka, O. (2014). Implementation Challenges of Performance Management System in the South African Mining Industry. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(7), 177.
Aguinis, H. (2009). Performance management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Person Being Assessed: Jane Doe
Person ompleting Assessment: Jason Marshall
Position of Person Being Assessed: Administrative Assistant
Date of Performance Evaluation: 6/23/2014
Rating Scale to be Used:
Excels in Performance
Does Not Meet Expectations
Fails to Meet Performance Standards
The employee has a sufficient understanding of his/her job duties and when they should be completed
Employee is willing to help out internal employees when assistance is needed
Employee is willing to help clients and other external parties that need assistance as needed
Employee retains a positive attitude as a general habit
Employee is cool under pressure even when situations or deadlines created stress or tension
Employee is consistent in completing required job duties in a timely manner
Employee only needs to be told something once, or maybe twice, before something is learned and perfected
8) Employee maintains a positive attitude regardless of…
Confirmation of Completion by Manager
Date of Next Review -- 6/24/2015
Feedback regarding review from employee: ____
Given the need to improve organizational productivity through increasing employee performance, develop a performance management program that focuses on linking the organizations strategic objective with the individual effort outlining the benefits of improved performance, the consequences for lack of performance as well as the employee and managerial training that will be needed for implementation.
Purpose of the performance management program (PMP)
The purpose of the PMP is to align the motives of the employee with that of the organization so that the employee is encouraged to work for the good of the organization. Objectives are formulated that are in line with those of the employee, a system of rewards and consequences are established that attract the employee, and a system of monitoring and work appraisal, formalized together with employee, is established.
The PMP is strategic so that the organization's goals are clearly aligned with that of the…
Hence, conflicts are generated only by misunderstanding or mischief (Edwards, 2003). Although unitarism have been proven to represent old-fashioned and unrealistic ideas, many managers nowadays follow this approach. They believe in a harmony of interests between them and their employers. However, practice has proven little resemblance between the employees' desires and interests, and those of their employers. Therefore, with such an approach to the employment relationship, conflict is inevitable. The 1998 Workplace Employee elations Survey revealed that 72% of workplace managers consult directly with the employees, and not with trade unions.
In the pluralist approach conflict is considered to be inevitable because various organizations take part in determining the rules of employment. Given the fact that each of these participating organizations has its distinct bases of authority, the risk of a conflict emerging is inevitable. The radical view is meant to be a critique of pluralism.
Conflicts are inevitable…
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